Smith's Bible Dictionary - S

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(why hast thou forsaken me?), part of Christ's fourth cry on the
cross. (Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34) This, with the other words uttered with
it, as given in Mark, is Aramaic (Syro-Chaldaic), the common dialect of
the people of palestine in Christ's time and the whole is a translation of
the Hebrew (given in Matthew) of the first words of the 22d Psalm. --


occurs in (Romans 9:29; James 5:4) but is more familiar through its
occurrence in the Sanctus of Te Deum -- "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of
Sabaoth." Sabaoth is the Greek form of the Hebrew word tsebaoth "armies,"
and is translated in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament by "Lord
of hosts," "Lord God of hosts." In the mouth and the mind of an ancient
Hebrew, Jehovah-tsebaoth was the leader and commander of the armies of the
nation, who "went forth with them" (Psalms 44:9) and led them to certain
victory over the worshippers of Baal Chemosh. Molech, Ashtaroth and other
false gods.


(shabbath), "a day of rest," from shabath "to cease to do
to," "to rest"). The name is applied to divers great festivals, but
principally and usually to the seventh day of the week, the strict
observance of which is enforced not merely in the general Mosaic code, but
in the Decalogue itself. The consecration of the Sabbath was coeval with
the creation. The first scriptural notice of it, though it is not
mentioned by name, is to be found in (Genesis 2:3) at the close of the
record of the six-days creation. There are not wanting indirect evidences
of its observance, as the intervals between Noah's sending forth the birds
out of the ark, an act naturally associated with the weekly service,
(Genesis 8:7-12) and in the week of a wedding celebration, (Genesis
29:27,28) but when a special occasion arises, in connection with the
prohibition against gathering manna on the Sabbath, the institution is
mentioned as one already known. (Exodus 16:22-30) And that this (All this
is confirmed by the great antiquity of the division of time into weeks,
and the naming the days after the sun, moon and planets.) was especially
one of the institutions adopted by Moses from the ancient patriarchal
usage is implied in the very words of the law "Remember the Sabbath day,
to keep it holy." But even if such evidence were wanting, the reason of
the institution would be a sufficient proof. It was to be a joyful
celebration of God's completion of his creation. It has indeed been said
that Moses gives quite a different reason for the institution of the
Sabbath, as a memorial of the deliverance front Egyptian bondage. (5:15)
The words added in Deuteronomy are a special motive for the joy with which
the Sabbath should be celebrated and for the kindness which extended its
blessings to the slave and the beast of burden as well as to the master:
"that thy man servant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thought.
(5:14) These attempts to limit the ordinance proceed from an entire
misconception of its spirit, as if it were a season of stern privation
rather than of special privilege. But in truth, the prohibition of work is
only subsidiary to the positive idea of joyful rest and recreation in
communion with Jehovah, who himself "rested and was refreshed." (Exodus
31:17) comp. (Exodus 23:12) It is in (Exodus 16:23-29) that we find the
first incontrovertible institution of the day, as one given to and to be
kept by the children of Israel. Shortly afterward it was re-enacted in the
Fourth Commandment. This beneficent character of the Fourth Commandment is
very apparent in the version of it which we find in Deuteronomy. (5:12-15)
The law and the Sabbath are placed upon the same ground, and to give
rights to classes that would otherwise have been without such -- to the
bondman and bondmaid may, to the beast of the field-is viewed here as
their main end. "The stranger," too is comprehended in the benefit. But
the original proclamation of it in Exodus places it on a ground which,
closely connected no doubt with these others is yet higher and more
comprehensive. The divine method of working and rest is there propose to
work and to rest. Time then to man as the model after which presented a
perfect whole it is most important to remember that the Fourth Commandment
is not limited to a mere enactment respecting one day, but prescribes the
due distribution of a week, and enforces the six days’ work as much
as the seventh day's rest. This higher ground of observance was felt to
invest the Sabbath with a theological character, and rendered if the great
witness for faith in a personal and creating God. It was to be a sacred
pause in the ordinary labor which man earns his bread the curse the fall
was to be suspended for one and, having spent that day in joyful
remembrance of God's mercies, man had a fresh start in his course of
labor. A great snare, too, has always been hidden in the word work, as if
the commandment forbade occupation and imposed idleness. The terms in the
commandment show plainly enough the sort of work which is
contemplated-servile work and business. The Pentateuch presents us with
but three applications of the general principle -- (Exodus 16:29; 35:3;
Numbers 15:32-36) The reference of Isaiah to the Sabbath gives us no
details. The references in Jeremiah and Nehemiah show that carrying goods
for sale, and buying such, were equally profanations of the day. A
consideration of the spirit of the law and of Christ's comments on it will
show that it is work for worldly gain that was to be suspended; and
hence the restrictive clause is prefaced with the restrictive command.
"Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work;" for so only could the
sabbatic rest be fairly earned. Hence, too, the stress constantly laid on
permitting the servant and beast of burden to share the rest which
selfishness would grudge to them. Thus the spirit of the Sabbath was joy,
refreshment and mercy, arising from remembrance of God's goodness as
Creator and as the Deliverer from bondage. The Sabbath was a perpetual
sign and covenant, and the holiness of the day is collected with the
holiness of the people; "that ye may know that I am Jehovah that doth
sanctify you." (Exodus 31:12-17; Ezekiel 20:12) Joy was the key-note Of
their service. Nehemiah commanded the people, on a day holy to Jehovah
"Mourn not, nor weep: eat the fat, and drink: the sweet, and send portions
to them for whom nothing is prepared." (Nehemiah 8:9-13) The Sabbath is
named as a day of special worship in the sanctuary. (Leviticus 19:30;
26:2) It was proclaimed as a holy convocation. (Leviticus 23:3) In later
times the worship of the sanctuary was enlivened by sacred music. (Psalms
68:25-27; 150:1)... etc. On this day the people were accustomed to consult
their prophets, (2 Kings 4:23) and to give to their children that
instruction in the truths recalled to memory by the day which is so
repeatedly enjoined as the duty of parents; it was "the Sabbath of
Jehovah" not only in the sanctuary, but "in all their dwellings."
(Leviticus 23:3) When we come to the New Testament we find the most marked
stress laid on the Sabbath. In whatever ways the Jew might err respecting
it, he had altogether ceased to neglect it. On the contrary wherever he
went its observance became the most visible badge of his nationality. Our
Lord's mode of observing the Sabbath was one of the main features of his
life, which his Pharisaic adversaries meet eagerly watched and criticized.
They had invented many prohibitions respecting the Sabbath of which we
find nothing in the original institution. Some of these prohibitions were
fantastic and arbitrary, in the number of those "heavy burdens and
grievous to be borne" while the latter expounders of the law "laid on
men's shoulders." Comp. (Matthew 12:1-13; John 5:10) That this perversion
of the Sabbath had become very general in our Saviour's time is apparent
both from the recorded objections to acts of his on that day and from his
marked conduct on occasions to which those objections were sure to be
urged. (Matthew 12:1-16; Mark 3:2; Luke 6:1-5; 13:10-17; John 6:2-18;
7:23; 9:1-34) Christ's words do not remit the duty of keeping the Sabbath,
but only deliver it from the false methods of keeping which prevented it
from bestowing upon men the spiritual blessings it was ordained to


(Acts 1:12) The law as regards travel on the Sabbath is found in (Exodus
16:29) As some departure from a man's own place was unavoidable, it was
thought necessary to determine the allowable amount, which was fixed at
2000 paces, or about six furlongs from the wall of the city. The permitted
distance seems to have been grounded on the space to he kept between the
ark and the people, (Joshua 3:4) in the wilderness, which tradition said
was that between the ark and the tents. We find the same distance given as
the circumference outside the walls of the Levitical cities to be counted
as their suburbs. (Numbers 33:5) The terminus a quo was thus not a man's
own house, but the wall of the city where he dwelt.


Each seventh year, by the Mosaic code, was to be kept holy. (Exodus
23:10,11) The commandment is to sow and reap for six years, and to let the
land rest on the seventh, "that the poor of thy people may eat; and what
they leave the beasts of the held shall eat. It is added in (15:1) ...
that the seventh Year should also be one of release to debtors. (15:1-11)
Neither tillage nor cultivation of any sort was to be practiced. The
sabbatical year opened in the sabbatical month, and the whole law was to
be read every such year, during the feast of Tabernacles, to the assembled
people. At the completion of a week of sabbatical years, the sabbatical
scale received its completion in the year of jubilee. [JUBILEE, THE YEAR
OF] The constant neglect of this law from the very first was one of the
national sins that were punished by the Babylonian captivity. Of the
observance of the sabbatical year after the captivity we have a proof in 1
Macc. 6:49.




(striking), (Genesis 10:7) or Sab’ta, (1 Chronicles 1:9) the
third in order of the sons of Cush. (B.C. 2218.)


(striking), (Genesis 10:7; 1 Chronicles 1:9) the fifth in order of
the sons of Cush. (B.C. 2218.)



  • A Hararite, father of Ahiam. (1 Chronicles 11:35)

  • The fourth son of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:4)


(Daniel 3:5,7,10,15) the rendering in the Authorized Version of the
Chaldee sacbbeca. If this music instrument be the same as the
Greek and Latin sabbeca, the English translation is entirely
wrong. The sackbut was a wind instrument [see MUSIC]; the sambuca
was a triangular instrument, with strings, and played with the hand.


cloth used in making sacks or bags, a coarse fabric, of a dark color, made
of goat's hair, (Isaiah 50:3; Revelation 6:12) end resembling the
eilicium of the Romans. It, was used also for making the rough
garments used by mourners, which were in extreme cases worn next the skin.
(1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Isaiah 32:11)


The peculiar features of each kind of sacrifice are referred to under
their respective heads. I. (A) ORIGIN OF SACRIFICE. -- The universal
prevalence of sacrifice shows it to have been primeval, and deeply rooted
in the instincts of humanity. Whether it was first enjoined by an external
command, or whether it was based on that sense of sin and lost communion
with God which is stamped by his hand on the heart of man, is a historical
question which cannot be determined. (B) ANTE-MOSAIC HISTORY OF SACRIFICE.
-- In examining the various sacrifices recorded in Scripture before the
establishment of the law, we find that the words specially denoting
expiatory sacrifice are not applied to them. This fact does not at all
show that they were not actually expiatory, but it justified the inference
that this idea was not then the prominent one in the doctrine of
sacrifice. The sacrifices of Cain and Abel are called minehah, tend appear
to have been eucharistic. Noah's, (Genesis 8:20) and Jacob's at Mizpah,
were at the institution of a covenant; and may be called federative. In
the burnt offerings of Job for his children (Job 1:5) and for his three
friends ch. (Job 42:8) we for the first time find the expression of the
desire of expiation for sin. The same is the case in the words of Moses to
Pharaoh. (Exodus 10:26) Here the main idea is at least deprecatory. (C)
THE SACRIFICES OF THE MOSAIC PERIOD. -- These are inaugurated by the
offering of the Passover and the sacrifice of (Exodus 24:1) ... The
Passover indeed is unique in its character but it is clear that the idea
of salvation from death by means of sacrifice is brought out in it with a
distinctness before unknown. The law of Leviticus now unfolds distinctly
the various forms of sacrifice: (a) The burnt offering :
Self-dedicatory. (b) The meat offering : (unbloody): Eucharistic.
(c) The sin offering ; the trespass offering: Expiatory. To these
may be added, (d) The incense offered after sacrifice in the holy
place and (on the Day of Atonement) in the holy of holies, the symbol of
the intercession of the priest (as a type of the great High Priest)
accompanying and making efficacious the prayer of the people. In the
consecration of Aaron and his sons, (Leviticus 8:1) ... we find these
offered in what became ever afterward their appointed order. First came
the sin offering, to prepare access to God; next the burnt offering, to
mark their dedication to his service; and third the meat offering of
thanksgiving. Henceforth the sacrificial system was fixed in all its parts
until he should come whom it typified. (D) POST-MOSAIC SACRIFICES. -- It
will not be necessary to pursue, in detail the history of the Poet Mosaic
sacrifice, for its main principles were now fixed forever. The regular
sacrifices in the temple service were -- (a) Burnt offerings. 1,
The daily burnt offerings, (Exodus 29:38-42) 2, The double burnt offerings
on the Sabbath, (Numbers 28:9,10) 3, The burnt offerings at the great
festivals; (Numbers 26:11; Numbers 29:39) (b) Meat offerings. 1,
The daily meat offerings accompanying the daily burnt offerings, (Exodus
29:40,41) 2, The shewbread, renewed every Sabbath, (Leviticus 24:6,9) 3,
The special meat offerings at the Sabbath and the great festivals,
(Numbers 28:1; Numbers 29:1) ... 4, The first-fruits, at the Passover,
(Leviticus 23:10-14) at Pentecost, (Leviticus 23:17-20) the firstfruits of
the dough and threshing-floor at the harvest time. (Numbers 15:20,21;
26:1-11) (c) Sin offerings. 1, Sin offering each new moon (Numbers
28:15) 2, Sin offerings at the passover, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets and
Tabernacles, (Numbers 28:22,30; 29:5,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,38) 3, The
offering of the two goats for the people and of the bullock for the priest
himself, on the Great Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16:1) ... (d)
Incense. 1, The morning and evening incense (Exodus 30:7,8) 2, The
incense on the Great Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16:12) Besides these
public sacrifices, there were offerings of the people for themselves
individually. II. By the order of sacrifice in its perfect form, as in
(Leviticus 8:1) ... it is clear that the sin offering occupies the most
important: place; the burnt offering comes next, and the meat offering or
peace offering last of all. The second could only be offered after the
first had been accepted; the third was only a subsidiary part of the
second. Yet, in actual order of time it has been seen that the patriarchal
sacrifices partook much more of the nature of the peace offering and burnt
offering, and that under the raw, by which was "the knowledge of sin,"
(Romans 3:20) the sin offering was for the first time explicitly set
forth. This is but natural that the deepest ideas should be the last in
order of development. The essential difference between heathen views of
sacrifice and the scriptural doctrine of the Old. Testament is not to be
found in its denial of any of these views. In fact, it brings out clearly
and distinctly the ideas which in heathenism were uncertain, vague and
perverted. But the essential points of distinction are two. First, that
whereas the heathen conceived of their gods as alienated in jealousy or
anger, to be sought after and to be appeased by the unaided action of man,
Scripture represents God himself as approaching man, as pointing out and
sanctioning the way by which the broken covenant should be restored. The
second mark of distinction is closely connected with this, inasmuch as it
shows sacrifice to he a scheme proceeding from God, and in his
foreknowledge, connected with the one central fact of all human history.
From the prophets and the Epistle to the Hebrews we learn that the sin
offering represented that covenant as broken by man, and as knit together
again, by God's appointment through the shedding of the blood, the symbol
of life, signified that the death of the offender was deserved for sin,
but that the death of the victim was accepted for his death by the
ordinance of God's mercy. Beyond all doubt the sin offering distinctly
witnessed that sin existed in man. that the "wages of that sin was death,"
and that God had provided an atonement by the vicarious suffering of an
appointed victim. The ceremonial and meaning of the burnt offering were
very different. The idea of expiation seems not to have been absent from
it, for the blood was sprinkled round about the altar of sacrifice; but
the main idea is the offering of the whole victim to God, representing as
the laying of the hand on its head shows, the devotion of the sacrificer,
body and soul. to him. (Romans 12:1) The death of the victim was, so to
speak, an incidental feature. The meat offering, the peace or thank
offering, the firstfruits, etc., were simply offerings to God of his own
best gifts, as a sign of thankful homage, and as a means of maintaining
his service and his servants. The characteristic ceremony in the peace
offering was the eating of the flesh by the sacrificer. It betokened the
enjoyment of communion with God. It is clear from this that the idea of
sacrifice is a complex idea, involving the propitiatory, the dedicatory
and the eucharistic elements. Any one of these, taken by itself, would
lead to error and superstition. All three probably were more or less
implied in each sacrifice. each element predominating in its turn. The
Epistle to the Hebrews contains the key of the whole sacrificial doctrine.
The object of the epistle is to show the typical and probationary
character of sacrifices, and to assert that in virtue of it alone they had
a spiritual meaning. Our Lord is declared (see) (1 Peter 1:20) "to have
been foreordained" as a sacrifice "before the foundation of the world," or
as it is more strikingly expressed in (Revelation 13:8) "slain from the
foundation of the world." The material sacrifices represented this great
atonement as already made and accepted in God's foreknowledge; and to
those who grasped the ideas of sin, pardon and self-dedication symbolized
in them, they were means of entering into the blessings which the one true
sacrifice alone procured. They could convey nothing in themselves yet as
types they might, if accepted by a true though necessarily imperfect faith
be means of conveying in some degree the blessings of the antitype. It is
clear that the atonement in the Epistle to the Hebrews as in the New
Testament generally, is viewed in a twofold light. On the one hand it is
set forth distinctly as a vicarious sacrifice, which was rendered
necessary by the sin of man and in which the Lord "bare the sins of many."
It is its essential characteristic that in it he stands absolutely alone
offering his sacrifice without any reference to the faith or the
conversion of men. In it he stands out alone as the mediator between God
and man; and his sacrifice is offered once for all, never to be imitated
or repeated. Now, this view of the atonement is set forth in the epistle
as typified by the sin offering. On the other hand the sacrifice of Christ
is set forth to us as the completion of that perfect obedience to the will
of the Father which is the natural duty of sinless man. The main idea of
this view of the atonement is representative rather than vicarious. It is
typified by the burnt offering. As without the sin offering of the cross
this our burnt offering would be impossible, so also without the burnt
offering the sin offering will to us be unavailing. With these views of
our Lord's sacrifice oil earth, as typified in the Levitical sacrifices on
the outer alter, is also to be connected the offering of his intercession
for us in heaven, which was represented by the incense. The typical sense
of the meat offering or peace offering is less connected the sacrifice of
Christ himself than with those sacrifices of praise, thanksgiving, charity
and devotion which we, as Christians, offer to God, and "with which he is
well pleased," (Hebrews 13:15,16) as with an odor of sweet smell, a
sacrifice acceptable to God." (Philemon 4:28)


(followers of Zadok), (Matthew 3:7; 16:1,6,11,12; 22:23,31; Mark
12:18; Luke 20:27; Acts 4:1; 5:17; 23:6,7,8) a religious party or school
among the Jews at the time of Christ, who denied that the oral law was a
revelation of God to the Israelites. and who deemed the written law alone
to be obligatory on the nation, as of divine authority. Except on one
occasion. (Matthew 16:1,4,6) Christ never assailed the Sadducees with the
same bitter denunciations which he uttered against the Pharisees. The
origin of their name is involved in great difficulties, but the most
satisfactory conjecture is that the Sadducees or Zadokites were originally
identical with the sons of Zadok, and constituted what may be termed a
kind of sacerdotal aristocracy, this Zadok being the priest who declared
in favor of Solomon when Abiathar took the part of Adonijah. (1 Kings
1:32-45) To these sons of Zadok were afterward attached all who for any
reason reckoned themselves as belonging to the aristocrats; such, for
example, as the families of the high priest, who had obtained
consideration under the dynasty of Herod. These were for the most part
judges, and individuals of the official and governing class. This
explanation elucidates at once (Acts 5:17) The leading tenet of the
Sadducees was the negation of the leading tenet of their opponents. As the
Pharisees asserted so the Sadducees denied, that the Israelites were in
possession of an oral law transmitted to them by Moses, [PHARISEES] In
opposition to the Pharisees, they maintained that the written law alone
was obligatory on the nation, as of divine authority. The second
distinguishing doctrine of the Sadducees was the denial of man's
resurrection after death
. In connection with the disbelief of a
resurrection by the Sadducees, they likewise denied there was "angel or
spirit," (Acts 23:8) and also the doctrines of future punishment and
future rewards. Josephus states that the Sadducees believed in the
freedom of the will, which the Pharisees denied. They pushed this
doctrine so far as almost to exclude God from the government of the world.
Some of the early Christian writers attribute to the Sadducees the
rejection of all the sacred Scriptures except the Pentateuch
; a
statement, however, that is now generally admitted to have been founded on
a misconception of the truth, and it seems to have arisen from a confusion
of the Sadducees with the Samaritans. An important fact in the history of
the Sadducees is their rapid disappearance from history after the first
century, and the subsequent predominance among the Jews of the opinions of
the Pharisees. Two circumstances contributed, indirectly but powerfully,
to produce this result: 1st. The state of the Jews after the capture of
Jerusalem by Titus; and 2d. The growth of the Christian religion. As to
the first point, it is difficult to overestimate the consternation and
dismay which the destruction of Jerusalem occasioned in the minds of
sincerely-religious Jews. In their hour of darkness and anguish they
naturally turned to the consolations and hopes of a future state; and the
doctrine of the Sadducees, that there was nothing beyond the present life,
would have appeared to them cold, heartless and hateful. Again, while they
were sunk in the lowest depths of depression, a new religion, which they
despised as a heresy and a superstition, was gradually making its way
among the subjects of their detested conquerors, the Romans. One of the
causes of its success was undoubtedly the vivid belief in the resurrection
of Jesus and a consequent resurrection of all mankind, which was accepted
by its heathen converts with a passionate earnestness of which those who
at the present day are familiar from infancy with the doctrine of the
resurrection of the dead call form only a faint idea. To attempt to chock
the progress of this new religion among the Jews by an appeal to the
temporary rewards and punishments of the Pentateuch would have been as
idle as an endeavor to check an explosive power by ordinary mechanical
restraints. Consciously, therefore, or unconsciously, many circumstances
combined to induce the Jews who were not Pharisees, but who resisted the
new heresy, to rally round the standard of the oral law, and to assert
that their holy legislator, Moses, had transmitted to his faithful people
by word of mouth, although not in writing, the revelation of a future
state of rewards and punishments.


(Greek form of Zadok, just).

  • Zadok the ancestor of Ezra. 2 Esd. 1:1; comp. (Ezra 7:2)

  • A descendant of Zerubbabel in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Matthew
    1:14) (B.C. about 280.)


(yellow). (Solomon 4:14) Saffron has front the earliest times been
in high esteem as a perfume. "It was used," says Rosenmuller, "for the
same purposes as the modern pot-pourri." The word saffron is derived from
the Arabic zafran, "yellow." (The saffron (Crocus sativus)
is a kind of crocus of the iris family. It is used its a medicine, as a
flavoring and as a yellow dye. Homer, Virgil and Milton refer to its
beauty in the landscape. It abounds in Palestine name saffron is usually
applied only to the stigmas and part of the style, which are plucked out
and dried. -- ED.)


(sprout), the son of Arphaxad, and father of Eber. (Genesis 10:24;
11:18-14; Luke 3:35) (B.C. 2307.)


(suit), a city at the east end of the island of Cyprus, and the
first place visited by Paul and Barnabas, on the first missionary journey,
after leaving the mainland at Seleucia. Here alone, among all the Greek
cities visited by St. Paul, we read expressly of "synagogues" in the
plural, (Acts 13:5) hence we conclude that there were many Jews in Cyprus.
And this is in harmony with what we read elsewhere. Salamis was not far
from the modern Famagousta, it was situated near a river called
the Pediaeus, on low ground, which is in fact a continuation of the plain
running up into the interior toward the place where Nicosia, the
present capital of Cyprus, stands.


(I have asked of God). (1 Chronicles 3:17) The Authorized Version
has Salathiel in (1 Chronicles 3:17) but everywhere else in the Old
Testament Shealtiel.


(migration), a city named in the early records of Israel as the
extreme limit of Bashan, (3:10; Joshua 13:11) and of the tribe of Gad. (1
Chronicles 5:71) On another occasion the name seems to denote a district
rather than a town. (Joshua 12:5) It is identical with the town of
Sulkhad (56 miles east of the Jordan, at the southern extremity of
the Hauran range of mountains. The place is nearly deserted, though it
contains 800 stone houses, many of them in a good state of



  • The place of which Melchizedek was king. (Genesis 14:18; Hebrews
    7:1,2) No satisfactory identification of it is perhaps possible. Two main
    opinions have been current from the earliest ages of interpretation: (1).
    That of the Jewish commentators, who affirm that Salem is Jerusalem, on
    the ground that Jerusalem is so called in (Psalms 76:2) Nearly all Jewish
    commentators hold this opinion. (2). Jerome, however, states that the
    Salem of Melchizedek was not Jerusalem, but a town eight Roman miles south
    of Scythopolis, and gives its then name as Salumias, and identifies it
    with Salem, where John baptized.

  • (Psalms 76:2) it is agreed on all hands that Salem is here employed
    for Jerusalem.


(peace), a place named (John 3:23) to denote the situation of
AEnon, the scene of St. John's last baptisms; Salim being the well-known
town, and AEnon a place of fountains or other waters near it. [SALEM] The
name of Salim has been discovered by Mr. Van Deuteronomy Velde in a
position exactly in accordance with the notice of Eusebius, viz., six
English miles south of Beisan (Scythopolis), end two miles west of
the Jordan. Near here is an abundant supply of water.


(garment), (Ruth 4:20,21; 1 Chronicles 2:11,51,54; Matthew 1:4,5;
Luke 3:32) son of Nahshon. the prince of the children of Judah, and father
of Boat, the husband of Ruth. (B.C. 1296.) Bethlehem-ephratah, which was
Salmon's inheritance, was part of the territory of Caleb, the grandson of
Ephratah; and this caused him to be reckoned among the sons of Caleb.


a hill near Shechem, on which Abimelech and his followers cut down the
boughs with which they set the tower of Shechem on fire. (Judges 9:48) Its
exact position is not known. Referred to in (Psalms 68:14)


the father of Boar. [SALMA, OR SALMON]


(clothed), the east point of the island of Crete. (Acts 27:7) It is
a bold promontory, and is visible for a long distance.



  • The wife of Zebedee, (Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40) and probably sister
    of Mary the mother of Jesus, to whom reference is made in (John 19:25) The
    only events recorded of Salome are that she preferred a request on behalf
    of her two sons for seats of honor in the kingdom of heaven, (Matthew
    20:20) that she attended at the crucifixion of Jesus, (Mark 15:40) and
    that she visited his sepulchre. (Mark 16:1) She is mentioned by name on
    only the two latter occasions.

  • The daughter of Herodias by her first husband, Herod Philip. (Matthew
    14:6) She married in the first the tetrarch of Trachonitis her paternal
    uncle, sad secondly Aristobulus, the king of Chalcis.


Indispensable as salt is to ourselves, it was even more so to the Hebrews,
being to them not only an appetizing condiment in the food both of man,
(Job 11:6) and beset, (Isaiah 30:24) see margin, and a valuable antidote
to the effects of the heat of the climate on animal food, but also
entering largely into the religious services of the Jews as an
accompaniment to the various offerings presented on the altar. (Leviticus
2:13) They possessed an inexhaustible and ready supply of it on the
southern shores of the Dead Sea. [SEA, THE SALT, THE SALT] There is one
mountain here called Jebel Usdum, seven miles long and several hundred
feet high, which is composed almost entirely of salt. The Jews appear to
have distinguished between rock-salt and that which was gained by
evaporation as the Talmudists particularize one species (probably the
latter) as the "salt of Sodom." The salt-pits formed an important source
of revenue to the rulers of the country, and Antiochus conferred a
valuable boon on Jerusalem by presenting the city with 375 bushels of salt
for the temple service. As one of the most essential articles of diet,
salt symbolized hospitality; as an antiseptic, durability, fidelity and
purity. Hence the expression "covenant of salt," (Leviticus 2:13; Numbers
18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5) as betokening an indissoluble alliance between
friends; and again the expression "salted with the salt of the palace."
(Ezra 4:14) not necessarily meaning that they had "maintenance from the
palace," as Authorized Version has it, but that they were bound by sacred
obligations fidelity to the king. So in the present day, "to eat bread and
salt together" is an expression for a league of mutual amity. It was
probably with a view to keep this idea prominently before the minds of the
Jews that the use of salt was enjoined on the Israelites in their
offerings to God.


the fifth of the six cities of Judah which lay in the "wilderness."
(Joshua 15:62) Mr. Robinson expresses his belief that it lay somewhere
near the plain at the south end of the Salt Sea.




a valley in which occurred two memorable victories of the Israelite arms:

  • That of David over the Edomites. (2 Samuel 8:13; 1 Chronicles

  • That of Amaziah. (2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chronicles 25:11) It is perhaps the
    broad open plain which lies at the lower end of the Dead Sea, and
    intervenes between the lake itself and the range of heights which crosses
    the valley at six or eight miles to the south. This same view is taken by
    Dr. Robinson. Others suggest that it is nearer to Petra. What little can
    be inferred from the narrative as to its situation favors the latter


(weighed), the father of Zimri the prince of the Simeonites who was
slain by Phinehas. (Numbers 25:14) Called also Salom. (B.C.1452.)


Salutations may be classed under the two heads of conversational and
epistolary. The salutation at meeting consisted in early times of various
expressions of blessing, such as "God be gracious unto thee," (Genesis
43:29) "The Lord be with you;" "The Lord bless thee." (Ruth 2:4) Hence the
term "bless" received the secondary sense of "salute." The salutation at
parting consisted originally of a simple blessing, (Genesis 24:60) but in
later times the form "Go in peace," or rather "Farewell" (1 Samuel 1:17)
was common. In modern times the ordinary mode of address current in the
East resembles the Hebrew Es-selam aleykum, "Peace be on you," and
the term "salam," peace, has been introduced into our own language to
describe the Oriental salutation. In epistolary salutations the writer
placed-his own name first, and then that of the person whom he sainted. A
form of prayer for spiritual mercies was also used. The concluding
salutation consisted generally of the term "I salute," accompanied by a
prayer for peace or grace.


(watch mountain). This city is situated 30 miles north of Jerusalem
and about six miles to the northwest of Shechem, in a wide basin-shaped
valley, six miles in diameter, encircled with high hills, almost on the
edge of the great plain which borders upon the Mediterranean. In the
centre of this basin, which is on a lower level than the valley of
Shechem, rises a less elevated hill, with steep yet accessible sides and a
long fiat top. This hill was chosen by Omri as the site of the capital of
the kingdom of Israel. He "bought the hill of Samaria of Shemer for two
talents of silver, and built on the hill, and called the name of the city
which he built, after the name of the owner of the hill, Samaria." (1
Kings 16:23,24) From the that of Omri's purchase, B.C. 925, Samaria
retained its dignity as the capital of the ten tribes, and the name is
given to the northern kingdom as well as to the city. Ahab built a temple
to Baal there. (1 Kings 16:32,33) It was twice besieged by the Syrians, in
B.C. 901, (1 Kings 20:1) and in B.C. 892, (2 Kings 6:24-7; 2 Kings 6:20)
but on both occasions the siege was ineffectual. The possessor of Samaria
was considered Deuteronomy facto king of Israel. (2 Kings 15:13,14) In
B.C. 721 Samaria was taken, after a siege of three years, by Shalmaneser
king of Assyria, (2 Kings 18:9,10) and the kingdom of the ten tribes was
put an end to. Some years afterward the district of which Samaria was the
centre was repeopled by Esarhaddon. Alexander the Great took the city,
killed a large portion of the inhabitants, and suffered the remainder to
set it at Shechem. He replaced them by a colony of Syro-Macedonians who
occupied the city until the time of John Hyrcanus, who took it after a
year's siege, and did his best to demolish it entirely. (B.C. 109.) It was
rebuilt and greatly embellished by Herod the Great. He called it
Sebaste=Augusta, after the name of his patron, Augustus Caesar.
The wall around it was 2 1/2 miles long, and in the centre of the city was
a park 900 feet square containing a magnificent temple dedicated to
Caesar. In the New Testament the city itself does not appear to be
mentioned; but rather a portion of the district to which, even in older
times it had extended its name. (Matthew 10:5; John 4:4,5) At this clay
the city is represented by a small village retaining few vestiges of the
past except its name, Sebustiyeh, an Arabic corruption of Sebaste.
Some architectural remains it has, partly of Christian construction or
adaptation, as the ruined church of St. John the Baptist, partly, perhaps,
traces of Idumaean magnificence, St. Jerome, whose acquaintance with
Palestine imparts a sort of probability to the tradition which prevailed
so strongly in later days, asserts that Sebaste, which he invariably
identifies with Samaria was the place in which St. John the Baptist was
imprisoned and suffered death. He also makes it the burial-place of the
prophets Elisha and Obadiah.


Samaria at first included all the tribes over which Jeroboam made himself
king, whether east or west of the river Jordan. (1 Kings 13:32) But
whatever extent the word might have acquired, it necessarily be came
contracted as the limits of the kingdom of Israel became contracted. In
all probability the territory of Simeon and that of Dan were very early
absorbed in the kingdom of Judah. It is evident from an occurrence in
Hezekiah's reign that just before the deposition and death of Hoshea, the
last king of Israel, the authority of the king of Judah, or at least his
influence, was recognized by portions of Asher, Issachar and Zebulun and
even of Ephraim and Manasseh. (2 Chronicles 30:1-26) Men came from all
those tribes to the Passover at Jerusalem. This was about B.C. 728.
Samaria (the city) and a few adjacent cities or villages only represented
that dominion which had once extended from Bethel to Dan northward, and
from the Mediterranean to the borders of Syria and Ammon eastward. In New
Testament times Sa maria was bounded northward by the range of hills which
commences at Mount Carmel on the west, and, after making a bend to the
southwest, runs almost due east to the valley of the Jordan, forming the
southern border of the plain of Esdraelon. It touched toward the south, is
nearly as possible, the northern limits of Benjamin. Thus it comprehended
the ancient territory of Ephraim and that of Manasseh west of Jordan. The
Cuthaean Samaritans, however, possessed only a few towns and villages of
this large area, and these lay almost together in the centre of the
district. At Nablus the Samaritans have still a settlement, consisting of
about 200 persons. [SHECHEM]


Strictly speaking, a Samaritan would be an inhabitant of the city of
Samaria, but the term was applied to all the people of the kingdom of
Israel. After the captivity of Israel, B.C. 721, and in our Lord's time,
the name was applied to a peculiar people whose origin was in this wise.
At the final captivity of Israel by Shalmaneser, we may conclude that the
cities of Samaria were not merely partially but wholly depopulated of
their inhabitants in B.C. 721, and that they remained in this desolated
state until, in the words of (2 Kings 17:24) "the king of Assyria brought
men from Babylon and front Cuthah, and from Av. (Ivah,) (2 Kings 18:34)
and from Hamath, and front Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of
Samaria instead of the children of Israel and they possessed Samaria, and
dwelt in the cities thereof." Thus the new Samaritans were Assyrians by
birth or subjugation. These strangers, whom we will now assume to hare
been placed in "the cities of Samaria" by Esar-haddon, were of course
idolaters, and worshipped a strange medley of divinities. God's
displeasure was kindled, and they were annoyed by beasts of prey, which
had probably increased to a great extent before their entrance upon the
land. On their explaining their miserable condition to the king of
Assyria, he despatched one of the captive priests to teach them "how they
should fear the Lord." The priest came accordingly, and henceforth, in the
language of the sacred historian, they "Feared the Lord, and served their
graven images, both their children and their children's children: as did
their fathers, so do the unto this day." (2 Kings 17:41) A gap occurs in
their history until Judah has returned from captivity. They then desire to
be allowed to participate in the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem;
but on being refused, the Samaritans throw off the mask, and become open
enemies, frustrate the operations of the Jews through the reigns of two
Persian kings, and are only effectually silenced in the reign of Darius
Hystaspes, B.C. 519. The feud thus unhappily begun grew year by year more
inveterate. Matters at length came to a climax. About B.C. 409, a certain
Manasseh, a man of priestly lineage, on being expelled from Jerusalem by
nehemiah for an unlawful marriage, obtained permission from the Persian
king of his day, Darius Nothus, to build a temple on Mount Gerizim for the
Samaritans, with whom he had found refuge. The animosity of the Samaritans
became more intense than ever. They are sid to have done everything in
their power to annoy the Jews. Their own temple on Gerizim they considered
to be much superior to that at Jerusalem. There they sacrificed a
passover. Toward the mountain, even after the temple on it had fallen,
wherever they were they directed their worship. To their copy of the law
they arrogated an antiquity and authority greater than attached to any
copy in the possession of the Jews. The law (i.e. the five books of Moses)
was their sole code; for they rejected every other book in the Jewish
canon. The Jews, on the other hand, were not more conciliatory in their
treatment of the Samaritans. Certain other Jewish renegades had from time
to time taken refuge with the Samaritans; hence by degrees the Samaritans
claimed to partake of jewish blood, especially if doing so happened to
suit their interest. Very far were the Jews from admitting this claim to
consanguinity on the part of these people. The traditional hatred in which
the jew held the Samaritan is expressed in Ecclus. 50:25,26. Such were the
Samaritans of our Lord's day; a people distinct from the jews, though
lying in the very midst of the Jews; a people preserving their identity,
though seven centuries had rolled away since they had been brought from
Assyria by Esar-haddon, and though they had abandoned their polytheism for
a sort of ultra Mosaicism; a people who, though their limits had gradually
contracted and the rallying-place of their religion on Mount Gerizim had
been destroyed one hundred and sixty years before by John Hyrcanus (B.C.
130), and though Samaria (the city) had been again and again destroyed,
still preserved their nationality still worshipped from Shechem and their
impoverished settlements toward their sacred hill, still retained their
peculiar religion, and could not coalesce with the Jews.


a recension of the commonly received Hebrew text of the Mosaic law, in use
among the Samaritans, and written in the ancient Hebrew or so-called
Samaritan character. The origin of the Samaritan Pentateuch has given rise
to much controversy, into which we cannot here enter. The two most usual
opinions are --

  • That it came into the hands of the Samaritans as an inheritance from
    the ten tribes whom they succeeded.

  • That it was introduced by Manasseh at the time of the foundation of
    the Samaritan sanctuary on Mount Gerizim. It differs in several important
    points from the Hebrew text. Among these may be mentioned --

  • Emendations of passages and words of the Hebrew text which contain
    something objectionable in the eyes of the Samaritans, On account either
    of historical probability or apparent want of dignity in the terms applied
    to the Creator. Thus in the Samaritan Pentateuch no one in the
    antediluvian times begets his first son after he has lived 150 years; but
    one hundred years are, where necessary, subtracted before, and added
    after, the birth of the first son. An exceedingly important and
    often-discussed emendation of this class is the passage in (Exodus 12:40)
    which in our text reads, "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel who
    dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." The Samaritan has "The
    sojourning of the children of Israel [and their fathers who dwelt in
    the Land of Cannaan and in the land of Egypt
    ] was four hundred and
    thirty years;" an interpolation of very late date indeed. Again, in
    (Genesis 2:2) "And God [?] had finished on the seventh day," is altered
    into "the sixth " lest God's rest on the Sabbath day might seem

  • Alterations made in favor of or on behalf of Samaritan theology,
    hermeneutics and domestic worship.


(sword of Nebo), one of the princes or generals of the king of
Babylon. (Jeremiah 39:3)


(garment), (Genesis 36:36,37; 1 Chronicles 1:47,48) one of the
kings of Edom, successor to Hadad or Hadar.


a Greek island off that part of Asia Minor where Ionia touches Caria.
Samos comes before our notice in the detailed account of St. Paul's return
from his third missionary journey. (Acts 20:15)


In the Revised Version for Samothracia.


Mention is made of this island in the account of St. Paul's first voyage
to Europe. (Acts 16:11; 20:6) Being very lofty and conspicuous, it is an
excellent landmark for sailors, and must have been full in view, if the
weather was clear throughout that voyage from Troas to Neapolis.


(like the sun), son of Manoah, a man of the town of Zorah in the
tribe of Dan, on the border of Judah. (Joshua 15:33; 19:41) (B.C. 1161).
The miraculous circumstances of his birth are recorded in Judges 13; and
the three following chapters are devoted to the history of his life and
exploits. Samson takes his place in Scripture, (1) as a judge -- an office
which he filled for twenty years, (Judges 15:20; 16:31) (2) as a Nazarite,
(Judges 13:5; 16:17) and (3) as one endowed with supernatural power by the
Spirit of the Lord. (Judges 13:25; 14:6,19; 15:14) As a judge his
authority seems to have been limited to the district bordering upon the
country of the Philistines. The divine inspiration which Samson shared
with Othniel, Gideon and Jephthah assumed in him the unique form of vast
personal strength, inseparably connected with the observance of his vow as
a Nazarite: "his strength was in his hair." He married a Philistine woman
whom he had seen at Timnath. One day, on his way to that city, he was
attacked by a lion, which he killed; and again passing that way he saw a
swarm of bees in the carcass of the lion, and he ate of the honey, but
still he told no one. He availed himself of this circumstance, and of the
custom of proposing riddles at marriage feasts, to lay a snare for the
Philistines. But Samson told the riddle to his wife and she told it to the
men of the city, whereupon Samson slew thirty men of the city. Returning
to his own house, he found his wife married to another, and was refused
permission to see her. Samson revenged himself by taking 300 foxes (or
rather jackals) and tying them together two by two by the tails, with a
firebrand between every pair of tails, and so he let them loose into the
standing corn of the Philistines, which was ready for harvest, The
Philistines took vengeance by burning Samson's wife and her father; but he
fell hip upon them in return, and smote them with a great slaughter,"
after which he took refuge on the top of the rock of Etam, in the
territory of Judah. The Philistines gathered an army to revenge themselves
when the men of Judah hastened to make peace by giving up Samson, who was
hound with cords, these, however, he broke like burnt flax and finding a
jawbone of an ass at hand, he slew with it a thousand of the Philistines.
The supernatural character of this exploit was confirmed by the miraculous
bursting out of a spring of water to revive the champion as he was ready
to die of thirst. This achievement raised Samson to the position of a
judge, which he held for twenty years. After a time he began to fall into
the temptations which addressed themselves to his strong animal nature;
but he broke through every snare in which he was caught so long as he kept
his Nazarite vow. While he was visiting a harlot in Gaza, the Philistines
shut the gates of the city, intending to kill him in the morning; but at
midnight he went out and tore away the gates, with the posts and bar and
carried them to the top of a hill looking toward Hebron. Next he formed
his fatal connection with Delilah, a woman who lived in the valley of
Sorek. Thrice he suffered himself to be bound with green withes, with new
ropes, but released himself until finally, wearied out with her
importunity, he "told her all his heart," and while he was asleep she had
him shaven of his seven locks of hair. His enemies put out his eyes, and
led him down to Gaza, bound in brazen fetters, and made him grind in the
prison. Then they held a great festival in the temple of Dagon, to
celebrate their victory over Samson. They brought forth the blind champion
to make sport for them, end placed him between the two chief pillars which
supported the roof that surrounded the court. Samson asked the lad who
guided him to let him feel the pillars, to lean upon them. Then, with a
fervent prayer that God would strengthen him only this once, to be avenged
on the Philistines, he bore with all his might upon the two pillars; they
yielded, and the house fell upon the lords and all the people. So the dead
which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life."
In (Hebrews 11:32) his name is enrolled among the worthies of the Jewish


was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, and was born at Ramathaim-zophim, among
the hills of Ephraim. [RAMAH No. 2] (B.C. 1171.) Before his birth he was
dedicated by his mother to the office of a Nazarite and when a young
child, 12 years old according to Josephus he was placed in the temple, and
ministered unto the Lord before Eli." It was while here that he received
his first prophetic call. (1 Samuel 3:1-18) He next appears, probably
twenty years afterward, suddenly among the people, warning them against
their idolatrous practices. (1 Samuel 7:3,4) Then followed Samuel's first
and, as far as we know, only military achievement, ch. (1 Samuel 7:5-12)
but it was apparently this which raised him to the office of "judge." He
visited, in the discharge of his duties as ruler, the three chief
sanctuaries on the west of Jordan -- Bethel, Gilgal and Mizpeh. ch. (1
Samuel 7:16) His own residence was still native city, Ramah, where he
married, and two sons grew up to repeat under his eyes the same perversion
of high office that he had himself witnessed in his childhood in the case
of the two sons of Eli. In his old age he shared his power with them, (1
Samuel 8:1-4) but the people dissatisfied, demanded a king, and finally
anointed under God's direction, and Samuel surrendered to him his
authority, (1 Samuel 12:1) ... though still remaining judge. ch. (1 Samuel
7:15) He was consulted far and near on the small affairs of life. (1
Samuel 9:7,8) From this fact, combined with his office of ruler, an awful
reverence grew up around him. No sacrificial feast was thought complete
without his blessing. Ibid. (1 Samuel 9:13) A peculiar virtue was believed
to reside in his intercession. After Saul was rejected by God, Samuel
anointed David in his place and Samuel became the spiritual father of the
psalmist-king. The death of Samuel is described as taking place in the
year of the close of David's wanderings. It is said with peculiar
emphasis, as if to mark the loss, that "all the Israelites were gathered
together" from all parts of this hitherto-divided country, and "lamented
him," and "buried him" within his own house, thus in a manner consecrated
by being turned into his tomb. (1 Samuel 25:1) Samuel represents the
independence of the moral law, of the divine will, as distinct from legal
or sacerdotal enactments, which is so remarkable a characteristic of all
the later prophets. He is also the founder of the first regular
institutions of religious instructions and communities for the purposes of


are not separated from each other in the Hebrew MSS., and, from a critical
point of view, must be regarded as one book. The present, division was
first made in the Septuagint translation, and was adopted in the Vulgate
from the Septuagint. The book was called by the Hebrews: "Samuel,"
probably because the birth and life of Samuel were the subjects treated of
in the beginning of the work. The books of Samuel commence with the
history of Eli and Samuel, and contain all account of the establishment of
the Hebrew monarchy and of the reigns of Saul and David, with the
exception of the last days of the latter monarch which are related in the
beginning of the books of Kings, of which those of Samuel form the
previous portion. [KINGS, FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF, B00KS OF]
Authorship and date of the book, --

  • As to the authorship. In common with all the historical books of the
    Old Testament, except the beginning of Nehemiah, the book of Samuel
    contains no mention in the text of the name of its author. It is
    indisputable that the title "Samuel" does not imply that the prophet was
    the author of the book of Samuel as a whole; for the death of Samuel is
    recorded in the beginning of the 25th chapter. In our own time the most
    prevalent idea in the Anglican Church seems to have been that the first
    twenty-four chapters of the book of Samuel were written by the prophet
    himself, and the rest of the chapters by the prophets Nathan and Gad.
    This, however, is doubtful.

  • But although the authorship cannot be ascertained with certainty, it
    appears clear that, in its present form it must have been composed
    subsequent to the secession of the ten tribes, B.C. 975. This results from
    the passage in (1 Samuel 27:6) wherein it is said of David, "Then Achish
    gave him Ziklag that day wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of
    Judah to this day:" for neither Saul, David nor Solomon is in a single
    instance called king of Judah simply. On the other hand, it could hardly
    have been written later than the reformation of Josiah, since it seems to
    have been composed at a time when the Pentateuch was not acted on as the
    rule of religious observances, which received a special impetus at the
    finding of the Book of the Law at the reformation of Josiah. All,
    therefore, that can be asserted with any certainty is that the book, as a
    whole, can scarcely have been composed later than the reformation of
    Josiah, and that it could not have existed in its present form earlier
    than the reign of Rehoboam. The book of Samuel is one of the best
    specimens of Hebrew prose in the golden age of Hebrew literature. In prose
    it holds the same place which Joel and the undisputed prophecies of Isaiah
    hold in poetical or prophetical language.


(strength), a Moabite of Horonaim. (Nehemiah 2:10,13; 13:28) He
held apparently some command in Samaria at the time Nehemiah was preparing
to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, B.C. 445, (Nehemiah 4:2) and from the
moment of Nehemiah's arrival in Judea he set himself to oppose every
measure for the welfare of Jerusalem. The only other incident in his life
is his alliance with the high priest's family by the marriage of his
daughter with one of the grandsons of Eliashib; but the expulsion from the
priesthood of the guilty son of Joiada by Nehemiah promptly followed. Here
the scriptural narrative ends.


was the article ordinarily used by the Hebrews for protecting the feet. It
consisted simply of a sole attached to the foot by thongs. We have express
notice of the thong (Authorized Version "shoe latchet") in several
passages, notably (Genesis 14:23; Isaiah 5:27; Mark 1:7) Sandals were worn
by all classes of society in Palestine, even by the very poor; and both
the sandal and the thong or shoe-latchet were so cheap and common that
they passed into a proverb for the most insignificant thing. (Genesis
14:23) Ecclus. 46;13, They were dispensed with in-doors, and were only put
on by persons about to undertake some business away from their homes.
During mealtimes the feet were uncovered. (Luke 7:38; John 13:5,6) It was
a mark of reverence to cast off the shoes in approaching a place or person
of eminent sanctity. (Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15) It was also an indication
of violent emotion, or of mourning, if a person appeared barefoot in
public. (2 Samuel 15:30) To carry or to unloose a person's sandal was a
menial office, betokening great inferiority on the part of the person
performing it. (Matthew 3:11)


(from the Greek sunedrion, "a council-chamber" commonly but in
correctly Sanhedrim), the supreme council of the Jewish people in the time
of Christ and earlier.

  • The origin of this assembly is traced in the Mishna to the
    seventy elders whom Moses was directed, (Numbers 11:16,17) to associate
    with him in the government of the Israelites; but this tribunal was
    probably temporary, and did not continue to exist after the Israelites had
    entered Palestine. In the lack of definite historical information as to
    the establishment of the Sanhedrin, it can only be said in general that
    the Greek etymology of the name seems to point to a period subsequent to
    the Macedonian supremacy in Palestine. From the few incidental notices in
    the New Testament, we gather that it consisted of chief priests, or the
    heads of the twenty-four classes into which the priests were divided,
    elders, men of age and experience, and scribes, lawyers, or those learned
    in the Jewish law. (Matthew 26:57,59; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66; Acts

  • The number of members is usually given as 71. The president of this
    body was styled nasi, and was chosen in account of his eminence in
    worth and wisdom. Often, if not generally, this pre-eminence was accorded
    to the high priest. The vice-president, called in the Talmud "father of
    the house of judgment," sat at the right hand of the president. Some
    writers speak of a second vice-president, but this is not sufficiently
    confirmed. While in session the Sanhedrin sat in the form of

  • The place in which the sessions of the Sanhedrin were ordinarily held
    was, according to the Talmad, a hall called Gazzith, supposed by Lightfoot
    to have been situated in the southeast corner of one of the courts near
    the temple building. In special exigencies, however, it seems to have met
    in the residence of the high priest. (Matthew 26:3) Forty years before the
    destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently while the Saviour was teaching
    in Palestine, the sessions of the Sanhedrin were removed from the hall
    Gazzith to a somewhat greater distance from the temple building, although
    still on Mount Moriah. After several other changes, its seat was finally
    established at tiberias, where it became extinct A.D. 425. As a judicial
    body the Sanhedrin constituted a supreme court, to which belonged in the
    first instance the trial of false prophets, of the high priest and other
    priests, and also of a tribe fallen into idolatry. As an administrative
    council, it determined other important matters. Jesus was arraigned before
    this body as a false prophet, (John 11:47) and Peter, John, Stephen and
    Paul as teachers of error and deceivers of the people. From (Acts 9:2) it
    appears that the Sanhedrin exercised a degree of authority beyond the
    limits of Palestine. According to the Jerusalem Gemara the power of
    inflicting capital punishment was taken away from this tribunal forty
    years before the destruction of Jerusalem. With this agrees the answer of
    the Jews to Pilate. (John 19:31) The Talmud also mentions a lesser
    of twenty-three members in every city in Palestine in which
    were not less than 120 householders.


(palm branch), one of the towns in the south district of Judah,
named in (Joshua 15:31) only.


(tall), one of the sons of the giant slain by Sibbechai the
Hushathite. (2 Samuel 21:18) In (1 Chronicles 20:4) he is called SIPPAI.
(B.C. about 1050.)


(fair), one of the villages addressed by the prophet Micha, (Micah
1:11) is described by Eusebius and jerome as "in the mountain district
between Eleutheropolis and Ascalon," perhaps represented by the village
es-Sawafir, seven or eight miles to the northeast of Ascalon.




(Heb. sappir), a precious stone, apparently of a bright-blue color,
set: (Exodus 24:10) the second stone in the second row of the high
priest's breastplate, (Exodus 28:18) extremely precious, (Job 28:16) it
was one of the precious stones that ornamented the king of Tyre. (Ezekiel
28:13) The sapphire of the ancients was not our gem of that name, viz. the
azure or indigo-blue, crystalline variety of corundum, but our lapis


Greek form of Sarah.



  • The wife and half-sister, (Genesis 20:12) of Abraham, and mother of
    Isaac. Her name is first introduced in (Genesis 11:29) as Sarai. The
    change of her name from Sarai, my princess (i.e. Abraham's), to
    Sarah, princess (for all the race), was made at the same time that Abram's
    name was changed to Abraham, -- on the establishment of the covenant of
    circumcision between him and God. Sarah's history is of course that of
    Abraham. [ABRAHAM] She died at Hebron at the age of 127 years, 28 years
    before her husband and was buried by him in the cave of (B.C. 1860.) She
    is referred to in the New Testament as a type of conjugal obedience in (1
    Peter 3:6) and as one of the types of faith in (Hebrews 11:11)

  • Sarah, the daughter of Asher. (Numbers 26:46)


(my princess) the original name of Sarah wife of Abraham.


(burning) mentioned in (1 Chronicles 4:22) among the descendants of


(red) (Heb. odem) the stone which occupied the first place
in the first row of the high priest's breastplate. (Exodus 28:27) The
sard, which is probably the stone denoted by odem, is a superior
variety of agate, sometimes called camelian, and has long been a favorite
stone for the engraver's art. Sardis differ in color: there is a
bright-red variety, and perhaps the Hebrew odem from a root means
"to be red," points to this kind.


a city of Asia Minor and capital of Lydia, situated about two miles to the
south of the river Hermus, just below the range of Tmolus, on a spur of
which its acropolis was built. It was 60 miles northeast of Smyrna. It was
the ancient residence of the kings of Lydia, among them Croesus,
proverbial for his immense wealth. Cyrus is said to have taken ,000,000
worth of treasure form the city when he captured it, B.C. 548. Sardis was
in very early times, both from the extremely fertile character of the
neighboring region and from its convenient position, a commercial mart of
importance. The art of dyeing wool is said to have been invented there. In
the year 214 B.C. it was taken and sacked by the army of Antiochus the
Great. Afterward it passed under the dominion of the kings of Pergamos.
Its productive soil must always have continued a source of wealth; but its
importance as a central mart appears to have diminished from the time of
the invasion of Asia by Alexander. The massive temple of Cybele still
bears witness in its fragmentary remains to the wealth and architectural
skill of the people that raised it. On the north side of the acropolis,
overlooking the valley of the Hermus, is a theatre near 400 feet in
diameter, attached to a stadium of about 1000. There are still
considerable remains of the ancient city at Sert-Kalessi.
Travellers describe the appearance of the locality as that of complete
solitude. The only passage in which it is mentioned in the Bible is
(Revelation 3:1-6)


descendants of Sered the son of Zebulun. (Numbers 26:26) (In the Revised
Version of (Revelation 4:3) for sardine stone. The name is derived
from Sardis, where the stone was first found.)


a name compounded of sard and onyx, two precious stones,
varieties of chalcedony or agate. The sardonyx combines the qualities of
both, whence its name. It is mentioned only in (Revelation 21:20) The
sardonyx consists of "a white opaque layer, superimposed upon a red
transparent stratum of the true red sard." It is, like the sard, merely a
variety of agate, and is frequently employed by engravers for




(prince of the sea), one of the greatest of the Assyrian kings, is
mentioned by name but once in Scripture -- (Isaiah 20:1) He was the
successor of Shalmaneser, and was Sennacherib's father and his reigned
from B.C. 721 to 702, and seems to have been a usurper. He was undoubtedly
a great and successful warrior. In his annals, which cover a space of
fifteen years, from B.C. 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike
expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east,
Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and
Egypt toward the west and southwest. In B.C. 712 he took Ashdod, by one of
his generals, which is the event which causes the mention of his name in
Scripture. It is not as a warrior only that Sargon deserves special
mention among the Assyrian kings. He was also the builder of useful works,
and of one of the most magnificent of the Assyrian palaces.


(survivor), a chief landmark of the territory of Zebulun. (Joshua
19:10,12) All that can be gathered of its position is that it lay to the
west of Chislothtabor.


the district in which Lydda stood, (Acts 9:35) only; the Sharon of the Old
Testament. [SHARON]


are among the sons of the servants of Solomon who returned with
Zerubbabel. 1 Esd. 6:34.


(prince of the eunuchs), one of the generals of Nebuchadnezzar's
army at the taking of Jerusalem. (Jeremiah 39:3) (B.C. 588.)


(Luke 3:25) Serug the son of Reu.


The word itself, the Hebrew satan, is simply an "adversary," and
is so used in (1 Samuel 29:4; 2 Samuel 19:22; 1 Kings 6:4; 11:14,23,25;
Numbers 22:22,33; Psalms 109:6) This original sense is still found in our
Lord's application of the name to St. Peter in (Matthew 16:23) It is used
as a proper name or title only four times in the Old Testament, vis. (with
the article) in (Job 1:6; 12; 2:1; Zechariah 2:1) and without the article
in (1 Chronicles 21:1) It is with the scriptural revelation on the subject
that we are here concerned; and it is clear, from this simple enumeration
of passages, that it is to be sought in the New rather than in the Old
Testament. I. The personal existence of a spirit of evil is clearly
revealed in Scripture; but the revelation is made gradually, in accordance
with the progressiveness of God's method. In the first entrance of evil
into the world, the temptation is referred only to the serpent. In the
book of Job we find for the first time a distinct mention of "Satan" the
"adversary" of Job. But it is important to remark the emphatic stress laid
on his subordinate position, on the absence of all but delegated power, of
all terror and all grandeur in his character. It is especially remarkable
that no power of spiritual influence, but only a power over outward
circumstances, is attributed to him. The captivity brought the Israelites
face to face with the great dualism of the Persian mythology, the conflict
of Ormuzd with Ahriman, the co-ordinate spirit of evil; but it is
confessed by all that the Satan of Scripture bears no resemblance to the
Persian Ahriman. His subordination and inferiority are as strongly marked
as ever. The New Testament brings plainly forward the power and the
influence of Satan, From the beginning of the Gospel, when he appears as
the personal tempter of our Lord through all the Gospels, Epistles, and
Apocalypse, it is asserted or implied, again and again, as a familiar and
important truth. II. Of the nature and original state of
Satan, little is revealed in Scripture. He is spoken of as a "spirit" in
(Ephesians 2:2) as the prince or ruler of the "demons" in (Matthew
12:24-26) and as having "angels" subject to him in (Matthew 25:41;
Revelation 12:7,9) The whole description of his power implies spiritual
nature and spiritual influence. We conclude therefore that he was of
angelic nature, a rational and spiritual creature, superhuman in power,
wisdom and energy; and not only so, but an archangel, one of the "princes"
of heaven. We cannot, of course, conceive that anything essentially and
originally evil was created by God. We can only conjecture, therefore,
that Satan is a fallen angel, who once had a time of probation, but whose
condemnation is now irrevocably fixed. As to the time cause and manner of
his fall Scripture tells us scarcely anything; but it describes to us
distinctly the moral nature of the evil one. The ideal of goodness is made
up of the three great moral attributes of God -- love, truth, and purity
or holiness; combined with that spirit which is the natural temper of the
finite and dependent we find creature, the spirit of faith. We find,
accordingly, opposites of qualities are dwelt upon as the characteristics
of the devil. III. The power of Satan over the soul is represented
as exercised either directly or by his instruments. His direct influence
over the soul is simply that of a powerful and evil nature on those in
whom lurks the germ of the same evil. Besides this direct influence, we
learn from Scripture that Satan is the leader of a host of evil spirits or
angels who share his evil work, and for whom the "everlasting fire is
prepared." (Matthew 25:41) Of their origin and fall we know no more than
of his. But one passage (Matthew 12:24-26) -- identifies them distinctly
with the "demons" (Authorized Version "devils") who had power to possess
the souls of men. They are mostly spoken of in Scripture in reference to
possession; but in (Ephesians 6:12) find them sharing the enmity to God
and are ascribed in various lights. We find them sharing the enmity to God
and man implied in the name and nature of Satan; but their power and
action are little dwelt upon in comparison with his. But the evil one is
not merely the "prince of the demons;" he is called also the "prince of
this world" in (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11) and even the. "god of this
world" in (2 Corinthians 4:4) the two expressions being united in
(Ephesians 6:12) This power he claimed for himself, as the delegated
authority, in the temptation of our Lord, (Luke 4:6) and the temptation
would have been unreal had he spoken altogether falsely. The indirect
action of Satan is best discerned by an examination of the title by which
he is designated in Scripture. He is called emphatically ho
, "the devil." The derivation of the word in itself implies
only the endeavor to break the bonds between others and "set them at
variance;" but common usage adds to this general sense the special idea of
"setting at variance by slander." In the application of the title to
Satan, both the general and special senses should be kept in view. His
general object is to break the bonds of communion between God and man, and
the bonds of truth and love which bind men to each other. The slander of
God to man is best seen in the words of (Genesis 3:4,5) They attribute
selfishness and jealousy to the Giver of all good. The slander of man to
God is illustrated by the book of Job. (Job 1:9-11; 2:4,5) IV. The
method of satanic action
upon the heart itself. It may be summed up in
two words -- temptation and possession. The subject of temptation is
illustrated, not only by abstract statements, but also by the record of
the temptations of Adam and of our Lord. It is expressly laid down, as in
(James 1:2-4) that "temptation," properly so called, i.e. "trial," is
essential to man, and is accordingly ordained for him and sent to him by
God, as in (Genesis 22:1) It is this tentability of man, even in his
original nature, which is represented in Scripture as giving scope to the
evil action of Satan. But in the temptation of a fallen nature Satan has a
greater power. Every sin committed makes a man the "servant of sin" for
the future, (John 8:34; Romans 6:16) it therefore creates in the spirit of
man a positive tendency to evil which sympathizes with, and aids, the
temptation of the evil one. On the subject of possession, see


(sa’tyr or sat’yr), a sylvan deity or demigod of
Greek mythology, represented as a monster, part man and part goat. (Isaiah
13:21; 34:14) The Hebrew word signifies "hairy" or "rough," and is
frequently applied to "he-goats." In the passages cited it probably refers
to demons of woods and desert places. Comp. (Leviticus 17:7; 2 Chronicles


(desired), more accurately Shaul.

  • One of the early kings of Edom, and successor of Samlah. (Genesis
    36:37,38; 1 Chronicles 1:48) (B.C. after 1450.)

  • The first king of Israel, the son of Kish, and of the tribe of
    Benjamin. (B.C, 1095-1055.) His character is in part illustrated by the
    fierce, wayward, fitful nature of the tribe and in part accounted for by
    the struggle between the old and new systems in which he found himself
    involved. To this we must add a taint of madness. which broke out in
    violent frenzy at times leaving him with long lucid intervals. He was
    remarkable for his strength and activity, (2 Samuel 1:25) and, like the
    Homeric heroes, of gigantic stature, taller by head and shoulders than the
    rest of the people, and of that kind of beauty denoted by the Hebrew word
    "good," (1 Samuel 9:2) and which caused him to be compared to the gazelle,
    "the gazelle of Israel." His birthplace is not expressly mentioned; but,
    as Zelah in Benjamin was the place of Kish's sepulchre. (2 Samuel 21:14)
    it was probable; his native village. His father, Kish, was a powerful and
    wealthy chief though the family to which he belonged was of little
    importance. (1 Samuel 9:1,21) A portion of his property consisted of a
    drove of asses. In search of these asses, gone astray on the mountains, he
    sent his son Saul It was while prosecuting this adventure that Saul met
    with Samuel for the first time at his home in Ramah, five miles north of
    Jerusalem. A divine intimation had made known to him the approach of Saul,
    whom he treated with special favor, and the next morning descending with
    him to the skirts of the town, Samuel poured over Saul's head the
    consecrated oil, and with a kiss of salutation announced to him that he
    was to be the ruler of the nation. (1 Samuel 9:25; 1 Samuel 10:1)
    Returning homeward his call was confirmed by the incidents which according
    to Samuel's prediction, awaited him. (1 Samuel 10:9,10) What may be named
    the public call occurred at Mizpeh, when lots were cast to find the tribe
    and family which was to produce the king, and Saul, by a divine intimation
    was found hid in the circle of baggage which surrounded the encampment. (1
    Samuel 10:17-24) Returning to Gibeah, apparently to private life, he heard
    the threat issued by Nahash king of Ammon against Jabesh-gilead. He
    speedily collected an army, and Jabesh was rescued. The effect was
    instantaneous on the people, and the monarchy was inaugurated anew at
    Gilgal. (1 Samuel 11:1-15) It should be, however, observed that according
    to (1 Samuel 12:12) the affair of Nahash preceded and occasioned the
    election of Saul. Although king of Israel, his rule was at first limited;
    but in the second year of his reign he began to organize an attempt to
    shake off the Philistine yoke, and an army was formed. In this crisis,
    Saul, now on the very confines of his kingdom at Gilgal, impatient at
    Samuel's delay, whom he had directed to be present, offered sacrifice
    himself. Samuel, arriving later, pronounced the first curse, on his
    impetuous zeal. (1 Samuel 13:5-14) After the Philistines were driven back
    to their own country occurred the first appearance of Saul's madness in
    the rash vow which all but cost the life of his soil. (1 Samuel 14:24; 44)
    The expulsion of the Philistines, although not entirely completed, ch. (1
    Samuel 14:52) at once placed Saul in a position higher than that of any
    previous ruler of Israel, and he made war upon the neighboring tribes. In
    the war with Amalek, ch. (1 Samuel 14:48; 15:1-9) he disobeyed the
    prophetical command of Samuel, which called down the second curse, and the
    first distinct intimation of the transference of the kingdom to a rival.
    The rest of Saul's life is one long tragedy. The frenzy which had given
    indications of itself before now at times took almost entire possession of
    him. In this crisis David was recommended to him. From this time forward
    their lives are blended together. [DAVID] In Saul's better moments he
    never lost the strong affection which he had contracted for David.
    Occasionally, too his prophetical gift returned, blended with his madness.
    (2 Samuel 19:24) But his acts of fierce, wild zeal increased. At last the
    monarchy itself broke down under the weakness of his head. The Philistines
    re-entered the country, and just before giving them battle Saul's courage
    failed and he consulted one of the necromancers, the "Witch of Endor," who
    had escaped his persecution. At this distance of time it is impossible to
    determine the relative amount of fraud or of reality in the scene which
    follows, though the obvious meaning of the narrative itself tends to the
    hypothesis of some kind of apparition. ch. (2 Samuel 19:28) On hearing the
    denunciation which the apparition conveyed, Saul fell the whole length of
    his gigantic stature on the ground, and remained motionless till the woman
    and his servants forced him to eat. The next day the battle came on. The
    Israelites were driven up the side of Gilboa. The three sons of Saul were
    slain. Saul was wounded. According to one account, he fell upon his own
    sword, (1 Samuel 31:4) and died. The body on being found by the
    Philistines was stripped slid decapitated, and the headless trunk hung
    over the city walls, with those of his three sons. ch. (1 Samuel 31:9,10)
    The head was deposited (probably at Ashdod) in the temple of Dagon (1
    Chronicles 10:10) The corpse was buried at Jabesh-gilead. (1 Samuel

  • The Jewish name of St. Paul.


Egyptian saws, so far as has yet been discovered, are single-handed. As is
the case in modern Oriental saws, the teeth usually incline toward the
handle, instead of away from it like ours. They have, in most cases,
bronze blades, apparently attached to the handles by leathern thongs. No
evidence exists of the use of the saw applied to stone in Egypt, but we
read of sawn stones used in the temple. (1 Kings 7:9) The saws "under" or
"in" which David is said to have placed his captives were of iron. The
expression in (2 Samuel 12:31) does not necessarily imply torture, but the
word "cut" in (1 Chronicles 20:3) can hardly be understood otherwise.






This word originally meant a rod or staff. It was thence
specifically applied to the shepherd's crook, (Leviticus 27:32; Micah
7:14) and to the wand or sceptre of a ruler. The allusions to it are all
of a metaphorical character, and describe it simply as one of the insignia
of supreme power. (Genesis 49:10) We are consequently unable to describe
the article from any biblical notice we may infer that it was probably
made of wood. The sceptre of the Persian monarch is described as "golden"
i.e. probably of massive gold. (Esther 4:11)


a Jew residing at Ephesus at the time of St. Paul's second visit to that
town. (Acts 19:14-16) (A.D. 52.)


(In the early ages most of the instruction of young children was by the
parents. The leisure hours of the Sabbaths and festival days brought the
parents in constant contact with the children. After the captivity schools
came more into use, and at the time of Christ were very abundant. The
schools were in connection with the synagogues, which were found in every
village of the city and land. Their idea of the value of schools may be
gained from such sayings from the Talmud as "The world is preserved by the
breath of the children in the schools;" "A town in which there are no
schools must perish;" "Jerusalem was destroyed because the education of
children was neglected." Josephus says, "Our principal care is to educate
our children." The Talmud states that in Bechar there were 400 schools,
having each 400 teachers, with 400 children each and that there were 4000
pupils in the house of Rabban Simeon Ben-Gamaliel. Maimonides thus
describes a school: "The teacher sat at the head, and the pupils
surrounded him as the crown the head so that every one could see the
teacher and hear his words. The teacher did not sit in a chair while the
pupils sat on the ground but all either sat on chairs or on the ground."
The children read aloud to acquire fluency. The number of school-hours was
limited, and during the heat of the summer was only four hours. The
punishment employed was beating with a strap, never with a rod. The chief
studies were their own language and literature the chief school-book the
Holy Scriptures; and there were special efforts to impress lessons of
morality and chastity. Besides these they studied mathematics, astronomy
and the natural sciences. Beyond the schools for popular education there
were higher schools or colleges scattered throughout the cities where the
Jews abounded. -- ED.)


(Heb. ’akrab), a well known venomous insect of hot climates,
shaped much like a lobster. It is usually not more than two or three
inches long, but in tropical climates is sometimes six inches in length.
The wilderness of Sinai is especially alluded to as being inhabited by
scorpions at the time of the exodus, and to this day these animals are
common in the same district, as well as in some parts of Palestine.
Scorpions are generally found in dry and in dark places, under stones and
in ruins. They are carnivorous in the habits, and move along in a
threatening attitude, with the tail elevated. The sting, which is situated
at the end of the tail, has at its base a gland that secretes a poisonous
fluid, which is discharged into the wound by two minute orifices at its
extremity. In hot climates the sting often occasions much suffering, and
sometimes alarming symptoms. The "scorpions" of (1 Kings 12:1,14; 2
Chronicles 10:11,14) have clearly no allusion whatever to the animal, but
to some instrument of scourging -- unless indeed the expression is a mere


The punishment of scourging was common among the Jews. The instrument of
punishment in ancient Egypt, as it is also in modern times generally in
the East, was usually the stick, applied to the soles of the feet --
bastinado. Under the Roman method the culprit was stripped, stretched with
cords or thongs on a frame and beaten with rods. (Another form of the
scourge consisted of a handle with three lashes or thongs of leather or
cord, sometimes with pieces of metal fastened to them. Roman citizens were
exempt by their law from scourging.)


(Heb.sopherim), I. Name. -- (1) Three meanings are
connected with the verb saphar, the root of sopherim -- (a)
to write, (b) to set in order, (c) to count. The explanation of the word
has been referred to each of these. The sopherim were so called
because they wrote out the law, or because they classified and arranged
its precepts, or because they counted with scrupulous minuteness every
elapse and letter It contained. (2) The name of Kirjath-sepher, (Joshua
15:15; Judges 1:12) may possibly connect itself with some early use of the
title, and appears to point to military functions of some kind. (Judges
5:14) The men are mentioned as filling the office of scribe under David
and Solomon. (2 Samuel 8:17; 20:25; 1 Kings 4:3) We may think of them as
the king's secretaries, writing his letters, drawing up his decrees,
managing his finances. Comp (2 Kings 12:10) In Hezekiah's time transcribed
old records, and became a class of students and interpreters of the law,
boasting of their wisdom. (Jeremiah 8:8) After the captivity the office
became more prominent, as the exiles would be anxious above all things to
preserve the sacred books, the laws, the hymns, the prophecies of the
past. II. Development of doctrine. -- Of the scribes of this
period, with the exception of Ezra and Zadok, (Nehemiah 13:13) we have no
record. A later age honored them collectively as the men of the Great
Synagogue. Never perhaps, was so important a work done so silently. They
devoted themselves to the careful study of the text, and laid down rules
for transcribing it with the most scrupulous precision. As time passed on
the "words of the scribes" were honored above the law. It was a greater
crime to offend against them than against the law. The first step was
taken toward annulling the commandments of God for the sake of their own
traditions. (Mark 7:13) The casuistry became at once subtle and prurient,
evading the plainest duties, tampering with conscience. (Matthew 15:1-6;
23:16-23) We can therefore understand why they were constantly denounced
by our Lord along with the Pharisees. While the scribes repeated the
traditions of the elders, he "spake as one having authority," "not as the
scribes." (Matthew 7:29) While they confined their teachings to the class
of scholars, he "had compassion on the multitudes." (Matthew 9:36) While
they were to be found only in the council or in their schools, he
journeyed through the cities and villages. (Matthew 4:23; 9:35) etc. While
they spoke of the kingdom of God vaguely, as a thing far off, he
proclaimed that it had already come nigh to men. (Matthew 4:17) In our
Lord's time there were two chief parties:

  • the disciples of Shammai, conspicuous for their fierceness, appealing
    to popular passions, using the sword to decide their controversies. Out of
    this party grew the Zealots.

  • The disciples of Hillel, born B.C. 112, and who may have been one of
    the doctors before whom the boy Jesus came in the temple, for he lived to
    be 120 years old. Hillel was a "liberal conservative, of genial character
    and broad range of thought, with some approximations to a higher
    teaching." In most of the points at issue between the two parties, Jesus
    must have appeared in direct antagonism to the school of Shammai, in
    sympathy with that of Hillel. So far, on the other hand, as the temper of
    the Hillel school was one of mere adaptation to the feeling of the people,
    cleaving to tradition, wanting in the intuition of a higher life, the
    teaching of Christ must have been felt as unsparingly condemning it. III.
    Education and life. -- The special training for a scribe's office
    began, probably, about the age of thirteen. The boy who was destined by
    his parents to the calling of a scribe went to Jerusalem and applied for
    admission in the school of some famous rabbi. After a sufficient period of
    training, probably at the age of thirty the probationer was solemnly
    admitted to his office. After his admission there was a choice of a
    variety of functions, the chances of failure and success. He might give
    himself to any one of the branches of study, or combine two or more of
    them. He might rise to high places, become a doctor of the law, an
    arbitrator in family litigations, (Luke 12:14) the head of a school, a
    member of the Sanhedrin. He might have to content himself with the humbler
    work of a transcriber, copying the law and the prophets for the use of
    synagogues, or a notary, writing out contracts of sale, covenants of
    espousals, bills of repudiation. The position of the more fortunate was of
    course attractive enough. In our Lord's time the passion for distinction
    was insatiable. The ascending scale of rab, rabbi, rabban, presented so
    many steps on the ladder of ambition. Other forms of worldliness were not
    far off. The salutations in the market-place, (Matthew 23:7) the
    reverential kiss offered by the scholars to their master or by rabbis to
    each other the greeting of Abba, father (Matthew 23:9) the long robes with
    the broad blue fringe, (Matthew 23:5) -- all these go to make up the
    picture of a scribe's life. Drawing to themselves, as they did, nearly all
    the energy and thought of Judaism, the close hereditary caste of the
    priesthood was powerless to compete with them. Unless the Priest became a
    scribe also, he remained in obscurity. The order, as such, became
    contemptible and base. For the scribes there were the best places at
    feasts, the chief seats in synagogues. (Matthew 23:6; Luke 14:7)


The Hebrew word thus translated appears in (1 Samuel 17:40) as a synonym
for the bag in which the shepherds of Palestine carried their food or
other necessities. The scrip of the Galilean peasants was of leather, used
especially to carry their food on a journey, and slung over their
shoulders. (Matthew 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; 22:35) The English word
"scrip" is probably connected with scrape, scrap, and was used in like
manner for articles of food.




occurs in (Colossians 3:11) as a generalized term for rude, ignorant,
degraded. The name often included all the nomadic tribes, who dwelt mostly
on the north of the Black and the Caspian Sea, stretching thence
indefinitely into inner Asia, and were regarded by the ancients as
standing extremely low In point of intelligence and civilization.




The sea, yam, is used in Scripture to denote --

  • "The gathering of the waters," "the Ocean." (Genesis 1:2,10; 30:13)

  • Some portion of this, as the Mediterranean Sea, called the "hinder,"
    the "western" and the "utmost" sea, (11:24; 34:2; Joel 2:20) "sea of the
    Philistines," (Exodus 23:31) "the great sea," (Numbers 36:6,7; Joshua
    15:47) "the sea." Genesis49:13; Psal 80:11 Also frequently of the Red Sea.
    (Exodus 15:4) [RED SEA SEA]

  • Inland lakes termed seas, as the Salt or Dead Sea. [See the special

  • Any great collection of waters, as the river Nile (Isaiah 19:5) and
    the Euphrates. (Jeremiah 51:36)


In the place of the laver of the tabernacle Solomon caused a laver to be
cast for a similar purpose, which from its size was called a sea. It was
made partly or wholly of the brass, or rather copper, which was captured
by David from "Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer king of Zobah." (1
Kings 7:23-26; 1 Chronicles 18:8) It is said to have been 15 feet in
diameter and 7 1/2 feet deep, and to have been capable of containing 2000,
or according to (2 Chronicles 4:5) 3000 Baths (16,000 to 24,000 gallons).
The lever stood on twelve oxen three toward each quarter of the heavens,
and all looking outward. It was mutilated by Ahaz by being removed from
its basis of oxen and placed on a stone base, and was finally broken up by
the Assyrians. (2 Kings 16:14,17; 25:13)


the usual and perhaps the most ancient name for the remarkable lake which
to the western world is now generally known as the Dead Sea. I. Names. --
(1) The Salt Sea, (Genesis 14:3) (2) Sea of the Arabah (Authorized Version
"sea of the plain," which is found in (4:49)); (3) The East Sea (Joel
2:20) (4) The sea, (Ezekiel 47:8) (5) Sodomitish Sea, 2 Esdras; (6) Sea of
Salt and Sea of Sodom, in the Talmud; (7) The Asphaltic Lake, in Josephus;
(8) The name "Dead Sea" appears to have been first used in Greek by
Pausanias and Galen, and in Latin (mare mortuum) by Justin xxxvi.
3,6, or rather by the older historian Trogus Pompeius (cir. B.C. 10),
whose work he epitomized. (9) The Arabic name is Bahr Lut, the
"Sea of Lot." II Description. -- The so-called Dead Sea is the
final receptacle of the river Jordan, the lowest and largest of the three
lakes which interrupt the rush of its downward course. It is the deepest
portion of that very deep natural fissure which runs like a furrow from
the Gulf of Akabah to the range of Lebanon, and from the range of Lebanon
to the extreme north of Syria. Viewed on the map, the lake is of an oblong
form, of tolerably regular contour, interrupted only by a large and long
peninsula which projects from the eastern shore near its southern end, and
virtually divides the expanse of the water into two portions, connected by
a long, narrow and somewhat devious passage. Its surface is from north to
south as nearly as possible 40 geographical or 46 English miles long. Its
greatest width is about 9 geographical or 10 1/2 English miles. Its area
is about 250 geographical square miles. At its northern end the lake
receives the stream of the Jordan; on its eastern side the Zurka
(the ancient Callirrhoe, and possibly the more ancient
en-Eglaim), the Mojib (the Arnon of the Bible), and the
Beni-Hemad ; on the south the Kurahy or el-Ahsy ; and
on the west that of Ain Jidy. The depression of its surface, and
the depth which it attains below that surface, combined with the absence
of any outlet, render it one of the most remarkable spots on the globe.
The surface of the lake in May, 1848, was 1316.7 feet below the level of
the Mediterranean at Jaffa. Its depth, at about one third of its length
from the north end, is 1308 feet. The water of the lake is not less
remarkable than its other features. Its most obvious peculiarity is its
great weight. Its specific gravity has been found to be as much as 12.28;
that is to say, a gallon of it would weigh over 12 1/4 lbs., instead of 10
lbs., the weight of distilled water. Water so heavy must not only be
extremely buoyant, but must possess great inertia. Its buoyancy is a
common theme of remark by the travellers who have been upon it or in it.
Dr. Robinson "could never swim before, either in fresh or salt water," yet
here he "could sit, stand, lie or swim without difficulty." (B.R.i.506.)
The remarkable weight of the water is due to the very large quantity of
mineral salts which it holds in solution. Each gallon of the water,
weighing 12 1/4 lbs., contains nearly 3 1/3 lbs. of matter in solution --
an immense quantity when we recollect that seawater, weighing 10 1/4 lbs.
per gallon, contains less than 1/2 a lb. Of this 3 1/2 lbs. nearly 1 lb.
is common salt (chloride of sodium), about 2 lbs. chloride of magnesium,
and less than 3 a lb. chloride of calcium (or muriate of lime). The most
usual ingredient is bromide of magnesium, which exists in truly
extraordinary quantity. It has been long supposed that no life whatever
existed in the lake; but recent facts show that some inferior
organizations do find a home even in these salt and acrid waters. The
statements of ancient travellers and geographers to the effect that no
living creature could exist on the shores of the lake, or bird fly across
its surface, are amply disproved by later travellers. The springs on the
margin of the lake harbor snipe, partridges, ducks, nightingales and other
birds as well as frogs; and hawks, doves and hares are found along the
shore. The appearance of the lake does not fulfill the idea conveyed by
its popular name. "The Dead Sea," says a recent traveller, "did not strike
me with that sense of desolation and dreariness which I suppose it ought.
I thought it a pretty, smiling lake -- a nice ripple on its surface." The
truth lies, as usual, somewhere between these two extremes. On the one
hand, the lake certainly is not a gloomy, deadly, smoking gulf. In this
respect it does not at all fulfill the promise of its name. At sunrise and
sunset the scene must be astonishingly beautiful. But on the other hand,
there is something in the prevalent sterility and the dry, burnt look of
the shores, the overpowering heat, the occasional smell of sulphur, the
dreary salt marsh at the southern end, and the fringe of dead driftwood
round the margin, which must go far to excuse the title which so many ages
have attached to the lake, and which we may be sure it will never lose.
The connection between this singular lake and the biblical history is very
slight. In the topographical records of the Pentateuch and the book of
Joshua it forms one among the landmarks of the boundaries of the whole
country, as well as of the inferior divisions of Judah and Benjamin. As a
landmark it is once named in what to be a quotation from a lost work of
the prophet Jonah, (2 Kings 14:25) itself apparently a reminiscence of the
old Mosaic statement. (Numbers 34:8,12) Besides this the name occurs once
twice in the imagery of the prophets the New Testament there is not even
an allusion to it. There is however, one passage in which the "Salt Sea"
is mentioned in a manner different from any of those already quoted viz.
as having been in the time of Abraham the vale of Siddim. (Genesis 14:3)
In consequence of this passage it has been believed that the present lake
covered a district which in historic times had been permanently habitable
dry land. But it must not he overlooked that the passage in question is
the only one in the whole Bible to countenance the notion that the cities
of the plain were submerged; a notion which does not date earlier than the
Christian era. [SODOM; ZOAR] The belief which prompted the idea of some
modern writers that the Dead Sea was formed by the catastrophe which
overthrew the "cities of the plain" is a mere assumption. It is not only
unsupported by Scripture, but is directly in the teeth of the evidence of
the ground itself of the situation of those cities, we only know that,
being in the "plain of the Jordan, they must have been to the north of the
lake. Of the catastrophe which destroyed them we only know that it is
described as a shower of ignited sulphur descending from the skies. Its
date is uncertain, but we shall be safe in placing it within the Limit of
2000 years before Christ. (It is supposed that only the southern bay of
the Dead Sea was formed by the submergence of the cities of the plain, and
is still probable. If Hugh Miller's theory of the flood in correct -- and
it is the most reasonable theory yet propounded -- then the Dead Sea was
formed by the depression of that part of the valley through which the
Jordan once flowed to the Red Sea. But this great depression caused all
the waters of the Jordan to remain without outlet, and the size of the
Dead Sea must be such that the evaporation from its surface just balances
the amount of water which flows in through the river. This accounts in
part for the amount of matter held in solution by the Dead Sea waters; for
the evaporation is of pure water only, while the inflow contains more or
less of salts and other matter in solution. This theory also renders it
probable that the lake was at first considerably larger than at present,
for in earlier times the Jordan had probably a larger flow of water. --
ED.) The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah may have been by volcanic
action, but it may be safely asserted that no traces of it have yet been
discovered, and that, whatever it was, it can have had no connection with
that far vaster and far more ancient event which opened the great valley
of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and at some subsequent time cut it off
from communication with the Red Sea by forcing up between them the tract
of the Wady Arabah.


The importance attached to seals in the East is so great that without one
no document is regarded as authentic. Among the methods of sealing used in
Egypt at a very early period were engraved stones, graved stones, pierced
through their length and hung by a string or chain from the arm or neck,
or set in rings for the finger. The most ancient form used for this
purpose was the scarabaeus, formed of precious or common stone, or even of
blue pottery or porcelain, on the flat side of which the inscription or
device was engraved. In many cases the seal consisted of a lump of clay,
impressed with the seal and attached to the document, whether of papyrus
or other material, by strings. In other cases wax was used. In sealing a
sepulchre or box, the fastening was covered with clay or wax, and the
impression from a seal of one in authority was stamped upon it, so that it
could not be broken open without discovery. The signet-ring was an
ordinary part of a man's equipment. (Genesis 38:18) The ring or the seal
as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia and elsewhere is mentioned in
(Genesis 41:42; 1 Kings 21:8; Esther 3:10,12; 8:2; Daniel 6:17) and as an
evidence of a covenant, in (Jeremiah 32:10,44; Nehemiah 9:38; 10:1; Haggai
2:23) Engraved signets were in use among the Hebrews in early times.
(Exodus 28:11,36; 39:6)


(pl. Sebaim ; in Authorized Version incorrectly rendered Sabeans)
heads the list of the sons of Cush. Besides the mention of Seba in the
lists of the pens of Cush, (Genesis 10:7; 1 Chronicles 1:9) there are but
three notices of the nation -- (Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 43:3; 45:14) These
passages seem to show that Seba was a nation of Africa bordering on or
included in Cush, and in Solomon's time independent and of political
importance. It may perhaps be identified with the island of Meroe.
Josephus says that Saba was the ancient name of the Ethiopian island and
city of Meroe, but he writes Seba, in the notice of the Noachian
settlements, Sabas. The island of Meroe lay between the Astaboras, the
Atbara, the most northern tributary of the Nile, and the Astapus, the Bahr
el-Azrak, "Blue River," the eastern of its two great confluents.


(a rod). [MONTH]


(thicket), one of the six cities of Judah which were situated in
the Midbar ("wilderness"), that is, the tract bordering on the Dead
Sea. (Joshua 15:61) Its portion is not known.


(the watch-tower), a place mentioned once only -- (1 Samuel 19:22)
-- apparently as lying on the route between Saul's residence, Gibeah, and
Ramah (Ramathaim-zophim), that of Samuel. It was notorious for "the great
well" (or rather cistern) which it contained. Assuming that Saul started
from Gibeah (Tuleil el-Ful), and that Neby Samwil is Ramah,
then Bir Nebolla (the well of Neballa) just south of Beeroth,
alleged by modern traveller to contain a large pit would be in a suitable
position for the great well of Sechu.


(fortunate), a Thessalonian Christian. (Acts 20:4) (A.D. 55.) Seer,



  • The youngest son of Hiel the Hethelite who rebuilt Jericho. (1 Kings
    18:34) (B.C. about 910.)

  • Son of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:21,28) (B.C. about 1682.)


(hairy, Shaggy),

  • We have both "land of Seir," (Genesis 32:3; 36:50) and "Mount Seir."
    (Genesis 14:6) It is the original name of the mountain range extending
    along the east side of the valley of Arabah, from the Dead Sea to the
    Elanitic, Golf. The Horites appear to have been the chief of the
    aboriginal inhabitants, (Genesis 36:20) but it was ever afterward the
    possession of the Edomites, the descendants of Esau. The Mount Seir of
    the: Bible extended much farther south than the modern province, as is
    shown by the words of (2:1-8) It had the Arabah on the west, vs. 1 and 8;
    it extended as far south as the head of the Gulf of Akabah, ver. 8; its
    eastern border ran along the base of the mountain range where the plateau
    of Arabia begins. Its northern, order is not so accurately determined.
    There is a line of "naked" white hills or cliffs which run across the
    great valley about eight miles south of the Dead Sea, the highest eminence
    being Mount Hor, which is 4800 feet high.

  • Mount Seir, an entirely different place from the foregoing; one of the
    landmarks on the north boundary of the territory of Judah. (Joshua 15:10)
    only. It lay westward of Kirjath-jearim, and between it and Beth-shemesh.
    If Kuriel el-Enab be the former and Ain-shems the latter of
    these two, then Mount Seir cannot fail to be the ridge which lies between
    the Wady Aly and the Wady Ghurab. In a pass of this ridge
    is the modern village of Seir.


(the shaggy), the place to which Ehud fled after his murder of
Eglon. (Judges 3:26,27) It was in "Mount Ephraim," ver. 27, a
continuation, perhaps, of the same wooded, shaggy hills which stretched
even so far south as to enter the territory of Judah, (Joshua 15:10) (It
is probably the same place as MOUNT, MOUNT, MOUNTAIN SEIR, 2.)


(the rock), (2 Kings 14:7; Isaiah 16:1) so rendered in the
Authorized Version in Judges city later (2 Chronicles 25:12) probably
known as Petra, the ruins of which are found about two days journey north
of the top of the Gulf of Akabah and three or four south from Jericho and
about halfway between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the northern
end of the Gulf of Akabah. It was in the midst of Mount Seir, in the
neighborhood of Mount Hor, and therefore Edomite territory, taken by
Amaziah, and called Joktheel. In the end of the fourth century B.C. it
appears as the headquarters of the Nabatheans, who successfully resisted
the attacks of Antigonus. About 70 B.C. Petra appears as the residence of
the Arab princes named Aretas. It was by Trajan reduced to subjection to
the Roman empire. The city Petra lay, though at a high level, in a hollow
three quarters of a mile long and from 800 to 1500 feet wide, shut in by
mountain cliffs, and approached only by a narrow ravine, through which,
and across the city's site, the river winds. There are extensive ruins at
Petra of Roman date, which have been frequently described by modern


(the cliff of escapes or of divisions), a rock or cliff in the
wilderness of Maon, southeast of Hebron, the scene of one of those
remarkable escapes which are so frequent in the history of Saul's pursuit
of David. (1 Samuel 23:28)


This word, which is found only in the poetical books of the Old Testament,
occurs seventy-one times in the Psalms and three times in Habakkuk. It is
probably a term which had a meaning in the musical nomenclature of the
Hebrews, though what that meaning may have been is now a matter of pure
conjecture. (Gesenius and Ewald and others think it has much the same
meaning as our interlude, -- a pause in the voices singing, while the
instruments perform alone.)


(exultation), one of the sons of Nadab, a descendant of Jerahmeel:
(1 Chronicles 2:30) (B.C. after 1450.)


(named after its founder, Seleucus), near the mouth of the Orontes, was
practically the seaport of Antioch. The distance between the two towns was
about 16 miles. St. Paul, with Barnabas, sailed from Seleucia at the
beginning of his first missionary circuit. (Acts 13:4) This strong
fortress and convenient seaport was constructed by the first Seleucus, and
here he was buried. It retained its importance in Roman times and in St.
Paul's day it had the privileges of a free city. The remains are


the name of five kings of the Greek dominion of Syria who are hence called
Seleucidae. Only one -- the fourth -- is mentioned in the


(Philopator), son of Antiochus the Great, whom he succeeded B.C.
187 "king of Asia," 2 Macc. 3:3, that is, of the provinces included in the
Syrian monarchy, according to the title claimed by the Seleucidae, even
when they had lost their footing in Asia Minor. He took part in the
disastrous battle of Magnesia, B.C. 190, and three years afterward, on the
death of his father, ascended the throne. He was murdered B.C. 175 after a
reign of twelve years, by Heliodorus, one of his own courtiers. (Daniel
11:20) His son Demetrius I. (Soter) whom he had sent while still a boy, as
hostage to Rome, after a series of romantic adventures, gained the crown
in 162 B.C. 1 Macc. 7:1; 2 Macc. 14:1. The general policy of Seleucus
toward the Jews, like that of his father, 2 Macc. 3:2,3, was conciliatory,
and he undertook a large share of expenses of the temple service. 2 Macc.


SHEM the patriarch. (Luke 3:36)


(Jehovah sustains him) one of the sons of SKEMAIAH, 9. (1
Chronicles 26:7)


(the Greek form of Shimei).

  • SHIMEI, 14. 1 Esd. 9:33.

  • SHIMEI, 16. (Esther 11:2)

  • The father of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Luke


In the Revised Version of (Luke 3:26) for Semei.




(thorny). The "children (i.e. the inhabitants) of Senaah" are
enumerated among the "people of Israel" who returned from the captivity
with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:35; Nehemiah 7:38) (B.C. 536.) The Magdal Senna
of Eusebius and Jerome denotes a town seven miles north of Jericho


(thorn), the name of one of the two isolated rocks which stood in
the "passage of Michmash," (1 Samuel 14:4) 6 1/2 Miles north of


(snow mountain), (1 Chronicles 5:23; Ezekiel 27:5) the Amorite name
for Mount Hermon.


(sin, the moon, increases brothers), was the son and
successor of Sargon. [SARGON] His name in the original is read as
Tsinakki-irib, the meaning of which, as given above indicates that
he was not the first-born of his father. Sennacherib mounted the throne
B.C. 702. His efforts were directed to crushing the revolt of Babylonia,
which he invaded with a large army. Merodach-baladan ventured on a battle,
but was defeated and driven from the country. In his third year, B.C. 700,
Sennacherib turned his arms toward the west, chastised Sidon, and, having
probably concluded a convention with his chief enemy finally marched
against Hezekiah, king of Judah. It was at this time that "Sennacherib
came up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them." (2 Kings
18:13) There can be no doubt that the record which he has left of his
campaign against "Hiskiah" in his third year is the war with Hezekiah so
briefly touched in vs. 13-16 of this chapter. In the following year (B.C.
699) Sennacherib made his second expedition into Palestine. Hezekiah had
again revolted, and claimed the protection of Egypt. Sennacherib therefore
attacked Egypt, and from his camp at Lachish and Libnah he sent an
insulting letter to Hezekiah at Jerusalem. In answer to Hezekiah's prayer
an event occurred which relieved both Egypt and Judea from their danger.
In one night the Assyrians lost, either by a pestilence or by some more
awful manifestation of divine power, 185,000 men! The camp immediately
broke up; the king fled. Sennacherib reached his capital in safety, and
was not deterred by the terrible disaster which had befallen his arms from
engaging in other wars, though he seems thenceforward to have carefully
avoided Palestine. Sennacherib reigned 22 years and was succeeded by
Esar-haddon, B.C. 680. Sennacherib was one of the most magnificent of the
Assyrian kings. Seems to have been the first who fixed the seat of
government permanently at Nineveh, which he carefully repaired and adorned
with splendid buildings. His greatest work is the grand palace Kouyunjik.
Of the death of Sennacherib nothing is known beyond the brief statement of
Scripture that "as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god,
Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword and escaped
into the land of Armenia." (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38)


(bristling, properly Hassenuah, with the definite article), a
Benjamite. (Nehemiah 11:9)


(barley), the chief of the fourth of the twenty-four courses of
priests. (1 Chronicles 24:8)


(a numbering). It is written after the enumeration of the sons of
Joktan, "And their dwelling was from Mesha as thou goest unto Sephar a
mount of the east." (Genesis 10:30) The Joktanites occupied the
southwestern portion of the peninsula of Arabia. The undoubted
identifications of Arabian places and tribes with their Joktanite
originals are included within these limits, and point to Sephar, on the
shore of the Indian Ocean, as the eastern boundary. The ancient seaport
town called Zafar represents the biblical site or district.


(separated), a name which occurs in (Obadiah 1:20) only. Its
situation has always been a matter of uncertainty.


(the two Sipparas) is mentioned by Sennacherib in his letter to
Hezekiah as a city whose king had been unable to resist the Assyrians. (2
Kings 19:13; Isaiah 37:13) comp. 2Kin 18:34 It is identified with the
famous town of Sippara., on the Euphrates above Babylon, which was near
the site of the modern Mosaib. The dual form indicates that there were two
Sipparas, one on either side of the river. Berosus celled Sippara "a city
of the sun;" and in the inscriptions it bears the same title, being called
Tsipar sha Shamas, or "Sippara of the Sun" -- the sun being the
chief object of worship there. Comp. (2 Kings 17:31)


the Greek form of the ancient word has-Shefelah, the native name
for the southern division of the low-lying flat district which intervenes
between the central highlands of the holy land and the Mediterranean, the
other and northern portion of which was known as Sharon. The name occurs
throughout the topographical records of Joshua. The historical works, and
the topographical passages in the prophets always with the article
prefixed, and always denoting the same region. In each of these passages,
however, the word is treated in the Authorized Version not as a proper
name, analogous to the Campagna, the Wolds, the Carse, but as a
mere appellative, and rendered "the vale," "the valley," "the plain," "the
low plains," and "the low country." The Shefelah was and is one of the
most productive regions of the holy land. It was in ancient times the
cornfield of Syria, and as such the constant subject of warfare between
Philistines and Israelites, and the refuge of the latter when the harvests
in the central country were ruined by drought. (2 Kings 8:1-3)


(The seventy). The Septuagint or Greek version of the Old Testament
appears at the present day in four principal editions: --

  • Biblia Polyglotta Complutensis, A.D. 1514-1617,

  • The Aldine Edition, Venice, A.D. 1518.

  • The Roman Edition, edited under Pope Sixtus V., A.D. 1587.

  • Fac-simile Edition of the Codex Alexandrinus, by H. H. Baber, A.D.
    1816. [TARGUMS] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge
    of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar language was
    Alexandrian Greek. They had settled in Alexandria in large numbers soon
    after the time of Alexander, and under the early Ptolemies. They would
    naturally follow the same practice as the Jews in Palestine; and hence
    would arise in time an entire Greek version. But the numbers and names of
    the translators, and the times at which different portions were translated
    are all uncertain. The commonly-received story respecting its origin is
    contained in an extant letter ascribed to Aristeas, who was an officer at
    the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus. This letter which is dressed by
    Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, gives a glowing account of the origin
    of the Septuagint; of the embassy and presents sent by King Ptolemy to the
    high priest at Jerusalem, by the advice of Demetrius Phalereus, his
    librarian, 30 talents of gold and 70 talents of silver, etc.; the Jewish
    slaves whom he set free, paying their ransom himself the letter of the
    king: the answer of the high priest; the choosing of six interpreters from
    each of the twelve tribes and their names; the copy of the law, in letters
    of gold; the feast prepared for the seventy two, which continued for seven
    days; the questions proposed to each of the interpreters in turn, with the
    answers of each; their lodging by the seashore and the accomplishment of
    their work in seventy. two days, by conference and comparison. This is the
    story which probably gave to the version the title of the Septuagint, and
    which has been repeated in various forms by the Christian writers. But it
    is now generally admitted that the letter is spurious and is probably the
    fabrication of an Alexandrian Jew shortly before the Christian era. Still
    there can be no doubt that there was a basis of fact for the fiction; on
    three points of the story there is no material difference of opinion and
    they are confirmed by the study of the version itself: --

  • The version was made at Alexandria.

  • It was begun in the time of the earlier Ptolemies, about 280 B.C.

  • The law (i.e. the Pentateuch) alone was translated at first. The
    Septuagint version was highly esteemed by the Hellenistic Jews before the
    coming of Christ. Wherever, by the conquests of Alexander or by
    colonization, the Greek language prevailed wherever Jews were settled and
    the attention of the neighboring Gentiles was drawn to their wondrous
    history and law there was found the Septuagint, which thus became, by
    divine Providence the means of spreading widely the knowledge of the one
    true God and his promises of it Saviour to come, throughout the nations.
    To the wide dispersion of this version we may ascribe in great measure
    that general persuasion which prevailed over the whole East of the near
    approach of the Redeemer, and led the Magi to recognize the star which,
    reclaimed the birth of the King of the Jews. Not less wide was the
    influence of the Septuagint in the spread of the gospel. For a long period
    the Septuagint was the Old Testament of the far larger part of the
    Christian Church. Character of the Septuagint. The Septuagint is faithful
    in substance but not minutely accurate in details. It has been clearly
    shown by Hody, Frankel and others that the several books were translated
    by different persons, without any comprehensive revision to harmonize the
    several parts. Names and words are rendered differently in different
    books. Thus the character of the version varies much in the several books,
    those of the Pentateuch are the best. The poetical parts are, generally
    speaking, inferior to the historical, the original abounding with rarer
    words and expressions. In the major prophets (probably translated nearly
    100 years after the Pentateuch) some of the most important prophecies are
    sadly obscured. Ezekiel and the minor prophets (generally speaking) seem
    to be better rendered. Supposing the numerous glosses and duplicate
    renderings, which have evidently crept from the margin into the text, to
    be removed and forming a rough estimate of what the Septuagint was in its
    earliest state, we may perhaps say of it that it is the image of the
    original seen through a glass not adjusted to the proper focus; the larger
    features are shown, but the sharpness of definition is lost. The close
    connection between the Old and the New Testament makes the study of the
    Septuagint most valuable, and indeed indispensable, to the theological
    student. It was manifestly the chief storehouse from which the apostles
    drew their proofs and precepts.




the daughter of Asher, (Genesis 46:17; 1 Chronicles 7:30) called in
(Numbers 26:46) SARAH. (B.C. about 1700.)


  • The king's scribe or secretary in the reign of David. (2 Samuel 8:17)
    (B.C. 1043.)

  • The high priest in the reign of Zedekiah. (2 Kings 25:18; 1 Chronicles
    6:14; Jeremiah 52:24) (B.C. 594.)

  • The son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite. (2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah

  • The son of Kenaz and brother of Othniel. (1 Chronicles 4:13,14)

  • Ancestor of Jehu a Simeonite chieftain. (1 Chronicles 4:35)

  • One of the children of the province who returned with Zerubbabel.
    (Ezra 2:2) (B.C. 536.)

  • One of the ancestors of Ezra the scribe. (Ezra 7:1)

  • A priest, or priestly family, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:2)

  • A priest, the son of Hilkiah. (Nehemiah 11:11)

  • The head of a priestly house which went up from Babylon with
    Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:12)

  • The son of Neriah and brother of Baruch. (Jeremiah 51:59,61) He went
    with Zedekiah to Babylon in the fourth year of his reign. (B.C. 594.)
    Perhaps he was an officer who took charge of the royal caravan on its
    march, and fixed the places where it should halt.


(burning, glowing), an order of celestial beings, whom Isaiah
beheld in vision standing above Jehovah as he sat upon his throne. (Isaiah
6:2) They are described as having each of them three pairs of wings, with
one of which they covered their faces (a token of humility); with the
second they covered their feet (a token of respect); while with the third
they flew. They seem to have borne a general resemblance to the human
figure. ver. 6. Their occupation was two fold to celebrate the praises of
Jehovah's holiness and power, ver. 3 and to act as the medium of
communication between heaven and earth. ver. 6.


(fear), the first-born of Zebulun. (Genesis 46:14; Numbers 26:26)
about 1700.)


was the proconsul of Cyprus when the apostle Paul visited that island with
Barnabas on his first missionary tour. (Acts 13:7) seq. (A.D. 44.) He is
described as an intelligent man, truth-seeking, eager for information from
all sources within his reach. Though at first admitting to his society
Elymas the magician, he afterward, on becoming acquainted with the claims
of the gospel, yielded his mind to the evidence of its truth.


The Hebrew word nachash is the generic name of any serpent. The
following are the principal biblical allusions to this animal its subtlety
is mentioned in (Genesis 3:1) its wisdom is alluded to by our Lord in
(Matthew 10:18) the poisonous properties of some species are often
mentioned, see (Psalms 58:4; Proverbs 25:32) the sharp tongue of the
serpent is mentioned in (Psalms 140:3; Job 20:16) the habit serpents have
of lying concealed in hedges and in holes of walls is alluded to in
(Ecclesiastes 10:8) their dwelling in dry sandy places, in (8:10) their
wonderful mode of progression did not escape the observation of the author
of (Proverbs 30:1) ... who expressly mentions it as "one of the three
things which were too wonderful for him." ver. 19. The art of taming and
charming serpents is of great antiquity, and is alluded to in (Psalms
58:5; Ecclesiastes 10:11; Jeremiah 8:17) and doubtless intimated by St.
James, (James 3:7) who particularizes serpents among all other animals
that "have been tamed by man." It was under the form of a serpent that the
devil seduced Eve; hence in Scripture Satan is called "the old serpent."
(Revelation 12:9) and comp. 2Cor 11:3 Hence, as a fruit of the tradition
of the Fall, the serpent all through the East became the emblem of the
spirit of evil, and is so pictured even on the monuments of Egypt. It has
been supposed by many commentators that the serpent, prior to the Fall,
moved along in an erect attitude. It is quite clear that an erect mode of
progression is utterly incompatible with the structure of a serpent;
consequently, had the snakes before the Fall moved in an erect attitude
they must have been formed on a different plan altogether. The typical
form of the serpent and its mode of progression were in all probability
the same before: the Fall as after it; but subsequent to the Fall its form
and progression were to be regarded with hatred and disgust by all
mankind, and thus the animal was cursed above all cattle," and a mark of
condemnation was forever stamped upon it. Serpents are said in Scripture
to "eat dust," see (Genesis 3:14; Isaiah 65:25; Micah 7:17) these animals
which for the most part take their food on the ground, do consequently
swallow with it large portions of sand and dust. Throughout the East the
serpent was used as an emblem of the evil principle, of the spirit of
disobedience and contumacy. Much has been written on the question of the
"fiery serpents" of (Numbers 21:6,8) with which it is usual to erroneously
identify the "fiery flying serpent" of (Isaiah 14:29) and Isai 30:6 The
word "fiery" probably signifies "burning," in allusion to the sensation
produced by the bite. The Cerastes, or the Naia haje, or
any other venomous species frequenting Arabia, may denote the "serpent of
the burning bite" which destroyed the children of Israel. The snake that
fastened on St. Paul's hand when he was at Melita, (Acts 28:5) was
probably the common viper of England, Pelias berus. (See also
ADDER; ASP] When God punished the murmurs of the Israelites in the
wilderness by sending among them serpents whose fiery bite was fatal,
Moses, upon their repentance, was commanded to make a serpent of brass,
whose polished surface shone like fire, and to set it up on the
banner-pole in the midst of the people; and whoever was bitten by a
serpent had but to look up at it and live. (Numbers 21:4-9) The comparison
used by Christ, (John 3:14,15) adds a deep interest to this scene. To
present the serpent form, as deprived of its power to hurt, impaled as the
trophy of a conqueror was to assert that evil, physical and spiritual, had
been overcome, and thus help to strengthen the weak faith of the
Israelites in a victory over both. Others look upon the uplifted serpent
as a symbol of life and health, it having been so worshipped in Egypt. The
two views have a point of contact, for the serpent is wisdom.
Wisdom, apart from obedience to God, degenerates to cunning, and degrades
and envenoms man's nature. Wisdom, yielding to the divine law, is the
source of healing and restoring influences, and the serpent form thus
became a symbol of deliverance and health; and the Israelites were taught
that it would be so with them in proportion as they ceased to be sensual
and rebellious. Preserved as a relic, whether on the spot of its first
erection or elsewhere the brazen serpent, called by the name of
Nehushtan, became an object of idolatrous veneration, and the zeal
of Hezekiah destroyed it with the other idols of his father. (2 Kings


(branch), son of Reu and great grandfather of Abraham. His age is
given in the Hebrew Bible as 230 years. (Genesis 11:20-23) (B.C.




(compensation), (Genesis 4:25; 6:3; 1 Chronicles 1:1) the third son
of Adam, and father of Enos. (B.C. 3870.) Adam handed down to Seth and his
descendants the promise of mercy, faith in which became the distinction of
God's children. (Genesis 4:26)


(hidden), the Asherite spy, son of Michael. (Numbers 13:13) (B.C.


The frequent recurrence of certain numbers in the sacred literature of the
Hebrews is obvious to the most superficial reader, but seven so far
surpasses the rest, both in the frequency with which it recurs and in the
importance of the objects with which it is associated, that it may fairly
be termed the representative symbolic number. The influence of the
number seven was not restricted to the Hebrews; it prevailed among the
Persians, ancient Indians, Greeks and Romans. The peculiarity of the
Hebrew view consists in the special dignity of the seventh, and not simply
in that of seen. The Sabbath being the seventh day suggested the adoption
of seven as the coefficient, so to say, for their appointment of all
sacred periods; and we thus find the 7th month ushered in by the Feast of
Trumpets, and signalized by the celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles
and the Great Day of Atonement; 7 weeks as the interval between the
Passover and the Pentecost; the 7th year as the sabbatical year; and the
year: succeeding 7X7 years as the Jubilee year. Seven days were appointed
as the length of the feasts of Passover and Tabernacles; 7 days for the
ceremonies of the consecration of priests, and so on; 7 victims to be
offered on any special occasion, as in Balaam's sacrifice. (Numbers 23:1)
and especially at the ratification of a treaty, the notion of seven being
embodied in the very term signifying to swear, literally meaning to do
seven times. (Genesis 31:28) Seven is used for any round number, or for
completeness, as we say a dozen, or as a speaker says he will say two or
three words.


(home of foxes), a town in the allotment of Dan. (Joshua 19:42;
Judges 1:35; 1 Kings 4:9) By Eusebius and Jerome it is mentioned in the
Onomasticon as a large village in the district of Sebaste (i.e. Samaria),
and as then called Selaba.


Eliahba the Shaalbonite was one of David's thirty seven heroes. (2 Samuel
23:32; 1 Chronicles 11:33) He was a native of a place named Shaalbon, but
where it was is unknown. (B.C. 1048.)



  • The son of Jahdai. (1 Chronicles 2:47)

  • The son of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel, by his concubine Maachah.
    (1 Chronicles 2:49) (B.C. after 1445.)


(two gates), a city in the territory allotted to Judah, (Joshua
15:36) in Authorized Version incorrectly Sharaim. (1 Samuel 17:52)
Shaaraim one of the towns of Simeon, (1 Chronicles 4:31) must be a
different place.


(servant of the beautiful), the eunuch in the palace of Xerxes who
had the custody of the women in the second house. (Esther 2:14)


(sabbatical) a Levite in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:15) It is
apparently the same who with Jeshua and others instructed the people in
the knowledge of the law. (Nehemiah 8:7) (B.C. 450.)


(announcemant) a son of Shaharaim by his wife Hodesh. (1 Chronicles


(the Mighty), an ancient name of God, rendered "Almighty"
everywhere in the Authorized Version, is found in connection with
el, "God," El Shaddai being then rendered "God Almighty." By the
name or in the character of El-Shaddai God was known to the patriarchs,
(Genesis 17:1; 28:3; 43:14; 48:3; 40:25) before the name Jehovah, in its
full significance, was revealed. (Exodus 6:3) [GOD]


(royal, or the great scribe) the Hebrew, or rather Chaldee,
name of Hananiah. The history of Shadrach or Hananiah, as told in Dani 1-3
is well known. After their deliverance from the furnace, we hear no more
of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, except in (Hebrews 11:33,34) but there
are repeated allusions to them in the later apocryphal books, and the
martyrs of the Maccabaean period seem to have been much encouraged by
their example.


(erring), father of Jonathan the Hararite, one of David's guard. (1
Chronicles 11:34) [See SHAMMAH, 5] (B.C. about 1050.)


(double dawn) a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:8) (B.C. about


(toward the heights), one of the towns of the allotment of
Issachar. (Joshua 10:22) only.


(safe). (Genesis 33:18) Probably not a proper name, but a place. It
is certainly remarkable that there should be a modern village hearing the
name of Salim three miles east of Nablus, the ancient Shechem.


(the land of foxes), a district through which Saul passed on his
journey in quest of his father's asses. (1 Samuel 9:4) only. It probably
was east of Shalisha.


one of the districts traversed by Saul when in search of the asses of
Kish. (1 Samuel 9:4) only. It was a district near Mount Ephraim. In it
perhaps was situated the place called Baal-shalisha, (2 Kings 4:42) 15
Miles north of Lydda.


(overthrow), The gate, one of the gates of the "house of
Jehovah." (1 Chronicles 26:16) It was the gate "to the causeway of the
ascent." As the causeway is actually in existence, the gate Shallecheth
can hardly fail to be identical with the Bab Silsileh or
Sinsleh which enters the west wall of the Haram about 600 feet from
the southwest corner of the Haram wall.



  • The fifteenth king of Israel, son of Jabesh, conspired against
    Zachariah, killed him, and brought the dynasty of Jehu to a close, B.C.
    770. Shallum, after reigning in Samaria for a month only, was in his turn
    dethroned and killed by Menahem. (2 Kings 15:10-14)

  • The husband of Huldah the prophetess, (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chronicles
    34:23) in the reign of Josiah. (B.C. 830.)

  • A descendant of Shesham. (1 Chronicles 2:40,41)

  • The third son of Josiah king of Judah, known in the books of Kings and
    Chronicles as Jehoahaz. (1 Chronicles 3:15; Jeremiah 22:11) [JEHOAHAZ]
    (B.C. 610.)

  • Son of Shaul the son of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:25)

  • A high priest. (1 Chronicles 6:12,13; Ezra 7:2)

  • A son of Naphtali. (1 Chronicles 7:13)

  • The chief of a family of porters or gate-keepers of the east gate of
    the temple. (1 Chronicles 9:17) (B.C. 1050.)

  • Son of Kore, a Korahite. (1 Chronicles 9:19,31)

  • Father of Jehizkiah, an Ephraimite. (2 Chronicles 28:12)

  • One of the porters of the temple who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra

  • One of the sons of Bani. (Ezra 10:42)

  • The son of Halohesh and ruler of a district of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah

  • The uncle of Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 32:7) perhaps the same as 2.

  • Father or ancestor of Maaseiah (Jeremiah 35:4) perhaps the same as 9.
    (B.C. 630.)


(retribution), the son of Cohozeh, and ruler of a district of the
Mizpah. (Nehemiah 3:15)


(my thanks). The children of Shalmai were among the Nethinim who
returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:46; Nehemiah 7:48) In Nehemiah SALMAI.
(B.C. 536.)


(fire-worshipper), a contraction for Shalmaneser king of Assyria.
(Hosea 10:14) Others think it the name of an obscure Assyrian king,
predecessor of Pul.


(fire-worshipper) was the Assyrian king who reigned probably
between Tiglath-Pileser and Sargon, B.C. 727-722. He led the forces of
Assyria into Palestine, where Hoshea, the last king of Israel, had
revolted against his authority. (2 Kings 17:3) Hoshea submitted and
consented to pay tribute; but he soon after concluded all alliance with
the king of Egypt, and withheld his tribute in consequence. In B.C. 723
Shalmaneser invaded Palestine for the second time, and, as Hoshea refused
to submit, laid siege to Samaria. The siege lasted to the third year, B.C.
721, when the Assyrian arms prevailed. (2 Kings 17:4-6; 18:9-11) It is
uncertain whether Shalmaneser conducted the siege to its close, or whether
he did not lose his crown to Sargon before the city was taken.


(obedient), one of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:44) (B.C.


(kept by Jehovah), son of Rehoboam. (2 Chronicles 11:19)


(keeper), properly Shamer or Shemer; one of the pens of Elpaal the
Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:12)



  • Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:46)

  • Shomer, an Asherite. (1 Chronicles 7:34)


(sword), son of Anath, judge of Israel. When Israel was in a most
depressed condition, Shamgar was raised up to be a deliverer. With no arms
in his hand but an ox-goad, (Judges 3:31) comp. 1Sam 13:21 He made a
desperate assault upon the Philistines, and slew 600 of them. (B.C. about


(desolation), the fifth captain for the fifth month in David's
arrangement of his army. (1 Chronicles 27:8) (B.C. 1020.)


(n point or thorn.)

  • A town in the mountain district of Judah. (Joshua 15:48) only. It
    probably lay some eight or ten miles south of Hebron.

  • A place in Mount Ephraim, the residence and burial-place of Tola the
    judge. (Judges 10:1,2) Perhaps Samur, half-way between Samaria and

  • A Kohathite, son of Micah or Michal, the first-born of Uzziel. (1
    Chronicles 24:24)


(astonishment), one of the sons of Zophar, an Asherite. (1
Chronicles 7:37)



  • The son of Reuel the son of Esau. (Genesis 36:13,17; 1 Chronicles
    1:37) (B.C. about 1700.)

  • The third son of Jesse, and brother of David. (1 Samuel 16:9; 17:13)
    Called also Shimea., Shimeah and Shimma.

  • One of the three greatest of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:11-17)
    (B.C. 1061.)

  • The Harodite, one of David's mighties. (2 Samuel 23:25) He is called
    "SHAMMOTH the Harorite" in (1 Chronicles 11:27) and "SHAMHUTH the
    Izrahite" ibid. (1 Chronicles 27:8)

  • In the list of David's mighty men in (2 Samuel 23:32,33) we find
    "Jonathan, Shammah the Hararite;" while in the corresponding verse of (1
    Chronicles 11:34) it is Jonathan.



  • The son of Onam. (1 Chronicles 2:28,32)

  • Son of Rekem. (1 Chronicles 2:44,45)

  • One of the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:17)





  • Reubenite spy, son of Zaccur. (Numbers 13:4) (B.C. 1490.)

  • Son of David, by his wife Bathsheba. (1 Chronicles 14:4) (B.C.

  • A Levite, the father of Abda. (Nehemiah 11:17) The same as SHEMAIAH,

  • The representative of the priestly family of Bilgah or Bilgai, in the
    days of Joiakim. (Nehemiah 12:18) (B.C. about 500.)


son of David, (2 Samuel 5:14) elsewhere called Shammua and Shimea.


(sunlike), a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:26)


(bold), a Gadite of Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:12) (B.C. 750.)


(coney), the scribe or secretary of King Josiah. (2 Kings 22:3,14;
2 Chronicles 34:8,20) (B.C. 628.) He appears on an equality with the
governor of the city and the royal recorder. (2 Kings 22:4; 2 Chronicles


(judge). 1.The Simeonite spy, son of Hori. (Numbers 13:5) (B.C.

  • The father of the prophet Elisha. (1 Kings 19:18,19; 2 Kings 3:11;
    6:31) (B.C. before 900.)

  • One of the six sons of Shemaiah in the royal line of Judah. (1
    Chronicles 3:22) (B.C. 350.)

  • One of the chiefs of the Gadites in Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:12) (B.C.

  • The son of Adlai, who was over David's oxen in the valleys. (1
    Chronicles 27:29) (B.C. 1020.)


(brightness), Mount, (Numbers 33:23) the name of a desert station
where the Israelites encamped during the wanderings in the wilderness.


(releaser), one of the sons of Bani. (Ezra 10:40) (B.C. 457.)




(strong), the father of Ahiam the Hararite. (2 Samuel 23:33) In (1
Chronicles 11:35) he is called SACAR. (B.C. 1040.)


(prince of fire) was a son of Sennacherib, whom, In conjunction
with his brother Adrammelech, he murdered. (2 Kings 19:37) (B.C. after


(a plain), a district of the holy land occasionally referred to in
the Bible. (1 Chronicles 5:16; Isaiah 33:9) In (Acts 9:35) called SARON.
The name has on each occurrence with one exception only, (1 Chronicles
5:16) the definite article; it would therefore appear that "the Sharon"
was some well-defined region familiar to the Israelites. It is that broad,
rich tract of land which lies between the mountains of the central part of
the holy land and the Mediterranean -- the northern continuation of the
Shefelah. [PALESTINA AND PALESTINE] The Sharon of (2 Chronicles 5:16) to
which allusion has already been made, is distinguished front the western
plain by not having the article attached to its name, as the other
invariably has. It is also apparent from the passage itself that it was
some district on the east of the Jordan, in the neighborhood of Gilead and
Bashan. The name has not been met with in that direction.


(belonging to Sharon), The Shitrai, who had charge of the royal
herds in the plain of Sharon, (1 Chronicles 27:29) is the only Sharonite
mentioned in the Bible.


(refuge of grace), a town named in (Joshua 19:6) only among those
which were in Jadah to Simeon. It is identified with Sheriah a large ruin
in the south country, northwest of Beersheba.


(noble), one of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:40)
(B.C. 457.)


(longing), a Benjamite, one of the sons of Beriah. (1 Chronicles
8:14,25) (B.C. after 1450.)



  • The son of Simeon by a Canaanitish woman, (Genesis 48:10; Exodus 6:15;
    Numbers 26:13; 1 Chronicles 4:24) and founder of the family of the
    Shaulites. (B.C. 1712.)

  • One of the kings of Edom. (1 Chronicles 1:48,49) In the Authorized
    Version of (Genesis 36:37) he is less accurately called SAUL.


(plain), The valley of, described (Genesis 14:17) as "the
valley of the king," is mentioned again in (2 Samuel 18:18) as the site of
a pillar set up by Absalom.


(plain of the double city), mentioned (Genesis 14:5) as the
residence of the Emim at the time of Chedorlaomer's incursion. Kiriathaim
is named in the later history, though it has not been identified; and
Shaveh Kiriathaim was probably the valley in or by which the town lay.


(nobility), the royal secretary in the reign of David, (1
Chronicles 18:16) called also SERAIAH in (2 Samuel 8:17) And SHEVA in (2
Samuel 20:25) End in (1 Kings 4:3) SHISHA.


In the Prayer-book version of (Psalms 98:6) "with trumpets also stands
also and shawms " is the rendering of what stands in the Authorized
Version "with trumpets and sound of cornet." The Hebrew word
translated cornet is treated under the head. The "shawm" was a musical
instrument resembling the clarinet.


(asking), one of the sons of Bani who had married a foreign wife.
(Ezra 10:29) (B.C. 452.)


(asked of God), father of Zerubbabel. (Ezra 3:2,8; 5:2; Nehemiah
12:1; Haggai 1:1,12,14; 2:2,23) (B.C. about 580.)


(valued by Jehovah), one of the six sons of Azel a descendant of
Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:41)


a place on the road between Jezreel and Samaria, at which Jehu, on his way
to the latter, encountered forty-two members of the royal family of Judah,
whom he slaughtered. (2 Kings 10:12,14) Eusebius mentions it as a village
of Samaria "in the great plain [of Esdraelon], 15, miles from Legion."


(lit. a remnant shall return), the symbolical name of the son of
Isaiah the prophet. (Isaiah 7:3)


(on oath), the son of Bichri, a Benjamite, (2 Samuel 20:1-22) the
last chief of the Absalom insurrection. The occasion seized by Sheba was
the emulation between the northern and southern tribes on David's return.
(2 Samuel 20:1,2) Sheba traversed the whole of Palestine apparently
rousing the population, Joab following in full pursuit to the fortress
Abel Beth-maachah, where Sheba was beheaded. (2 Samuel 20:3-22)


(seven, or all oath).

  • A son of Raamah son of Cush. (Genesis 10:7; 1 Chronicles 1:9)

  • A soil of Joktan. (Genesis 10:28; 1 Chronicles 1:22)

  • A son of Jokshan son of Keturah. (Genesis 25:3; 1 Chronicles 1:32) We
    shall consider, first, the history of the Joktanite Sheba; and secondly,
    the Cushite Sheba and the Keturahite Sheba together. I. The Joktanites
    were among the early colonists of southern Arabia, and the kingdom which
    they there founded was for many centuries called the kingdom of Sheba,
    after one of the sons of Joktan. The visit of the queen of Sheba to King
    Solomon. (1 Kings 10:1) is one of the familiar Bible incidents. The
    kingdom of Sheba embraced the greater part of the Yemen, or Arabia Felix.
    It bordered on the Red Sea, and was one of the most fertile districts of
    Arabia. Its chief cities, and probably successive capitals, were Seba,
    San’a (Uzal), and Zafar (Sephar). Seba was probably the name of the
    city, and generally of the country and nation. II. Sheba, son of Raamah
    son of Cush settled somewhere on the shores of the Persian Gulf. It was
    this Sheba that carried on the great Indian traffic with Palestine, in
    conjunction with, as we hold, the other Sheba, son of Jokshan son of
    Keturah, who like Dedan appears to have formed, with the Cushite of the
    same name, one tribe.


one of the towns of the allotment of Simeon, (Joshua 19:2) probably the
same as Shema. (Joshua 15:26)


(an oath), the famous well which gave its name to the city of
Beersheba. (Genesis 26:53) [BEERSHEBA]


(fragrance), one of the towns in the pastoral district on the east
of Jordan; demanded by and finally ceded to the tribes of Reuben and Gad.
(Numbers 32:3) It is probably the same as SHIBMAH, (Numbers 32:38) and
SIBMAH. (Joshua 13:13; Isaiah 16:8,9; Jeremiah 48:32)


(increased by Jehovah).

  • A Levite in the time of Ezra. (Nehemiah 9:4,5) He sealed the covenant
    with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:10) (B.C. 459.)

  • A priest or priestly family who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:4; 12:14) Called SHECHANIAH, SHECHANIAH in (Nehemiah

  • Another Levite who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah

  • One of the priests appointed by David to blow with the trumpets before
    the ark of God. (1 Chronicles 15:24) (B.C. 1043.)


(the breaches), a place named in (Joshua 7:5) only, as one of the
points in the flight from Ai.


(breaking), son of Caleb ben-Hezron by his concubine Maachah. (1
Chronicles 2:48) (B.C. after 1690.)


(vigor), a person of high position in Hezekiah's court, holding at
one time the office of prefect of the palace, (Isaiah 22:15) but
subsequently the subordinate office of secretary. (Isaiah 36:3; 2 Kings
19:2) (B.C. 713.)


(captive of God).

  • A descendant of Moses, (1 Chronicles 23:16; 26:24) called also
    SHUBAEL. (1 Chronicles 24:20) (B.C. 1013).

  • One of the fourteen sons of Heman the minstrel, (1 Chronicles 25:4)
    called also SHUBAEL. (1 Chronicles 25:20) (B.C. 1013.)


(dweller with Jehovah).

  • The tenth in order of the priests who were appointed by lot in the
    reign of David. (1 Chronicles 24:11) (B.C. 1014.)

  • A priest in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:15) (B.C.


(dweller with Jehovah).

  • A descendant of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:21,22)

  • Some descendants of Shechaniah returned with Ezra. (Ezra 8:3)

  • The sons of Shechaniah were another family who returned with Ezra.
    (Ezra 8:5) (B.C. 459.)

  • The son of Jehiel, of the sons of Elam. (Ezra 10:2)

  • The father of Shemaiah, 2. (Nehemiah 3:29)

  • The son of Arah. (Nehemiah 6:18)

  • The head of a priestly family who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah


(back or shoulder).

  • An important city in central Palestine, in the valley between mounts
    Ebal and Gerizim, 34 miles north of Jerusalem and 7 miles southeast of
    Samaria. Its present name, Nablus, is a corruption of Neapolis,
    which succeeded the more ancient Shechem, and received its new name from
    Vespasian. On coins still extant it is called Flavia Neapolis. The
    situation of the town is one of surpassing beauty. It lies in a sheltered
    valley, protected by Gerizim on the south and Ebal on the north. The feet
    of these mountains, where they rise from the town, are not more than five
    hundred yards apart. The bottom of the valley is about 1800 feet above the
    level of the sea, and the top of Gerizim 800 feet higher still. The sit of
    the present city, which was also that of the Hebrew city, occurs exactly
    on the water-summit; and streams issuing from the numerous springs there
    flow down the opposite slopes of the valley, spreading verdure and
    fertility in every direction. Travellers vie with each other in the
    language which they employ to describe the scene that here bursts so
    suddenly upon them on arriving in spring or early summer at this paradise
    of the holy land. "The whole valley," says Dr. Robinson, "was filled with
    gardens of vegetables and orchards of all kinds of fruits, watered by
    fountains which burst forth in various parts and flow westward in
    refreshing streams. it came upon us suddenly like a scene of fairy
    enchantment. We saw nothing to compare with it in all Palestine." The
    allusions to Shechem in the Bible are numerous, and show how important the
    place was in Jewish history. Abraham, on his first migration to the land
    of promise, pitched his tent and built an altar under the oak (or
    terebinth) of Moreh at Shechem. "The Canaanite was then in the land;" and
    it is evident that the region, if not the city, was already in possession
    of the aboriginal race. See (Genesis 12:6) At the time of Jacob's arrival
    here, after his sojourn in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 33:18; 34) Shechem was a
    Hivite city, of which Hamor, the father of Shechem, was the headman. it
    was at this time that the patriarch purchased from that chieftain "the
    parcel of the field" which he subsequently bequeathed, as a special
    patrimony, to his son Joseph. (Genesis 33:19; Joshua 24:32; John 4:5) The
    field lay undoubtedly on the rich plain of the Mukhna, and its
    value was the greater on account of the well which Jacob had dug there, so
    as not to be dependent on his neighbors for a supply of water. In the
    distribution of the land after its conquest by the Hebrews, Shechem fell
    to the lot of Ephraim, (Joshua 20:7) but was assigned to the Levites, and
    became a city of refuge. (Joshua 21:20,21) It acquired new importance as
    the scene of the renewed promulgation of the law, when its blessings were
    heard from Gerizim and its curses from Ebal, and the people bowed their
    heads and acknowledged Jehovah as their king and ruler. (27:11; Joshua
    24:23-25) it was here Joshua assembled the people, shortly before his
    death, and delivered to them his last counsels. (Joshua 24:1,25) After the
    death of Gideon, Abimelech, his bastard son, induced the Shechemites to
    revolt from the Hebrew commonwealth and elect him as king. (Judges 9:1)
    ... In revenge for his expulsion after a reign of three years, Abimelech
    destroyed the city, and as an emblem of the fate to which he would consign
    it, sowed the ground with salt. (Judges 9:34-45) It was soon restored,
    however, for we are told in (1 Kings 12:1) ... that all Israel assembled
    at Shechem, and Rehoboam, Solomon's successor, went thither to be
    inaugurated as king. here, at this same place, the ten tribes renounced
    the house of David, and transferred their allegiance to Jeroboam, (1 Kings
    12:16) under whom Shechem became for a time the capital of his kingdom.
    From the time of the origin of the Samaritans, the history of Shechem
    blends itself with that of this people and of their sacred mount, Gerizim.
    [SAMARIA] Shechem reappears in the New Testament. It is the SYCHAR of
    (John 4:5) near which the Saviour conversed with the Samaritan woman at
    Jacob's well. The population of Nablus consists of about 5000,
    among whom are 500 Greek Christians, 150 Samaritans, and a few Jews. The
    enmity between the Samaritans and jews is as inveterate still as it was in
    the days of Christ. The Mohammedans, of course, make up the bulk of the
    population. The well of Jacob and the tomb of Joseph are still shown in
    the neighborhood of the town. The well of Jacob lies about a mile and a
    half east of the city, close to the lower road, and just beyond the
    wretched hamlet of Balata. The Christians sometimes call it Bir
    -- "the well of the Samaritan woman." The well is deep --
    75 feet when last measured -- and there was probably a considerable
    accumulation of rubbish at the bottom. Sometimes it contains a few feet of
    water, but at others it is quite dry. It is entirely excavated in the
    solid rock, perfectly round, 9 feet in diameter, with the sides hewn
    smooth and regular. Of all the special localities of our Lord's life, this
    is almost the only one absolutely undisputed. The tomb of Joseph lies
    about a quarter of a mile north of the well, exactly in the centre of the
    opening of the valley. It is a small between Gerizim and Ebal. It is a
    small, square enclosure of high whitewashed walls, surrounding a tomb of
    the ordinary kind, but with the peculiarity that it is placed diagonally
    to the walls, instead of parallel as usual. A rough pillar used as an
    altar and black with the traces of fire is at the head and another at the
    foot of the tome. In the walls are two slabs with Hebrew inscriptions, and
    the interior is almost covered with the names of pilgrims in Hebrew Arabic
    and Samaritan. Beyond this there is nothing to remark in the structure
    itself. The local tradition of the tomb, like that of the well is as old
    as the beginning of the fourth century.

  • The son of Hamor, the chieftain of the Hivite settlement of Shechem at
    the time of Jacob's arrival. (Genesis 33:19; 34:2-26; Joshua 24:32; Judges

  • A man of Manasseh, of the clan of Gilead. (Numbers 26:31)

  • A Gileadite, son of Shemida, the younger brother of the foregoing. (1
    Chronicles 7:19)


the family of Shechem son of Gilead. (Numbers 26:31) comp. Josh 17:2


(dwelling). This term is not found in the Bible. It was used by the
later Jews, and borrowed by Christians from them, to express the visible
majesty of the divine Presence especially when resting or dwelling between
the cherubim on the mercyseat. In the tabernacle and in the temple of
Solomon, but not in the second temple. The use of the term is first found
in the Targums, where it forms a frequent periphrasis for God, considered
its dwelling among the children of Israel. The idea which the different
accounts in Scripture convey is that of a most brilliant and glorious
light, enveloped in a cloud, and usually concealed by the cloud, so that
the cloud itself was for the most part alone visible but on particular
occasions the glory appeared. The allusions in the New Testament to the
shechinah are not unfrequent. (Luke 2:9; John 1:14; Romans 9:4) and we are
distinctly taught to connect it with the incarnation and future coming of
the Messiah as type with antitype.


(darter of light), the father of Elizur, chief of the tribe of
Reuben at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:5; 2:10; 7:30,35; 10:18)
(B.C. 1491.)


Sheep were an important part of the possessions of the ancient Hebrews and
of eastern nations generally. The first mention of sheep occurs in
(Genesis 4:2) They were used in the sacrificial offering,as, both the
adult animal, (Exodus 20:24) and the lamb. See (Exodus 29:28; Leviticus
9:3; 12:6) Sheep and lambs formed an important article of food. (1 Samuel
25:18) The wool was used as clothing. (Leviticus 13:47) "Rams skins dyed
red" were used as a covering for the tabernacle. (Exodus 25:5) Sheep and
lambs were sometimes paid as tribute. (2 Kings 3:4) It is very striking to
notice the immense numbers of sheep that were reared in Palestine in
biblical times. (Chardin says he saw a clan of Turcoman shepherds whose
flock consisted of 3,000,000 sheep and goats, besides 400,000 Feasts of
carriage, as horses, asses and camels.) Sheep-sheering is alluded to
(Genesis 31:19) Sheepdogs were employed in biblical times. (Job 30:1)
Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks,
which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. (John 10:4; Psalms
77:20; 80:1) though they also drive them. (Genesis 33:13) The following
quotation from Hartley's "Researches in Greece and the Levant," p. 321, is
strikingly illustrative of the allusions in (John 10:1-16) "Having had my
attention directed last night to the words in (John 10:3) I asked my man
if it was usual in Greece to give names to the sheep. He informed me that
it was, and that the sheep obeyed the shepherd when he called them by
their names. This morning I had an opportunity of verifying the truth of
this remark. Passing by a flock of sheep I asked the shepherd the same
question which I had put to the servant, and he gave me the same answer. I
then had him call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its
pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the shepherd with
signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before
observed in any other animal. It is also true in this country that a
stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him. The shepherd told
me that many of his sheep were still wild, that they had not yet learned
their names, but that by teaching them they would all learn them." The
common sheer, of Syria and Palestine are the broad-tailed. As the sheep is
an emblem of meekness, patience and submission, it is expressly mentioned
as typifying these qualities in the person of our blessed Lord. (Isaiah
53:7; Acts 8:32) etc. The relation that exists between Christ, "the chief
Shepherd," and his members is beautifully compared to that which in the
East is so strikingly exhibited by the shepherds to their flocks


one of the gates of Jerusalem as rebuilt by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:1,32;
12:39) It stood between the tower of Meah and the chamber of the corner,
ch. (Nehemiah 3:1,32) or gate of the guard-house, ch. (Nehemiah 12:39)
Authorized Version, "prison-gate." The latter seems to have been at the
angle formed by the junction of the wall of the city of David with that of
the city of Jerusalem proper, having the sheep-gate on the north of it.
The position of the sheep-gate may therefore have been on or near that of
the Bab el Kattanin.


(John 5:2) The world "market" is an interpolation of our translators. We
ought probably to supply the word "gate."


(dawning of Jehovah), a Benjamite, son of Jehoram. (1 Chronicles
8:26) (B.C. 588.)




(a petition).

  • The youngest son of Judah. (Genesis 38:5,11,14,26; 46:10; Numbers
    26:20; 1 Chronicles 2:3; 4:21) (B.C. before 1706.)

  • The proper form of the name of Salah. (1 Chronicles 1:18,24)


the descendants of Shelah. 1. (Numbers 26:20)


(repaid by Jehovah).

  • One of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:30) (B.C.

  • The father of Hananiah. (Nehemiah 3:30)

  • A priest in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 13:13)

  • The father of Jehueal, or Jucal, in the time of Zedekiah. (Jeremiah

  • The father of Irijah, the captain of the ward who arrested Jeremiah.
    (Jeremiah 37:13) (B.C. before 589.)

  • The same as Meshelemiah and Shallum, 8. (1 Chronicles 26:14)

  • Another of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:41)

  • Ancestor of Jehudi in the time of Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 36:14)

  • Son of Abdeel; one of those who received the orders of Jehoiakim to
    take Baruch and Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 36:26) (B.C. 604.)


(a drawing forth), the second in order of the sons of Joktan.
(Genesis 10:26; 1 Chronicles 1:20)


(might), son of Helem. (1 Chronicles 7:35)


(peaceful), an Asherite, father of Ahihud. (Numbers 34:27) (B.C.
before 1450.)



  • The daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan. (Leviticus 24:11)

  • The daughter of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:19) (B.C. after 536.)

  • Chief of the Izharites. (1 Chronicles 23:18)

  • A descendant of Eliezer the son of Moses, in the reign of David. (1
    Chronicles 26:25,26,28) (B.C. 1013.)

  • A Gershonite. (1 Chronicles 23:9)

  • One whose sons returned from Babylon with Ezra. (Ezra 8:10)


the same as Shelomith, 3. (1 Chronicles 24:22)


(friend of God), the son of Zurishaddai, and prince of the tribe of
Simeon at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:6; 2:12; 7:36,41; 10:19)
(B.C. 1431.)


(name), the eldest son of Noah. (Genesis 5:32) He was 98 years old,
married, and childless at the time of the flood. After it, he, with his
father, brothers, sisters-in-law and wife, received the blessing of God,
(Genesis 9:1) and entered into the covenant. With the help of his brother
Japheth, he covered the nakedness of their father and received the first
blessing. (Genesis 9:25-27) He died at the age of 630 years. The portion
of the earth occupied by the descendants of Shem, (Genesis 10:21,31)
begins at its northwestern extremity with Lydia, and includes Syria
(Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), parts Of Assyria (Asshur), of Persia (Elam),
and of the Arabian peninsula (Joktan). Modern scholars have given the name
of Shemitic or Semitic to the languages spoken by his real or supposed
descendants. [HEBREW LANGUAGE]


  • A Reubenite, ancestor of Bela. (1 Chronicles 5:8) (B.C. before

  • Son of Elpaal. (1 Chronicles 8:13) Probably the same as Shimhi. (B.C.
    after 1450.)

  • One of those who stood at Ezra's right hand when he read the law to
    the people. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C. 458.)

  • (Joshua 15:26) [SHEBA]


(the rumor), a Benjamite of Gibeah, and father of Ahiezer and
Joash. (1 Chronicles 12:3) (B.C. before 1054.)


(heard by Jehovah).

  • A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam. (1 Kings 12:22; 2 Chronicles 11:2)
    (B.C. 972.) He wrote a chronicle containing the events of Rehoboam's
    reign. (2 Chronicles 12:5,15)

  • The son of Shechaniah, among the descendants of Zerubbabel. (1
    Chronicles 3:23; Nehemiah 3:28)

  • A prince of the tribe of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:27)

  • Son of Joel, Reubenite. (1 Chronicles 5:4) (B.C. after 1706.)

  • Son of Hasshub, a Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:14; Nehemiah

  • Father of Obadiah or Abda, a Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:16)

  • Son of Elizaphan, and chief of his house in the reign of David. (1
    Chronicles 15:8,11) (B.C. 1043.)

  • A Levite, son of Nethaneel and also a scribe in the time of David. (1
    Chronicles 24:6) (B.C. 1014.)

  • The eldest son of Obed-edom the Gittite. (1 Chronicles 26:4,6,7) (B.C.

  • A descendant of Jeduthun the singer who lived in the reign of Hezekiah
    (2 Chronicles 29:14)

  • One of the sons of Adonikam who returned with Ezra. (Ezra 5:13)

  • One of Ezra's messengers. (Ezra 8:16)

  • A priest of the family of Harim, who put away his foreign wife at
    Ezra's bidding. (Ezra 10:21) (B.C. 455.)

  • A layman of Israel son of another Harim, who had also married a
    foreigner. (Ezra 10:31) (B.C. 458.)

  • Son of Delaiah the son of Mehetabeel, a prophet in the time of
    Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 6:10) (B.C. 446.)

  • The head of a priestly house who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:8; 12:6,18) (B.C. 410.)

  • One of the princes of Judah at the time of the dedication of
    Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:34)

  • One of the choir on the same occasion. (Nehemiah 12:38)

  • A priest. (Nehemiah 12:42)

  • A false prophet in the time of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 29:24-32)

  • A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8) (B.C.

  • A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:15) (B.C.

  • A Levite in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B.C. 628.)

  • The father of Urijah of Kirjath-jearim. (Jeremiah 26:20) (B.C. before

  • The father of Delaiah. (Jeremiah 36:12) (B.C. before 605.)


(kept by Jehovah).

  • A Benjamite warrior who came to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5)
    (B.C. 1054.)

  • One of the family of Harim, a lay man of Israel who put away his
    foreign wife in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:32) (B.C. 658.)

  • Another who did the same. (Ezra 10:41)


(lofty flight), king of Zeboim, and ally of the king of Sodom when
he was attacked by Chedorlaomer. (B.C. 1912.)


(preserved), the owner of the hill on which the city of Samaria was
built. (1 Kings 16:24) (B.C. 917.) [SAMARIA]


(wise), a son of Gilead. (Numbers 26:32; Joshua 17:2) (B.C. after


Shemida the son of Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:19)


the descendants of Shemida the son of Gilead. (Numbers 26:32)


(eighth), a musical term found in the title of (Psalms 6:1) A
similar direction is found in the title of (Psalms 12:1) Comp. 1Chr 15:21
It seems most probable that Sheminith denotes a certain air known as the
eighth, or a certain key in which the psalm was to be sung.


(name of heights, i.e. Jehovah).

  • A Levite of the second degree in the choir formed by David. (1
    Chronicles 15:18,20; 16:5) (B.C. 104.)

  • A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8) (B.C.


the family of languages spoken by the descendants of Shem, chiefly the
Hebrew, Chaldaic, Assyrian, Arabic Phoenician and Aramaic or Syriac. The
Jews in their earlier history spoke the Hebrew, but in Christ's time they
spoke the Aramaic, sometimes called the Syro-Chaldaic.


(heard by God).

  • A commissioner appointed from the tribe of Simeon to divide the land
    of Canaan. (Numbers 34:20) (B.C. 1450.)

  • Samuel the prophet. (1 Chronicles 6:33)

  • Son of Tola, and one of the chiefs of the tribe of Issachar, (1
    Chronicles 7:2) (B.C. 1014.)


(tooth), a place mentioned only in (1 Samuel 7:12) Nothing is known
of it.


(splendid leader), son of Salathiel or Shealtiel. (1 Chronicles
3:18) (B.C. after 606.)




(fruitful), a place on the eastern boundary of the promised land.
(Numbers 34:10,11)


a Benjamite, father of Meshullam 6. (1 Chronicles 9:8)


(judged by Jehovah).

  • The fifth son of David. (2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Chronicles 3:3) (B.C. about

  • The family of Shephatiah, 372 in number, returned with Zerubbabel.
    (Ezra 2:4; Nehemiah 7:9) see also Ezra 8:8 (B.C. 536.)

  • The family of another Shephatiah, who came up with Zerubbabel. (Ezra

  • A descendant of Judah. (Nehemiah 11:4)

  • One of the princes of Judah who counselled Zedekiah to put Jeremiah in
    the dungeon. (Jeremiah 38:1) (B.C. 589.)

  • One of the Benjamite warriors who joined David in his retreat at
    Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1054.)

  • Chief of the Simeonites in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles

  • Son of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 21:2) (B.C. 887.)


In a nomadic state of society every man, from the sheikh down to the
slave, is more or less a shepherd. The progenitors of the Jews in the
patriarchal age were nomads, and their history is rich in scenes of
pastoral life. The occupation of tending the flocks was undertaken,not
only by the sons of wealthy chiefs, (Genesis 30:29) ff.; Genesis37:12 ff.,
but even by their daughters. (Genesis 29:6,8; Exodus 2:10) The Egyptian
captivity did march to implant a love of settled abode, and consequently
we find the tribes which still retained a taste for shepherd life
selecting their own quarters apart from their brethren in the
transjordanic district. (Numbers 32:1) ff. Thenceforward in Palestine
proper the shepherd held a subordinate position. The office of the eastern
shepherd, as described in the Bible, was attended with much hardship, and
even danger. He was exposed to the extremes of heat and cold, (Genesis
31:40) his food frequently consisted of the precarious supplies afforded
by nature, such as the fruit of the "sycamore" or Egyptian fig, (Amos
7:14) the "husks" of the carob tree, (Luke 15:16) and perchance the
locusts and wild honey which supported the Baptist, (Matthew 3:4) he had
to encounter the attacks of wild beasts, occasionally of the larger
species, such as lions, nerves, panthers and bears, (1 Samuel 17:34;
Isaiah 31:4; Jeremiah 5:6; Amos 5:12) nor was he free from the risk of
robbers or predators hordes. (Genesis 31:39) To meet these various foes
the shepherd's equipment consisted of the following articles: a mantle,
made probably of sheep skin with the fleece on, which he turned inside out
in cold weather, as implied in the comparison in (Jeremiah 43:12) (cf.
Juv. xiv. 187.); a scrip or wallet, containing a small amount of food (1
Samuel 17:40) a sling, which is still the favorite weapon of the Bedouin
shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:40) and lastly, a which served the double purpose
of a weapon against foes and a crook for the management of the flock. (1
Samuel 17:40; Psalms 23:4; Zechariah 11:7) If the shepherd was at a
distance from his home, he was provided with a light tent, (Solomon 1:8;
Jeremiah 35:7) the removal of which was easily effected. (Isaiah 38:12) In
certain localities, moreover, towers were erected for the double purpose
of spying an enemy at a distance and of protecting the flock; such towers
were erected by Uzziah and Jotham, (2 Chronicles 26:10; 27:4) while their
existence in earlier times is testified by the name Migdal-edar (Genesis
35:21) Authorized Version "a tower of Edar;" (Micah 4:8) Authorized
Version "tower of the flock." The routine of the shepherd's duties appears
to have been as follows: In the morning he led forth his flock from the
fold (John 10:4) which he did by going before them and calling to them, as
is still usual in the East; arrived at the pasturage he watched the flock
with the assistance of dogs, (Job 30:1) and should any sheep stray, he had
to search for it until he found it, (Ezekiel 34:12; Luke 15:4) he supplied
them with water, either at a running stream or at troughs attached to
wells, (Genesis 29:7; 30:38; Exodus 2:16; Psalms 23:2) at evening he
brought them back to the fold, and reckoned them to see that none were
missing, by passing them "under the rod" as they entered the door of the
enclosure (Leviticus 27:32; Ezekiel 20:37) checking each sheep, as it
passed, by a motion of the hand, (Jeremiah 33:13) and, finally, he watched
the entrance of the fold throughout the night, acting as porter. (John
10:3) [See Sheepfold, under SHEEP] The shepherd's office thus required
great watchfulness, particularly by night. (Luke 2:8) cf. Nahu 3:18 It
also required tenderness toward the young and feeble, (Isaiah 40:11)
particularly in driving them to and from the pasturage. (Genesis 33:13) In
large establishments there are various grades of shepherds, the highest
being styled "rulers," (Genesis 47:6) or "chief shepherds," (1 Peter 5:4)
in a royal household the title of abbir "mighty," was bestowed on
the person who held the post. (1 Samuel 21:7) [SHEEP]


(bareness), son of Shobal. of the sons of Seir. (1 Chronicles 1:40)
Called also SHEPHO. (Genesis 36:23)


(Genesis 36:23) [SHEPHI]


(an adder), one of the sons of Bela the first-born of Benjamin. (1
Chronicles 8:5) His name is also written SHEPHUPNAM (authorized Version
"Shupham"), (Numbers 26:39) SHUPPIM (1 Chronicles 7:12,15) and MUPPIM.
(Genesis 46:21) [MUPPIM]


(kinswoman), daughter of Ephraim, (1 Chronicles 7:24) and foundress
of the Beth-horons and of a town called after her Uzzen-sherah, (B.C.
about 1445.)


(heat of Jehovah) a Levite in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 8:18,24)
(B.C. 459.) When Ezra read the law to the people, Sherebiah was among the
Levites who assisted him. (Nehemiah 8:7) He signed the covenant with
Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:12)


(root), son of Machir the son of Manasseh by his wife Manchah. (1
Chronicles 7:16) (B.C. before 1419.)


(prince of fire), one of the people's messengers mentioned in
(Zechariah 7:2)


(from the goddess Shach, reduplicated) is a term which occurs only
in (Jeremiah 25:26; 51:41) where it is evidently used as a synonym for
either Babylon or Babylonia.


(noble), one of the three sons of Anak who dwelt in Hebron.
(Numbers 13:22) (B.C. 1445.)


(Noble), a descendant of Jerahmeel the son of Hezron. (1 Chronicles
2:31,34,35) (B.C. after 1690.)


(worshipper of fire), the Chaldean or Persian name given to
Zerubbabel in (Ezra 1:8,11; 6:14,18) [ZERUBBABEL]



  • The patriarch Seth. (1 Chronicles 1:1)

  • In the Authorized Version of (Numbers 24:17) not a proper name, but
    there is reason to regard it as an appellative. Read instead of "the sons
    of Sheth." "the suns of tumult." Comp. (Jeremiah 48:45)


(Pers. a star), one of the seven princes of Persia and Media.
(Esther 1:14) (B.C. 483.)


(Pers. star of splendor), a Persian officer of rank in the reign of
Darius Hystaspes. (Ezra 5:3,6; 6:6,13) (B.C. 320.)


(Jehovah contends).

  • The scribe or royal secretary of David. (2 Samuel 20:26) He is called
    elsewhere MERAIAH, (2 Samuel 8:17) SHISHA, (1 Kings 4:3) And SHANSHA. (1
    Chronicles 18:16) (B.C. 1015.)

  • Son of Caleb ben-Hezron by his concubine Maachah. (1 Chronicles 2:49)
    (B.C. about 1445.)


(Exodus 25:30; 35:13; 39:36) etc. literally "bread of the face" or
"faces." Shew-bread was unleavened bread placed upon a table which stood
in the sanctuary together with the seven-branched candlestick and the
altar of incense. See (Exodus 25:23-30) for description of this table.
Every Sabbath twelve newly baked loaves, representing the twelve tribes of
Israel, were put on it in two rows, six in each, and sprinkled with
incense, where they remained till the following Sabbath. Then they were
replaced by twelve new ones, the incense was burned, and they were eaten
by the priests in the holy place, out of which they might not be removed,
The title "bread of the face" seems to indicate that bread through which
God is seen, that is, with the participation of which the seeing of God is
bound up, or through the participation of which man attains the sight of
God whence it follows that we have not to think of bread merely as such as
the means of nourishing the bodily life, but as spiritual food as a means
of appropriating and retaining that life which consists In seeing the face
of God.


(a stream), (Judges 12:6) is the Hebrew word which the Gileadites
under Jephthah made use of at the passage of the Jordan, after a victory
over the Ephraimites, to test the pronunciation of the sound sh by
those who wished to cross over the river. The Ephraimites, it would
appear, in their dialect substituted for sh the simple sound
s ; and the Gileadites, regarding every one who failed to pronounce
sh as an Ephraimite and therefore an enemy, put him to death
accordingly. In this way there fell 42,000 Ephraimites. There is no
mystery in this particular word. Any word beginning with the sound
sh would have answered equally well as a test.


(properly SIBMAH). [SHEBAM]


(drunkenness), one of the landmarks at the western end of the north
boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:11) only. It lay between Ekron (Akir)
and Jabneel (Yebna).


The ordinary shield consisted of a framework of wood covered with leather;
it thus admitted of being burnt. (Ezekiel 39:9) It was frequently cased
with metal, either brass or copper; its appearance in this case resembled
gold when the sun shone on it, 1 Macc. 6:39 and to this, rather than to
the practice of smearing blood on the shield we may refer the redness
noticed by. Nahum. (Nahum 2:3) The surface of the shield was kept bright
by the application of oil as implied in (Isaiah 21:5) The shield was worn
on the left arm, to which it was attached by a strap. Shields of state
were covered with beaten gold. Shields were suspended about public
buildings for ornamental purposes. (1 Kings 10:17) In the metaphorical
language of the Bible the shield generally represents the protection of
God: e.g. (Psalms 3:3; 28:7) but in (Psalms 47:9) it is applied to earthly
rulers and in (Ephesians 6:18) to faith. [ARMS, ARMOR]


(Psalms 7:1) a particular kind of psalm, the specific character of which
is now not known perhaps a "wild, mournful ode."


(ruin), a town of Issachar, named only in (Joshua 19:19) Eusebius
mentions it as then existing "near Mount Tabor."




(black of whiteness), named only in (Joshua 19:26) as one of the
landmarks of the boundary of Asher. (probably the little stream called on
the map of Pal. Ord. Survey Wady en Nebra, "which enters the
Mediterranean a little south of Athlit." The name would come from the
turgid character of the stream contrasted with the white and glistening
sands of its shore. -- ED.)


(armed), the father of Azubah the mother of Jehoshaphat (1 Kings
22:42; 2 Chronicles 20:31) (B.C. before 946.)


(fountains), one of the cities in the southern portion of the tribe
of Judah. (Joshua 15:32)


(requital), son of Naphtali and an ancestor of the family of the
Shillemites. (Genesis 46:24; Numbers 26:49)




a certain soft-flowing stream, (Isaiah 8:6) better known under the later
name of Siloam -the only perennial spring of Jerusalem.


In the Authorized Version of the Bible Shiloh is once used as the name of
a person, in a very difficult passage, in (Genesis 49:10) "The sceptre
shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until
Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be." Supposing
that the translation is correct, the meaning of the word is
peaceable or pacific, and the allusion is either to
Solomon, whose name has a similar signification, or to the expected
Messiah, who in (Isaiah 9:6) is expressly called the Prince of Peace.
[MESSIAH] Other interpretations, however, of the passage are given, one of
which makes it refer to the city of this name. [See the following article]
It might be translated "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the
ruler's staff from between his feet, till he shall go to Shiloh." In this
case the allusion would be to the primacy of Judah in war, (Judges 1:1,2;
20:18; Numbers 2:3; 10:14) which was to continue until the promised land
was conquered and the ark of the covenant was solemnly deposited at


(place of rest), a city of Ephraim. In (Judges 21:19) it is said
that Shiloh is "on the north side of Bethel, on the east side of the
highway that goeth up from Bethel to Shechem and on the south of Lebonah."
In agreement with this the traveller of our own city, going north from
Jerusalem, lodges the first night at Beitin, the ancient Bethel;
the next day, at the distance of a few hours, turns aside to the right, in
order to visit Seilun, the Arabic for Shiloh; and then passing
through the narrow wady which brings him to the main road, leaves
el-Lebban, the Lebonah of Scripture, on the left, as he pursues
"the highway" to Nublus, the ancient Shechem. [SHECHEM] Shiloh was
one of the earliest and most sacred of the Hebrew sanctuaries. The ark of
the covenant, which had been kept at Gilgal during the progress of the
conquest, (Joshua 17:1) seq., was removed thence on the subjugation of the
country, and kept at Shiloh from the last days of Joshua to the time of
Samuel. (Joshua 18:10; Judges 18:31; 1 Samuel 4:3) It was here the Hebrew
conqueror divided among the tribes the portion of the west Jordan region
which had not been already allotted. (Joshua 18:10; 19:51) In this
distribution, or an earlier one, Shiloh fell within the limits of Ephraim.
(Joshua 16:5) The ungodly conduct of the sons of Eli occasioned the loss
of the ark of the covenant, which had been carried into battle against the
Philistines, and Shiloh from that time sank into insignificance. It stands
forth in the Jewish history as a striking example of the divine
indignation. (Jeremiah 7:12)


This word occurs in the Authorized Version only in (Nehemiah 11:5) where
it should be rendered -- as it is in other cases -- "the Shilonite," that
is the descendant of Sheluh the youngest son of Judah.


that is, the native or resident of Shiloh; a title ascribed only to
Ahijah. (1 Kings 11:29; 12:15; 15:29; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 10:15)


are mentioned among the descendants of Judah dwelling in Jerusalem at a
date difficult to (1 Chronicles 8:5) They are doubtless the members of the
house of Shelah, who in the Pentateuch are more accurately designated


(strong), son of Zophah of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37)
(B.C. before 1015.)



  • Son of David by Beth-shean. (1 Chronicles 3:5) (B.C. 1045.)

  • A Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:30) (15).

  • A Gershonite Levite, ancestor of Asaph the minstrel. (1 Chronicles
    6:39) (24). (B.C. before 1200.)

  • The brother of David, (1 Chronicles 20:7) elsewhere called Shamma,
    Shimma and Shimeah.


  • Brother of David, and father of Jonathan and Jonadab, (2 Samuel 21:21)
    called also Shammah, Shimea, and Shimma. (B.C. about 1060.)

  • A descendant of Jehiel, the father or founder of Gibeon. (1 Chronicles
    8:32) (B.C. perhaps 536.)


(their fame), a descendant of Jehiel, the founder or prince of
Gibeon. (1 Chronicles 9:38) Called SHIMEAH in (1 Chronicles 8:32)


(feminine of Shimeah), an Ammonitess, mother of Jozachar or Zabad, one of
the murderers of King Joash. (2 Kings 12:21) (22); 2Chr 24:26 (B.C.



  • Son of Gershon the son of Levi, (Numbers 3:18; 1 Chronicles 6:17,29;
    23:7,9,10; Zechariah 12:13) called SHIMI in (Exodus 6:17) (B.C. after

  • Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjamite of the house of Saul, who lived at
    Bahurim. (B.C. 1023.) When David and his suite were seen descending the
    long defile, on his flight from Absolom, (2 Samuel 16:5-13) the whole
    feeling of the clan of Benjamin burst forth without restraint in the
    person of Shimei. He ran along the ridge, cursing and throwing stones at
    the king and is companions. The next meeting was very different. The king
    was now returning from his successful campaign. Just as he was crossing
    the Jordan, (2 Samuel 19:18) the first person to welcome him was Shimei
    who threw himself at David's feet in abject penitence. But the king's
    suspicions were not set at rest by this submission; and on his death-bed
    he recalls the whole scene to the recollection of his son Solomon. Solomon
    gave Shimei notice that from henceforth he must consider himself confined
    to the walls of Jerusalem, on pain of death. (1 Kings 3:36,37) For three
    years the engagement was kept. At the end of that time for the purpose of
    capturing two slaves who had escaped to Gath, he went out on his ass, and
    made his journey successfully. Ibid. (1 Kings 2:40) On his return the king
    took him at his word, and he was slain by Benaiah. Ibid. (1 Kings

  • One of the adherents of Solomon at the time of Adonjah's usurpation.
    (1 Kings 1:8) (B.C.1015.)

  • Solomon's commissariat officer in Benjamin. (1 Kings 4:18)

  • Son of Pedaiah, and brother of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:19) (B.C.

  • A Simeonite, son of Zacchur. (1 Chronicles 4:26,27)

  • Son of Gog, a Reubenite. (1 Chronicles 5:4)

  • A Gershonite Levite, son of Jahath. (1 Chronicles 6:42)

  • Son of Jeduthun, and chief of the tenth division of the singers. (1
    Chronicles 25:17)

  • The Ramathite who was over David's vineyards. (1 Chronicles

  • A Levite of the sons of Heman, who took part in the purification of
    the temple under Zedekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:14) (B.C. 726.)

  • The brother of Cononiah the Levite, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2
    Chronicles 31:12,13) Perhaps the same as the preceding.

  • A Levite in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra

  • One of the family of Hashum, who put away his foreign wife at Ezra's
    command. (Ezra 10:33)

  • A son of Bani, who had also married a foreign wife, and put her away.
    (Ezra 10:38) (B.C. 459.)

  • Son of Kish, a Benjamite, and ancestor of Mordecai. (Esther 2:5) (B.C.
    before 479).


(hearing (prayer), a lay man of Israel, of the family of Harim, who
had married a foreign wife, and divorced her in the time of Ezra. (Ezra
10:31) (B.C. 458.)


(renowned), a Benjamite, apparently the same as Shema the son of
Elpaal. (1 Chronicles 8:21)


= SHIMEI, 1. (Exodus 6:17)


the descendants of Shimei the son of Gershon. (Numbers 3:21)


the third son of Jesse, and brother of David. (1 Chronicles 2:13) Same as


(desert). The four sons of Shimon are enumerated in an obscure
genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:20)


(guard), a Benjamite, of the sons of Shimhi. (1 Chronicles



  • A Simeonite son of Shemaiah. (1 Chronicles 4:37) (B.C. after

  • The father of Jediael, one of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:45)
    (B.C. before 1043.)

  • A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:13)
    (B.C. 726.)


(feminine of Shimri, vigilant), a Moabitess, mother of Jehozabad,
one of the assassins of King Joash. (2 Chronicles 24:26) In (2 Kings
12:21) she is called SHOMER. (B.C. 839.)


(1 Chronicles 7:1) [SHIMRON]



  • A city of Zebulun. (Joshua 11:1; 19:15) Its full appellation was
    perhaps Shimron-meron.

  • The fourth son of Issachar according to the lists of Genesis, (Genesis
    46:13) and Numbers, (Numbers 26:24) and the head of the family of the




(watch-height of Meron). The king of Shimron-meron is mentioned as
one of the thirty-one kings vanquished by Joshua. (Joshua 12:20) It is
probably the complete name of the place elsewhere called Shimron, a city
of Zebulun. (Joshua 11:1; 19:15)


(sunny), the scribe or secretary of Kehum, who was a kind of satrap
of the conquered province of Judea and of the colony of Samaria, supported
by the Persian court. (Ezra 4:8,13,17,23) He was apparently an Aramaean,
for the letter which he wrote to Artaxerxes was in Syriac. (Ezra 4:7)
(B.C. 529.)


(splendor of the father, i.e. God), the king of Admah in
the time of Abraham. (Genesis 14:2) (B.C. 1912.)


(country of two rivers), the ancient name of the great alluvial
tract through which the Tigris and Euphrates pass before reaching the sea
-- the tract known in later times as Chaldaea or Babylonia. It was a plain
country, where brick had to be used for stone and slime for mortar.
(Genesis 11:3) Among the cities were Babel (Babylon), Erech or Orech
(Orchoe), Calneh or Calno (probably Niffer), and Accad, the site of
which is unknown. It may be suspected that Shinar was the name by which
the Hebrews originally knew the lower Mesopotamian country where they so
long dwelt, and which Abraham brought with him from "Ur of the


No one writer in the whole range of Greek and Roman literature has
supplied us with so much information concerning the merchant-ships of the
ancients as St. Luke in the narrative of St. Paul's voyage to Rome. Acts
27,28. It is important to remember that he accomplished it in three ships:
first, the Adramyttian vessel which took him from Caesarea to Myra, and
which was probably a coasting-vessel of no great size, (Acts 27:1-6)
secondly, the large Alexandrian corn-ship, in which he was wrecked on the
coast of Malta (Acts 27:6-28) :1; and thirdly, another large Alexandrian
corn-ship, in which he sailed from Malta by Syracuse and Rhegium to
Puteoli. (Acts 28:11-13)

  • Size of ancient ships. -- The narrative which we take as our
    chief guide affords a good standard for estimating this. The ship, in
    which St. Paul was wrecked had persons on board, (Acts 27:37) besides a
    cargo of wheat, ibid. (Acts 27:10,38) and all these passengers seem to
    have been taken on to Puteoli in another ship, ibid, (Acts 28:11) which
    had its own crew and its own cargo. Now, in modern transport-ships,
    prepared far carrying troops, it is a common estimate to allow a toll and
    a half per man. On the whole, if we say that an ancient merchant-ship
    might range from 500 to 1000 tons, we are clearly within the mark.

  • Steering apparatus. -- Some commentators have fallen into
    strange perplexities from observing that in (Acts 27:40) ("the fastenings
    of the rudders") St. Luke uses the plural. Ancient ships were in truth not
    steered at all by rudders fastened or hinged to the stern, but by means of
    two paddle-rudders one on each quarter, acting in a rowlock or through a
    port-hole as the vessel might be small or large.

  • Build and ornaments of the hull. -- It is probable that there
    was no very marked difference between the bow and the stern. The "hold,"
    (Jonah 1:5) would present no special peculiarities. That personification
    of ships which seems to be instinctive led the ancients to paint an eye on
    each side of the bow. Comp. (Acts 27:15) An ornament of the ship which
    took Paul from Malta to Pozzuoli is more explicitly referred to. The
    "sign" of that ship, (Acts 28:11) was Castor and Pollux; and the symbols
    of those heroes were doubtless painted or sculptured on each side of the

  • Under-girders. -- The imperfection of the build, and still
    more (see below, 6) the peculiarity of the rig, in ancient ships, resulted
    in a greater tendency than in our times to the starting of the pranks and
    consequently to leaking and foundering. Hence it was customary to take on
    board peculiar contrivances, suitable called helps," (Acts 27:17) as
    precautions against such dangers. These were simply cables or chains,
    which in case of necessity could be passed round the frame of the ship, at
    right angles to its length, and made tight.

  • Anchors. -- Ancient anchors were similar in form to those which
    we use now. except that they were without flukes. The ship in which Paul
    was sailing had four anchors on board. The sailors on this occasion
    anchored by the stern. (Acts 27:29)

  • Masts, sails, ropes and yards. -The rig of an ancient ship was
    more simple and clumsy than that employed in modern times. Its great
    feature was one large mast, with one large square sail fastened to a yard
    of great length. Hence the strain upon the hull, and the danger of
    starting the planks, were greater than under the present system, which
    distributes the mechanical pressure more evenly over the whole ship. Not
    that there were never more masts than one, or more sails than one on the
    same mast, in an ancient merchantman; but these were repetitions, so to
    speak, of the same general unit of rig. Another feature of the ancient, as
    of the modern , feature of the ancient, as of ship is the flag at the top
    of the mast. Isai l.c., and (Isaiah 30:17) We must remember that the
    ancients had no compass, and very imperfect charts and instruments, if any
    at all.

  • Rate of sailing. -- St. Paul's voyages furnish excellent data
    for approximately estimating this; and they are quite in harmony with what
    we learn from other sources. We must notice here, however -- what
    commentators sometimes curiously forget-that winds are variable. That the
    voyage between Troas and Philippi, accomplished on one occasion, (Acts
    16:11,12) in two days, occupied on another occasion, (Acts 20:6) five
    days. With a fair wind an ancient ship would sail fully seven knots an

  • Sailing before the wind. -- The rig which has been described
    is, like the rig of Chinese junks, peculiarly favorable to a quick run
    before the wind. (Acts 16:11; 27:16) It would, however, be a great mistake
    to suppose that ancient ships could not work to windward. The superior rig
    and build, however, of modern ships enable them to sail nearer to the wind
    than was the case in classical times. A modern ship, if the weather is not
    very boisterous, will sail within six points of the wind. To an ancient
    vessel, of which the hull was more clumsy and the yards could not be
    braced so tight, it would be safe to assign seven points as the limit.
    Boats on the Sea Of Galilee. -- In the narrative of the call of
    the disciples to be "fishers of men," (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16,20; Luke
    5:1-11) there is no special information concerning the characteristics of
    these. With the large population round the Lake of Tiberias, there must
    have been a vast number of both fighting-boats and pleasure-boats, and
    boat-building must have been an active trade on its shores.


(abundant), a Simeonite, father of Ziza, a prince of the tribe in
the time of Hezekiah. (1 Chronicles 4:37) (B.C. 726.)


probably, though not certainly, the native of Shepham. (1 Chronicles


(brightness), (Exodus 1:15) the name of one of the two midwives of
the Hebrews who disobeyed the command of Pharaoh to kill the mule
children. vs. (Exodus 1:15-21) (B.C. 1570.)


(judicial), father of Kemuel, a prince of the tribe of Ephraim.
(Numbers 34:24) (B.C. before 1450.)


(Jehovah contends), father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, the royal
secretaries in the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:3) He is apparently the
same as Shavsha, who held the same position under David. (B.C. 1000.)


king of Egypt, the Sheshonk I. of the monuments, first sovereign of the
Bubastite twenty-second dynasty. His reign offers the first determined
syncronism of Egyptian and hebrew history. The first year of Shishak would
about correspond to the 26th of Solomon (B.C. 989), and the 20th of
shishak to the 5th of Rehoboam. Shishak at the beginning of his reign
received the fugitive Jeroboam, (1 Kings 11:40) and it was probably at the
instigation of Jeroboam that he attacked Rehoboam. "He took the fenced
cities which [pertained] to Judah, and came to Jerusalem." he exacted all
the treasures of his city from Rehoboam, and apparently made him
tributary. (1 Kings 14:25,26; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9) Shishak has left a
record of this expedition sculptured on the wall of the great temple of
El-Karnak. It is a list of the countries, cities and tribes conquered or
ruled by him, or tributary to him.


(Heb. shittah, the thorny), is without doubt correctly referred to
some species of Acacia, of which three or four kinds occur in the
Bible lands. The woof of this tree -- perhaps the Acacia seyal is
more definitely signified -- was extensively employed in the construction
of the tabernacle. See Exod 25,26,36,37,38. (This tree is sometimes three
or four feet in diameter (Tristram). The wood is close-grained and hard,
of a fine orange-brown color, and admirably adapted to cabinet work. --
ED.) The A. seyal is very common in some parts of the peninsula of
Sinai. It yields the well-known substance called gum arabic, which is
obtained by incisions in the bark, but it is impossible to say whether the
ancient Jews were acquainted with its use. From the tangled thicket into
which the stem of this tree expands, Stanley well remarks that hence is to
be traced the use of the plural form of the Heb. noun shittim, the
singular number occurring once only in the Bible. This acacia must not be
confounded with the tree (Robinia pseudo-acacia) popularly known by
this name in England, which is a North American plant, and belongs to a
different genus and suborder. The true acacias belong to the order
Leguminosae, sub-order Mimoseae.


(the acacias), the place of Israel's encampment between the
conquest of the transjordanic highlands and the passage of the Jordan.
(Numbers 25:1; 33:49; Joshua 2:1; 3:1; Micah 6:5) Its full name appears to
be given in the first of these passage -- Abel has-Shittim, "the meadow,
or moist place, of the acacias." it was "in the Arboth-moab, by
Jordan-Jericho," (Numb 22:1; 26:3; 31:12; 33:48,49 That is to say, it was
in the Arabah or Jordan valley, opposite Jericho.


(splendor), a Reubenite, father of Adina, (1 Chronicles 11:42) one
of David's warriors. (B.C. 1043.)


(rich), a proper name which occurs only in (Ezekiel 23:23) in
connection with Pekod and Koa. The three apparently designate districts of
Assyria with which the southern kingdom of Judah has been intimately
connected, and which were to be arrayed against it for punishment.



  • Son of David by Bath-sheba. (2 Samuel 5:14; 1 Chronicles 3:5; 14:4)
    (B.C. about 1046.)

  • Apparently the son of Caleb the son of Hezron by his wife Azubah. (1
    Chronicles 2:18) (B.C. after 1706.)


(expansion), the general of Hadarezer king of the Syrians of Zoba,
who was defeated by David. (2 Samuel 10:15-18) In (1 Chronicles 19:16) he
is called SHOPHACH. (B.C. 1034.)


(glorious). The children of Shobai were a family of the
door-keepers of the temple, who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42;
Nehemiah 7:45) (B.C. before 536.)



  • Second son of Seir the Horite, (Genesis 36:20; 1 Chronicles 1:38) and
    one of the "dukes" of the Horites (Genesis 36:29)

  • Son of Caleb the son of Hur and founder or prince of Kirjath-jearim.
    (1 Chronicles 2:50,52) (B.C. about 1445.)

  • In (1 Chronicles 4:1,2) Shobal appears with Hur among the sons of
    Judah. He is possibly the same as the preceding.


(free), one of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with
Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:24) (B.C. 446.)


(glorious) son of Nahash of Rabbah of the children of Ammon. (2
Samuel 17:27) He was one of the first to meet David at Mahanaim on his
flight from Absalom. (B.C. 1023.)


(2 Chronicles 28:18) one of the four varieties of the name Socoh.


(2 Chronicles 11:7) a variation in the Authorized Version of the name


(1 Samuel 17:1) same as Socoh.




(onyx), a Merarite Levite, son of Jaaziah. (1 Chronicles 24:27)



  • An Asherite, (1 Chronicles 7:32) also called Shamer. ver. (1
    Chronicles 7:34)

  • The father (mother ?) of Jehozabad who slew King Joash. (2 Kings
    12:21) In the parallel passage in (2 Chronicles 24:26) the name is
    converted into the feminine form Shimrith, who is further described as a
    Moabitess. [SHIMRITH] (B.C. 839.)


(expansion), Shobach, the general of Hadarezer. (1 Chronicles
19:16,18) (B.C. 1034.)


(bareness), one of the fortified towns on the east of Jordan which
were taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Gad. (Numbers


(lilies). "To the chief musician upon Shoshannim" is a musical
direction to the leader of the temple choir which occurs in (Psalms 45:1;
69:1) and most probably indicates the melody "after" or "in the manner of"
(Authorized Version upon") which the psalms were to be sung.
Shoshannim-eduth occurs in the same way in the title of (Psalms 80:1) ...
As the words now stand they signify "lilies, a testimony," and the two are
separated by a large distinctive accent. In themselves they have no
meaning in the present text, and must therefore be regarded as probably a
fragment of the beginning of an older psalm with which the choir were



  • Son of Abraham by Keturah. (Genesis 25:2; 1 Chronicles 1:32).) (B.C.
    before 1820.)

  • Properly Shuchah brother of Chelub. (1 Chronicles 4:11)

  • The father of Judah's wife, (Genesis 38:2,12) called also Shua in the
    Authorized Version. (B.C. before 1725.)


(a jackal), son of Zophah, an Asherite. (1 Chronicles 7:36) (B.C.
after 1445.)


a district named in (1 Samuel 13:17) only. It is pretty certain from the
passage that it lay north of Michmash. If therefore it be identical with
the "land of Shalim" (1 Samuel 9:4) -- as is not impossible -- we have the
first and only clue yet obtained to Saul's journey in quest of the asses.
The name Shual has not yet been identified.


  • Shebuel the son of Gershon. (1 Chronicles 24:20)

  • Shebuel the son of Heman the minstrel. (1 Chronicles 25:20)


(pit-digger) son of Dan and ancestor of the Shuhamites. (Numbers




(decendant of Shuah). This ethnic appellative "Shuhite" is frequent
in the book of Job, but only as the apithet of one person, Bildad The
local indications of this book point to a region on the western side of
Chaldea, bordering on Arabia; and exactly in this locality, above Hit and
on both sides of the Euphrates, are found, in the Assyrian inscriptions,
the Tsahi, a powerful people. It is probable that these were the


one of the personages in the poem of Solomon's (Solomon 6:13) The name
denotes a woman belonging to a place called Shulem, which is probably the
same as Shunem. [SHUNEM] If, then, Shulamite and Shunammite are
equivalent, we may conjecture that the Shunammite who was the object of
Solomon's passion was Abishag, the most lovely girl of her day, and at the
time of David's death the most prominent person at Jerusalem.


one of the four families who sprang from Kirjath-jearim. (1 Chronicles


i.e. the native of Shunem, is applied to two persons: Abishag, the
nurse of King David, (1 Kings 1:3,15; 2:17,21,22) and the nameless hostess
of Elisha. (2 Kings 4:12,25; 36)


(double resting-place), one of the cities allotted to the tribe of
Issachar. (Joshua 13:18) It is mentioned on two occasions -- (1 Samuel
23:4; 2 Kings 4:8) It was besides the native place of Abishag. (1 Kings
1:3) It is mentioned by Eusebius as five miles south of Mount Tabor, and
then known us Sulem. This agrees with the position of the present
Solam, a village three miles north of Jezreel and five from


(fortunate), son of Gad, and founder of the family of the Shunites.
(Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:15) (B.C. 1706.)


the descendants of Shuni.




the descendants of Shupham or Shephupham, the Benjamite. (Numbers


(serpents). In the genealogy of Benjamin "Shuppim and Huppim, the
children of Ir," are reckoned in (1 Chronicles 7:12) It is the same as Iri
the son of Bela the son of Benjamin, so that Shuppim was the
great-grandson of Benjamin.


(a wall), a place just without the eastern border of Egypt. Shur is
first mentioned in the narrative of Haggar's flight from Sarah. (Genesis
16:7) Abraham afterward "dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in
Gerar." (Genesis 20:1) It is also called Ethami. The wilderness of Shur
was entered in the Israelites after they had crossed the Red Sea. (Exodus
15:22,23) It was also called the wilderness of Etham. (Numbers 33:8) Shur
may have been a territory town east of the ancient head of the Red Sea;
and from its being spoken of as a limit, it was probably the last Arabian
town before entering Egypt.


(a lily), is said to have received its name from the abundance of
the lily (shushan or shushanah) in its neighborhood. It was
originally the capital of the country called in Scripture Elam, and by the
classical writers Susis or Susiana. In the time of Daniel Susa was in the
possession of the Babylonians, to whom Elam had probably passed at the
division of the Assyrian empire made by Cyaxares and Nabopolassar. (Daniel
8:2) The conquest of Babylon by Cyrus transferred Susa to the Persian
dominion; and it was not long before the Achaemenian princes determined to
make it the capital of their whole empire and the chief place of their own
residence. According to some writers the change was made by Cyrus;
according to others it had at any rate taken place before the death of
Cambyses; but, according to the evidence of the place itself and of the
other Achaemenian monuments, it would seem most probable that the transfer
was really the work of Darius Hystaspes. Nehemiah resided here. (Nehemiah
1:1) Shushan was situated on the Ulai or Choaspes. It is identified with
the modern Sus or Shush, its ruins are about three miles in
circumference. (Here have been found the remains of the great palace build
by Darius, the father of Xerxes, in which and the surrounding buildings
took place the scenes recorded in the life of Esther. The great central
hall was 343 feet long by 244 feet wide. The king's gate, says Schaff,
where Mordecai sat, "was probably a hall 100 feet square, 150 feet from
the northern portico. Between these two was probably the inner court,
where Esther appeared before the king." -- ED.)


(the lily of testimony), (Psalms 60:1) ... is probably an
abbreviation of "Shoshannim-eduth." (Psalms 80:1) ... [SHOSHANNIM]




(noise of breaking), head of an Ephraimite family, called after him
Shuthalhites, (Numbers 26:35) and lineal ancestor of Joshua the son of
Numb (1 Chronicles 7:20-27)


The "children of Sia" were a family of Nethinim who returned with
Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:47) The name is written SIAHA in (Ezra 2:44) and
SUD in 1 Esd. 5:29.


- Sia. (Ezra 2:44)


= SIBBECHAI the Hushathite.


(a weaver), one of David's guard, and eighth captain for the eighth
month of 24,000 men of the king's 1043.) He belonged to one of the
principal families of Judah, the Zarhites or the descendants of Zerah, and
is called "the Hushathite," probably from the place of his birth.
Sibbechai's great exploit, which gave him a place among the mighty men of
David's army, was his single combat with Saph or Sippai, tire Philistine
giant, in the battle at, Gezer or Gob. (2 Samuel 21:18; 1 Chronicles


the Ephraimite pronunciation of the word Shibboleth. (Judges 12:6)




(twofold hope), one of the landmarks on the northern boundary of
the holy land as stated by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 47:16) It has not been


(Genesis 12:6) [SHECHEM]


(sish’eon), 1 Macc. 15:23, a celebrated Greek city in Peloponnesus,
upon the Corinthian Gulf.


(field, plain), The vale of, a place named only in one passage of
Genesis -- (Genesis 14:3,8,10) It was one of that class of valleys which
the Hebrews designated by the word emek. This term appears to have
been assigned to a broad, flattish tract, sometimes of considerable width,
enclosed on each side by a definite range of hills. It has so far a
suitable spot for the combat between the four and five kings, ver. 8; but
it contained a multitude of bitumen-pits sufficient materially to affect
the issue of the battle. In this valley the kings of the five allied
cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Bela seem to, have awaited
the approach of the invaders. It is therefore probable that it was in the
neighborhood of the "plain or circle of Jordan" in which those cities
stood. If we could venture, as some have done, to interpret the latter
clause of ver. 3 "which is near," or "which is at, or by, the Salt Sea,"
then we might agree with Dr. Robinson and others in identifying the valley
of Siddim with the enclosed plain which intervenes between the south end
of the lake and the range of heights which terminate the Ghor and
commence the Wady Arabah. But the original of the passage seems to
imply that the Salt Sea covers the actual space formerly occupied by the
vale of Siddim. [SEA, THE SALT, THE SALT]


a city on the coast of Pamphylia, 10 or 12 miles to the east of the river
Eurymedon. It is mentioned in 1 Macc. 15:23, and was a colony of


the Greek form of the Phoenician name Zidon. [ZIDON, OR SIDON]


the Greek form of the word Zidonians, usually so exhibited in the
Authorized Version of the Old Testament. It occurs (3:9; Joshua 13:4,6;
Judges 3:3; 1 Kings 5:6) [ZIDON, OR SIDON]


(warrior) king of the Amorites when Israel arrived on the borders
of the promised land. (Numbers 21:21) (B.C. 1451.) Shortly before the time
of Israel's arrival he had dispossessed the Moabites of a splendid
territory, driving them south of the natural bulwark of the Amen. Ibid.
(Numbers 21:26-29) When the Israelite host appeared, he did not hesitate
or temporize like Balak, but at once gathered his people together and
attacked them. But the battle was his last. He and all his host were
destroyed, and their district from Amen to Jabbok became at once the
possession of the conqueror.


(dark), accurately Shi’hor, once The Shihor, or
Shihor of Egypt, when unqualified a name of the Nile. It is held to
signify "the black" or "turbid." In Jeremiah the identity of Shihor with
the Nile seems distinctly stated. (Jeremiah 2:18) The stream mentioned in
(1 Chronicles 13:5) is possibly that of the Wadi l’ Areesh


(contracted form of Silvanus, woody), an eminent member of the
early Christian Church, described under that name in the Acts but as
Silvanus in St. Paul's epistles. He first appears as one of the leaders of
the church at Jerusalem (Acts 15:22) holding the office of an inspired
teacher. (Acts 15:32) His name, derived from the Latin silva,
"wood," betokens him a Hellenistic Jew, and he appears to have been a
Roman citizen. (Acts 16:37) He was appointed as a delegate to accompany
Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch with the decree of the
Council of Jerusalem. (Acts 15:22,32) Having accomplished this mission, he
returned to Jerusalem. (Acts 15:33) He must, however, have immediately
revisited Antioch, for we find him selected by St. Paul as the companion
of his second missionary journey. (Acts 15:40; Acts 17:10) At Berea he was
left behind with Timothy while St. Paul proceeded to Athens, (Acts 17:14)
and we hear nothing more of his movements until he rejoined the apostle at
Corinth. (Acts 18:5) His presence at Corinth is several times noticed. (2
Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1) Whether he was
the Silvanus who conveyed St. Peter's first epistle to Asia Minor, (1
Peter 5:12) is doubtful the probabilities are in favor of the identity. A
tradition of very slight authority represents Silas to have become bishop
of Corinth.


The only undoubted notice of silk in the Bible occurs in (Revelation
18:12) where it is mentioned among the treasures of the typical Babylon.
It is however, in the highest degree probable that the texture was known
to the Hebrews from the time that their commercial relations were extended
by Solomon. The well-known classical name of the substance does not occur
in the Hebrew language.


(a highway). "The house of Millo which goeth down to Silla" was the
scene of the murder of King Joash. (2 Kings 12:20) What or where Sills was
is entirely matter of conjecture. Some have suggested the pool of


properly "the pool of Shelach." (Nehemiah 3:15) [SILOAM]


(sent). Shiloach, (Isaiah 8:6) Siloah, (Nehemiah 3:15) Siloam,
(John 9:11) Siloam is one of the few undisputed localities in the
topography of Jerusalem; still retaining its old name (with Arabic
modification, Silwan), while every other pool has lost its Bible
designation. This is the more remarkable as it is a mere suburban tank of
no great size, and for many an age not particularly good or plentiful in
its waters, though Josephus tells us that in his day they were both "sweet
and abundant." A little way below the Jewish burying-ground, but on the
opposite side of the valley, where the Kedron turns slightly westward and
widens itself considerable, is the fountain of the Virgin, or
Um’ed’Deraj, near the beginning of that saddle-shaped
projection of the temple hill supposed to be the Ophel of The Bible and
the Ophlas of Josephus. At the back part of this fountain a subterraneous
passage begins, through which the water flows, and through which a man may
make his way, sometimes walking erect, sometimes stooping, sometimes
kneeling, and sometime crawling, to Siloam. This conduit is 1708 feet
long, 16 feet high at the entrance, but only 16 inches at its narrowest
tributaries which sent their waters down from the city pools or temple
wells to swell Siloam. It enters Siloam at the northwest angle; or rather
enters a small rock-cut chamber which forms the vestibule of
Siloam, about five or six feet broad. To this you descend by a few rude
steps, under which the water pours itself into the main pool. This pool is
oblong, about 52 feet long, 18 feet broad and 19 feet deep; but it is
never filled, the water either passing directly through or being
maintained at a depth of three or four feet. The present pool is a ruin,
with no moss or ivy to make it romantic; its sides fallen in; its pillars
broken; its stair a fragment; its walls giving way; the edge of every
stone was round or sharp by time; in some parts mere debris,
though around its edges wild flowers, and among other plants the caper
trees, grow luxuriantly. The present pool is not the original building; it
may be the work of crusaders, perhaps even improved by Saladin, whose
affection for wells and pools led him to care for all these things. Yet
the spot is the same. This pool, which we may call the second,
seems anciently to have poured its waters into a third before it
proceeded to water the royal gardens. This third is perhaps that which
Josephus calls "Solomon's pool," and which nehemiah calls the "king's
pool." (Nehemiah 2:14) The expression in (Isaiah 8:6) "waters of Shiloah
that go softly," seems to point to the slender rivulet, flowing gently
though once very profusely out of Siloam into the lower breadth of level
where the king's gardens, or royal paradise, stood, and which is still the
greenest spot about the holy city. Siloam is a mere spot even to the
Moslem; much more to the Jew. It was to Siloam that the Levite was sent
with the golden pitcher on the "last and great day of the feast" of
Tabernacles; it was from Siloam that he brought the water which was then
poured over the sacrifice, in memory of the water from the rock of
Rephidim; and it was to this Siloam water that the Lord pointed when he
stood in the temple on that day and cried, "If any man thirst let him come
unto me and drink." The Lord sent the blind man to wash, not in,
as our version has it, but at (eis), the pool of siloam; for
it was the clay from his eyes that was to be washed off.


(Luke 13:4) Of this we know nothing definitely beyond these words of the
Lord. In connection with Ophel, there is mention made of "a tower that
lieth out
," (Nehemiah 3:26) and there is no unlikelihood in
connecting this projecting tower with the tower in Siloam, while
one may be almost excused for the conjecture that its projection was the
cause of its ultimate fall.




In very early times silver was used for ornaments, (Genesis 24:53) and for
vessels of various kinds. Images for idolatrous worship were made of
silver or overlaid with it, (Exodus 20:23; Hosea 13:2); Habb 2:19 Bar.
6:39, and the manufacture of silver shrines for Diana was a trade in
Ephesus. (Acts 19:24) But its chief use was as a medium of exchange, and
throughout the Old Testament we find "silver" used for money, like the
French argent. Silver was brought to Solomon from Arabia, (2
Chronicles 9:14) and from Tarshish, (2 Chronicles 9:21) which supplied the
markets of Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:12) From Tarshish it came int he form of
plates, (Jeremiah 10:9) like those on which the sacred books of the
Singhalese are written to this day. Spain appears to have been the chief
source whence silver was obtained by the ancients. Possibly the hills of
Palestine may have afforded some supply of this metal. Silvers mixed with
alloy is referred to in (Jeremiah 6:30) and a finer kind, either purer in
itself or more thoroughly purified, is mentioned in (Proverbs 8:19)


a word used once only in the Authorized Version, (Isaiah 7:23) as a
translation of the Hebrew word elsewhere rendered "silver" or "money."



  • The second of Jacob's son by Leah. His birth is recorded in (Genesis
    29:33) The first group of Jacob's children consists, besides Simeon, of
    the three other sons of Leah -- Reuben, Levi, Judah. Besides the massacre
    of Shechem, (Genesis 34:25) the only personal incident related of Simeon
    is the fact of his being selected by Joseph as the hostage for the
    appearance of Benjamin. (Genesis 42:19,24,36; 43:23) The chief families of
    the tribe of Simeon are mentioned int he lists of (Genesis 46:10) At the
    census of Sinai Simeon numbered 59,300 fighting men. (Numbers 1:23) When
    the second census was taken, at Shittim, the numbers had fallen to 22,200,
    and it was the weakest of all the tribes. This was no doubt partly due to
    the recent mortality following the idolatry of Peor, but there must have
    been other causes which have escaped mention. To Simeon was allotted a
    portion of land out of the territory of Judah, on its southern frontier,
    which contained eighteen or nineteen cities, with their villages, spread
    round the venerable well of Beersheba. (Joshua 19:1-8; 1 Chronicles
    4:28-33) Of these places, with the help of Judah, the Simeonites possessed
    themselves, (Judges 1:3,17) and there they were found, doubtless by Joab,
    residing in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 4:31) What part of the tribe
    took at the time of the division of the kingdom we are not told. The only
    thing which can be interpreted into a trace of its having taken any part
    with the northern kingdom are the two casual notices of (2 Chronicles
    15:9) and 2Chr 34:6 Which appear to imply the presence of Simeonites there
    in the reigns of Asa and Josiah. On the other hand the definite statement
    of (1 Chronicles 4:41-43) proves that at that time there were still some
    of them remaining in the original seat of the tribe, and actuated by all
    the warlike, lawless spirit of their progenitor.

  • A devout Jew, inspired by the Holy Ghost, who met the parents of our
    Lord in the temple, took him in his arms, and gave thanks for what he saw
    and knew of Jesus. (Luke 2:25-35) There was a Simeon who succeeded his
    father Hillel as president of the Sanhedrin about A.D. 13, and whose son
    Gamaliel was the Pharisee at whose feet St. Paul was brought up. (Acts
    22:3) It has been conjectured that he may be the Simeon of St. Luke.


(Acts 13:1) [NIGER]


(contracted form of Simeon, a hearing).

  • Son of Mattathias. [MACCABEES]

  • Son of Onias the high priest, whose eulogy closes the "praise of
    famous men" in the book of Ecclesiasticus, ch. 4. (B.C. 302-293.)

  • A "governor of the temple" in the time of Seleucus Philopator, whose
    information as to the treasures of the temple led to the sacrilegious
    attach of Heliordorus. 2 Macc. 3:4, etc. (B.C. 175.)

  • Simon the brother of Jesus. The only undoubted notice of this Simon
    occurs in (Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3) He has been identified by some writers
    with Simon the Canaanite, and still more generally with Symeon who became
    bishop of Jerusalem after the death of James, A.D. 62. The former of these
    opinions rests on no evidence whatever, nor is the later without its

  • Simon the Canaanite, one of the twelve apostles, (Matthew 10:4; Mark
    3:18) otherwise described as Simon Zelotes, (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) (A.D.
    28.) The latter term, which is peculiar to Luke, is the Greek equivalent
    for the Chaldee term preserved by Matthew and Mark. [CANAANITE, THE] Each
    of these equally points out Simon as belonging to the faction of the
    Zealots, who were conspicuous for their fierce advocacy of the Mosaic

  • Simon of Cyrene, a Hellenistic Jew, born at Cyrene, on the north coast
    of Africa, who was present at Jerusalem at the time of the crucifixion of
    Jesus, either as an attendant at the feast, (Acts 2:10) or as one of the
    numerous settlers at Jerusalem from that place. (Acts 6:9) (A.D. 30.)
    Meeting the procession that conducted Jesus to Golgotha, as he was
    returning from the country, he was pressed into the service to bear the
    cross, (Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26) when Jesus himself was
    unable to carry it any longer. Comp. (John 19:17) Mark describes him as
    the father of Alexander and Rufus, perhaps because this was the Rufus
    known to the Roman Christians, (Romans 16:13) for whom he more especially

  • Simon, a resident at Bethany, distinguished as "the leper." It is not
    improbable that he had been miraculously cured by Jesus. In his house Mary
    anointed Jesus preparatory to his death and burial. (Matthew 26:6) etc.;
    Mark 14:3 etc.; John 12:1 etc.

  • Simon Magus, a Samaritan living in the apostolic age, distinguished as
    a sorcerer or "magician," from his practice of magical arts. (Acts 8:9)
    According to ecclesiastical writers he was born at Gitton, a village of
    Samaria, and was probably educated at Alexandria in the tenets of the
    Gnostic school. He is first introduced to us as practicing magical arts in
    a city of Samaria, perhaps Sychar, (Acts 8:5) comp. John 4:5 And with such
    success that he was pronounced to be "the power of God which is called
    great." (Acts 8:10) The preaching and miracles of Philip having excited
    his observation, he became one of his disciples, and received baptism at
    his hands, A.D. 36,37. Subsequently he witnessed the effect produced by
    the imposition of hands, as practiced by the apostles Peter and John, and,
    being desirous of acquiring a similar power for himself, he offered a sum
    of money for it. His object evidently was to apply the power to the
    prosecution of magical arts. The motive and the means were equally to be
    reprobated; and his proposition met with a severe denunciation from Peter,
    followed by a petition on the part of Simon, the tenor of which bespeaks
    terror, but not penitence. (Acts 8:9-24) The memory of his peculiar guilt
    has been perpetuated in the word simony, as applied to all traffic
    in spiritual offices. Simon's history, subsequent to his meeting with
    Peter, is involved in difficulties. Early Church historians depict him as
    the pertinacious foe of the apostle Peter, whose movements he followed for
    the purpose of seeking encounters, in which he was signally defeated. He
    is said to have followed the apostle to Rome. His death is associated with
    this meeting. According to Hippolytus, the earliest authority on the
    subject, Simon was buried alive at his own request, in the confident
    assurance that he would rise on the third day.

  • Simon Peter. [PETER]

  • Simon, a Pharisee, in whose house a penitent woman anointed the head
    and feet of Jesus. (Luke 7:40)

  • Simon the tanner, a Christian convert living at Joppa, at whose house
    Peter lodged. (Acts 9:43) The house was near the seaside, (Acts 10:6,32)
    for the convenience of the water. (A.D. 37.)

  • Simon the father of Judas Iscariot. (John 6:71; 13:2,26)


(vigilant), properly Shimri, son of Hosah, a Merarite Levite in the
reign of David. (1 Chronicles 26:10)


a city of Egypt, mentioned only by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 30:15,16) The name is
Hebrew, or at least Semitic, perhaps signifying clay. It is
identified in the Vulgate with Pelusium, "the clayey or muddy" town. Its
antiquity may perhaps be inferred from the mention of "the wilderness of
Sin" in the journeys of the Israelites. (Exodus 16:1; Numbers 33:11)
Ezekiel speaks of Sin as "Sin the strongholds of Egypt." (Ezekiel 30:15)
This place was held by Egypt from that time until the period of the
Romans. Herodotus relates that Sennacherib advanced against Pelusium, and
that near Pelusium Cambyses defeated Psammenitus. In like manner the
decisive battle in which Ochus defeated the last native king, Nectanebes,
was fought near this city.


a tract of the wilderness which the Israelites reached after leaving the
encampment by the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:11,23) Their next halting-place,
(Exodus 16:1; 17:1) was Rephidim, probably the Wady Feiran
[REPHIDIM]; on which supposition it would follow that Sin must lie between
that way and the coast of the Gulf of Suez, and of course west of Sinai.
In the wilderness of Sin the manna was first gathered, and those who adopt
the supposition that this was merely the natural product of the
tarfa bush find from the abundance of that shrub in Wady
, southeast of Wady Ghurundel, a proof of local


The sin offering among the Jews was the sacrifice in which the ideas of
propitiation and of atonement for sin were most distinctly marked. The
ceremonial of the sin offering is described in Levi 4 and 6. The trespass
offering is closely connected with the sin offering in Leviticus, but at
the same time clearly distinguished from it, being in some cases offered
with it as a distinct part of the same sacrifice; as, for example, in the
cleansing of the leper. Levi 14. The distinction of ceremonial clearly
indicates a difference in the idea of the two sacrifices. The nature of
that difference is still a subject of great controversy. We find that the
sin offerings were --

  • Regular. (a) For the whole people, at the New Moon, Passover,
    Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets and Feast of Tabernacles, (Numbers 28:15-29;
    38:1) ... besides the solemn offering of the two goats on the Great Day of
    Atonement. Levi 16 (B) For the priests and Levites at their consecration,
    (Exodus 29:10-14,36) besides the yearly sin offering (a, bullock) for the
    high priest on the Great Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16:2) Special
    . For any sin of "ignorance" and the like recorded in Levi 4 and 5. It is
    seen that in the law most of the sins which are not purely ceremonial are
    called sins of "ignorance," see (Hebrews 9:7) and in Numb 15:30 It is
    expressly said that while such sins call be atoned for by offerings, "the
    soul that doeth aught presumptuously " (Heb. with a high
    ) "shall be cut off from among his people." "His iniquity shall he
    upon him." Comp. (Hebrews 10:20) But here are sufficient indications that
    the sins here called "of ignorance" are more strictly those of
    "negligence" or "frailty" repented of by the unpunished offender, as
    opposed to those of deliberate and unrepentant sin. It is clear that two
    classes of sacrifices, although distinct, touch closely upon each other.
    It is also evident that the sin offering was the only regular and general
    recognition of sin in the abstract and accordingly was for more solemn and
    symbolical in it's ceremonial; the trespass offering was confined to
    special cases, most of which related to the doing of some material damage,
    either to the holy things or to man. Josephus declares that the sin
    offering is presented by those "who fall into sin in ignorance." and the
    trespass offering by "one who has sinned and is conscious of his sin. But
    has no one to convict him thereof." Without attempting to decide so
    difficult and so controverted a question, we may draw the following
    conclusions. First, that the sin offering was for the more solemn and
    comprehensive of the two sacrifices. Secondly, that the sin offering
    looked more to the guilt of the sin done, irrespective of its
    consequences, while the trespass offering looked to the evil consequences
    of sin, either against the service of God or against man, and to the duty
    of atonement, as far as atonement was possible. Thirdly, that in the sin
    offering especially we find symbolized the acknowledgment of sinfulness as
    inherent in man, and of the need of expiation by sacrifice to renew the
    broken covenant between man and God. In considering this subject, it must
    he remembered that the sacrifices of the law had a temporal as well as a
    spiritual significance and effect. They restored sin offender to his place
    in the commonwealth of Israel; they were therefore an atonement to the
    King of Israel for the infringement of his low.


the Greek form of the well-known name Sinai. (Acts 7:30,38)


(thorny). Nearly in the centre of the peninsula which stretches
between the horns of the Red Sea lies a wedge of granite, grunstein and
porphyry rocks rising to between 8000 and 9000 feet above the sea. Its
shape resembles st scalene triangle. These mountains may be divided into
two great masses-that of Jebel Serbal (8759 feet high), in the
northwest above Wady Feiran, and the central group, roughly
denoted by the general name of Sinai. This group rises abruptly from the
Wady es-Sheikh at its north foot, first to the cliffs of the Ras
, behind which towers the pinnacle of Jebel Musa (the
Mount of Moses), and farther back to the right of it the summit of
Jebel Katerin (Mount St. Catherine, 8705 feet) all being backed up
and. overtopped by Um Shamer (the mother of fennel, 9300
feet), which is the highest point of the whole peninsula.

  • Names. -- These mountains are called Horeb, and sometimes
    Sinai. Some think that Horeb is the name of the whole range, and Sinai the
    name of a particular mountain; others, that Sinai is the range and Horeb
    the particular mountain; while Stanley suggests that the distinction is
    one of usage, and that both names are applied to the same place.

  • The mountain from which the law was given. -- Modern
    investigators have generally come to the conclusion that of the claimants
    Jebel Serba, Jebel Musa and Ras Sufsafeh, the last the modern Horeb of the
    monks -- viz. the northwest and lower face of the Jebel Musa, crowned with
    a range of magnificent cliffs, the highest point called Ras Sufsafeh, as
    overlooking the plain er Rahah -- is the scene of the giving of the
    law, and that peak the mountain into which Moses ascended. (But Jebel Musa
    and Ras Sufsafeh are really peaks of the Same mountain, and Moses may have
    received the law on Jebel Musa, but it must have been proclaimed from Ras
    Sufsafeh. Jebel Musa is the traditional mount where Moses received the law
    from God. It is a mountain mass two miles long and one mile broad, The
    southern peak is 7363 feet high; the northern peak, Ras Sufsafeh is 6830
    feet high. It is in full view of the plain er Rahah, where the children of
    Israel were encamped. This plain is a smooth camping-ground, surrounded by
    mountains. It is about two miles long by half a mile broad, embracing 400
    acres of available standing round made into a natural amphitheatre by a
    low semicircular mount about 300 yards from the foot of the mountain. By
    actual measurement it contains over 2,000,000 square yards, and with its
    branches over 4,000,000 square yards, so that the whole people of Israel,
    two million in number, would find ample accommodations for seeing and
    hearing. In addition to this, the air is wonderfully clear, both for
    seeing and hearing. Dean Stanley says that "from the highest point of Ras
    Sufsafeh to its lower peak, a distance of about 60 feet, the page of a
    book distinctly but not loudly read was perfectly audible." It was the
    belief of the Arabs who conducted Niebuhr that they could make themselves
    heard across the Gulf of Akabah, -- a belief fostered by the great
    distance to which the voice can actually be carried. There is no other
    place known among all these mountains so well adapted for the purpose of
    giving and receiving the law as this rocky pulpit of Ras Sufsafeh and the
    natural amphitheatre of er Rahah.


a people noticed in (Isaiah 49:12) as living at the extremity of the known
world. They may be identified with the classical Sinoe, the
inhabitants of the southern part of China.


a tribe of Canaanites, (Genesis 10:17; 1 Chronicles 1:15) whose position
is to be sought for in the northern part of the Lebanon district.


(lofty), Mount.

  • One of the various names of Mount Hermon. (4:48) only.

  • The Greek form of the Hebrew name Zion, the famous mount of the
    temple. 1 Macc. 4:37,60; 5:54; 6:48,62; 7:33; 10:11; 14:27; (Hebrews
    12:22; Revelation 14:1) [JERUSALEM]


(fruitful), one of the places in the south of Judah which David
frequented during his freebooting life. (1 Samuel 30:28)


(threshold), Saph, one of the sons of Rephaim, or "the giants,"
slain by Sibbechai at Gezer. (1 Chronicles 20:4) (B.C. about 1050.)


the father of Jesus (Joshua), the writer of the Hebrew original of the
book of Ecclesiasticus. (B.C. 310-220.)


(the turning), The well of, from which Abner was recalled by
Joab to his death at Hebron. (2 Samuel 3:26) only. It was apparently on
the northern road from Hebron. There is a spring and reservoir on the
western side of the ancient northern road, about one mile out of Hebron,
which is called Ain Sara.


(breastplate), one of the various names of Mount Hermon, that by
which it was known to the Zidonians. (3:9) The use of the name in (Psalms
29:6) (slightly altered in the original -- Shirion instead of Sirion) is


a descendant of Sheshan in the line of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:40)
(B.C. about 1450.)


(battle array).

  • Captain of the army of Jabin king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor. He
    himself resided in Harosheth of the Gentiles. The particulars of the rout
    of Megiddo and of Sisera's flight and death are drawn out under the heads
    of BARAK, DEBORAH, JAEL, KISHON. (B.C. 1296.)

  • After a long interval the name appears in the lists of Nethinim who
    returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:53; Nehemiah 7:55) It
    doubtless tells of Canaanite captives devoted to the lowest offices of the
    temple. (B.C. before 536.)


(strife), the second of the two wells dug by Isaac in the valley of
Gerar, the possession of which the herdmen of the valley disputed with
him. (Genesis 26:21)




The institution of slavery was recognized, though not established, by the
Mosaic law with a view to mitigate its hardship and to secure to every man
his ordinary rights. I. Hebrew slaves. --

  • The circumstances under which a Hebrew might be reduced to servitude
    were -- (1) poverty; (2) the commission of theft; and (3) the exercise of
    paternal authority. In the first case, a man who had mortgaged his
    property, and was unable to support his family, might sell himself to
    another Hebrew, with a view both to obtain maintenance and perchance a
    surplus sufficient to redeem his property. (Leviticus 25:25,39) (2) The
    commission of theft rendered a person liable to servitude whenever
    restitution could not be made on the scale prescribed by the law. (Exodus
    22:1,3) The thief was bound to work out the value of his restitution money
    in the service of him on whom the theft had been committed. (3) The
    exercise of paternal authority was limited to the sale of a daughter of
    tender age to be a maidservant, with the ulterior view of her becoming the
    concubine of the purchaser. (Exodus 21:7)

  • The servitude of a Hebrew might be terminated in three ways: (1) by
    the satisfaction or the remission of all claims against him; (2) by the
    recurrence of the year of jubilee, (Leviticus 25:40) and (3) the
    expiration of six years from the time that his servitude commenced.
    (Exodus 21:2; 15:12) (4) To the above modes of obtaining liberty the
    rabbinists added, as a fourth, the death of the master without leaving a
    son, there being no power of claiming the salve on the part of any heir
    except a son. If a servant did not desire to avail himself of the
    opportunity of leaving his service, he was to signify his intention in a
    formal manner before the judges (or more exactly at the place of
    ), and then the master was to take him to the door-post, and
    to bore his ear through with an awl, (Exodus 21:6) driving the awl into or
    "unto the door," as stated in (15:17) and thus fixing the servant to it. A
    servant who had submitted to this operation remained, according to the
    words of the law, a servant "forever." (Exodus 21:6) These words are
    however, interpreted by Josephus and by the rabbinsts as meaning until the
    year of jubilee.

  • The condition of a Hebrew servant was by no means intolerable. His
    master was admonished to treat him, not "as a bond-servant, but as an
    hired servant and as a sojourner," and, again, "not to rule over him with
    rigor." (Leviticus 25:39,40,43) At the termination of his servitude the
    master was enjoined not to "let him go away empty," but to remunerate him
    liberally out of his flock, his floor and his wine-press. (15:13,14) In
    the event of a Hebrew becoming the servant of a "stranger," meaning a
    non-Hebrew, the servitude could be terminated only in two ways, viz. by
    the arrival of the year of jubilee, or by the repayment to the master of
    the purchase money paid for the servant, after deducting a sum for the
    value of his services proportioned to the length of his servitude.
    (Leviticus 25:47-55) A Hebrew woman might enter into voluntary servitude
    on the score of poverty, and in this case she was entitled to her freedom
    after six years service, together with her usual gratuity at leaving, just
    as in the case of a man. (15:12,13) Thus far we have seen little that is
    objectionable in the condition of Hebrew servants. In respect to marriage
    there were some peculiarities which, to our ideas, would be regarded as
    hardships. A master might, for instance, give a wife to a Hebrew servant
    for the time of his servitude, the wife being in this case, it must be
    remarked, not only a slave but a non-Hebrew. Should he leave when his term
    had expired, his wife and children would remain the absolute property of
    the master. (Exodus 21:4,5) Again, a father might sell his young daughter
    to a Hebrew, with a view either of marrying her himself or of giving her
    to his son. (Exodus 21:7-9) It diminishes the apparent harshness of this
    proceeding if we look on the purchase money as in the light of a dowry
    given, as was not unusual, to the parents of the bride; still more, if we
    accept the rabbinical view that the consent of the maid was required
    before the marriage could take place. The position of a maiden thus sold
    by her father was subject to the following regulations: (1) She could not
    "go out as the men-servants do," i.e. she could not leave at the
    termination of six years, or in the year of jubilee, if her master was
    willing to fulfill the object for which he had purchased her. (2) Should
    he not wish to marry her, he should call upon her friends to procure her
    release by the repayment of the purchase money. (3) If he betrothed her to
    his son, he was bound to make such provision for her as he would for one
    of his own daughters. (4) If either he or his son, having married her,
    took a second wife, it should not be to the prejudice of the first. (5) If
    neither of the three first specified alternatives took place, the maid was
    entitled to immediate and gratuitous liberty. (Exodus 21:7-11) The custom
    of reducing Hebrews to servitude appears to have fallen into disuse
    subsequent to the Babylonish captivity. Vast numbers of Hebrews were
    reduced to slavery as war-captives at different periods by the
    Phoenicians, (Joel 3:6) the Philistines, (Joel 3:6; Amos 1:6), the
    Syrians, 1 Macc. 3:42; 2 Macc. 8:11, the Egyptians, Joseph Ant.
    xii. 2,3, and above all by the Romans. Joseph. B.C. vi. 9,3. II.
    Non-Hebrew slaves. --

  • The majority of non-Hebrew slaves were war-captives, either of the
    Canaanites who had survived the general extermination of their race under
    Joshua or such as were conquered from the other surrounding nations.
    (Numbers 31:26) ff. Besides these, many were obtained by purchase from
    foreign slave-dealers, (Leviticus 25:44,45) and others may have been
    resident foreigners who were reduced to this state by either poverty or
    crime. The children of slaves remained slaves, being the class described
    as "born in the house," (Genesis 14:14; 17:12; Ecclesiastes 2:7) and hence
    the number was likely to increase as time went on. The average value of a
    slave appears to have been thirty shekels. (Exodus 21:32)

  • That the slave might be manumitted appears from (Exodus 21:26,27;
    Leviticus 19:20)

  • The slave is described as the "possession" of his master, apparently
    with a special reference to the power which the latter had of disposing of
    him to his heirs, as he would any other article of personal property.
    (Leviticus 25:45,46) But, on the other hand, provision was made for the
    protection of his person. (Exodus 21:20; Leviticus 24:17,22) A minor
    personal injury, such as the loss of an eye or a tooth, was to be
    recompensed by giving the servant his liberty. (Exodus 21:26,27) The
    position of the slave in regard to religious privileges was favorable. He
    was to be circumcised, (Genesis 17:12) and hence was entitled to partake
    of the paschal sacrifice, (Exodus 12:44) as well as of the other religious
    festivals. (12:12,18; 16:11,14) The occupations of slaves were of a menial
    character, as implied in (Leviticus 25:39) consisting partly in the work
    of the house and partly in personal attendance on the master. It will be
    seen that the whole tendency of the Bible legislation was to mitigate
    slavery, making it little than hired service, and to abolish it, as indeed
    it was practically abolished among the Jews six hundred years before


translated bitumen in the Vulgate. The three instances in which it
is mentioned in the Old Testament are illustrated by travellers and
historians. It is first spoken of as used for cement by the builders in
the plain of Shinar or Babylonia. (Genesis 11:3) The bitumen pits in the
vale of Siddim are mentioned in the ancient fragment of Canaanitish
history, (Genesis 14:10) and the ark of papyrus in which Moses was placed
was made impervious to water by a coating of bitumen and pitch. (Exodus
2:3) Herodotus, i. 179, tells us of the bitumen found at Is, the modern
Heet, a town of Babylonia, eight days journey from Babylon.
(Bitumen, or asphalt, is "the product of the decomposition of vegetable
and animal substances. It is usually found of a black or brownish-black
color, externally not unlike coal, but it varies in a consistency from a
bright, pitchy condition, with a conchoidal fracture, to thick, viscid
masses of mineral tar." -- Encyc. Brit. In this last state it is called in
the Bible slime, and is of the same nature as our petroleum, but thicker,
and hardens into asphalt. It is obtained in various places in Europe, and
even now occasionally from the Dead Sea. -- ED.)






(myrrh), a city of Asia Minor, situated on the AEgean Sea, 40 miles
north of Ephesus. Allusion is made to it in (Revelation 2:8-11) It was
founded by Alexander the Great, and was situated twenty shades (2 1/2
miles) from the city of the same name, which after a long series of wars
with the Lydians had been finally taken and sacked by Halyattes. The
ancient city was built by some piratical Greeks 1500 years before Christ.
It seems not impossible that the message to the church in Smyrna contains
allusions to the ritual of the pagan mysteries which prevailed in that
city. In the time of Strabo the ruins of the old Smyrna still existed, and
were partially inhabited, but the new city was one of the most beautiful
in all Asia. The streets were laid out as near as might be at right
angles. There was a large public library there, and also a handsome
building surrounded with porticos which served as a museum. It was
consecrated as a heroum to Homer, whom the Smyrnaeans claimed as a
countryman. Olympian games were celebrated here, and excited great
interest. (Smyrna is still a large city of 180,000 to 200,000 inhabitants,
of which a larger proportion are Franks than in any other town in Turkey;
20,000 are Greeks, 9000 Jews, 8000 Armenians, 1000 Europeans, and the rest
are Moslems. -- ED.)


  • The Hebrew word shablul occurs only in (Psalms 58:8) The
    rendering of the Authorized Version is probably correct. The term would
    denote either a limax or a helix, which are particularly
    noticeable for the slimy track they leave behind them, by which they seem
    to waste themselves away. To this, or to the fact that many of them are
    shrivelled up among the rocks in the long heat of the summer, the psalmist

  • The Hebrew word chomet occurs only as the name of some unclean
    animal in (Leviticus 11:30) Perhaps some kind of lizard may be


This historical books of the Bible contain only two notices of snow
actually falling -- (2 Samuel 23:20) 1Macc 13:22; but the allusions in the
poetical books are so numerous that there can be no doubt as to its being
an ordinary occurrence in the winter months. (Psalms 147:16; 148:8) The
snow lies deep in the ravines of the highest ridge of Lebanon until the
summer is far advanced and indeed never wholly disappears; the summit of
Hermon also perpetually glistens with frozen snow. From these sources
probably the Jews obtained their supplies of ice for the purpose of
cooling their beverages in summer. (Proverbs 25:13) The liability to snow
must of course vary considerably in a country of such varying altitude as
Palestine. At Jerusalem snow often falls to the depth of a foot or more in
january or February, but it seldom lies. At Nazareth it falls more
frequently and deeply,a nd it has been observed to fall even in the
maritime plain of Joppa and about Carmel.


"So, king of Egypt," is once mentioned in the Bible -- (2 Kings 17:4) So
has been identified by different writers with the first and second kings
of the Ethiopian twenty-fifth dynasty, called by Manetho, Sabakon (Shebek)
and Sebichos (Shebetek).


The Hebrew term borith is a general term for any substance of
cleansing qualities. As, however, it appears in (Jeremiah 2:22) in
contradistinction to nether, which undoubtedly means "natron" or
mineral alkali, it is fair to infer that borith refers to vegetable
alkali, or some kind of potash, which forms one of the usual ingredients
in our soap. Numerous plants capable of yielding alkalies exist in
Palestine and the surrounding countries; we may notice one named
hubeibeh (the Salsola kali of botanists) found near the Dead
Sea, the ashes of which are called el-kuli, from their strong
alkaline properties.


(bushy). (1 Chronicles 4:18) Probably one of the towns called
Socoh, in Judah, though which of the two cannot be ascertained.


another form of the name which is more correctly given in the Authorized
version as Socoh. The present one occurs in (1 Kings 4:10) and is
therefore probably, though not certainly, Socoh, 1.


the name of two towns in the tribe of Judah.

  • In the district of the Shefelah. (Joshua 15:35; 1 Samuel 17:1; 2
    Chronicles 11:7; 8:18) In the time of Eusebius it bore the name of
    Socchoth, and lay between eight and nine Roman miles from Eleutheropolis,
    on the road to Jerusalem. It may be identified with esh-Shuweikeh,
    in the western part of the mountains of Judah. From this village probably
    came Antigonus of Soco, who lived about the commencement of the third
    century B.C.

  • Also a town of Judah, but in the mountain district. (Joshua 15:48) It
    has been discovered about 10 miles southwest of Hebron; bearing, like the
    other Socoh, the name of esh-Shuweikeh.


(intimate), the father of Geddiel, the spy selected from the tribe
of Zebulun. (Numbers 13:10) (B.C. 1490.)


(burning), one of the most ancient cities of Syria. It is commonly
mentioned in connection with Gomorrah, but also with Admah and Zeboim, and
on one occasion -- (Genesis 14:1) ... -- with Bela or Zoar. Sodom was
evidently the chief town in the settlement. The four are first named in
the ethnological records of (Genesis 10:19) as belonging to the
Canaanites. The next mention of the name of Sodom, (Genesis 13:10-13)
gives more certain indication of the position of the city. Abram and Lot
are standing together between Bethel and Ai, ver. 3, taking a survey of
the land around and below them. Eastward of them, and absolutely at their
feet, lay the "circle of Jordan." The whole circle was one great oasis --
"a garden of Jehovah." ver. 10. In the midst of the garden the four cities
of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim appear to have been situated. It is
necessary to notice how absolutely the cities are identified with the
district. In the subsequent account of their destruction, (Genesis 19:1)
... the topographical terms are employed with all the precision which is
characteristic of such early times. The mention of the Jordan is
conclusive as to the situation of the district, for the Jordan ceases
where it enters the Dead Sea, and can have no existence south of that
point. The catastrophe by which they were destroyed is described in
(Genesis 19:1) ... as a shower of brimstone and fire from Jehovah. However
we may interpret the words of the earliest narrative, one thing is certain
-- that the lake was not one of the agents in the catastrophe. From all
these passages, though much is obscure, two things seem clear:

  • That Sodom and the rest of the cities of the plain of Jordan stood on
    the north of the Dead Sea;

  • That neither the cities nor the district were submerged by the lake,
    but that the cities were overthrown and the land spoiled, and that it may
    still be seen in its desolate condition. When, however, we turn to more
    modern views, we discover a remarkable variance from these

  • The opinion long current that the five cities were submerged in the
    lake, and that their remains -- walls, columns and capitals -- might he
    still discerned below the water, hardly needs refutation after the
    distinct statement and the constant implication of Scripture. But,

  • A more serious departure from the terms of the ancient history is
    exhibited in the prevalent opinion that the cities stood at the south end
    of the lake. This appears to, have been the belief of Josephus and Jerome.
    It seems to have been universally held by the medieval historians and
    pilgrims, and it is adopted by modern topographers probably without
    exception. There are several grounds for this belief; but the main point
    on which Dr. Robinson rests his argument is the situation of Zoar. (a)
    "Lot," says he, "fled to Zoar, which was near to Sodom; and Zoar
    lay almost at the southern end of the present sea, probably in the month
    of Wady Kerak." (b) Another consideration in favor of placing the
    cities at the southern end of the lake is the existence of similar names
    in that direction. (c) A third argument, and perhaps the weightiest of the
    three, is the existence of the salt mountain at the south of the lake, and
    its tendency to split off in columnar masses presenting a rude resemblance
    to the human form. But it is by no means certain that salt does not exist
    at other spots round the lake. (d) (A fourth and yet stronger argument is
    drawn from the fact that Abraham saw the smoke of the burning cities from
    Hebron. (e) A fifth argument is found in the numerous lime-pits found at
    that southern end of the Dead Sea. Robinson, Schaff, Baedeker, Lieutenant
    Lynch and others favor this view. -- ED.) It thus appears that on the
    situation of Sodom no satisfactory conclusion can at present be readied:
    On the one hand, the narrative of Genesis seems to state positively that
    it lay at the northern end of the Dead Sea. On the other hand,
    long-continued tradition and the names of the existing spots seem to
    pronounce with almost equal positiveness that it was at its southern end.
    Of the catastrophe which destroyed the city and the district of Sodom we
    can hardly hope ever to form a satisfactory conception. Some catastrophe
    there undoubtedly was but what secondary agencies, besides fire, were
    employed in the accomplishment of the punishment cannot be safely
    determined in the almost total absence of exact scientific description of
    the natural features of the ground round the lake. We may suppose,
    however, that the actual agent in the ignition and destruction of the
    cities had been of the nature of a tremendous thunder-storm accompanied by
    a discharge of meteoric stones, (and that these set on fire the bitumen
    with which the soil was saturated, and which was used in building the
    city. And it may be that this burning out of the soil caused the plain to
    sink below the level of the Dead Sea, and the waters to flow over it -- if
    indeed Sodom and its sister cities are really under the water. -- ED.) The
    miserable fate of Sodom and Gomorrah is held up as a warning in numerous
    passages of the Old and New Testaments. (Mark 8:11; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude


(Romans 2:29) In this place alone the Authorized Version has followed the
Greek and Vulgate form of the well-known name Sodom.


This word does not denote the inhabitants of Sodom; but it is employed in
the Authorized Version of the Old Testament for those who practiced as a
religious rite the abominable and unnatural vice from which the
inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah have derived their lasting infamy.


(peaceful). I. Early life and occasion to the throne. --
Solomon was the child of David's old age, the last born of all his sons.
(1 Chronicles 3:5) The yearnings of the "man of war" led him to give to
the new-horn infant the name of Solomon (Shelomoth, the peaceful
). Nathan, with a marked reference to the meaning of the king's own
name (David, the darling, the beloved one), calls the infant
Jedidiah (Jedid’yah), that is, the darling of the Lord. (2 Samuel
11:24,25) He was placed under the care of Nathan from his earliest
infancy. At first, apparently, there was no distinct purpose to make him
the heir. Absalom was still the king's favorite son, (2 Samuel 13:37;
18:33) and was looked on by the people as the destined successor. (2
Samuel 14:13; 15:1-6) The death of Absalom when Solomon was about ten
years old left the place vacant, and David pledged his word in secret to
Bath-sheba that he, and no other, should be the heir. (1 Kings 1:13) The
words which were spoken somewhat later express, doubtless, the purpose
which guided him throughout. (1 Chronicles 28:9; 20) His son's life should
not he as his own had been, one of hardships and wars, dark crimes and
passionate repentance, but, from first to last, be pure, blameless,
peaceful, fulfilling the ideal of glory and of righteousness after which
he himself had vainly striven. The glorious visions of (Psalms 72:1) ...
may be looked on as the prophetic expansion of these hopes of his old age.
So far,all was well. Apparently his influence over his son's character was
one exclusively for good. Nothing that we know of Bath-sheba lends us to
think of her as likely to mould her son's mind and heart to the higher
forms of goodness. Under these influences the boy grew up. At the age of
ten or eleven he must have passed through the revolt of Absalom, and
shared his father's exile. (2 Samuel 15:16) He would be taught all that
priests or Levites or prophets had to teach. When David was old and
feeble, Adonijah, Solomon's older brother attempted to gain possession of
the throne; but he was defeated, and Solomon went down to Gihon and was
proclaimed and anointed king. A few months more and Solomon found himself,
by his father's death, the sole occupant of the throne. The position to
which he succeeded was unique. Never before, and never after, did the
kingdom of Israel take its place among the great monarchies of the East.
Large treasures, accumulated through many years, were at his disposal. II.
Personal appearance. -- Of Solomon's personal appearance we have
no direct description, as we have of the earlier kings. There are,
however, materials for filling up the gap. Whatever higher mystic meaning
may be latent in (Psalms 45:1) ... or the Song of Songs, we are all but
compelled to think of them us having had at least a historical
starting-point. They tell of one who was, in the eyes of the men of his
own time, "fairer than the children of men," the face "bright, and ruddy"
as his father's, (Solomon 5:10; 1 Samuel 17:42) bushy locks, dark as the
raven's wing, yet not without a golden glow, the eyes soft as "the eyes of
cloves," the "countenance as Lebanon excellent as the cedars," "the
chiefest among ten thousand, the altogether lovely." (Solomon 5:13-18) Add
to this all gifts of a noble, far-reaching intellect large and ready
sympathies, a playful and genial humor, the lips "full of grace," and the
soul "anointed" as "with the oil of gladness," (Psalms 45:1) ... and we
may form some notion of what the king was like in that dawn of his golden
prime. III. Reign. -- All the data for a continuous history that
we have of Solomon's reign are -- (a) The duration of the reign, forty
sears, B.C. 1015-975. (1 Kings 11:4) (b) The commencement of the temple in
the fourth, its completion in the eleventh, year of his reign. (1 Kings
6:1,37,38) (c) The commencement of his own palace in the seventh, its
completion in the twentieth, year. (1 Kings 7:1; 2 Chronicles 8:1) (d) The
conquest of Hamath-zobah, and the consequent foundation of cities in the
region of north Palestine after the twentieth year. (2 Chronicles 8:1-6)
IV. Foreign policy. --

  • Egypt. The first act of the foreign policy of the new reign must have
    been to most Israelites a very startling one. He made affinity with
    Pharaoh, king of Egypt, by marrying his daughter (1 Kings 3:1) The
    immediate results were probably favorable enough. The new queen brought
    with her as a dowry the frontier city of Gezer. But the ultimate issue of
    alliance showed that it was hollow and impolitic.

  • Tyre. The alliance with the Phoenician king rested on a somewhat
    different footing. It had been a part of David's policy from the beginning
    of his reign. Hiram had been "ever a lover of David." As soon as he heard
    of Solomon's accession he sent ambassadors to salute him. A correspondence
    passed between the two kings, which ended in a treaty of commerce. The
    opening of Joppa as a port created a new coasting-trade, and the materials
    from Tyre were conveyed to that city on floats, and thence to Jerusalem.
    (2 Chronicles 2:16) In return for these exports, the Phoenicians were only
    too glad to receive the corn and oil of Solomon's territory. The results
    of the alliance did not end here. Now, for the first time in the history
    of the Jews, they entered on a career as a commercial people.

  • The foregoing were the two most important to Babylon alliances. The
    absence of any reference to Babylon and Assyria, and the fact that the
    Euphrates was recognized as the boundary of Solomon's kingdom, (2
    Chronicles 9:26) suggests the inference that the Mesopotamian monarchies
    were at this time comparatively feeble. Other neighboring nations were
    content to pay annual tribute in the form of gifts. (2 Chronicles

  • The survey of the influence exercised by Solomon on surrounding
    nations would be incomplete if we were to pass over that which was more
    directly personal the fame of his glory and his wisdom. Wherever the ships
    of Tarshish went, they carried with them the report, losing nothing in its
    passage, of what their crews had seen and heard. The journey of the queen
    of Sheba, though from its circumstances the most conspicuous, did not
    stand alone. V. Internal history. --

  • The first prominent scene in Solomon's reign is one which presents his
    character in its noblest aspect. God in a vision having offered him the
    choice of good things he would have, he chose wisdom in preference to
    riches or honor or long life. The wisdom asked for was given in large
    measure, and took a varied range. The wide world of nature, animate and
    inanimate, the lives and characters of men, lay before him, and he took
    cognizance of all but the highest wisdom was that wanted for the highest
    work, for governing and guiding, and the historian hastens to give an
    illustration of it. The pattern-instance is, in all its circumstances,
    thoroughly Oriental. (1 Kings 3:16-28)

  • In reference to the king's finances, the first impression of the facts
    given us is that of abounding plenty. Large quantities of the precious
    metals were imported from Ophir and Tarshish. (1 Kings 9:28) All the kings
    and princes of the subject provinces paid tribute in the form of gifts, in
    money and in kind, "at a fixed rate year by year." (1 Kings 10:25)
    Monopolies of trade contributed to the king's treasury. (1 Kings 10:28,29)
    The total amount thus brought into the treasury in gold, exclusive of all
    payments in kind, amounted to 666 talents. (1 Kings 10:14)

  • It was hardly possible, however, that any financial system could bear
    the strain of the king's passion for magnificence. The cost of the temple
    was, it is true, provided for by David's savings and the offerings of the
    people; but even while that was building, yet more when it was finished
    one structure followed on another with ruinous rapidity. All the equipment
    of his court, the "apparel" of his servants was on the same scale. A
    body-guard attended him, "threescore valiant men," tallest and handsomest
    of the sons of Israel. Forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots,
    and twelve thousand horsemen made up the measure of his magnificence. (1
    Kings 4:26) As the treasury became empty, taxes multiplied and monopolies
    became more irksome.

  • A description of the temple erected by Solomon is given elsewhere.
    After seven years and the work was completed and the day came to which all
    Israelites looked back as the culminating glory of their nation.

  • We cannot ignore the fact that even now there were some darker shades
    in the picture. He reduced the "strangers" in the land, the remnant of the
    Canaanite races, to the state of helots, and made their life "bitter with
    all hard bondage." One hundred and fifty-three thousand, with wives and
    children in proportion, were torn from their homes and sent off to the
    quarries and the forests of Lebanon. (1 Kings 5:15; 2 Chronicles 2:17,18)
    And the king soon fell from the loftiest height of his religious life to
    the lowest depth. Before long the priests and prophets had to grieve over
    rival temples to Molech, Chemosh, Ashtaroth and forms of ritual not
    idolatrous only, but cruel, dark, impure. This evil came as the penalty of
    another. (1 Kings 11:1-8) He gave himself to "strange women." He found
    himself involved in a fascination which led to the worship of strange
    gods. Something there was perhaps in his very "largeness of heart," so far
    in advance of the traditional knowledge of his age, rising to higher and
    wider thoughts of God, which predisposed him to it. In recognizing what
    was true in other forms of faith, he might lose his horror at what was
    false. With this there may have mingled political motives. He may have
    hoped, by a policy of toleration, to conciliate neighboring princes, to
    attract larger traffic. But probably also there was another influence less
    commonly taken into account. The widespread belief of the East in the
    magic arts of Solomon is not, it is believed, without its foundation of
    truth. Disasters followed before long as the natural consequence of what
    was politically a blunder as well as religiously a sin. VI. His
    literary works.
    -- little remains out of the songs, proverbs,
    treatises, of which the historian speaks. (1 Kings 4:32,33)
    Excerpts only are given from the three thousand proverbs. Of the
    thousand and five songs we know absolutely nothing. His books represent
    the three stages of his life. The Song of Songs brings before us the
    brightness of his -youth. Then comes in the book of Proverbs, the stage of
    practical, prudential thought. The poet has become the philosopher, the
    mystic has passed into the moralist; but the man passed through both
    stages without being permanently the better for either. They were to him
    but phases of his life which he had known and exhausted, (Ecclesiastes
    1:1; Ecclesiastes 2:1) ... and therefore there came, its in the
    confessions of the preacher, the great retribution.




(CHILDREN OF). (Ezra 2:55,58; Nehemiah 7:57,60) The persons thus named
appear in the lists of the exiles who returned from the captivity. They
were the descendants of the Canaanites who were reduced by Solomon to the
helot state, and compelled to labor in the king's stone-quarries and in
building his palaces and cities. (1 Kings 5:13,14; 9:20,21; 2 Chronicles
8:7,8) They appear to have formed a distinct order, inheriting probably
the same functions and the same skill as their ancestors.






The term "son" is used in Scripture language to imply almost any kind of
descent or succession, as ben shanah, "son of a year," i.e. a year
old; ben kesheth, "son of a bow," i.e. an arrow. The word
bar is often found in the New Testament in composition, as




In eastern lands where our table utensils are unknown, the meat, with the
broth, is brought upon the table in a large dish, and is eaten usually by
means of pieces of bread clipped into the common dish. The bread so dipped
is called. "It was such a piece of bread a sop dipped in broth that Jesus
gave to Judas, (John 13:26) and again, in Matt 26:23 It is said "he that
dippeth his hand with me in the dish," i.e. to make a sop by dipping a
piece of bread into the central dish.


(saviour of his father), son or Pyrrhus or Berea, was one of the
companions of St. Paul on his return from Greece into Asia. (Acts 20:4)
(A.D. 55.)


(writing). "The children of Sophereth" were a family who returned
from Babylon with Zerubbabel among the descendants of Solomon's servants.
(Ezra 2:55; Nehemiah 7:57) (B.C. before 536.)




(red), The valley of, a wady in which lay the residence of
Delilah. (Judges 16:4) It was possibly nearer Gaza than any other of the
chief Philistine cities, since thither Samson was taken after his capture
at Delilah's house.


(saviour of his father), kinsman or fellow tribesman of St. Paul,
(Romans 16:21) is probably the same person as Sopater of Berea. (A.D.


(saviour of his nation) was a Jew at Corinth who was seized and
beaten in the presence of Gallio. See (Acts 18:12-17) (A.D. 49.)


(changeful). The children of Sotai were a family of the descendants
of Solomon's servants who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:55; Nehemiah
7:57) (B.C. before 536.)






The operation of a sowing with the hand is one of so simple a character as
to need little description. The Egyptian paintings furnish many
illustrations of the mode in which it was conducted. The sower held the
vessel or basket containing the seed in his left hand, while with his
right he scattered the seed broadcast. The "drawing out" of the seed is
noticed, as the most characteristic action of the sower, in (Psalms 126:6)
(Authorized Version "precious") and (Amos 9:13) In wet soils the seed was
trodden in by the feet of animals. (Isaiah 32:20) The sowing season began
in October and continued to the end of February, wheat being put in
before, and barley after, the beginning of January. The Mosaic law
prohibited the sowing of mixed seed. (Leviticus 19:19; 22:9)


1 Macc. 8:3; (Romans 15:24,28) The local designation, Tarshish,
representing the Tartessus of the Greeks, probably prevailed until
the fame of the Roman wars in that country reached the East, when it was
superseded by its classical name. The mere intention of St. Paul to visit
Spain (whether he really did visit it is a disputed question. -- ED.)
implies two interesting facts, viz., the establishment of a Christian
community in that country, and that this was done by Hellenistic Jews
resident there. The early introduction of Christianity into that country
is attested by Irenaeus and Tertullian.


(Heb. tzippor, from a root signifying to "chirp" or "twitter,"
which appears to be a phonetic representation of the call-note of any
passerine (sparrow-like) bird). This Hebrew word occurs upwards of forty
times in the Old Testament. In all passages except two it is rendered by
the Authorized Version indifferently "bird" or "fowl." and denotes any
small bird, both of the sparrow-like species and such as the starling,
chaffinch, greenfinch, linnet, goldfinch, corn-bunting, pipits, blackbird,
song-thrush, etc. In (Psalms 84:3) and Psal 102:7 It is rendered
"sparrow." The Greek stauthion (Authorized Version "sparrow")
occurs twice in the New Testament, (Matthew 10:29; Luke 12:6,7) (The birds
above mentioned are found in great numbers in Palestine and are of very
little value, selling for the merest trifle and are thus strikingly used
by our Saviour, (Matthew 10:20) as an illustration of our Father's care
for his children. -- ED.) The blue thrush (Petrocossyphus cyaneus)
is probably the bird to which the psalmist alludes in (Proverbs 102:7) as
"the sparrow that sitteth alone upon the house-top." It is a solitary
bird, eschewing the society of its own species, and rarely more than a
pair are seen together. The English tree-sparrow (Passer montanus,
Linn.) is also very common, and may be seen in numbers on Mount Olivet and
also about the sacred enclosure of the mosque of Omar. This is perhaps the
exact species referred to in (Psalms 84:3) Dr. Thompson, in speaking of
the great numbers of the house-sparrows and field-sparrows in troublesome
and impertinent generation, and nestle just where you do not want them.
They stop your stove -- and water-pipes with their rubbish, build in the
windows and under the beams of the roof, and would stuff your hat full of
stubble in half a day if they found it hanging in a place to suit


a celebrated city of Greece, between whose inhabitants and the Jews a
relationship was believed to subsist. Between the two nations a
correspondence ensued. -- Whitney. The act of the Jews and Spartans, 2
Macc. 5:9 is an ethnological error, which it is difficult to trace to its




(Acts 23:23) These were probably troops so lightly armed as to be able to
keep pace on the march with mounted soldiers.


  • Heb. basam, besem or bosem. In (Solomon 5:1) "I have
    gathered my myrrh with my spice," the word points apparently to some
    definite substance. In the other places, with the exception perhaps of
    (Solomon 1:13; 6:2) the words refer more generally to sweet aromatic
    odors, the principal of which was that of the balsam or balm of Gilead;
    the tree which yields this substance is now generally admitted to be the
    Balsam-odendron opobalsamum. The balm of Gilead tree grows in some
    parts of Arabia and Africa, and is seldom more than fifteen feet high,
    with straggling branches and scanty foliage. The balsam is chiefly
    obtained from incisions in the bark, but is procured also from the green
    and ripe berries.

  • Necoth. (Genesis 37:25; 43:11) The most probable explanation
    is that which refers the word to the Arabic naku’at i.e. "the
    gum obtained from the tragacanth" (Astragalus).

  • Sammim, a general term to denote those aromatic substances
    which were used in the preparation of the anointing oil, the incense
    offerings, etc. The spices mentioned as being used by Nicodemus for the
    preparation of our Lord's body, (John 19:39,40) are "myrrh and aloes," by
    which latter word must be understood not the aloes of medicine, but the
    highly-scented wood of the Aquilaria agallochum.


The Hebrew word ’accabish in (Job 8:24; Isaiah 59:5) is
correctly rendered "spider." Put semamith is wrongly translated
"spider" in (Proverbs 30:28) it refers probably to some kind of lizard.
(But "there are many species of spider in Palestine: some which spin webs,
like the common garden spider; some which dig subterranean cells and make
doors in them, like the well-known trap-door spider of southern Europe;
and some which have no web, but chase their prey upon the ground, like the
hunting-and the wolf-spider." -- Wood's Bible Animals.)


(Heb. nerd) is mentioned twice in the Old Testament viz. in
(Solomon 1:12; 4:13,14) The ointment with which our Lord was anointed as
he sat at meat in Simon's house at Bethany consisted of this precious
substance, the costliness of which may be inferred from the indignant
surprise manifested by some of the witnesses of the transaction. See (Mark
14:3-5; John 12:3,5) (Spikenard,from which the ointment was made, was an
aromatic herb of the valerian family (Nardostachys jatamansi). It
was imported from an early age from Arabia India and the Far East. The
costliness of Mary's offering (300 pence=) may beat be seen from the fact
that a penny (denarius, 15 to 17 cents) was in those days the day-wages of
a laborer. (Matthew 20:2) In our day this would equal at least or


The notices of spinning in the Bible are confined to (Exodus 35:25,26;
Proverbs 31:19; Matthew 6:28) The latter passage implies (according to the
Authorized Version) the use of the same instruments which have been in
vogue for hand-spinning down to the present day, viz. the distaff and
spindle. The distaff however, appears to have been dispensed with, and the
term so rendered means the spindle itself, while that rendered "spindle"
represents the whirl of the spindle, a button of circular rim which was
affixed to it, and gave steadiness to its circular motion. The "whirl" of
the Syrian women was made of amber in the time of Pliny. The spindle was
held perpendicularly in the one hand, while the other was employed in
drawing out the thread. Spinning was the business of women, both among the
Jews and for the most part among the Egyptians.


a soft, porous marine substance. Sponges were for a long time supposed to
be plants, but are now considered by the best naturalists to belong to the
animal kingdom. Sponge is mentioned only in the New Testament. (Matthew
27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29) The commercial value of the sponge was
known from very early times; and although there appears to be no notice of
it in the Old Testament, yet it is probable that it was used by the
ancient Hebrews, who could readily have obtained it good from the
Mediterranean, where it was principally found.




a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans.
(Romans 16:9) (A.D. 56.)


(Heb. nataf) the name of one of the sweet spices which composed the
holy incense. See (Exodus 30:34) -- the only passage of Scripture in which
the word occurs. Some identify the nataf with the gum of the storer
tree (Styraz officinale), but all that is positively known is that
it signifies an odorous distillation from some plant.


The Assyrian standards were emblematic of their religion, and were
therefore the more valuable as instruments for leading and guiding men in
the army. The forms were imitations of animals (1), emblems of deities
(2), and symbols of power and wisdom (3). Many of them were crude, but
others were highly artistic and of great cost. The Egyptian standards were
designed in the same idea as those of the Romans, exhibiting some sacred
emblem (5,6,8), or a god in the form of an animal (3,4), a group of
victory (7), or the king's name or his portrait as (1), of lower, and (2)
of upper, Egypt, or an emblematic sign, as No. 9.






In all cases were the word "steel" occurs in the Authorized Version the
true rendering of the Hebrew is "copper." Whether the ancient Hebrews were
acquainted with steel is not perfectly certain. It has been inferred from
a passage in (Jeremiah 15:12) that the "iron from the north" there spoken
of denoted a superior kind of metal, hardened in an unusual manner, like
the steel obtained from the Chalybes of the Pontus, the iron smiths of the
ancient world. The hardening of iron for cutting instruments was practiced
in Pontus, Lydia and Laconia. There is, however, a word in hebrew,
paldah, which occurs only in (Nahum 2:3) (4) and is there rendered
"torches," but which most probably denotes steel or hardened iron, and
refers to the flashing scythes of the Assyrian chariots. Steel appears to
have been known to the Egyptians. The steel weapons in the tomb of Rameses
III., says Wilkinson, are painted blue, the bronze red.


a Christian convert of Corinth whose household Paul baptized as the
"first-fruits of Achaia." (1 Corinthians 1:16; 16:15) (A.D. 53.)


the first Christian martyr, was the chief of the seven (commonly called
Deacons) appointed to rectify the complaints in the early Church of
Jerusalem, made by the Hellenistic against the hebrew Christians. His
Greek name indicates his own Hellenistic origin. His importance is stamped
on the narrative by a reiteration of emphatic, almost superlative,
phrases: "full of faith and of the Holy Ghost," (Acts 6:5) "full of grace
and power," ibid. (Acts 6:8) irresistible "spirit and wisdom," ibid (Acts
6:10) "full of the Holy Ghost." (Acts 7:55) He shot far ahead of his six
companions, and far above his particular office. First, he arrests
attention by the "great wonders and miracles that he did." Then begins a
series of disputations with the Hellenistic Jews of north Africa,
Alexandria and Asia Minor, his companions in race and birthplace. The
subject of these disputations is not expressly mentioned; but from what
follows it is obvious that he struck into a new vein of teaching, which
evidently caused his martyrdom. Down to this time the apostles and the
early Christian community had clung in their worship, not merely to the
holy land and the holy city but to the holy place of the temple. This
local worship, with the Jewish customs belonging to it, Stephen denounced.
So we must infer from the accusations brought against him confirmed as
they are by the tenor of his defence. He was arrested at the instigation
of the Hellenistic Jews, and brought before the Sanhedrin. His speech in
his defence, and his execution by stoning outside the gates of Jerusalem,
are related at length in Acts 7. The frame work in which his defence is
cast is a summary of the history of the Jewish Church. In the facts which
he selects from his history he is guided by two principles. The first is
the endeavor to prove that, even in the previous Jewish history, the
presence and favor of God had not been confined to the holy land or the
temple of Jerusalem. The second principle of selection is based on the at
tempt to show that there was a tendency from the earliest times toward the
same ungrateful and narrow spirit that had appeared in this last stage of
their political existence. It would seem that, just at the close of his
argument, Stephen saw a change in the aspect of his judges, as if for the
first time they had caught the drift of his meaning. He broke off from his
calm address, and tumult suddenly upon them in an impassioned attack,
which shows that he saw what was in store for him. As he spoke they showed
by their faces that their hearts "were being sawn asunder," and they kept
gnashing their set teeth against him; but still, though with difficultly,
restraining themselves. He, in this last crisis of his fate, turned his
face upward to the; open sky, and as he gazed the vault of heaven seemed
to him to part asunder; and the divine Glory appeared through the rending
of the earthly veil -- the divine Presence, seated on a throne, and on the
right hand the human form of Jesus. Stephen spoke as if to himself,
describing the glorious vision; and in so doing, alone of all the speakers
and writers in the New Testament except, only Christ himself, uses the
expressive phrase "the Son of man." As his judges heard the words, they
would listen no longer. They broke into, a loud yell; they clapped their
hands to their ears; they flew as with one impulse upon him, and dragged
him out of the city to the place of execution. Those who took the lead in
the execution were the persons wile had taken upon themselves the
responsibility of denouncing him. (17:7) comp. John 8:7 In this instance
they were the witnesses who had reported or misreported the words of
Stephen. They, according to the custom, stripped themselves; and one, of
the prominent leaders in the transaction was deputed by custom to signify
his assent to the act by taking the clothes into his custody and standing
over them while the bloody work went on. The person was officiated on this
occasion was a young man from Tarsus, the future apostle of the Gentiles.
[PAUL] As the first volley of stones burst upon him, Stephen called upon
the Master whose human form he had just seen in the heavens, and repeated
almost the words with which he himself had given up his life on the cross,
"O Lord Jesus receive my spirit." Another crash of stones brought him on
his knees. One loud, piercing cry, answering to the shriek or yell with
which his enemies had flown upon him, escaped his dying lips. Again
clinging to the spirit of his Master's words, he cried "Lord, lay not this
sin to their charge" and instantly sank upon the ground, and, in the
touching language of the narrator who then uses for the first time the
words afterward applied to the departure of all Christians, but here the
more remarkable from the bloody scenes in the midst of which death took
place, fell asleep. His mangled body was buried by the class of
Hellenists and proselytes to which he belonged. The importance of
Stephen's career may be briefly summed up under three heads:

  • He was the first great Christian ecclesiastic, "the Archdeacon," as he
    is called in the eastern Church.

  • He is the first martyr -- the protomartyr. To him the name
    "martyr" is first applied. (Acts 23:20)

  • He is the forerunner of St. Paul. He was the anticipator, as, had he
    lived, he would have been the propagator, of the new phase of Christianity
    of which St. Paul became the main support.


(An instrument of punishment, consisting of two beams, the upper one being
movable, with two small openings between them, large enough for the ankles
of the prisoner. -- ED.) The term "stocks" is applied in the Authorized
Version to two different articles one of which answers rather to our
pillory, inasmuch as the body was placed in a bent position, by the
confinement of the neck and arms as well as the legs while the other
answers to our "stocks," the feet alone being confined in it. The prophet
Jeremiah was confined in the first sort, (Jeremiah 20:2) which appears to
have been a common mode of punishment in his day, (Jeremiah 29:26) as the
prisons contained a chamber for the special purpose, termed "the house of
the pillory." (2 Chronicles 16:10) (Authorized Version "prison-house").
The stocks, properly so called, are noticed in (Job 13:27; 33:11; Acts
16:24) The term used in (Proverbs 7:22) (Authorized Version "stocks") more
properly means a fetter.


The Stoics and Epicureans, who are mentioned together in (Acts 17:18)
represent the two opposite schools of practical philosophy which survived
the fall of higher speculation in Greece. The Stoic school was founded by
Zeno of Citium (cir. B.C. 280) and derived its name from the painted
"portico" (stoa) at Athens in which he taught. Zeno was followed by
Cleanthes (cir. B.C. 260); Cleanthes by Chrysippus (cir. B.C. 240) who was
regarded as the founder of the Stoic system. "They regarded God and the
world as power and its manifestation matter being a passive ground in
which dwells the divine energy. Their ethics were a protest against moral
indifference, and to live in harmony with nature, conformably with reason
and the demands of universal good, and in the utmost indifference to
pleasure, pain and all external good or evil, was their fundamental
maxim." -- American Cyclopaedia. The ethical system of the Stoics has been
commonly supposed to have a close connection with Christian morality; but
the morality of stoicism is essentially based on pride, that of
Christianity on humility; the one upholds individual independence, the
other absolute faith in another; the one looks for consolation in the
issue of fate, the other in Providence; the one is limited by Periods of
cosmical ruin, the other is consummated in a personal resurrection. (Acts
17:18) But in spite of the fundamental error of stoicism, which lies in a
supreme egotism, the teaching of this school gave a wide currency to the
noble doctrines of the fatherhood of God, the common bonds of mankind, the
sovereignty of the soul. Among their most prominent representatives were
Zeno and Antipater of Tarsus, Seneca and Marcus Aurelius.


The Hebrew word so translated, (Isaiah 3:24) describes some article of
female attire, the character of which is a mere matter of conjecture.


Besides the ordinary uses to which stones were applied, we may mention
that large stones were set up to commemorate any remarkable event.
(Genesis 28:18; 35:14; 31:45; Joshua 4:9; 1 Samuel 7:12) Such stones were
occasionally consecrated By anointing. (Genesis 28:18) Heaps of stones
were piled up on various occasions, as in token of a treaty, (Genesis
31:47) or over the grave of some notorious offender. (Joshua 7:26; 8:29; 2
Samuel 18:17) The "white stone" noticed in (Revelation 2:17) has been
variously regarded as referring to the pebble of acquittal used in the
Greek courts; to the lot cast in elections in Greece to both these
combined; to the stones in the high priest's breastplate; to the tickets
presented to the victor at the public games; or, lastly, to the custom of
writing on stones. The notice in (Zechariah 12:3) of the "burdensome
stone" is referred by Jerome to the custom of lifting stones as an
exercise of strength, comp. Ecclus. 6:21; but it may equally well be
explained of a large corner-stone as a symbol of strength. (Isaiah 28:16)
Stones are used metaphorically to denote hardness or insensibility, (1
Samuel 25:37; Ezekiel 11:19; 36:26) as well as firmness or strength.
(Genesis 49:24) The members of the Church are called "living stones," as
contributing to rear that living temple in which Christ, himself "a living
stone," is the chief or head of the corner. (Ephesians 2:20-22; 1 Peter


Precious stones are frequently alluded to in Scriptures; they were known
and very highly valued in the earliest times. The Tyrians traded in
precious stones supplied by Syria. (Ezekiel 27:16) The merchants of Sheba
and Raamah in south Arabia, and doubtless India and Ceylon supplied the
markets of Tyre with various precious stones. The art of engraving on
precious stones was known from the very earliest times. (Genesis 38:18)
The twelve atones of the breastplate were engraved each one with the name
of one of the tribes. (Exodus 28:17-21) It is an undecided question
whether the diamond was known to the early nations of antiquity. The
Authorized Version gives if as the rendering of the Heb. yahalom,
but it is probable that the jasper is intended. Precious stones are used
in Scripture in a figurative sense, to signify value, beauty durability,
etc., in those objects with which they are compared. See (Solomon 5:14;
Isaiah 54:11,12; Lamentations 4:7; Revelation 4:3; 21:10,21)




(Heb. chasidah), a large bird of passage of the heron family. The
of the largest and most conspicuous of land birds, standing nearly four
feet high, the jet black of its wings and its bright red beak and legs
contrasting finely with the pure white of its plumage. (Zechariah 6:9) In
the neighborhood of man it devours readily all kinds of offal and garbage.
For this reason, doubtless it is placed in the list of unclean birds by
the Mosaic law. (Leviticus 11:19; 14:18) The range of the white stork
extends over the whole of Europe, except the British isles, where it is
now a rare visitant, and over northern Africa and Asia as far at least as
Burmah. The black stork (Ciconia nigra, Linn.), though less
abundant in places, is scarcely less widely distributed, but has a more
easterly range than its congener. Both species are very numerous in
Palestine. While the black stork is never found about buildings, but
prefers marshy places in forests and breeds on the tops of the loftiest
trees, the white stork attaches itself to man and for the service which it
renders in the destruction of reptiles and the removal of offal has been
repaid from the earliest times by protection and reverence, The derivation
of chasidah (from chesed, "kindness") points to the
paternal and filial attachment of which the stork seems to have been a
type among the Hebrews no less than the Greeks and Romans. It was believed
that the young repaid the care of their parents by attaching themselves to
them for life, and tending them in old age. That the parental attachment
of the stork is very strong has been proved on many occasions, Few
migratory birds are more punctual to the time of their reappearance than
the white stork. The stork has no note, and the only sound it emits is
that caused by the sudden snapping of its long mandibles.


(So translated in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version
"strain out," (Matthew 23:24) which is undoubtedly the true reading. --


A "stranger," in the technical sense of the term, may be defined to be a
person of foreign, i.e. non-Israelitish, extraction resident within the
limits of the promised land. He was distinct from the proper "foreigner,"
inasmuch as the latter still belonged to another country, and would only
visit Palestine as a traveller: he was still more distinct from the
"nations," or non-Israelite peoples. The term may be compared with our
expression "naturalized foreigner." The terms applied to the "stranger"
have special reference to the fact of residing in the land. The
existence of such a class of persons among the Israelites is easily
accounted for the "mixed multitude" that accompanied them out of Egypt,
(Exodus 12:38) formed one element the Canaanitish Population,which was
never wholly extirpated from their native soil, formed another and a still
more important one captives taken in war formed a third; fugitives, hired
servants, merchants, etc., formed a fourth. With the exception of the
Moabites and Ammonites, (23:3) all nations were admissible to the rights
of citizenship under certain conditions. The stranger appears to have been
eligible to all civil offices, that of king excepted. (17:15) In regard to
religion, it was absolutely necessary that the stranger should not
infringe any of the fundamental laws of the Israelitish state. If he were
a bondman, he was obliged to submit to circumcision, (Exodus 12:44) if he
were independent, it was optional with him but if he remained
uncircumcised, he was prohibited from partaking of the Passover, (Exodus
12:48) and could not be regarded as a full citizen. Liberty was also given
to an uncircumcised stranger in regard to the use of prohibited food.
Assuming, however, that the stranger was circumcised, no distinction
existed in regard to legal rights ha between the stranger and the
Israelite; to the Israelite is enjoined to treat him as a brother.
(Leviticus 19:34; 10:19) It also appears that the "stranger" formed the
class whence the hirelings were drawn; the terms being coupled together in
(Exodus 12:45; Leviticus 22:10; 25:6,40) The liberal spirit of the Mosaic
regulations respecting strangers presents a strong contrast to the rigid
exclusiveness of the Jews at the commencement of the Christian era. The
growth of this spirit dates from the time of the Babylonish captivity.


Both wheat and barley straw were used by the ancient Hebrews chiefly as
fodder for the horses cattle and camels. (Genesis 24:25; 1 Kings 4:28;
Isaiah 11:7; 66:25) There is no intimation that straw was used for litter.
It was employed by the Egyptians for making bricks, (Exodus 5:7,16) being
chopped up and mixed with the clay to make them more compact and to
prevent their cracking. [See BRICK] The ancient Egyptians reaped their
corn close to the ear, and afterward cut the straw close to the ground and
laid it by. This was the straw that Pharaoh refused to give to the
Israelites who were therefore compelled to gather "stubble" instead -- a
matter of considerable difficulty, seeing that the straw itself had been
cut off near to the ground.


occurs once in the Old Testament -- (Isaiah 27:12) [RIVER OF EGYPT] RIVER
OF EGYPT - 3664


The streets of a modern Oriental town present a great contrast to those
with which we are familiar, being generally narrow, tortuous and gloomy,
even in the best towns. Their character is mainly fixed by the climate and
the style of architecture, the narrowness being due to the extreme heat,
and the gloominess to the circumstance of the windows looking for the most
part into the inner court. The street called "Straight," in Damascus,
(Acts 9:11) was an exception to the rule of narrowness: it was a noble
thoroughfare, one hundred feet wide. divided in the Roman age by
colonnades into three avenues, the central one for foot passengers, the
side passages for vehicles and horsemen going in different directions. The
shops and warehouses were probably collected together into bazaars in
ancient as in modern times. (Jeremiah 37:21) That streets occasionally had
names appears from (Jeremiah 37:21; Acts 9:11) That they were generally
unpaved may be inferred from the notices of the pavement laid by Herod the
Great at Antioch, and by Herod Agrippa II. at Jerusalem. Hence pavement
forms one of the peculiar features of the ideal Jerusalem. Tob. 13:17;
(Revelation 21:21) Each street and bazaar in a modern town is locked up at
night; the same custom appears to have prevailed in ancient times.
(Solomon 3:3)




(sweeping), son of Zophah an Asherite. (1 Chronicles 7:36) (B.C.
about 1020.)



  • An ancient town, first heard of in the account of the homeward journey
    of Jacob from Padan-aram. (Genesis 35:17) The name is derived from the
    fact of Jacob's having there put up "booths" (succoth) for his
    cattle as well as a house for himself. From the itinerary of Jacob's
    return it seems that Succoth lay between Peniel, near the ford of the
    torrent Jabbok and Shechem. Comp. (Genesis 32:30) and Genesis33:18 In
    accordance with this is the mention of Succoth in the narrative of
    Gideon's pursuit of Zebah and Zalluunna. (Judges 5:5-17) It would appear
    from this passage that it lay east of the Jordan, which is corroborated by
    the fact that it was allotted to the tribe of Gad. (Joshua 13:27) Succoth
    is named once again after this -- in (1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chronicles 4:17) --
    as marking the spot at which the brass founderies were placed for casting
    the metal work of the temple. (Dr. Merrill identifies it with a site
    called Tell Darala, one mile north of the Jabbok. -- ED.)

  • The first camping-place of the Israelites when they left Egypt.
    (Exodus 12:37; 13:20; Numbers 33:5,6) This place was apparently reached at
    the close of the first days march. Rameses, the starting-place, was
    probably near the western end of the Wadi-t-Tumeylat. The distance
    traversed in each day's journey was about fifteen miles.


Occurs only in (2 Kings 17:30) It has generally been supposed that this
term is pure Hebrew, and signifies the tents of daughters; which some
explain as "the booths in which the daughters of the Babylonians
prostituted themselves in honor of their idol," others as "small
tabernacles in which were contained images of female deities." Sir H.
Rawlinson thinks that Succoth-benoth represents the Chaldaean goddess
Zerbanit, the wife of Merodach, who was especially worshipped at


one of the families of scribes at Jabez. (1 Chronicles 2:55)


(booth-dwellers), a nation mentioned (2 Chronicles 12:3) with the
Lubim and Cushim as supplying part of the army which came with Shishak out
of Egypt when he invaded Judah. The Sukkiim may correspond to some one of
the shepherd or wandering races mentioned on the Egyptian monuments.


In the history of "greater light," of the creation the sun is described as
"greater light," in contradistinction to the moon, the "lesser light," in
conjunction with which it was to serve "for signs and for seasons, and for
days, and for years," while its special office was "to rule the day."
(Genesis 1:14-16) The "signs" referred to were probably such extraordinary
phenomena as eclipses, which were regarded as conveying premonitions of
coming events. (Jeremiah 10:2; Matthew 24:29) with Luke 21:25 The joint
influence assigned to the sun and moon in deciding the "seasons," both for
agricultural operations and for religious festivals, and also in
regulating the length and subdivisions of the years "correctly describes
the combination of the lunar and solar year which prevailed at all events
subsequent to the Mosaic period. Sunrise and sunset are the only defined
points of time in the absence of artificial contrivances for telling the
hour of the day. Between these two points the Jews recognized three
periods, viz., when the sun became hot, about 9 A.M. (1 Samuel 11:9;
Nehemiah 7:3) the double light, or noon. (Genesis 43:16; 2 Samuel 4:5) and
"the cool of the day," shortly before sunset. (Genesis 3:8) The sun also
served to fix the quarters of the hemisphere, east, west north and south,
which were represented respectively by the rising sun, the setting sun,
(Isaiah 45:6; Psalms 50:1) the dark quarter, (Genesis 13:14; Joel 2:20)
and the brilliant quarter, (33:23; Job 37:17; Ezekiel 40:24) or otherwise
by their position relative to a person facing the rising sun -- before,
behind, on the left hand and on the right hand. (Job 23:8,9) The worship
of the sun, as the most prominent and powerful agent in the kingdom of
nature, was widely diffused throughout the countries adjacent to
Palestine. The Arabians appear to have paid direct worship to it without
the intervention of any statue or symbol, (Job 31:26,27) and this simple
style of worship was probably familiar to the ancestors of the Jews in
Chaldaea and Mesopotamia. The Hebrews must have been well acquainted with
the idolatrous worship of the sun during the captivity in Egypt, both from
the contiguity of On, the chief seat of the worship of the sun, as implied
in the name itself (On being the equivalent of the Hebrew Bethshemesh,
"house of the sun") (Jeremiah 43:13) and also from the connection between
Joseph and Potipherah("he who belongs to Ela") the priest of On, (Genesis
41:45) After their removal to Canaan, the Hebrews came in contact with
various forms of idolatry which originated in the worship of the sun; such
as the Baal of the Phoenicians, the Molech or Milcom of the Ammonites, and
the Hadad of the Syrians. The importance attached to the worship of the
sun by the Jewish kings may be inferred from the fact that the horses
sacred to the sun were stalled within the precincts of the temple. (2
Kings 23:11) In the metaphorical language of Scripture the sun is
emblematic of the law of God, (Psalms 19:7) of the cheering presence of
God, (Psalms 84:11) of the person of the Saviour, (John 1:9; Malachi 4:2)
and of the glory and purity of heavenly beings. (Revelation 1:16;


In the entire absence of commerce the law laid down no rules on the
subject of suretyship; but it is evident that in the time of Solomon
commercial dealings had become so multiplied that suretyship in the
commercial sense was common. (Proverbs 6:1; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 22:26;
27:13) But in older times the notion of one man becoming a surety for a
service to be discharged by another was in full force. See (Genesis 44:32)
The surety of course became liable for his client's debts in case of his


(Esther 11:3; 16:18) [SHUSHAN, OR SUSA].


is found once only -- in (Ezra 4:9) There can be no doubt that it
designates either the inhabitants of the city Susa or those of the country
-- Susis or Susiana. Perhaps the former explanation is preferable.


(a lily).

  • The heroine of the story of the Judgment of Daniel. (The book which
    gives an account of her life is also called "The history of Susanna," and
    is one of the apocryphal books of the Bible.)

  • One of the women who ministered to the Lord. (Luke 8:3) (A.D.


the father of Gaddi the Manassite spy. (Numbers 13:11)


Heb. deror in (Psalms 84:3; Proverbs 26:2) Heb. ’agur
in (Isaiah 38:14; Jeremiah 8:7) but "crane" is more probably the true
signification of ’agur [CRANE]). The rendering of the
Authorized Version for deror seems correct. The characters ascribed
in the passages where the names occur are strictly applicable to the
swallow, viz., its swiftness of flight, its meeting in the buildings of
the temple, its mournful, garrulous note, and its regular migrations,
shared indeed in common with several others. Many species of swallow occur
in Palestine. All those common in England are found.


(Heb. tinshemeth), thus rendered by the Authorized Version in
(Leviticus 11:18; 14:16) where it occurs in the list of unclean birds Rut
either of the renderings "porphyrio" (purple water-hen) and "ibis" is more
probable. Neither of these birds occurs elsewhere in the catalogue; both
would be familiar to residents in Egypt, and the original seems to point
to some water-fowl. The purple water-hen is allied to our corn-crake and
water-hen, and is the largest and most beautiful of the family
Rallidae. It frequents marshes and the sedge by the banks of
rivers in all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and is abundant
in lower Egypt.




One of the physical phenomena attending our Lord's agony in the garden of
Gethsemane is described by St. Luke, (Luke 22:44) "His sweat was as it
were great drops (lit. clots) of blood falling down to the ground." Of
this malady, known in medical science by the term diapedesis,
there have been examples recorded in both ancient and modern times. The
cause assigned is generally violent mental emotion.


(Heb. chazir). The flesh of swine was forbidden as food by the
Levitical law, (Leviticus 11:7; 14:8) the abhorrence which the Jews as a
nation had of it may be inferred from (Isaiah 65:4) and 2 Macc 6:18,19. No
other reason for the command to abstain from swine's flesh is given in the
law of Moses beyond the general one which forbade any of the mammalia as
food which did not literally fulfill the terms of the definition of a
clean animal" viz,, that it was to be a cloven-footed ruminant. It is,
however, probable that dietetical considerations may have influenced Moses
in his prohibition of swine's flesh: it is generally believed that its use
in hot countries is liable to induce cutaneous disorders; hence in a
people liable to leprosy the necessity for the observance of a strict
rule. Although the Jews did not breed swine during the greater period of
their existence as a nation there can be little doubt that the heathen
nations of Palestine used the flesh as food. At the time of our Lord's
ministry it would appear that the Jews occasionally violated the law of
Moses with regard to swine's flesh. Whether "the herd of swine" into which
the devils were allowed to enter, (Matthew 8:32; Mark 5:13) were the
property of the Jewish or of the Gentile inhabitants of Gadara does not
appear from the sacred narrative. The wild boar of the wood, (Psalms
80:13) is the common Sus scrofa which is frequently met with in the
woody parts of Palestine, especially in Mount Tabor.




is mentioned only in (Luke 17:6) There is no reason to doubt that the
sycamine is distinct from the sycamore of the same evangelist. (Luke 19:4)
The sycamine is the mulberry tree (Morus). Both black and white
mulberry trees are common in Syria and Palestine.


(Heb. shikmah). Although it may be admitted that the sycamine is
properly, and in (Luke 17:6) the mulberry, and the sycamore the
mulberry, or sycamore-fig (Ficus sycomorus), yet the latter is the
tree generally referred to in the Old Testament and called by the
Septuagint sycamine, as (1 Kings 10:27; 1 Chronicles 27:28; Psalms 78:47;
Amos 7:14) The Sycamore or fig-mulberry, is in Egypt and Palestine a tree
of great importance and very extensive use. It attains the size of a
walnut tree has wide-spreading branches and affords a delightful shade. On
this account it is frequently planted by the waysides. Its leaves are
heart-shaped, downy on the under side, and fragrant. The Fruit grows
directly from the trunk itself on little sprigs, and in clusters like the
grape. To make It eatable, each fruit, three or four days before
gathering, must, it is said, be punctured with a sharp instrument or the
finger-nail. This was the original employment of the prophet Amos, as he
says. (Amos 7:14) So great was the value of these trees that David
appointed for them in his kingdom a special overseer, as he did for the
olives (1 Chronicles 27:28) and it is mentioned as one of the heaviest of
Egypt's calamities that her sycamore were destroyed by hailstones.


a place named only in (John 4:5) Sychar was either a name applied to the
town of Shechem or it was an independent place. The first of these
alternatives is now almost universally accepted. [SHECHEM]


the Greek form of the word Shechem. It occurs in (Acts 7:16) only.


properly Seventh a town of Egypt, on the frontier of Cush or Ethiopia,
(Ezekiel 29:10; 30:6) represented by the present Aruan or


(The Jewish form of the name Simon, used in the Revised Version of (Acts
15:14) and referring to Simon Peter.-ED.)


  • History. -- The word synagogue (sunagoge), which
    means a "congregation," is used in the New Testament to signify a
    recognized place of worship. A knowledge of the history and worship of the
    synagogues is of great importance, since they are the characteristic
    institution of the later phase of Judaism. They appear to have arisen
    during the exile, in the abeyance of the temple-worship, and to have
    received their full development on the return of the Jews from captivity.
    The whole history of Ezra presupposes the habit of solemn, probably of
    periodic, meetings. (Ezra 8:15; Nehemiah 8:2; 9:1; Zechariah 7:5) After
    the Maccabaean struggle for independence, we find almost every town or
    village had its one or more synagogues. Where the Jews were not in
    sufficient numbers to be able to erect and fill a building, there was the
    proseucha (proseuche), or place of prayer, sometimes open,
    sometimes covered in, commonly by a running stream or on the seashore, in
    which devout Jews and proselytes met to worship, and perhaps to read.
    (Acts 16:13) Juven. Sat. iii. 296. It is hardly possible to overestimate
    the influence of the system thus developed. To it we may ascribe the
    tenacity with which, after the Maccabaean struggle, the Jews adhered to
    the religion of their fathers, and never again relapsed into

  • Structure. -- The size of a synagogue varied with the
    population. Its position was, however, determinate. If stood, if possible,
    on the highest ground, in or near the city to which it belonged. And its
    direction too was fixed. Jerusalem was the Kibleh of Jewish
    devotion. The synagogue was so constructed that the worshippers, as they
    entered and as they prayed, looked toward it. The building was commonly
    erected at the cost of the district. Sometimes it was built by a rich Jew,
    or even, as in (Luke 7:5) by a friend or proselyte. In the internal
    arrangement of the synagogue we trace an obvious analogy to the type of
    the tabernacle. At the upper or Jerusalem end stood the ark, the chest
    which, like the older and more sacred ark contained the Book of the Law.
    It gave to that end the name and character of a sanctuary. This part of
    the synagogue was naturally the place of honor. Here were the "chief
    seats," for which Pharisees and scribes strove so eagerly, (Matthew 23:6)
    and to which the wealthy and honored worshipper was invited. (James 2:2,3)
    Here too, in front of the ark, still reproducing the type of the
    tabernacle, was the eight-branched lamp, lighted only on the greater
    festivals. Besides this there was one lamp kept burning perpetually. More
    toward the middle of the building was a raised platform, on which several
    persons could stand at once, and in the middle of this rose a pulpit, in
    which the reader stood to read the lesson or sat down to teach. The
    congregation were divided, men on one side, women on the other a low
    partition, five or six feet high, running between them. The arrangements
    of modern synagogues, for many centuries, have made the separation more
    complete by placing the women in low side-galleries, screened off a

  • Officers. -- In smaller towns there was often but one rabbi.
    Where a fuller organization was possible, there was a college of elders,
    (Luke 7:3) presided over by one who was "the chief of the synagogue."
    (Luke 8:41,49; 13:14; Acts 18:8,17) The most prominent functionary in a
    large synagogue was known as the sheliach (= legatus), the
    officiating minister who acted as the delegate of the congregation and was
    therefore the chief reader of prayers, etc.., in their name. The
    chazzan or "minister" of the synagogue, (Luke 4:20) had duties of a
    lower kind, resembling those of the Christian deacon or sub-deacon. He was
    to open the doors and to prepare the building for service. Besides these
    there were ten men attached to every synagogue, known as the ballanim, (
    -- otiosi). They were supposed to be men of leisure not obliged to
    labor for their livelihood able therefore to attend the week-day as well
    as the Sabbath services. The legatus of the synagogues appears in
    the angel, (Revelation 1:20; 2:1) perhaps also in the
    apostle of the Christian Church.

  • Worship. -- It will be enough, in this place, to notice in
    what way the ritual, no less than the organization, was connected with the
    facts of the New Testament history, and with the life and order of the
    Christian Church. From the synagogue came the use of fixed forms of
    prayer. To that the first disciples had been accustomed from their youth.
    They had asked their Master to give them a distinctive one, and he had
    complied with their request, (Luke 11:1) as the Baptist had done before
    for his disciples, as every rabbi did for his. "Moses" was "read in the
    synagogues every Sabbath day," (Acts 15:21) the whole law being read
    consecutively, so as to be completed, according to one cycle, in three
    years. The writings of the prophets were read as second lessons in a
    corresponding order. They were followed by the derash (Acts 13:15)
    the exposition, the sermon of the synagogue. The conformity extends also
    to the times of prayer. In the hours of service this was obviously the
    case. The third, sixth and ninth hours were in the times of the New
    Testament, (Acts 3:1; 10:3,9) and had been probably for some time before,
    (Psalms 55:17; Daniel 6:10) the fixed times of devotion. The same hours,
    it is well known, were recognized in the Church of the second century,
    probably in that of the first also. The solemn days of the synagogue were
    the second, the fifth and the seventh, the last or Sabbath being the
    conclusion of the whole. The transfer of the sanctity of the Sabbath to
    the Lord's day involved a corresponding change in the order of the week,
    and the first, the fourth the sixth became to the Christian society what
    the other days had been to the Jewish. From the synagogue, lastly, come
    many less conspicuous practices, which meet us in the liturgical life of
    the first three centuries: Ablution, entire or partial, before entering
    the place of meeting, (John 13:1-15; Hebrews 10:22) standing, and not
    kneeling, as the attitude of prayer, (Luke 18:11) the arms stretched out;
    the face turned toward the Kibleh of the east; the responsive amen of the
    congregation to the prayers and benedictions of the elders. (1 Corinthians

  • Judicial functions. -- The language of the New Testament shows
    that the officers of the synagogue exercised in certain cases a judicial
    power. If is not quite so easy, however to define the nature of the
    tribunal and the precise limits of its jurisdiction. In two of the
    passages referred to -- (Matthew 10:17; Mark 13:9) -- they are carefully
    distinguished from the councils. It seems probable that the council was
    the larger tribunal of twenty-three, which sat in every city, and that
    under the term synagogue we are to understand a smaller court, probably
    that of the ten judges mentioned in the Talmud. Here also we trace the
    outline of a Christian institution. The Church, either by itself or by
    appointed delegates, was to act as a court of arbitration in all disputes
    its members. The elders of the church were not however to descend to the
    trivial disputes of daily life. For the elders, as for those of the
    synagogue, were reserved the graver offences against religion and


On the return of the Jews from Babylon, a great council was appointed
according to rabbinic tradition, to reorganize the religious life of the
people. It consisted of 120 members, and these were known as the men of
the Great Synagogue, the successors of the prophets, themselves, in their
turn, succeeded by scribes prominent, individually, as teachers. Ezra was
recognized as president, Their aim was to restore again the crown,
or glory, of Israel. To this end they collected all the sacred
writings of the former ages and their own and so completed the canon of
the Old Testament. They instituted the feast of Purim organized the ritual
of the synagogue, and gave their sanction to the Shemoneh Esreh,
the eighteen solemn benedictions in it. Much of this is evidently
uncertain. The absence of any historical mention of such a body, not only
in the Old Testament and the Apocrypha, but in Josephus, Philo, etc., has
had some critics to reject the whole statement as a rabbinic invention.
The narrative of (Nehemiah 8:13) clearly implies the existence of a body
of men acting as councillors under the presidency of Ezra; and these may
have been an assembly of delegates from all provincial synagogues-a synod
of the national Church.


(with fate), a female member of the church of Philippi. (Philemon
4:2,3) (A.D.57).


the celebrated city on the eastern coast of Sicily. "The city in its
splendor was the largest and richest that the Greeks possessed in any part
of the world, being 22 miles in circumference." St. Paul arrived thither
in an Alexandrian ship from Melita, on his voyage to Rome. (Acts 28:12)
The site of Syracuse rendered it a convenient place for the African
corn-ships to touch at, for the harbor was an excellent one, and the
fountain Arethusa in the island furnished an unfailing supply of excellent


is the term used throughout our version for the Hebrew Aram, as
well as for the Greek Zupia. Most probably Syria is for
Tsyria, the country about Tsur or Tyre which was the first
of the Syrian towns known to the Greeks. It is difficult to fix the limits
of Syria. The limits of the Hebrew Aram and its subdivisions are spoken of
under ARAM. Syria proper was bounded by Amanus and Taurus on the north by
the Euphrates and the Arabian desert on the east, by Palestine on the
south, by the Mediterranean near the mouth of the Orontes, and then by
Phoenicia on the west. This tract is about 300 miles long from north to
south, and from 50 to 150 miles broad. It contains an area of about 30,000
square miles. General physical features. -- The general character
of the tract is mountainous, as the Hebrew name Aram (from a roof
signifying "height") sufficiently implies. The most fertile and valuable
tract of Syria is the long valley intervening between Libanus and
Anti-Libanus. Of the various mountain ranges of Syria, Lebanon possesses
the greatest interest. It extends from the mouth of the Litany to
Arka, a distance of nearly 100 miles. Anti-Libanus, as the name
implies, stands lover against Lebanon, running in the same direction, i.e.
nearly north and south, and extending the same length. [LEBANON] The
principal rivers of Syria are the Litany and the Orontes. The Litany
springs from a small lake situated in the middle of the Coele-Syrian
valley, about six miles to the southwest of Baalbek. It enters the sea
about five miles north of Tyre. The source of the Orontes is but about 15
miles from that of the Litany. Its modern name is the Nahr-el-Asi,
or "rebel stream," an appellation given to it on account of its violence
and impetuosity in many parts of its course. The chief towns of Syria may
be thus arranged, as nearly as possible in the order of their importance:
1, Antioch; 2, Damascus; 3, Apamea; 4, Seleucia; 5, Tadmor or Palmyra; 6,
Laodicea; 7, Epiphania (Hamath); 8, Samosata; 9, Hierapolis (Mabug); 10,
Chalybon; 11, Emesa; 12, Heliopolis; 13, Laodicea ad Libanum; 14, Cyrrhus;
15, Chalcis; 16, Poseideum; 17, Heraclea; 18, Gindarus; 19, Zeugma; 20,
Thapsacus. Of these, Samosata, Zeugma and Thapsacus are on the Euphrates;
Seleucia, Laodicea, Poseideum and Heraclea, on the seashore, Antioch,
Apamea, Epiphania and Emesa (Hems), on the Orontes; Heliopolis and
Laodicea ad Libanum, in Coele-Syria; Hierapolis, Chalybon, Cyrrhus,
Chalcis and Gindarns, in the northern highlands; Damascus on the skirts,
and Palmyra in the centre, of the eastern desert. History. -- The
first occupants of Syria appear to have been of Hamitic descent --
Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, etc. After a while the first comers, who
were still to a great extent nomads, received a Semitic infusion, while
most Probably came to them from the southeast. The only Syrian town whose
existence we find distinctly marked at this time is Damascus, (Genesis
14:15; 15:2) which appears to have been already a place of some
importance. Next to Damascus must be placed Hamath. (Numbers 13:21; 34:8)
Syria at this time, and for many centuries afterward, seems to have been
broken up among a number of petty kingdoms. The Jews first come into
hostile contact with the Syrians, under that name, in the time of David.
(Genesis 15:18; 2 Samuel 8:3,4,13) When, a few years later, the Ammonites
determined on engaging in a war with David, and applied to the Syrians for
aid, Zolah, together with Beth-rehob sent them 20,000 footmen, and two
other Syrian kingdoms furnished 13,000. (2 Samuel 10:6) This army being
completely defeated by Joab, Hadadezer obtained aid from Mesopotamia,
ibid. ver. 16, and tried the chance of a third battle, which likewise went
against him, and produced the general submission of Syria to the Jewish
monarch. The submission thus begun continued under the reign of Solomon.
(1 Kings 4:21) The only part of Syria which Solomon lost seems to have
been Damascus, where an independent kingdom was set up by Rezon, a native
of Zobah. (1 Kings 11:23-25) On the separation of the two kingdoms, soon
after the accession of Rehoboam, the remainder of Syria no doubt shook off
the yoke. Damascus now became decidedly the leading state, Hamath being
second to it, and the northern Hittites, whose capital was Carchemish,
near Bambuk, third. [DAMASCUS] Syria became attached to the great
Assyrian empire, from which it passed to the Babylonians, and from them to
the Persians, In B.C. 333 it submitted to Alexander without a struggle.
Upon the death of Alexander, Syria became, for the first time the head of
a great kingdom. On the division of the provinces among his generals, B.C.
321, Seleucus Nicator received Mesopotamia and Syria. The city of Antioch
was begun in B.C. 300, and, being finished in a few years, was made the
capital of Seleucus’ kingdom. The country grew rich with the wealth
which now flowed into it on all sides. Syria was added to the Roman empire
by Pompey, B.C. 64, and as it holds an important place, not only in the
Old Testament but in the New, some account of its condition under the
Romans must be given. While the country generally was formed into a Roman
province, under governors who were at first proprietors or quaestors, then
procounsuls, and finally legates, there were exempted from the direct rule
of the governor in the first place, a number of "free cities" which
retained the administration of their own affairs, subject to a tribute
levied according to the Roman principles of taxation; secondly, a number
of tracts, which were assigned to petty princes, commonly natives, to be
ruled at their pleasure, subject to the same obligations with the free
cities as to taxation. After the formal division of the provinces between
Augustus and the senate, Syria, being from its exposed situation among the
province principis, were ruled by legates, who were of consular
rank (consulares) and bore severally the full title of "Legatus
Augusti pro praetore." Judea occupied a peculiar position; a special
procurator was therefore appointed to rule it, who was subordinate to the
governor of Syria, but within his own province had the power of a legatus.
Syria continued without serious disturbance from the expulsion of the
Parthians, B.C. 38, to the breaking out of the Jewish war, A.D. 66. in
A.D. 44-47 it was the scene of a severe famine. A little earlier,
Christianity had begun to spread into it, partly by means of those who
"were scattered" at the time of Stephen's persecution, (Acts 11:19) partly
by the exertions of St. Paul. (Galatians 1:21) The Syrian Church soon grew
to be one of the most flourishing (Acts 13:1; 15:23,35,41) etc. (Syria
remained under Roman and Byzantine rule till A.D. 634, when it was overrun
by the Mohammedans; after which it was for many years the scene of fierce
contests, and was finally subjugated by the Turks, A.D. 1517, under whose
rule it still remains. -- ED.)


occurs only in (Mark 7:26) The word denoted perhaps a mixed race, half
Phoenicians and half Syrians; (or the Phoenicians in this region may have
been called Syro-phoenicians because they belonged to the Roman province
of Syria, and were thus distinguished from the Phoenicians who lived in
Africa, or the Carthaginians. -- ED.)


(Acts 27:17) in the Revised Version in place of "quicksands" in the
Authorized Version. It was the well-known Syrtis Major, the terror
of all Mediterranean sailors. "It is a dangerous shallow on the coast of
Africa, between Tripoli and Barca, southwest of the island of Crete." The
other Syrtis Syrtis Minor, was too far west to be feared by Paul's
fellow voyagers. -- ED.

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