Smith's Bible Dictionary - Y



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YARN


The notice of yarn is contained in an extremely obscure passage in (1
Kings 10:28; 2 Chronicles 1:16) The Hebrew Received Text is questionable.
Gesenius gives the sense of "number" as applying equally to the merchants
and the horses: "A band of the king's merchants bought a drove (of horses)
at a price."


YEAR


the highest ordinary division of time. Two years were known to, and
apparently used by, the Hebrews.

  • A year of 360 days appears to have been in use in Noah's time.

  • The year used by the Hebrews from the time of the exodus may: be said
    to have been then instituted, since a current month, Abib, on the 14th day
    of which the first Passover was kept, was then made the first month of the
    year. The essential characteristics of this year can be clearly
    determined, though we cannot fix those of any single year. It was
    essentially solar for the offering of productions of the earth,
    first-fruits, harvest produce and ingathered fruits, was fixed to certain
    days of the year, two of which were in the periods of great feasts, the
    third itself a feast reckoned from one of the former days. But it is
    certain that the months were lunar, each commencing with a new moon. There
    must therefore have been some method of adjustment. The first point to be
    decided is how the commencement of each gear was fixed. Probably the
    Hebrews determined their new year's day by the observation of heliacal or
    other star-risings or settings known to mark the right time of the solar
    year. It follows, from the determination of the proper new moon of the
    first month, whether by observation of a stellar phenomenon or of the
    forwardness of the crops, that the method of intercalation can only have
    been that in use after the captivity, -- the addition of a thirteenth
    month whenever the twelfth ended too long before the equinox for the
    offering of the first-fruits to be made at the time fixed. The later Jews
    had two commencements of the year, whence it is commonly but inaccurately
    said that they had two years, the sacred year and the civil. We prefer to
    speak of the sacred and civil reckonings. The sacred reckoning was that
    instituted at the exodus, according to which the first month was Abib; by
    the civil reckoning the first month was the seventh. The interval between
    the two commencements was thus exactly half a year. It has been supposed
    that the institution at the time of the exodus was a change of
    commencement, not the introduction of a new year, and that thenceforward
    the year had two beginnings, respectively at about the vernal and the
    autumnal equinox. The year was divided into --

  • Seasons. Two seasons are mentioned in the Bible, "summer" and
    "winter." The former properly means the time of cutting fruits, the latter
    that, of gathering fruits; they are therefore originally rather summer and
    autumn than summer and winter. But that they signify ordinarily the two
    grand divisions of the year, the warm and cold seasons, is evident from
    their use for the whole year in the expression "summer and winter."
    (Psalms 74:17; Zechariah 14:18)

  • Months. [MONTHS]

  • Weeks. [WEEKS]


YEAR, SABBATICAL


[SABBATICAL YEAR YEAR]


YEAR OF JUBILEE


[JUBILEE, THE YEAR OF, YEAR OF]


YOKE


  • A well-known implement of husbandry, frequently used metaphorically
    for subjection, e.g. (1 Kings 12:4,9-11; Isaiah 9:4; Jeremiah 5:5)
    hence an "iron yoke" represents an unusually galling bondage. (28:48;
    Jeremiah 28:13)

  • A pair of oxen, so termed as being yoked together. (1 Samuel 11:7; 1
    Kings 19:19,21) The Hebrew term is also applied to asses, (Judges 19:10)
    and mules, (2 Kings 5:17) and even to a couple of riders. (Isaiah
    21:7)

  • The term is also applied to a certain amount of land, (1 Samuel 14:14)
    equivalent to that which a couple of oxen could plough in a day, (Isaiah
    5:10) (Authorized Version "acre"), corresponding to the Latin jugum.



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