Smith's Bible Dictionary - Z

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(removings), The plain of, or more accurately, "the oak by
Zaanaim," a tree-probably a sacred tree -- mentioned as marking the spot
near which Heber the Kenite was encamped when Sisera took refuge in his
tent. (Judges 4:11) Its situation is defined as "near Kedesh," i.e.
Kedesh-naphtali, the name of which still lingers on the high ground north
of Safed and two or three miles west of the lake of el-Huleh
(waters of Merom). This whole region abounds in oaks.




(migratory), a Horite chief, son of Ezer the son of Seir. (Genesis
36:27; 1 Chronicles 1:42)



  • Son of Nathan son of Attai, son of Ahlai Sheshan's daughter, (1
    Chronicles 2:31-37) and hence called son of Ahlai. (1 Chronicles 11:41)
    (B.C. 1046.) He was one of David's mighty men but none of his deeds have
    been recorded. The chief interest connected with him is in his genealogy,
    which is of considerable importance in a chronological point of view.

  • An Ephraimite, if the text of (1 Chronicles 7:21) Isa correct.

  • Son of Shimeath, an Ammonitess; an assassin who, with Jehozabad, slew
    King Joash, according to (2 Chronicles 24:26) (B.C. 840); but in (2 Kings
    12:21) his name is written, probably more correctly, JOZACHAR.

  • A layman of Israel, of the sons of Zattu, who put away his foreign
    wife at Ezra's command. (Ezra 10:27) (B.C. 458.)

  • One of the descendants of Hashum who had married a foreign wife after
    the captivity. (Ezra 10:33) (B.C. 458.)

  • One of the sons of Nebo whose name is mentioned under the same
    circumstances as the two preceding. (Ezra 10:43)


an Arab tribe who were attacked and spoiled by Jonathan, on his way back
to Damascus from his fruitless pursuit of the army of Demetrius. 1 Macc.
12:31. Their name probably survives in the village of Zebdany,
about 26 miles from Damascus.



  • One of the descendants of Bebai who had married a foreign wife in the
    days of Ezra. (Ezra 10:28) (B.C. 458.)

  • Father of Baruch who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the city wall.
    (Nehemiah 3:20) (B.C. before 446.)


(given) one of the sons of Bigvai, who returned in the second
caravan with Ezra. (Ezra 8:14) (B.C. 459.)


(my gift).

  • Son of Zerah the son of Judah, and ancestor of Achan. (Joshua
    7:1,17,18) (B.C. before 1480.)

  • A Benjamite, of the sons of Shimhi. (1 Chronicles 8:19) (B.C. about

  • David's officer over the produce of the vineyards for the
    wine-cellars. (1 Chronicles 21:27) (B.C. 1043.)

  • Son of Asaph the minstrel, (Nehemiah 11:17) called ZACCUR in (Nehemiah
    12:35) and ZICHRI in (1 Chronicles 9:15) (B.C. before 446.)


(gift of God).

  • Father of Jashobeam, a chief of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 27:2)
    (B.C. before 1046.)

  • A priest, son of the great men or as the margin gives it,
    "Haggedolim." (Nehemiah 11:14) (B.C. 459.)


(given), son of Nathan, (1 Kings 4:5) is described as a priest
(Authorized Version "principal officer"), and as holding at the court of
Solomon the confidential post of "king's friend," which had been occupied
by Hushai the Archite during the reign of David. (2 Samuel 15:37; 16:16; 1
Chronicles 27:33) (B.C. 1012.)


the Greek form of the name Zebulun. (Matthew 4:13; 15; Revelation 7:8)


(pure). The sons of Zaccai to the number of 760, returned with
Zerrubbabel. (Ezra 2:9; Nehemiah 7:14) (B.C. before 536.)


(pure), a tax-collector near Jericho, who, being short in stature
climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to obtain a sight of Jesus as he
passed through that place. (Luke 19:1-10) Zacchaeus was a Jew, as may be
inferred from his name and from the fact that the Saviour speaks of him
expressly as "a son of Abraham." The term which designates his office
-"the chief among the publicans" -is unusual, but describes him, no doubt,
as the superintendent of customs or tribute in the district of Jericho,
where he lived. The office must have been a lucrative one in such a
region, and it is not strange that Zacchaeus is mentioned by the
evangelists as a rich man. The Saviour spent the night probably in the
house of Zacchaeus, and the next day pursued his journey. He was in the
caravan from Galilee which was going to Jerusalem to keep the


a Simeonite, of the family of Mishma. (1 Chronicles 4:26)



  • Father of Shammua, the Reubenite spy. (Numbers 13:4) (B.C. 1451.)

  • A Merarite Levite, son of Jaaziah. (1 Chronicles 24:27)

  • Son of Asaph the singer. (1 Chronicles 25:2,10; Nehemiah 12:35)

  • The son of Imri who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the city wall.
    (Nehemiah 3:2) (B.C. 446.)

  • A Levite, or family of Levites, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:18) (B.C. 410.)

  • A Levite whose son or descendant Hanan was one of the treasurers over
    the treasuries appointed by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 13:13)


(remembered by Jehovah), or properly Zechariah.

  • Son of Jeroboam II., fourteenth king of Israel, and the last of the
    house of Jehu. There is a difficulty about the date of his reign. Most
    chronologers assume an interregnum of eleven years between Jeroboam's
    death and Zachariah's accession. The latter event took place B.C. 772-1.
    His reign lasted only six months. He was killed in a conspiracy of which
    Shallum was the head, and by which the prophecy in (2 Kings 10:30) was

  • The father of Abi or Abijah, Hezekiah's mother. (2 Kings 18:2)


(Greek form of Zechariah).

  • Father of John the Baptist. (Luke 1:5) etc. He was a priest of the
    course of Abia. the eighth of the twenty-four courses who ministered at
    the temple in turn. He probably lived at Hebron. His wife's name was
    Elisabeth. John was born to them in their old age, and the promise of this
    son was communicated to Zacharias by an angel while he was offering
    incense and praying in the temple.

  • Son of Barachias, who, our Lord says, was slain by the Jews between
    the altar and the temple. (Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:61) There has been much
    dispute who this Zacharias was. Many of the Greek fathers have maintained
    that the father of John the Baptist is the person to whom our Lord alludes
    but there can be little or no doubt that the allusion is to Zechariah, the
    son of Jehoiada, (2 Chronicles 24:20,21) and he may have been called "the
    son" of Barachias from his grandfather. (B.C. 838.) He is mentioned as
    being the martyr last recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures (as Abel was the
    first) -d Chronicles being the last book in their canon.


(memorial), one of the sons of Jehiel, the father or founder of
Gibeon, by his wife Maachah. (1 Chronicles 8:31) (B.C. about 1450.)



  • Son of Ahitub and one of the two chief priests in the time of David,
    Abiathar being the other. Zadok was of the house of Eleazar the son of
    Aaron, (1 Chronicles 24:3) and eleventh in descent from Aaron. (1
    Chronicles 12:28) He joined David at Hebron after Saul's death, (1
    Chronicles 12:28) and thenceforth his fidelity to David was inviolable.
    When Absalom revolted and David fled from Jerusalem, Zadok and all the
    Levites bearing the ark accompanied him. When Absalom was dead, Zadok and
    Abiathar were the persons who persuaded the elders of Judah to invite
    David to return. (2 Samuel 19:11) When Adonijah, in David's old age, set
    up for king, and had persuaded Joab, and Abiathar the priest, to join his
    party, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by David to anoint Solomon to
    be king in his room. (1 Kings 1:34) For this fidelity he was rewarded by
    Solomon who "thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord," and
    "put in Zadok the priest" in his room. (1 Kings 2:27,35) From this time,
    however, we hear little of him. Zadok and Abiathar were of nearly equal
    dignity. (2 Samuel 15:35,36; 19:11) The duties of the office were divided,
    Zadok ministered before the tabernacle at Gibeon, (1 Chronicles 16:39)
    Abiathar had the care of the ark at Jerusalem.

  • According to the genealogy of the high priests in (1 Chronicles 6:12)
    there was a second Zadok, son of a second Ahitub son of Amariah, about the
    time of King Ahaziah. It is probable that no such person as this second
    Zadok ever existed, but that the insertion of the two names is a copyist's

  • Father of Jerushah, the wife of King Uzziah and mother of King Jotham.
    (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chronicles 27:1)

  • Son of Baana, and 5. Son of Immer, persons who repaired a portion of
    the wall in Nehemiah's time. (Nehemiah 3:4,29)

  • In (1 Chronicles 9:11) and Nehe 11:11 Mention is made, in a genealogy,
    of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub; but it can hardly be
    doubtful that Meraioth is inserted by the error of a copyist, and that
    Zadok the son of Ahitub is meant.


(fatness), son of Rehoboam by Abihail the daughter of Eliab. (2
Chronicles 11:19)


(small), a place named in (2 Kings 8:21) only, in the account of
Joram's expedition against the Edomites. It has been conjectured that Zair
is identical with Zoar.


(wound) father of Hanun, who assisted in rebuilding the city wall.
(Nehemiah 3:30)


(shady), an Ahohite one of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:28)


a wooded eminence in the immediate neighborhood of Shechem. (Judges 9:48)
The name of Dalmanutha has been supposed to be a corruption of that of


(shady), a desert station of the Israelites, (Numbers 33:41) lies
on the east side of Edom.




(Deuteronomy 2:20) only, the Ammonite name for the people who by others
were called Rephaim. They are described as having originally been a
powerful and numerous nation of giants. From a slight similarity between
the two names, and from the mention of the Emim in connection with each,
it is conjectured that the Zamzummim are identical with the Zuzim.



  • A town of Judah in the Shefelah or plain, (Joshua 15:34; Nehemiah
    3:13; 11:30) possibly identical with Zanu’a.

  • A town of Judah in the highland district, (Joshua 15:66) not
    improbably identical with Sanute, about 10 miles south of

  • In the genealogical lists of the tribe of Judah in 1 Chron., Jekuthiel
    is said to have been the father of Zanoah. ch. (1 Chronicles 4:18) As
    Zanoah is the name of a town of Judah, this mention of Bithiah probably
    points to some colonization of the place by Egyptians or by Israelites
    directly from Egypt.


a name given by Pharaoh to Joseph. (Genesis 41:45) The rabbins interpreted
Zaphnath-paaneah as Hebrew in the sense revealer of a secret. As
the name must have been Egyptian, it has been explained from the Coptic as
meaning the preserver of the age.


(north), a place mentioned in the enumeration of the allotment of
the tribe of Gad. (Joshua 13:27)


the son of Judah. (Matthew 1:3)


the son of Judah. (Genesis 38:30; 48:12)


the same as Zorah and Zoreah. (Nehemiah 11:29)


the inhabitants of Zareah or Zorah. (1 Chronicles 2:53)




(smelting place), the residence of the prophet Elijah during the
latter part of the drought. (1 Kings 17:9,10) It was near to, or dependent
on, Zidon. It is represented by the modern village of Sura-fend.
Of the old town considerable indications remain. One group of foundations
is on a headland called Ain el-Kanatarah ; but the chief remains
are south of this, and extend for a mile or more, with many fragments of
columns, slabs and other architectural features. In the New Testament
Zarephath appears under the Greek form of SAREPTA. (Luke 4:26)


(Joshua 3:16)


(splendor of the dawn), a place mentioned only in (Joshua 13:19) in
the catalogue of the towns allotted to Reuben.


a branch of the tribe of Judah, descended from Zerah the son of Judah.
(Numbers 26:13,20; Joshua 7:17; 1 Chronicles 27:11,15)


(1 Kings 4:12) [ZARETAN, OR ZARTHAN]


  • A place in the circle of Jordan, mentioned in connection with Succoth.
    (1 Kings 7:46)

  • It is also named in the account of the passage of the Jordan by the
    Israelites, (Joshua 3:18) where the authorized Version has Zaretan.

  • A place with the similar name of Zartanah. (1 Kings 4:12)

  • Further, Zeredathah, named in (2 Chronicles 4:17) only in specifying
    the situation of the foundries for the brass-work of Solomon's temple, is
    substituted for Zarthan; and this again is not impossibly identical with
    the Zererath of the story of Gideon. (Judges 7:22) All these spots agree
    in proximity to the Jordan, but beyond this we are absolutely at fault as
    to their position.


The sons of Zattu were a family of laymen of Israel who returned with
Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:8; Nehemiah 7:13)


(1 Chronicles 1:42) [ZAAVAN, OR ZAVAN]


one of the sons of Jonathan, a descendant of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles


  • A Benjamite of the sons of Beriah. (1 Chronicles 8:15)

  • A Benjamite of the sons of Elpaal. (1 Chronicles 8:17)

  • One of the sons of Jeroham of Gedor. (1 Chronicles 12:7)

  • Son of Asahel, the brother of Joab. (1 Chronicles 27:7)

  • Son of Michael, of the sons of Shephatiah. (Ezra 8:8)

  • A priest Of the sons of Immer, who had married a foreign wife after
    the return from Babylon. (Ezra 10:20)

  • Third son of Meshelemiah the Korhite. (1 Chronicles 26:3)

  • A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8)

  • The son of Ishmael and prince of the house of Judah in the reign of
    Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 19:11)


and Zalmun’na (deprived of protection), the two
"kings" of Midian who commanded the great invasion of Palestine, and who
finally fell by the hand of Gideon himself. (Judges 8:5-21; Psalms 83:11)
(B.C. 1250.) While Oreb and Zeeb, two of the inferior leaders of the
incursion, had been slain, with a vast number of their people, by the
Ephraimites, at the central fords of the Jordan the two kings had
succeeded in making their escape by a passage farther to the north
(probably the ford near Bethshean), and thence by the Wady Yabis,
through Gilead, to Kurkor, high up on the Hauran. Here they sere reposing
their with 15,000 men, a mere remnant of their huge horde, when Gideon
overtook them. The people fled in dismay, and Gideon captured the two
kings and brought them to his native village, Ophrah where he slew them
because they had killed his brothers.


(the gazelles), mentioned in the catalogue of the families of
"Solomon's slaves" who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra
2:57; Nehemiah 7:59)


(my gift) (Greek form of Zabdi) a fisherman of Galilee, the
father of the apostles James the Great and John (Matthew 4:21) and the
husband of Salome. (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40) He probably lived either at
Bethsaida or in its immediate neighborhood. It has been inferred from the
mention of his "hired servants," (Mark 1:20) and from the acquaintance
between the apostle John and Annas the high priest, (John 18:15) that the
family of Zebedee were in easy circumstances. comp. (John 19:27) although
not above manual labor. (Matthew 4:21) He appears only twice in the Gospel
narrative, namely, in (Matthew 4:21,22; Mark 1:19,20) where he is seen in
his boat with his two sons mending their nets.


(purchase), one of the sons of Nebo who had taken foreign wives
after the return from Babylon, (Ezra 10:43)



  • One of the five cities of the "plain" or circle of Jordan. It is
    mentioned in (Genesis 10:19; 14:2,8; 29:23; Hosea 11:8) in each, of which
    passages it is either coupled with Admah or placed next it in the lists --
    perhaps represented by Talaa Sebaan, a name attached to extensive
    ruins on the high ground between the Dead Sea and Kerak. In
    (Genesis 14:2,8) the name is given more correctly in the Authorized
    Version ZEBOIIM.

  • The valley of Zeboim, a ravine or gorge, apparently east of Michmash,
    mentioned only in (1 Samuel 13:18) The road running from Michmash to the
    east is specified as "the road of the border that looketh to the ravine of
    Zeboim toward the wilderness." The wilderness is no doubt the district of
    uncultivated mountain tops and sides which lies between the central
    district of Benjamin and the Jordan valley. In that very district there is
    a wild gorge bearing the name of Shuk ed-Dubba’, ravine of
    the hyena, "the exact equivalent of Ge hat-tsebo’im.


(bestowed), wife of Josiah and mother of King Jehoiakim. (2 Kings
23:36) (B.C. 653.)


(habitation), chief man (Authorized Version "ruler") of the city of
Shechem at the time of the contest between Abimelech and the native
Canaanites. (Judges 9:28,30,36,41) (B.C. 1209.)


a member of the tribe of Zebulun. (Judges 12:11,12) Applied only to Elon,
the one judge produced by the tribe. (Judges 12:11,12)


(a habitation), the tenth of the sons of Jacob, according to the
order in which their births are enumerated, the sixth and last of Leah.
(Genesis 30:20; 35:23; 46:14; 1 Chronicles 2:1) His birth is mentioned in
(Genesis 30:19,20) Of the individual Zebulun nothing is recorded. The list
of Genesis46 ascribes to him three sons, founders of the chief families of
the tribe (comp.) (Numbers 26:26) at the time of the migration to Egypt.
The tribe is not recorded to have taken part, for evil or good, in any of
the events of the wandering or the conquest. The statement of Josephus is
probably in the main correct, that it reached on the one side to the Lake
of Gennesareth and on the other to Carmel and the Mediterranean. On the
south it was bounded by Issachar, who lay in the great plain or valley of
the Kishon; on the north it had Naphtali and Asher. Thus remote from the
centre of government, Zebulun remains throughout the history with one
exception, in the obscurity which envelops the whole of the northern
tribes. That exception, however, is a remarkable one. The conduct of the
tribe during the struggle with Sisera, when they fought with desperate
valor side by side with their brethren of Naphtali, was such as to draw
down the special praise of Deborah, who singles them out from cell the
other tribes. (Judges 5:18)


the members of the tribe of Zebulun. (Numbers 26:27) only.


  • The eleventh in order of the twelve minor prophets. He is called in
    his prophecy the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas in the
    book of Ezra, (Ezra 5:1; 6:14) he is said to have been the son of Iddo. It
    is natural to suppose as the prophet himself mentions his father's name,
    whereas the book of Ezra mentions only Iddo, that Berechiah had died
    early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather
    and the grandson. Zechariah, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was
    priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while
    yet young, (Zechariah 2:4) and must have been born in Babylon whence he
    returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. It
    was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first
    publicly discharged his office. In this he acted in concert with Haggai.
    Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all
    their energies to the building of the second temple. To their influence we
    find the rebuilding of the temple in a great measure ascribed. If the
    later Jewish accounts may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a
    member of the Great Synagogue. The genuine writings of Zechariah help us
    but little in our estimate of his character. Some faint traces, however,
    we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon. He leans avowedly on
    the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions.
    Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite; and hence the Jewish
    saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may
    be called the peculiarities of his prophecy, he approaches more nearly to
    Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them he delights in visions; like them he uses
    symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which
    lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets.
    Generally speaking, Zechariah's style is pure, and remarkably free from

  • Son of Meshelemiah or Shelemiah a Korhite, and keeper of the north
    gate of the tabernacle of the congregation, (1 Chronicles 9:21) (B.C.

  • One of the sons of Jehiel. (1 Chronicles 9:37)

  • A Levite of the second order in the temple band as arranged by David,
    appointed to play "with psalteries on Alamoth." (1 Chronicles 15:18,20)
    (B.C. 1043.)

  • One of the princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles
    17:7) (B.C. 910.)

  • Son of the high priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash king of Judah
    (2 Chronicles 24:20) and therefore the king's cousin. After the death of
    Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his office, and in attempting to
    check the reaction in favor of idolatry which immediately followed he fell
    a victim to a conspiracy formed against him by the king, and was stoned in
    the court of the temple. He is probably the same as the "Zacharias son of
    Barachias" who was slain between the temple and the altar. (Matthew 23:35)
    [ZACHARIAS, No. 2] (B.C. 838.)

  • A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 34:12) (B.C.

  • The leader of the sons of Pharosh who returned with Ezra. (Ezra 8:3)
    (B.C. 450.)

  • Son of Behai. (Ezra 8:11)

  • One of the chiefs of the people whom Ezra summoned in council at the
    river Ahava. (Ezra 8:16) He stood at Ezra's left hand when he expounded
    the law to the people. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C. 459.)

  • One of the family of Elam who had married a foreign wife after the
    captivity. (Ezra 10:26) (B.C.458.)

  • Ancestor of Athaiah or Uthai. (Nehemiah 11:4)

  • A Shilonite, descendant of Perez. (Nehemiah 11:5)

  • A priest, son of Pashur. (Nehemiah 11:12)

  • The representative of the priestly family of Iddo in the days of
    Joiakim the son of Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:16) (B.C. 536.) possibly the same
    as Zechariah the prophet, the son of Iddo.

  • One of the priests, son of Jonathan, who blew with the trumpets at the
    dedication of the city wall by Ezra and Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:36,41)
    (B.C. 446.)

  • A chief of the Reubenites at the time of the captivity by
    Tiglath-pileser. (1 Chronicles 5:7) (B.C. 740.)

  • One of the priests who accompanied the ark from the house of
    Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 15:24) (B.C. 1043.)

  • Son of Isshiah or Jesiah, a Kohathite Levite descended from Uzziel. (1
    Chronicles 24:25) (B.C. 1043.)

  • Fourth son of Hosah of the children of Merari. (1 Chronicles

  • A Manassite. (1 Chronicles 27:21,22)

  • The father of Jahaziel. (2 Chronicles 20:14)

  • One of the sons of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 21:2)

  • A prophet in the reign of Uzziah who appears to have acted as the
    king's counsellor, but of whom nothing is known. (2 Chronicles 26:5) (B.C.

  • The father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiah's mother. (2 Chronicles

  • One of the family of Asaph in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles
    29:13) (B.C. 727.)

  • One of the rulers of the temple in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles
    35:8) (B.C. 628.)

  • The son of Jeberechiah, who was taken by the prophet Isaiah as one of
    the "faithful witnesses to record," when he wrote concerning
    Maher-shalal-hash-baz. (Isaiah 8:2) (B.C. 723.) He may have been the
    Levite of the same name who in the reign of Hezekiah assisted in the
    purification of the temple. (2 Chronicles 29:13) Another conjecture is
    that he is the same as Zechariah the father of Abijah, the queen of


The book of Zechariah, in its existing form, consists of three principal
parts, vis. chs. 1-8; chs. 9-11; chs. 12-14.

  • The first of these divisions is allowed by the critics to be the
    genuine work of Zechariah the son of Iddo. It consists, first, of a short
    introduction or preface in which the prophet announces his commission;
    then of a series of visions, descriptive of all those hopes and
    anticipations of which the building of the temple was the pledge and sure
    foundation and finally of a discourse, delivered two years later, in reply
    to questions respecting the observance of certain established fasts.

  • The remainder of the book consists of two sections of about equal
    length, chs. 9-11 and 12-14, each of which has an inscription. (1) In the
    first section he threatens Damascus and the seacoast of Palestine with
    misfortune, but declares that Jerusalem shall be protected. (2) The second
    section is entitled "The burden of the word of Jehovah for Israel." But
    Israel is here used of the nation at large, not of Israel as distinct from
    Judah. Indeed the prophecy which follows concerns Judah and Jerusalem, in
    this the prophet beholds the near approach of troublous times, when
    Jerusalem should be hard pressed by enemies. But in that day Jehovah shall
    come to save them an all the nations which gather themselves against
    Jerusalem shall be destroyed. Many modern critics maintain that the later
    chapters, from the ninth to the fourteenth, were written by some other
    prophet, who lived before the exile. The prophecy closes with a grand and
    stirring picture. All nations are gathered together against Jerusalem, and
    seem already sure of their prey. Half of their cruel work has been
    accomplished, when Jehovah himself appears on behalf of his people. He
    goes forth to war against the adversaries of his people. He establishes
    his kingdom over all the earth. All nations that are still left shall come
    up to Jerusalem, as the great centre of religious worship, and the city;
    from that day forward shall be a holy city. Such is, briefly, an outline
    of the second portion of that book which is commonly known as the Prophecy
    of Zechariah. Integrity. -Mede was the first to call this in
    question. The probability that the later chapters, from the ninth to the
    fourteenth, were by some other prophet seems first to have been suggested
    to him by the citation in St. Matthew. He rests his opinion partly on the
    authority of St. Matthew and partly-on the contents of the later chapters,
    which he considers require a date earlier than the exile. Archbishop
    Newcombe went further. He insisted on the great dissimilarity of style as
    well as subject between the earlier and later chapters and he was the
    first who advocated the theory that the last six chapters of Zechariah are
    the work of two distinct prophets.


(mountain side), one of the landmarks on the north border of the
land of Israel, as Promised by Moses, (Numbers 34:8) and as restored by
Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 47:15) A place named Sudud exists to the east of
the northern extremity of the chain of Anti-Libanus, about fifty miles
east-northeast of Baalbec. This may be identical with Zedad.


(justice of Jehovah).

  • The last king of Judah and Jerusalem. He was the son of Josiah by his
    wife Hamutal, and therefore own brother to Jehoahaz. (2 Kings 24:18) comp.
    2Kin 23:31 His original name was Mattaniah, which was changed to Zedekiah
    by Nebuchadnezzar when he carried off his nephew Jehoiachim to Babylon and
    left him on the throne of Jerusalem. Zedekiah was but twenty-one years old
    when he was thus placed in charge of an impoverished kingdom, B.C. 597.
    His history is contained in a short sketch .of the events of his reign
    given in (2 Kings 24:17; 2 Kings 25:7) and, with some trifling variations
    in (Jeremiah 39:1-7; 62:1-11) together with the still shorter summary in
    (1 Chronicles 38:10) etc.; and also in Jere 21,24,27,28,29,32,34,37,38 and
    (Ezekiel 16:11-21) From these it is evident that Zedekiah was a man not so
    much bad at heart as weak in will. It is evident from Jere 27 and 28 that
    the earlier portion of Zedekiah's reign was marked by an agitation
    throughout the whole of Syria against the Babylonian yoke. Jerusalem seems
    to have taken the lead, since in the fourth year of Zedekiah's reign we
    find ambassadors from all the neighboring kingdoms -- Tyre, Sidon, Edom
    and Moab -- at his court to consult as to the steps to be taken. The first
    act of rebellion of which any record survives was the formation of an
    alliance with Egypt, of itself equivalent to a declaration of enmity with
    Babylon. As a natural consequence it brought on Jerusalem an immediate
    invasion of the Chaldaeans. The mention of this event in the Bible though
    indisputable, is extremely slight, and occurs only in (Jeremiah 37:5-11;
    34:21) and Ezek 17:15-20 But Josephus (x.7,3) relates it more fully, and
    gives the date of its occurrence, namely, the eighth year of Zedekiah.
    (B.C. 589.) Nebuchadnezzar at once sent an army to ravage Judea. This was
    done, and the whole country reduced, except Jerusalem and two strong
    places in the western plain, Lachish and Azekah, which still held out.
    (Jeremiah 34:7) Called away for a time by an attack from Pharaoh and the
    Egyptians, on the tenth day of the tenth month of Zedekiah's ninth year
    the Chaldeans were again before the walls. (Jeremiah 52:4) From this time
    forward the siege progressed slowly but surely to its consummation, The
    city was indeed reduced to the last extremity. The bread had for long been
    consumed, (Jeremiah 38:9) and all the terrible expedients had been tried
    to which the wretched inhabitants of a besieged town are forced to resort
    in such cases. At last, after sixteen dreadful months the catastrophe
    arrived. It was on the ninth day of the fourth month, about the middle of
    July at midnight, as Josephus with careful minuteness informs us, that the
    breach in those strong and venerable walls was effected. The moon, nine
    days old, had gone down. The wretched remnants of the army acquitted the
    city in the dead of night; and as the Chaldaean army entered the city at
    one end, the king and his wives fled from it by the opposite gate. They
    took the road toward the Jordan. As soon as the dawn of day permitted it,
    swift pursuit was made. The king's party were overtaken near Jericho and
    carried to Nebuchadnezzar, who was then at Riblah, at the upper end of the
    valley of Lebanon. Nebuchadnezzar, with a refinement of barbarity
    characteristic of those cruel times ordered the sons of Zedekiah to be
    killed before him, and lastly his own eyes to be thrust out. He was then
    loaded with brazen fetters, and at a later period taken to Babylon, where
    he died.

  • Son of Chenaanah, a false prophet at the court of Ahab, head, or, if
    not head, virtual leader, of the college. (B.C. 896.) He appears but once
    viz. as spokesman when the prophets are consulted by Ahab on the result of
    his proposed expedition to Ramoth-gilead. 1Kin 22; 2Chr 18. Zedekiah had
    prepared himself for the interview with a pair of iron horns, with which
    he illustrated the manner in which Ahab should drive the Syrians before
    him. When Micaiah the prophet of the Lord appeared and had delivered his
    prophecy, Zedekiah sprang forward and struck him a blow on the face,
    accompanying it by a taunting sneer.

  • The son of Maaseiah, a false prophet in Babylon. (Jeremiah 29:21,22)
    He was denounced in the letter of Jeremiah for having, with Ahab the son
    of Kolaiah, buoyed up the people with false hopes, not for profane and
    flagitious conduct. Their names were to become a by-word, tend their
    terrible fate a warning. (B.C. 595.)

  • The son of Hananiah, one of the princes of Judah in the time of
    Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 38:12) (B.C. 605.)


(wolf), one of the two "princes" of Midian in the great invasion of
Israel. (B.C. about 1250.) He is always named with Oreb. (Judges 7:25;
8:3; Psalms 83:11) Zeeb and Oreb were not slain at the first rout of the
Arabs, but at a later stage of the struggle, probably ill crossing the
Jordan at a ford farther down the river. Zeeb, the wolf, was brought to
bay in a wine-press which in later times bore his name -- the "wine-press
of Zeeb." [OREB]


(a rib), a city in the allotment of Benjamin, (Joshua 18:28)
contained the family tomb of Kish, the father of Saul. (2 Samuel 21:14)
[Perhaps the same as ZELZAH]


(fissure), an Ammonite, one of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:37; 1
Chronicles 11:39)


(first-born), son of Zepher, son of Gilead, son of Machir, son of
Manasseh. (Joshua 17:3) (B.C. before 1450.) He was apparently the second
son of Hepher. (1 Chronicles 7:15) Zelophehad came out of Egypt with
Moses, but died in the wilderness, as did the whole of that generation.
(Numbers 14:35; 27:3) On his death without male heirs, his five daughters,
just after the second numbering in the wilderness, came before Moses and
Eleazar to claim the inheritance of their father in the tribe of Manasseh.
The claim was admitted by divine direction. (Numbers 26:33; 27:1-11)


the epithet given to the apostle Simon to distinguish him from Simon
Peter. (Luke 6:15) [CANAANITE, THE; SIMON, 5]


(shadow), a place named once only, (1 Samuel 10:2) as on the
boundary of Benjamin close to Rachel's sepulchre, five miles southwest of


(double fleece of wool), a town in the allotment of Benjamin,
(Joshua 18:22) perhaps identical with Mount Zemaraim, mentioned in (2
Chronicles 13:4) only, which was "in Mount Ephraim," that is to say,
within the general district of the highlands of that great tribe. (2
Chronicles 13:4)


one of the Hamite tribes who in the genealogical table of (Genesis 10:18)
and 1Chr 1:16 Are represented as "sons of Canaan." Nothing is certainly
known of this ancient tribe. The old interpreters place them at Emessa,
the modern Hums.


(a song), one of the sons of Becher the son of Benjamin. (1
Chronicles 7:8) (B.C. after 1706.)


(pointed), a town in the allotment of Judah, situated in the
district of the Shefelah. (Joshua 15:37) It is probably identical with
ZAANAN. (Micah 1:11)


a believer, and, as may be inferred from the context, a preacher of the
gospel, who is mentioned in (Titus 3:13) in connection with Apollos. He is
further described as "the lawyer." It is impossible to determine whether
Zenas was a Roman jurisconsult or a Jewish doctor.


(hidden by Jehovah).

  • The ninth in order of the twelve minor prophets. His pedigree is
    traced to his fourth ancestor, Hezekiah, (Zephaniah 1:1) supposed to be
    the celebrated king of that name. The chief characteristics of this book
    are the unity and harmony of the composition, the grace, energy and
    dignity of its style, and the rapid and effective alternations of threats
    and promises. The general tone of the last portion is Messianic, but
    without any specific reference to the person of our Lord. The date of the
    book is given in the inscription -- viz, the reign of Josiah, from 642 to
    611 B.C. It is most probable moreover, that the prophecy was delivered
    before the eighteenth year of Josiah.

  • The son of Maaseiah, (Jeremiah 21:1) and sagan or second priest
    in the reign of Zedekiah. (B.C. 588.) He succeeded Jehoida, (Jeremiah
    29:25,26) and was probably a ruler of the temple, whose office it was,
    among others, to punish pretenders to the gift of prophecy. (Jeremiah
    29:29) On the capture of Jerusalem he was taken and slain at Riblah.
    (Jeremiah 52:24,27; 2 Kings 25:18,21)

  • Father of Josiah, 2, (Zechariah 6:10) and of Hen, according to the
    reading of the received text of (Zechariah 6:14)


(watch-tower), the earlier name, (Judges 1:17) of a Canaanite town,
which after its capture and destruction was called by the Israelites
Hormah. [HORMAH]


(watch-tower), The valley of, the spot in which Asa joined
battle with Zerah the Ethiopian. (2 Chronicles 14:10) only.


(1 Chronicles 1:36) [ZEPHO]


(watch-tower), son of Eliphaz, son of Esau, (Genesis 36:11) and one
of the "dukes" or phylarchs of the Edomites. ver. (Genesis 36:15) In (1
Chronicles 1:36) he is called ZEPHI. (B.C. after 1760.)


(watch), the son of Gad, (Numbers 26:15) and ancestor of the family
of the Zephonites. Called ZIPHION In (Genesis 46:16) (B.C. 1706.)


(flint), a fortified town in the allotment of Naphtali, (Joshua
19:35) only, probably in the neighborhood of the southwest side of the
Lake of Gennesareth.


(rising (of the sun)).

  • A son of Reuel, son of Esau, (Genesis 36:13; 1 Chronicles 1:37) and
    one of the "dukes" or phylarchs of the Edomites. (Genesis 36:17) (B.C.
    after 1760.)

  • Less properly, Zarah, twin son, with his elder brother Pharez, of
    Judah and Tamar. (Genesis 38:30; 1 Chronicles 2:4; Matthew 1:3) (B.C.
    about 1728.) His descendants were called Zarhites, Ezrahites and
    Izrahites. (Numbers 26:20; 1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chronicles 27:8,11)

  • Son of Simeon, (1 Chronicles 4:24) called ZOHAR in (Genesis 46:10)
    (B.C. 1706.)

  • A Gershonite Levite, son of Iddo or Adaiah. (1 Chronicles 6:21,41)
    (B.C. 1043.)

  • The Ethiopian or Cushite, an invader of Judah, defeated by Asa about
    B.C. 941. [ASA] Zerah is probably the Hebrew name of Usarken I., second
    king of the Egyptian twenty-second dynasty; or perhaps more probably
    Usarken II his second successor. In the fourteenth year of Asa, Zerah the
    Ethiopian, with a mighty army of or million, invaded his kingdom, and
    advanced unopposed in the field as far as the valley of Zephathah at
    Mareshah. The Egyptian monuments enable us to picture the general
    disposition of Zerah's army. The chariots formed the first corps in a
    single or double line; behind them, massed in phalanxes, were heavy-armed
    troops; probably on the flanks stood archers and horsemen in lighter
    formations. After a prayer by Asa, his army attacked the Egyptians and
    defeated them. The chariots, broken by the charge and with horses made
    unmanageable by flights of arrows must have been forced back upon the
    cumbrous host behind. So complete was the overthrow that the Hebrews could
    capture and spoil the cities around Gerah which must have been in alliance
    with Zerah. The defeat of the Egyptian army is without parallel in the
    history of the Jews. On no other occasion did an Israelite army meet an
    army of one of the great powers and defeat it.


(Jehovah has risen).

  • A priest, son of Uzzi and ancestor of Ezra the scribe. (1 Chronicles
    6:6,51; Ezra 7:4)

  • Father of Elihoenai of the sons of Pahath-moab, whose descendants
    returned from the captivity with Ezra. (Ezra 8:4)


(osier brook), (2:13,14) or Za’red, (Numbers 21:12) a
brook or valley running into the Dead Sea near its southeast corner, which
Dr. Robinson with some probability suggests as identical with the Wady
. It lay between Moab and Edom and is the limit of the proper
term of the Israelites’ wandering. (2:14)


(the fortress) the native place of Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:26) Zereda
or Zeredah has been supposed to be identical with Zeredathah and Zarthan
or Zartanah; but the last two were in the valley of the Jordan, while
Zeredah was, according to the repeated statement of the LXX., on Mount






(gold), the wife of Haman the Agagite. (Esther 5:10,14; 6:13) (B.C.


(splendor), son of Ashur, the founder of Tekoa, by his wife Helah.
(1 Chronicles 4:7) (B.C. 1440.)


(built), one of the sons of Jeduthun in the reign of David. (1
Chronicles 25:3) (B.C. 1043.)


(a bundle), a Benjamite, ancestor of Kish the father of Saul. (1
Samuel 9:1) (B.C. about 1730.)


(full breasted), the mother of Jeroboam the son of Nebat. (1 Kings
11:26) (B.C. 973.)


(born at Babel, i.e. Babylon), the head of the tribe of
Judah at the time of the return from the Babylonish captivity in the first
year of Cyrus. The history of Zerabbabel in the Scriptures is as follows:
In the first year of Cyrus he was living at Babylon, and was the
recognized prince of Judah in the captivity, -- what in later times was
called "the prince of the captivity," or "the prince." On the issuing of
Cyrus’ decree he immediately availed himself of it, and placed
himself at the head of those of his countrymen "whose spirit God had
raised to go up to build the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem." It
is probable that he was in the king of Babylon's service, both from his
having, like Daniel and the three children, received a Chaldee name,
Sheshbazzar, and from the fact that he was appointed by the Persian king
to the office of governor of Judea. On arriving at Jerusalem, Zerubbabel's
great work, which he set about immediately, was the rebuilding of the
temple. In the second month of the second year of the return the
foundation was laid with all the pomp which could be commanded. The
efforts of the Samaritans were successful in putting a stop to the work
during the seven remaining years of the reign of Cyrus and through the
eight years of Cambyses and Smerdis. Nor does Zerubbabel appear quite
blameless for this long delay. The difficulties in the way of building the
temple were not such as need have stopped the work and during this long
suspension of sixteen years Zerubbabel and the rest of the people had been
busy in building costly houses for themselves. But in the second year of
Darius, light dawned upon the darkness of the colony from Babylon. In that
year -- it was the most memorable event in Zerabbabel's life -- the spirit
of prophecy suddenly blazed up with a most brilliant light among the
returned captives. Their words fell like sparks upon tinder. In a moment
Zerubbabel roused from his apathy, threw his whole strength into the work.
After much opposition [see NEHEMIAH, THE BOOK OF] and many hindrances find
delays, the temple was at length finished, in the sixth pear of Darius,
and was dedicated with much pomp and rejoicing. [TEMPLE] The only other
works of Zerubbabel of which we learn from Scripture are the restoration
of the courses of priests and Levites and of the provision for their
maintenance, according to the institution of David (Ezra 6:18; Nehemiah
12:47) the registering the returned captives according to their
genealogies, (Nehemiah 7:5) and the keeping of a Passover in the seventh
year of Darius, with which last event ends all that we know of the life of
Zerubbabel, His apocryphal history is told in 1 Esdr. 3-7. The exact
parentage of Zerubbabel is a little obscure, from his being always called
the son of Shealtiel, (Ezra 3:2,8; 5:2) etc.; (Haggai 1:1,12,14) etc., end
appearing as such in the genealogies of Christ (Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27)
whereas in (1 Chronicles 3:19) he is represented as the son of Pedaiah,
Shealtiel or Salathiel's brother, and consequently as Salathiel's nephew.
Zerubbabel was the legal successor and heir of Jeconiah's royal estate,
the grandson of Neri and the lineal descendant of Nathan the son of David.
In the New Testament the name appears in the Greek form of Zorobabel.


(balsam), the mother of the three leading heroes of David's army --
Abishai, Joah and Asahel -- known as the "sons of Zeruiah." Of Zeruiah's
husband there is no mention in the Bible. (B.C. before 1046.)


(olive), the son of Laadan, a Gershonite Levite. (1 Chronicles
23:8) (B.C. 1043.)


(olive), a Benjamite of the sons of Bilhan. (1 Chronicles 7:10)
(B.C. probably 1014.)


(star), one of the seven eunuchs of Ahasuerus, (Esther 1:10) (B.C.


(motion), one of the Gadites who dwelt in Bashan. (1 Chronicles
5:13) (B.C. 1014.)


(statue), a servant of Saul whom David made steward of Saul's son
Mephibosheth. (2 Samuel 9:2-18; 16:1-4; 19:17,29) [MEPHIBOSHETH] (B.C.


(robber), father of Anah, whose daughter Aholibamah was Esau's
wife. (Genesis 36:2) (B.C. 1797.) Although called a Hivite, he is probably
the same as Zibeon the son of Seir the Horite. (Genesis 36:20,24,29; 1
Chronicles 1:38,40)


(roe), a Benjamite, apparently the son of Shaharaim by his wife
Hodesh. (1 Chronicles 8:9) (B.C. 1440.)


(roe), a native of Beersheba and mother of King Joash. (2 Kings
12:1; 2 Chronicles 24:1) (B.C. 876)



  • Son of Ishar the son of Kohath. (Exodus 6:21) (B.C. 1401.)

  • A Benjamite of the sons of Shimhi. (1 Chronicles 8:19) (B.C.

  • A Benjamite of the sons of Shashak. (1 Chronicles 8:23)

  • A Benjamite of the sons of Jeroham. (1 Chronicles 8:27)

  • Son of Asaph, elsewhere called ZABDI and ZACCUB. (1 Chronicles

  • A descendant of Eliezer the son of Moses. (1 Chronicles 26:25) (B.C.
    before 1043.)

  • The father of Eliezer, the chief of the Reubenites in the reign of
    David. (1 Chronicles 27:16) (B.C. before 1043.)

  • One of the tribe of Judah, father of Amasiah. (2 Chronicles

  • Father of Elishaphat, one of the conspirators with Jehoiada. (2
    Chronicles 23:1) (B.C. before 876.)

  • An Ephraimite hero in the invading army of Pekah the son of Remaliah.
    (2 Chronicles 28:7) (B.C. 734.)

  • Father or ancestor of JOEL, 14. (Nehemiah 11:9)

  • A priest of the family of Abijah, in the days of Joiakim the son of
    Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:17) (B.C. 480.)


(the declivities), a fortified town in the allotment of Naphtali,
(Joshua 10:35)


(justice of Jehovah) a priest or family of priests who signed the
covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:1) (B.C. 410.)


(Genesis 10:15,19; Joshua 11:8; 19:28; Judges 1:31; 18:28; Isaiah
23:2,4,12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; Ezekiel 28:21,22; Joel 3:4) (Joel 4:4);
Zech 9:2; Matt 11:21,22; 15:21; Mark 3:8; 1:24,31; Luke 6:17; 10:13,14 An
ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the
Mediterranean Sea, less than twenty English miles to the north of Tyre.
Its Hebrew name, Tsidon, signifies fishing or
fishery. Its modern name is Saida. It is situated in the
narrow plain between the Lebanon and the sea. From a biblical point of
view this city is inferior in interest to its neighbor Tyre; though in
early times Sidon was the more influential of the two cities. This view is
confirmed by Zidonians being used as the generic name of Phoenicians or
Canaanites. (Joshua 13:6; Judges 18:7) From the time of Solomon to the
invasion of Nebuchadnezzar Zidon is not often directly mentioned in the
Bible, and it appears to have been subordinate to Tyre. When the people
called "Zidonians" are mentioned, it sometimes seems that the Phoenicians
of the plain of Zidon are meant. (1 Kings 5:6; 11:1,5,33; 16:31; 2 Kings
23:13) All that is known are respecting the city is very scanty, amounting
to scarcely more than that one of its sources of gain was trade in slaves,
in which the inhabitants did not shrink from selling inhabitants of
Palestine and that it was governed by kings. (Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3) During
the Persian domination Zidon seems to have attained its highest point of
prosperity; and it is recorded that, toward the close of that period, it
far excelled all other Phoenician cities in wealth and importance. Its
prosperity was suddenly cut short by an unsuccessful revolt against
Persia, which ended in the destruction of the town, B.C. 351. Its king,
Tennes had proved a traitor and betrayed the city to Ochus, king of the
Persians; the Persian troops were admitted within the gates, and occupied
the city walls. The Zidonians, before the arrival of Ochus, had burnt
their vessels to prevent any one's leaving the town; and when they saw
themselves surrounded by the Persian troops, they adopted the desperate
resolution of shutting themselves up with their families, and setting fire
each man to his own house. Forty thousand persons are said to have
perished in the flames. Zidon however, gradually recovered from the blow,
and became again a flourishing town. It is about fifty miles distant from
Nazareth, and is the most northern city which is mentioned in connection
with Christ's journeys. (The town Saida still shows signs of its
former wealth, and its houses are better constructed and more solid than
those of Tyre, many of them being built of stone; but it is a poor,
miserable place, without trade or manufactures worthy of the name. The
city that once divided with Tyre the empire of the seas is now almost
without a vessel. Silk and fruit are its staple products. Its population
is estimated at 10,000, 7000 of whom are Moslems, and the rest Catholics,
Maronites and Protestants. -- McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia. There
is a flourishing Protestant mission here. -- ED.)


the inhabitants of Zidon. They were among the nations of Canaan; left to
give the Israelites practice in the art of war, (Judges 3:3) and colonies
of them appear to have spread up into the hill country from Lebanon to
Misrephothmaim, (Joshua 13:4,6) whence in later times they hewed cedar
trees for David and Solomon. (1 Chronicles 22:4) They oppressed the
Israelites on their first entrance into the country, (Judges 10:12) and
appear to have lived a luxurious, reckless life. (Judges 18:7) They were
skillful in hewing timber, (1 Kings 5:8) and were employed for this
purpose by Solomon. They were idolaters, and worshipped Ashtoreth as their
tutelary goddess, (1 Kings 11:5,33; 2 Kings 23:13) as well as the sun-god
Baal from whom their king was named. (1 Kings 16:31)


(1 Kings 6:1) [MONTH]



  • The children of Ziha were a family of Nethinim who returned with
    Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:43; Nehemiah 7:46) (B.C. 536.)

  • Chief of the Nethinim in Ophel. (Nehemiah 11:21) The name is probably
    identical with the preceding.


(winding), a place which possesses a special interest from its
having been the residence and the private property of David. It is first
mentioned in the catalogue of the towns of Judah in (Joshua 15:31) and
occurs, in the same connection among the places which were allotted out of
the territory of Judah to Simeon. (Joshua 19:5) We next encounter it in
the possession of the Philistines (1 Samuel 27:6) when it was, at David's
request, bestowed upon him by Achish king of Gath. He resided there for a
year and four months. (1 Samuel 27:6,7; 30:14,26; 1 Chronicles 12:1,20) It
was there he received the news of Saul's death. (2 Samuel 1:1; 4:10) He
then relinquished it for Hebron. (2 Samuel 2:1) Ziklag is finally
mentioned as being reinhabited by the people of Judah after their return
from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:28) The situation of the town is difficult to
determine, and we only know for certain that it was in the south


(shade). [LAMECH]


(a trickling), a Syrian given by Laban to his daughter Leah as an
attendant, (Genesis 29:24) and by Leah to Jacob as a concubine. She was
the mother of Gad and Asher. (Genesis 30:9-13; 35:26; 37:2; 46:18) (B.C.



  • A Benjamite, of the sons of Shimhi. (1 Chronicles 8:20)

  • One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who deserted to David at
    Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:20) (B.C. 1054.)



  • A Gershonite Levite, son of Jahath. (1 Chronicles 6:20) (B.C. after

  • Another Gershonite, son of Shimei, (1 Chronicles 6:42) possibly the
    same as the preceding.

  • Father of ancestor of Joab, a Gershonite in the reign of Hezekiah. (2
    Chronicles 29:12) (B.C. before 726.) At a much earlier period we find the
    same collocation of names, Zimmah and Joah as father and son. (1
    Chronicles 6:20)


(celebrated), the eldest son of Keturah. (Genesis 25:2; 1
Chronicles 1:32) His descendants are not mentioned, nor is any hint given
that he was the founder of a tribe. (B.C. 1855.)


  • The son of Salu, a Simeonite chieftain, slain by Phinehas with the
    Midianitish princess Cozbi. (Numbers 25:14). (B.C. 1450.)

  • Fifth sovereign of the separate kingdom of Israel, of which he
    occupied the throne for the brief period of seven days, B.C. 930 or 929.
    Originally in command of half the chariots in the royal army, he gained
    the crown by the murder of King Elah; son of Baasha. But the army made
    their general, Omri, king, who marched against Tirzah, where Zimri was.
    Zimri retreated into the innermost part of the late king's palace, set it
    on fire, and perished in the ruins. (1 Kings 16:9-20)

  • One of the five sons of Zerah the son of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:6)
    (B.C. after 1706.)

  • Son of Jehoadah and descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:36; 9:42)

  • An obscure name, mentioned (Jeremiah 25:25) in probable connection
    with Dedan, Tema, Buz, Arabia, the "mingled people." Nothing further is
    known respecting Zimri, but the name may possibly be the same as, or
    derived from, ZIMRAN, which see.


(flat), the name given to a portion of the desert tract between the
Dead Sea, Ghor, and Arabah on the east, and the general
plateau of the Tih which stretches westward. The country in
question consists of two or three successive terraces of mountain
converging to an acute single at the Dead Sea's southern verge, toward
which also they slope. Kadesh lay in it, and here also Idumea was
conterminous with Judah; since Kadesh was a city in the border of Edom.
[See KADESH, KADESHBARNEA]. (Numbers 13:21; 20:1; 27:14; 33:36; 34:3;
Joshua 15:1)


(abundance); Zizah, the second son of Shimei the Gershonite. (1
Chronicles 23:10) comp. 1Chr 23:11




(smallness), a town in the mountain district of Judah. (Joshua
15:54) It belongs to the same group with Hebron.


(battlement), the name of two towns in Judah.

  • In the south, named between Ithnan and Telem. (Joshua 15:24) It does
    not appear again in the history, nor has any trace of has been met

  • In the highland district, named between Carmel and Juttah. (Joshua
    15:55) The place is immortalized by its connection with David. (1 Samuel
    23:14,15,24; 26:2) These passages show that at that time it had near it a
    wilderness (i,e, a waste pasture-ground) and a wood. The latter has
    disappeared but the former remains. The name of Zif if, found about
    three miles south of Hebron, attached to a rounded hill of some 100 feet
    in height, which is called Tell Zif.

  • Son of Jehaleleel. (1 Chronicles 4:16)


(feminine of Ziph), another son of Jehaleleel. (1 Chronicles


the inhabitants of ZIPH, 2. In this form the name is found in the
Authorized Version only in the title of (Psalms 54:1) In the narrative it
occurs in the more usual form of ZIPHITES. (1 Samuel 23:19; 26:1)


son of Gad (Genesis 46:18) elsewhere called Zephon.


(fragrance), appoint in the north boundary of the promised land as
specified by Moses. (Numbers 34:9)


(sparrow), father of Balak king of Moab. (Numbers 22:2,4,10,16;
23:18; Joshua 24:9; Judges 11:25) Whether he was the "former king of Moab"
alluded to in (Numbers 21:26) we are not told. (B.C. 1451.)


daughter of Reuel or Jethro, the priest of Midian, wife of Moses and
mother of his two sons Gershom and Eliezer. (Exodus 2:21; 4:25; 18:2)
comp. Exod 18:6 (B.C. 1530.) The only incident recorded in her life is
that of the circumcision of Gershom. (Exodus 4:24-28)


(protection of Jehovah), properly Sithri; one of the sons of Uzziel
the son of Kohath. (Exodus 6:22) In (Exodus 6:21) Zithri should be Zichri,
as in Authorized Version of 1611.


(the projection), The cliff of, the pass by which the horde
of Moabites, Ammonites and Mehunim made their way up from the shores of
the Dead Sea to the wilderness of Judah near Tekoa. (2 Chronicles 20:16)
only; comp. 2Chr 20:20 It was the pass of Ain Jidy -- the very same
route which is taken by the Arabs in their marauding expeditions at the
present day.



  • Son of Shiphi, a chief of the Simeonites in the reign of Hezekiah. (1
    Chronicles 4:37) (B.C. about 725.)

  • Son of Rehoboam by Maachah the granddaughter of Absalom. (2 Chronicles
    11:20) (B.C. after 973.)


a Gershonite Levite, second son of Shimei, (1 Chronicles 23:11) called
ZINA in ver. (1 Chronicles 23:10)


(place of departure), an ancient city of lower Egypt, called Tanis
by the Greeks. It stood on the eastern bank of the Tanitic branch of the
Nile. Its name indicates a place of departure from a country, and hence it
has been identified with Avaris (Tanis, the modern San), the
capital of the Shepherd dynasty in Egypt, built seven years after Hebron
and existing before the time of Abraham. It was taken by the Shepherd
kings in their invasion of Egypt, and by them rebuilt, and garrisoned,
according to Manetho, with 240,000 men. This cite is mentioned in
connection with the plagues in such a manner as to leave no doubt that it
is the city spoken of in the narrative in Exodus as that where Pharaoh
dwelt, (Psalms 78:42,43) and where Moses wrought his wonders on the field
of Zoan a rich plain extending thirty miles toward the east. Tanis gave
its name to the twenty-first and twenty-third dynasties and hence its
mention in Isaiah. (Isaiah 19:13; 30:4) (The present "field of Zoan" is a
barren waste, very thinly inhabited. "One of the principal capitals of
Pharaoh is now the habitation of fishermen the resort of wild beasts, and
infested with reptiles and malignant fevers." There have been discovered a
great number of monuments here which throw light upon the Bible history.
Brugsch refers to two statues of colossal size of Mermesha of the
thirteenth dynasty, wonderfully perfect in the execution of the individual
parts and says that memorials of Rameses the Great lie scattered broadcast
like the mouldering bones of generations slain long ago. The area of the
sacred enclosure of the temple is 1500 feet by 1250.-ED.)


(smallness), one of the most ancient cities of the land of Canaan.
Its original name was BELA. (Genesis 14:2,8) It was in intimate connection
with the cities of the "plain of Jordan" -- Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and
Zeboiim, See also (Genesis 13:10) but not Genesis10:19 In the general
destruction of the cities of the plain Zoar was spared to afford shelter
to Lot. (Genesis 19:22,23,30) It is mentioned in the account of the death
of Moses as one (of the landmarks which bounded his view from Pisgah,
(34:3) and it appears to have been known in the time both of Isaiah,
(Isaiah 15:5) and Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 48:34) These are all the notices of
Zoar contained in the Bible. It was situated in the same district with the
four cities already mentioned, viz. in the "plain" or "circle" of the
Jordan, and the narrative of (Genesis 19:1)... evidently implies that it
was very near to Sodom. vs. (Genesis 19:15; 23:27) The definite position
of Sodom is, and probably will always be, a mystery; but there can be
little doubt that the plain of the Jordan was at the north side of the
Dead Sea and that the cities of the plain must therefore have been
situated there instead of at the southern end of the lake, as it is
generally taken for granted they were. [SODOM] (But the great majority of
scholars from Josephus and Eusebius to the present of the Dead Sea.)


(station), the name of a portion of Syria which formed a separate
kingdom in the time of the Jewish monarchs Saul, David and Solomon. It
probably was eastward of Coele-Syria, and extended thence northeast and
east toward, if not even to, the Euphrates. We first hear of Zobah in the
time of Saul, when we find it mentioned as a separate country, governed
apparently by a number of kings who owned no common head or chief. (1
Samuel 14:47) Some forty years later than this we find Zobah under a
single ruler Hadadezer son of Rehob. He had wars with Toi king of Hamath,
(2 Samuel 8:10) and held various petty Syrian princes as vassals under his
yoke. (2 Samuel 10:19) David, (2 Samuel 8:3) attacked Hadadezer in the
early part of his reign, defeated his army, and took from him a thousand
chariots, seven hundred (seven thousand,) (1 Chronicles 18:4) horsemen and
20,000 footmen. Hadadezer's allies, the Syrians of Damascus, were defeated
in a great battle. The wealth of Zobah is very apparent in the narrative
of this campaign. A man of Zobah, Rezon son of Eliadah, made himself
master of Damascus where he proved a fierce adversary to Israel all
through the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 11:23-25) Solomon also was, it
would seem engaged in a war with Zobah itself. (2 Chronicles 8:3) This is
the last that we hear of Zobah in Scripture. The name however, is found at
a later date in the inscriptions of Assyria, where the kingdom of Zobah
seems to intervene between Hamath and Damascus.


(the slow), son of Coz, of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles



  • Father of Ephron the Hittite. (Genesis 23:8; 25:9) (B.C. before

  • One of the sons of Simeon (Genesis 46:10; Exodus 6:15) called ZARAH,
    OR ZERAH, ZERAH in (1 Chronicles 4:24)


(serpent), The stone, This was "by En-rogel," (1 Kings 1:9)
and therefore, if En-rogel be the modern Um-ed-Deraj, this stone,
"where Adonijah slew sheep and oxen," was in all likelihood not far from
the well of the Virgin.


son of Ishi of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:20)


(a cruse) son of Helem or Hotham the son of Heber, an Asherite. (1
Chronicles 7:35,36)


(descended from Zuph), a Kohathite Levite, son of Elkanah and
ancestor of Samuel. (2 Chronicles 6:26) (11). In ver. 35 he is called


(sparrow), one of the three friends of Job. (Job 2:11; 11:1; 20:1;


(watchers), The field of, a spot on or near the top of
Pisgah, from which Balaam had his second view of the encampment of Israel.
(Numbers 23:14) The position of the field of Zophim is not defined.
Possibly it is the same place which later in the history is mentioned as


(hornet), a town in the allotment of the tribe of Dan, (Joshua
19:41) It is previously mentioned ch. (Joshua 15:33) in the catalogue of
Judah, among the places in the district of the Shefelah (Authorized
Version "Zoreah"), It was the residence of Manoah and the native place of
Samson. It is mentioned among the places fortified by Rehoboam. (2
Chronicles 11:10) It is perhaps identical with the modern village of


i.e. the people of Zorah, mentioned in (1 Chronicles 4:2) as descended
from Shobal.




are named in the genealogies of Judah, (1 Chronicles 2:54) apparently
among the descendants of Salma and near connections of Joab.


(Matthew 1:12,13; Luke 3:27) [ZERUBBABEL]


(littleness), father of Nethaneel the chief of the tribe of
Issachar at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:8; 2:5; 7:18,23; 10:15)
(B.C. 2491.)


(honeycomb), The land of, a district at which Saul and his
servant arrived after passing through the possessions of Shalisha, of
Shalim and of the Benjamites. (1 Samuel 9:5) only. It evidently contained
the city in which they encountered Samuel, ver. 6, and that again was
certainly not far from the "tomb of Rachel." It may perhaps be identified
with Soba, a well-known place about seven miles due west of Jerusalem.


a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Elkanah and Samuel. (1 Samuel 1:1; 1
Chronicles 6:35) In (1 Chronicles 6:26) he is called ZOPHAI.


(a rock).

  • Father of Cozbi, (Numbers 25:15) and one of the five princes of Midian
    who were slain by the Israelites when Balaam fell. (Numbers 31:8) (B.C.

  • Son of Jehiel, the founder of Gideon. (1 Chronicles 8:30; 9:36), (B.C.
    after 1445.)


(my rock is God) son of Abihail, and chief of the Merarite Levites
at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 3:35)


(my rock is the Almighty), father of Shelumiel, the chief of the
tribe of Simeon at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:6; 2:12; 7:36,41;


An ancient people who, lying in the path of Chedorlaomer and his allies,
were attacked and overthrown by them. (Genesis 14:5) The Zuzim perhaps
inhabited the country of the Ammonites, who were identical with the
Zamzummim, who are known to have ben exterminated and succeeded in their
land by the Ammonites [ZAMZUMMIM].

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