Smith's Bible Dictionary - P

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In the list of (2 Samuel 23:35) "Paarai the Arbite" is one of David's men.
In (1 Chronicles 11:37) he is Naarai the son of Ezbai." (B.C. 1015.)


(field). Padan-aram. (Genesis 48:7)


By this name, which signifies the table-land of Aram, i.e. Syriac,
the Hebrews designated the tract of country which they otherwise called
the Aram-naharaim, "Aram of the two of rivers," the Greek Mesopotamia,
(Genesis 24:10) and "the field (Authorized Version,’country’)
of Syria." (Hosea 12:13) The term was perhaps more especially applied to
that portion which bordered on the Euphrates, to distinguish if from the
mountainous districts in the north and northeast of Mesopotamia. It is
elsewhere called PADAN simply. (Genesis 48:7) Abraham obtained a wife for
Isaac from Padan-aram. (Genesis 25:20) Jacob's wives were also from
Padan-aram, (Genesis 28:2,5,6,7; 31:1-8; 33:18)


(deliverance) the ancestor of a family of Nethinim who returned
with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:41; Nehemiah 7:47) (B.C. before 529.)


(God allots) the son of Ocran and chief of the tribe of Asher at
the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:13; 2:27; 7:72,77; 10:26) (B.C.


(governor of Moab), head of one of the chief houses of the tribe of
Judah. Of the individual or the occasion of his receiving so singular a
name nothing is known certainty but as we read in (1 Chronicles 4:22) of a
family of Shilonites, of the tribe of Judah, who in very early times "had
dominion in Moab," it may be conjectured that this was the origin of the


(blessing). [PAU]


(as a cosmetic). The use of cosmetic dyes has prevailed in all ages
in eastern countries. We have abundant evidence of the practice of
painting the eyes both in ancient Egypt and in Assyria; and in modern
times no usage is more general. It does not appear, however, to have been
by any means universal among the Hebrews. The notices of it are few; and
in each instance it seems to have been used as a meretricious art,
unworthy of a woman of high character. The Bible gives no indication of
the substance out of which the dye was formed. The old versions agree in
pronouncing the dye to have been produced from antimony. Antimony is still
used for the purpose in Arabia and in Persia, but in Egypt the kohl
is a root produced by burning either a kind of frankincense or the shells
of almonds. The dye-stuff was moistened with oil and kept in a small jar.
Whether the custom of staining the hands and feet, particularly the nails,
now so prevalent in the past, was known to the Hebrews is doubtful.
Painting as an art was not cultivated by the Hebrews, but they decorated
their buildings with paint.


Palace in the Bible, in the singular and plural, is the rendering of
several words of diverse meaning. (1 Chronicles 29:1; Ezra 4:14; Amos 4:3)
etc. It often designates the royal residence, and usually suggests a
fortress or battlemented house. The word occasionally included the whole
city as in (Esther 9:12) and again, as in (1 Kings 16:18) it is restricted
to a part of the royal apartments. It is applied, as in (1 Chronicles
29:1) to the temple in Jerusalem. The site of the palace of Solomon was
almost certainly in the city itself on the brow opposite to the temple,
and overlooking it and the whole city of David. It is impossible, of
course, to be at all certain what was either the form or the exact
disposition of such a palace; but, as we have the dimensions of the three
principal buildings given in the book of Kings and confirmed by Josephus,
we may, by taking these as a scale, ascertain pretty nearly that the
building covered somewhere about 150,000 or 160,000 square feet. Whether
it was a square of 400 feet each way, or an oblong of about 550 feet by
300, must always be more or less a matter of conjecture. The principal
building situated within the palace was, as in all eastern palaces, the
great hall of state and audience, called "the house of the forest of
Lebanon," apparently from the four rows of cedar pillars by which it was
supported. It was 100 cubits (175 feet) long, 50 (88 feet) wide, and 30
(52 feet) high. Next in importance was the hall or "porch of judgment," a
quadrangular building supported by columns, as we learn front Josephus,
which apparently stood on the other side of the great court, opposite the
house of the forest of Lebanon. The third edifice is merely called a
"porch of pillars." Its dimensions were 50 by 30 cubits. Its use cannot be
considered as doubtful, as it was an indispensable adjunct to an eastern
palace. It was the ordinary place of business of the palace, and the
reception-room when the king received ordinary visitors, and sat, except
on great state occasions, to transact the business of the kingdom. Behind
this, we are told, was the inner court, adorned with gardens and
fountains, and surrounded by cloisters for shade; and there were other
courts for the residence of the attendants and guards, and for the women
of the harem. Apart from this palace, but attached, as Josephus tells us,
to the hall of judgment, was the palace of Pharaoh's daughter-too proud
and important a personage to be grouped with the ladies of the harem, and
requiring a residence of her own. The recent discoveries at Nineveh have
enabled us to understand many of the architectural details of this palace,
which before they were made were nearly wholly inexplicable. Solomon
constructed an ascent from his own house to the temple, "the house of
Jehovah," (1 Kings 10:5) which was a subterranean passage 250 feet long by
42 feet wide, of which the remains may still be traced.


(judge), the son of Uzai who assisted in restoring the walls of
Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah, (Nehemiah 3:25) (B.C. 446.)


(land of strangers). These two forms occur in the Authorized
Version but four times in all, always in poetical passages; the first in
(Exodus 15:14) and Isai 14:29 The second (Joel 3:4) In each case the
Hebrew is Pelesheth, a word found, besides the above, only in
(Psalms 60:8; 83:7; 87:4) and Psal 108:9 In all which our translators have
rendered it by "Philistia" or "Philistines." Palestine in the Authorized
Version really means nothing but Philistia. The original Hebrew word
Pelesheth to the Hebrews signified merely the long and broad strip
of maritime plain inhabited by their encroaching neighbors; nor does it
appear that at first it signified more to the Greeks. As lying next the
sea, and as being also the high road from Egypt to Phoenicia and the
richer regions no of it, the Philistine plain became sooner known to the
western world than the country farther inland, and was called by them
Syria Palestina-Philistine Syria. From thence it was gradually extended to
the country farther inland, till in the Roman and later Greek authors,
both heathen sad Christian, it became the usual appellation for the whole
country of the Jews, both west and east of Jordan. The word is now so
commonly employed in our more familiar language to destinate the whole
country of Israel that although biblically a misnomer, it has been chosen
here as the most convenient heading under which to give a general
description of THE HOLY LAND, embracing those points which have not been
treated under the separate headings of cities or tribes. This description
will most conveniently divide itself Into three sections: -- I. The Names
applied to the country of Israel in the Bible and elsewhere. II. The Land;
its situation, aspect, climb, physical characteristics in connection with
its history, its structure, botany and natural history. III. The History
of the country is so fully given under its various headings throughout the
work that it is unnecessary to recapitulate it here. I. [THE NAMES]. --
Palestine, then, is designated in the Bible by more than one name.

  • During the patriarchal period, the conquest and the age of the Judges
    and also where those early periods are referred to in the later literature
    (as) (Psalms 105:11) it is spoken of as "Canaan," or more frequently "the
    land of Canaan," meaning thereby the country west of the Jordan, as
    opposed to "the land of Gilead." on the east.

  • During the monarchy the name usually, though not frequently, employed
    is "land of Israel." (1 Samuel 13:19)

  • Between the captivity and the time of our Lord the name "Judea" had
    extended itself from the southern portion to the whole of the country, and
    even that beyond the Jordan. (Matthew 19:1; Mark 10:1)

  • The Roman division of the country hardly coincided with the biblical
    one, and it does not appear that the Romans had any distinct name for that
    which we understand by Palestine.

  • Soon after the Christian era we find the name Palestina in possession
    of the country.

  • The name most frequently used throughout the middle ages, and down to
    our own time, is Terra Sancta -- the Holy Land. II. THE LAND.-The
    holy land is not in size or physical characteristics proportioned to its
    moral and historical position as the theatre of the most momentous events
    in the world's history. It is but a strip of country about the size of
    Wales, less than 140 miles in length and barely 40 in average breadth, on
    the very frontier of the East, hemmed in between the Mediterranean Sea on
    the one hand and the enormous trench of the Jordan valley on the other, by
    which it is effectually cut off from the mainland of Asia behind it. On
    the north it is shut in by the high ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon,
    and by the chasm of the Litany. On the south it is no less enclosed by the
    arid and inhospitable deserts of the upper pert of the peninsula of

  • Its position. -- Its position on the map of the world -- as the
    world was when the holy land first made its appearance in history -- is a
    remarkable one. (a) It was on the very outpost -- an the extremist western
    edge of the East. On the shore of the Mediterranean it stands, as if it
    had advanced as far as possible toward the west, separated therefrom by
    that which, when the time arrived proved to be no barrier, but the
    readiest medium of communication-the wide waters of the "great sea." Thus
    it was open to all the gradual influences of the rising communities of the
    West, while it was saved from the retrogression and decrepitude which have
    ultimately been the doom of all purely eastern states whose connections
    were limited to the East only. (b) There was, however, one channel, and
    but one, by which it could reach and be reached by the great Oriental
    empires. The rivals road by which the two great rivals of the ancient
    world could approach one another -- by which alone Egypt could get to
    Assyria and Assyria to lay along the broad hat strip of coast which formed
    the maritime portion of the holy land, and thence by the plain of the
    Lebanon to the Euphrates. (c) After this the holy land became (like the
    Netherlands in Europe) the convenient arena on which in successive ages
    the hostile powers who contended for the empire of the East fought their

  • Physical features. -- Palestine is essentially a mountainous country.
    Not that if contains independent mountain chains, as in Greece for example
    but that every part of the highland is in greater or less undulation. But
    it is not only a mountainous country. The mass of hills which occupies the
    centre of the country is bordered or framed on both sides, east and west,
    by a broad belt of lowland, sunk deep below its own level. The slopes or
    cliffs which form, as if it were, the retaining walls of this depression
    are furrowed and cleft by the torrent beds which discharge the waters of
    the hills and form the means of communication between the upper and lower
    level. On the west this lowland interposes between the mountains and the
    sea, and is the plain of Philistia and of Sharon. On the east it is the
    broad bottom of the Jordan valley, deep down in which rushed the one river
    of Palestine to its grave in, the Dead Sea. Such is the first general
    impression of the physiognomy of the land. It is a physiognomy compounded
    of the three main features already named -- the plains the highland hills,
    and the torrent beds features which are marked in the words of its
    earliest describers, (Numbers 13:29; Joshua 11:16; 12:8) and which must be
    comprehended by every one who wishes to understand the country and the
    intimate connection existing between its structure and its history. About
    halfway up the coast the maritime plain is suddenly interrupted by a long
    ridge thrown out from the central mass, rising considerably shove the
    general level and terminating in a bold promontory on the very edge of the
    Mediterranean. This ridge is Mount Carmel. On its upper side the plain, as
    if to compensate for its temporary displacement, invades the centre of the
    country, and forms an undulating hollow right across it from the
    Mediterranean to the Jordan valley. This central lowland, which divides
    with its broad depression the mountains of Ephraim from the mountains of
    Galilee is the plain of Esdraelon or Jezreel the great battle-field of
    Palestine. North of Carmel the lowland resumes its position by the seaside
    till it is again interrupted and finally put an end to by the northern
    mountains, which push their way out of the sea, ending in the white
    promontory of the Ras Nakhura. Above this is the ancient
    Phoenicia. The country thus roughly portrayed is to all intents and
    purposes the whole land of israel. The northern portion is Galilee; the
    centre, Samaria; the south, Judea. This is the land of Canaan which was
    bestowed on Abraham, -- the covenanted home of his descendants. The
    highland district, surrounded and intersected by its broad lowland plains,
    preserves from north to south a remarkably even and horizontal profile.
    Its average height may betaken as 1600 to 1800 feet above the
    Mediterranean. It can hardly be denominated a plateau; yet so evenly is
    the general level preserved and so thickly do the hills stand behind and
    between one another, that, when seen from the coast or the western part of
    the maritime plain, it has quite the appearance of a wall. This general
    monotony of profile is however, relieved at intervals by certain centers
    of elevation. Between these elevated points runs the watershed of the
    country, sending off on either hand -- to the Jordan valley on the east
    and the Mediterranean on the west -- the long, tortuous arms of ifs many
    torrent beds. The valleys on the two sides of the watershed differ
    considerably in character. Those on the east are extremely steep and
    rugged the western valleys are more gradual in their slope.

  • Fertility. -- When the highlands of the country are more
    closely examined, a considerable difference will be found to exist in the
    natural condition and appearance of their different portions. The south,
    as being nearer the arid desert and farther removed from the drainage of
    the mountains, is drier and less productive than the north. The tract
    below Hebron, which forms the link between the hills of Judah and the
    desert, was known to the ancient Hebrews by a term originally derived from
    its dryness -- Negeb. This was the south country. As the traveller
    advances north of this tract there is an improvement; but perhaps no
    country equally cultivated is more monotonous, bare or uninviting in its
    aspect than a great part of the highlands of Judah and Benjamin during the
    larger portion of the year. The spring covers even those bald gray rocks
    with verdure and color, and fills the ravines with torrents of rushing
    water; but in summer and autumn the look of the country from Hebron up to
    Bethel is very dreary and desolate. At Jerusalem this reaches its climax.
    To the west and northwest of the highlands, where the sea-breezes are
    felt, there is considerably more vegetation, Hitherto we have spoken of
    the central and northern portions of Judea. Its eastern portion -- a tract
    some nine or ten miles in width by about thirty-five in length, which
    intervenes between the centre and the abrupt descent to the Dead Sea -- is
    far more wild and desolate, and that not for a portion of the year only,
    but throughout it. This must have been always what it is now -- an
    uninhabited desert, because uninhabitable. No descriptive sketch of this
    part of the country can be complete which does not allude to the caverns,
    characteristic of all limestone districts, but here existing in
    astonishing numbers. Every hill and ravine is pierced with them, some very
    large and of curious formation -- perhaps partly natural, partly
    artificial -- others mere grottos. Many of them are connected with most
    important and interesting events of the ancient history of the country.
    Especially is this true of the district now under consideration.
    Machpelah, Makkedah, Adullam En-gedi, names inseparably connected with the
    lives, adventures and deaths of Abraham, Joshua, David and other
    Old-Testament worthies, are all within the small circle of the territory
    of Judea. The bareness and dryness which prevail more or less in Judea are
    owing partly to the absence of wood, partly to its proximity to the
    desert, sad partly to a scarcity of water arising from its distance from
    the Lebanon. But to this discouraging aspect there are some important
    exceptions. The valley of Urtas, south of Bethlehem contains
    springs which in abundance and excellence rival even those of
    Nablus the huge "Pools of Solomon" are enough to supply a district
    for many miles round them; and the cultivation now going on in that
    Neighborhood shows whet might be done with a soil which required only
    irrigation and a moderate amount of labor to evoke a boundless produce. It
    is obvious that in the ancient days of the nation, when Judah and Benjamin
    possessed the teeming population indicated in the Bible, the condition and
    aspect of the country must have been very different. Of this there are not
    wanting sure evidences. There is no country in which the ruined towns bear
    so large a proportion to those still existing. Hardly a hill-top of the
    many within sight that is not covered with vestiges of some fortress or
    city. But, besides this, forests appear to have stood in many parts of
    Judea until the repeated invasions and sieges caused their fall; and all
    this vegetation must have reacted on the moisture of the climate, and, by
    preserving the water in many a ravine and natural reservoir where now it
    is rapidly dried by the fierce sun of the early summer, must have
    influenced materially the look and the resources of the country. Advancing
    northward from Judea, the country (Samaria) becomes gradually more open
    and pleasant. Plains of good soil occur between the hills, at first small
    but afterward comparatively large. The hills assume here a more varied
    aspect than in the southern districts, springs are more abundant and more
    permanent until at last, when the district of Jebel Nablus is
    reached -- the ancient Mount Ephraim-the traveller encounters an
    atmosphere and an amount of vegetation and water which are greatly
    superior to anything he has met with in Judea and even sufficient to
    recall much of the scenery of the West. Perhaps the springs are the only
    objects which In themselves, and apart from their associations, really
    strike an English traveller with astonishment and admiration. Such
    glorious fountains as those of Ain-jalud or the Ras
    -- where a great body of the dearest water wells silently
    but swiftly out from deep blue recesses worn in the foot of a low cliff of
    limestone rock and at once forms a considerable stream -- are rarely to be
    met with out of irregular, rocky, mountainous countries, and being such
    unusual sights can hardly be looked on by the traveler without surprise
    and emotion. The valleys which lead down from the upper level in this
    district to the valley of the Jordan are less precipitous than in Judea.
    The eastern district of the Jebel Nablus contains some of the most
    fertile end valuable spots in the holy land. Hardly less rich is the
    extensive region which lies northwest of the city of Shechem
    (Nablus), between it and Carmel, in which the mountains gradually
    break down into the plain of Sharon. Put with all its richness and all its
    advance on the southern part of the country there is a strange dearth of
    natural wood about this central district. It is this which makes the
    wooded sides of Carmel and the park-like scenery of the adjacent slopes
    and plains so remarkable. No sooner however, is the plain of Eadraelon
    passed than a considerable improvement Is perceptible. The low hills which
    spread down from the mountains of Galilee, and form the barrier between
    the plains of Akka and Esdraelon, are covered with timber, of moderate
    size it is true, but of thick, vigorous growth, and pleasant to the eye.
    Eastward of these hills rises the round mass of Tabor dark with its copses
    of oak, and set on by contrast with the bare slopes of Jebel
    (the so called "Little Hermon") and the white hills of
    Nazareth. A few words must be said in general description of the maritime
    lowland, which intervenes between the sea and the highlands. This region,
    only slightly elevated above the level of the Mediterranean, extends
    without interruption from el-Arish, south of Gaza, to Mount
    Carmel. It naturally divides itself into two portions each of about half
    its length; the lower one the wider the upper one the narrower. The lower
    half is the plain of the Philistines-Philistia, or, as the Hebrews called
    it, the Shefelah or Lowland. The upper half is the Sharon or Saron of the
    Old and New Testaments. The Philistine plain is on an average 15 or 16
    miles in width from the coast to the beginning of the belt of hills which
    forms the gradual approach to the high land of the mountains of Judah. The
    larger towns, as Gaza and Ashdod, which stand near the shore, are
    surrounded with huge groves of olive, sycamore and, as in the days King
    David. (1 Chronicles 27:28) The whole plain appears to consist of brown
    loamy soil, light but rich and almost without a stone. It is now, as it
    was when the Philistines possessed it, one enormous cornfield; an ocean of
    wheat covers the wide expense between the hills and the sand dunes of the
    seashore, without interruption of any kind -- no break or hedge, hardly
    even a single olive tree. Its fertility is marvellous; for the prodigious
    crops which if raises are produced, and probably have been produced almost
    year by year for the last forty centuries, without any of the appliances
    which we find necessary for success. The plain of Sharon is much narrower
    then Philistia. It is about 10 miles wide from the sea to the foot of the
    mountains, which are here of a more abrupt character than those of
    Philistia, and without the intermediate hilly region there occurring. The
    one ancient port of the Jews, the "beautiful", city of Joppa, occupied a
    position central between the Shefelah and Sharon. Roads led from these
    various cities to each other to Jerusalem, Neapolis and Sebaste in the
    interior, and to Ptolemais and Gaza on the north and south. The commerce
    of Damascus, and beyond Damascus, of Persia and India, passed this way to
    Egypt, Rome and the infant colonies of the West; and that traffic and the
    constant movement of troops backward and forward must have made this
    plain, at the time of Christ, one of the busiest and most populous regions
    of Syria.

  • The Jordan valley. -- The chacteristics already described are
    hardly peculiar to Palestine, but there is one feature, as yet only
    alluded to, in which she stands alone. This feature is the Jordan -- the
    one river of the country. The river is elsewhere described; [JORDAN] but
    it and the valley through which it rushes down its extraordinary descent
    must be here briefly characterized. This valley begins with the river at
    its remotest springs of Hasbeiya, on the northwest side of Hermon,
    and accompanies it to the lower end of the Dead Sea, a length of about
    1,50 miles. During the whole of this distance its course is straight and
    its direction nearly due north and south. The springs of Hasbeiya are 1700
    feet above the level of the Mediterranean and the northern end of the Dead
    Sea is 1317 feet below it, so that between these two points the valley
    falls with more or less regularity through a height of more than 3000
    feet. But though the river disappears at this point, the valley still
    continues its descent below the waters of the Dead Sea till it reaches a
    further depth of 1308 feet. So that the bottom of this extraordinary
    crevasse is actually more than 2600 feet below the surface of the ocean.
    In width the valley varies. In its upper and shallower portion, as between
    Banias and the lake of Merom (Huleh), it is about five miles
    across. Between the lake of Merom and the Sea or Galilee it contracts, and
    becomes more of an ordinary ravine or glen. It is in its third and lower
    portion that the valley assumes its more definite and regular character.
    During the greater part of this portion it is about seven miles wide from
    the one wall to the other. The eastern mountains preserve their straight
    line of direction, and their massive horizontal wall-like aspect, during
    almost the whole distance. The western mountains are more irregular in
    height, their slopes less vertical. North of Jericho they recede in a kind
    of wide amphitheatre, and the valley becomes twelve miles broad -- a
    breadth which it thenceforward retains to the southern extremity of the
    Dead Sea. Buried as it is between such lofty ranges, and shielded from
    every breeze, the climate of the Jordan valley is extremely hot and
    relaxing. Its enervating influence is shown by the inhabitants of Jericho.
    All the irrigation necessary for the cultivation which formerly existed is
    obtained front the torrents of the western mountains. For all purposes to
    which a river ordinarily applied the Jordan is useless. The Dead Sea,
    which is the final receptacle of the Jordan, is described elsewhere. [SEA,

  • Climate. -- "Probably there is no country in the world of the
    same extent which has a greater variety of climate than Palestine. On
    Mount Hermon, at its northern border there is perpetual snow. From this we
    descend successively by the peaks of Bashan and upper Galilee, where the
    oak and pine flourish, to the hills of Judah and Samaria, where the vine
    and fig tree are at home, to the plains of the seaboard where the palm and
    banana produce their fruit down to the sultry shores of the Sea, on which
    we find tropical heat and tropical vegetation." McClintock and
    . As in the time of our Saviour (Luke 12:64) the rains come
    chiefly from the south or southwest. They commence at the end of October
    or beginning of November and continue with greater or less constancy till
    the end of February or March. It is not a heavy, continuous rain so much
    as a succession of severe showers or storms, with intervening periods of
    fine, bright weather. Between April and November there is, with the rarest
    exceptions, an uninterrupted succession of fine weather and skies without
    a cloud. Thus the year divides itself into two and only two seasons -- as
    indeed we see it constantly divided in the Bible-" winter and summer"
    "cold and heat," "seed-time and harvest."

  • Botany. -- The botany of Syria and Palestine differs but
    little from that of Asia Minor, which is one of the most rich and varied
    on the globe. Among trees the oak is by far the most prevalent. The trees
    of the genus Pistacia rank next to the oak in abundance, and of
    these there are three species in Syria. There is also the carob or locust
    tree (Ceratonia siliqua), the pine, sycamore, poplar and walnut. Of
    planted trees large shrubs the first in importance is the vine, which is
    most abundantly cultivated all over the country, and produces, as in the
    time of the Canaanites, enormous bunches of grapes. This is especially the
    case in the southern districts, those of Eshcol being still particularly
    famous. Next to the vine, or even in some respects its superior in
    importance, ranks the olive, which nowhere grows in greater luxuriance and
    abundance than in Palestine, where the olive orchards form a prominent
    feature throughout the landscape, and have done so from time immemorial.
    The fig forms another most important crop in Syria and Palestine. (Besides
    these are the almond, pomegranate, orange, pear, banana, quince and
    mulberry among fruit trees. Of vegetables there are many varieties, as the
    egg plant, pumpkin, asparagus, lettuce, melon and cucumber. Palestine is
    especially distinguished for its wild flowers, of which there are more
    than five hundred varieties. The geranium, pink, poppy, narcissus,
    honeysuckle, oleander, jessamine, tulip and iris are abundant. The various
    grains are also very largely cultivated. -- ED.)

  • Zoology. -- It will be sufficient in this article to give a
    general survey of the fauna of Palestine, as the reader will find more
    particular information in the several articles which treat of the various
    animals under their respective names. Jackals and foxes are common; the
    hyena and wolf are also occasionally observed; the lion is no longer a
    resident in Palestine or Syria. A species of squirrel the which the term
    orkidaun "the leaper," has been noticed on the lower and middle
    parts of Lebanon. Two kinds of hare, rats and mice, which are said to
    abound, the jerboa, the porcupine, the short-tailed field-mouse, may be
    considered as the representatives of the Rodentia. Of the
    Pachydermata the wild boar, which is frequently met with on Taber
    and Little Hermon, appears to be the only living wild example. There does
    not appear to be at present any wild ox in Palestine. Of domestic animals
    we need only mention the Arabian or one-humped camel, the ass, the mule
    and the horse, all of which are in general use. The buffalo (Bubalus
    ) is common. The ox of the country is small and unsightly in
    the neighborhood of Jerusalem, but in the richer pastures the cattle,
    though small, are not unsightly The common sheep of Palestine is the
    broadtail, with its varieties. Goats are extremely common everywhere.
    Palestine abounds in numerous kinds of birds. Vultures, eagles, falcons,
    kites, owls of different kinds represent the Raptorial order. In
    the south of Palestine especially, reptiles of various kinds abound. It
    has been remarked that in its physical character Palestine presents on a
    small scale an epitome of the natural features of all regions, mountainous
    and desert, northern and tropical, maritime and inland, pastoral, arable
    and volcanic.

  • Antiquities. -- In the preceding description allusion has been
    made to many of the characteristic features of the holy land; but it is
    impossible to close this account without mentioning a defect which is even
    more characteristic -- its luck of monuments and personal relies of the
    nation which possessed it for so many centuries and gave it its claim to
    our veneration and affection. When compared with other nations of equal
    antiquity -- Egypt, Greece Assyria -- the contrast is truly remarkable. In
    Egypt and Greece, and also in Assyria, as far as our knowledge at present
    extends, we find a series of buildings reaching down from the most remote
    and mysterious antiquity, a chain of which hardly a link is wanting, and
    which records the progress of the people in civilization art and religion
    as certainly as the buildings of the medieval architects do that of the
    various nations of modern Europe. But in Palestine it is not too much to
    say that there does not exist a single edifice or part of an edifice of
    which we call be sure that it is of a date anterior to the Christian era.
    And as with the buildings, so with other memorials, With one exception,
    the museums of Europe do not possess a single piece of pottery or metal
    work, a single weapon or household utensil, an ornament or a piece of
    armor of Israelite make, which can give us the least conception of the
    manners or outward appliances of the nation before the date of the
    destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. The coins form the single exception. M.
    Renan has named two circumstances which must have had a great effect in
    suppressing art or architecture amongst the ancient Israelites, while
    their very existence proves that the people had no genius in that
    direction. These are (1) the prohibition of sculptured representations of
    living creatures, and (2) the command not to build a temple anywhere but
    at Jerusalem.


(distinguished), the second son of Reuben, father of Eliab, (Isaiah
6:14; Numbers 26:5,8; 1 Chronicles 5:3) and founder of the family of


(descendants of Pullu), The. (Numbers 26:5)


(Heb. gazam) occurs (Joel 1:4; 2:25; Amos 4:9) It is maintained by
many that gazam denotes some species of locust. but it is more probably a


(Heb. tamar). Under this generic term many species are botanically
included; but we have here only to do with the date palm, the Phoenix
of Linnaeus. While this tree was abundant generally in the
Levant, it was regarded by the ancients as peculiarly characteristic of
Palestine and the neighboring regions, though now it is rare. ("The palm
tree frequently attains a height of eighty feet, but more commonly forty
to fifty. It begins to bear fruit after it has been planted six or eight
years, and continues to be productive for a century. Its trunk is
straight, tall and unbroken, terminating in a crown of emerald-green
plumes, like a diadem of gigantic ostrich-feathers; these leaves are
frequently twenty feet in length, droop slightly at the ends, and whisper
musically in the breeze. The palm is, in truth, a beautiful and most
useful tree. Its fruit is the daily food of millions; its sap furnishes an
agreeable wine; the fibres of the base of its leaves are woven into ropes
and rigging; its tall stem supplies a valuable timber; its leaves are
manufactured into brushes, mats, bags, couches and baskets. This one tree
supplies almost all the wants of the Arab or Egyptian." -- Bible Plants.)
Many places are mentioned in the Bible as having connection with palm
trees; Elim, where grew three score and ten palm trees, (Exodus 15:27) and
Elath. (2:8) Jericho was the city of "palm trees." (31:3) Hazezon-tamar,
"the felling of the palm tree," is clear in its derivation. There is also
Tamar, "the palm." (Ezekiel 47:19) Bethany means the "house of dates." The
word Phoenicia, which occurs twice in the New Testament -- (Acts 11:19;
15:3) -- is in all probability derived from the Greek word for a palm.
The, striking appearance of the tree, its uprightness and beauty, would
naturally suggest the giving of Its name occasionally to women. (Genesis
38:6; 2 Samuel 13:1; 14:27) There is in the Psalms, (Psalms 92:12) the
familiar comparison, "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree."
which suggests a world of illustration whether respect be had to the
orderly and regular aspect of the tree, its fruitfulness, the perpetual
greenness of its foliage, or the height at which the foliage grows, as far
as possible from earth and as near as possible to heaven. Perhaps no point
is more worthy of mention, we wish to pursue the comparison, than the
elasticity of the fibre of the palm and its determined growth upward even
when loaded with weights. The passage in (Revelation 7:9) where the
glorified of all nations are described as "clothed with white robes and
palms in their hands," might seem to us a purely classical image; but palm
branches were used by the Jews in token of victory and peace. (To these
points of comparison may be added, its principle of growth: it is an
endogen, and grows from within; its usefulness; the Syrians enumerating
360 different uses to which it may be put; and the statement that it bears
its best fruit in old age. -- ED.) It is curious that this tree, once so
abundant in Judea, is now comparatively rare, except in the Philistine
plain and in the old Phoenicia about Beyrout.


(contracted from paralysis). The loss of sensation or the power of
motion, or both, in any part of the body. The infirmities included under
this name in the New Testament were various: --

  • The paralytic shock affecting the whole body, or apoplexy.

  • That affecting only one side.

  • Affecting the whole system below the neck.

  • Catalepsy, caused by the contraction of the muscles in the whole or a
    part of the body. This was very dangerous and often fatal. The part
    affected remains immovable and diminishes in size and dries up. A hand
    thus affected was called "a withered hand." (Matthew 12:10-13)

  • Cramp. This was a most dreadful disease caused by the chills of the
    nights. The limbs remain immovably fixed in the same position as when
    seized as it, and the person seems like one suffering torture. It is
    frequently followed in a few days by death. Several paralytics were cured
    by Jesus. (Matthew 4:24; 8:13) etc.


(whom Jehovah delivers), the Benjamite spy, son of Raphu. (Numbers
13:9) (B.C.1490.)


(whom God delivers), the son of Azzan and prince of the tribe of
Issachar. (Numbers 34:26) He was one of the twelve appointed to divide the
land of Canaan among the tribes west of Jordan. (B.C. 1450.)


Helez "the Paltite" is named in (2 Samuel 23:26) among David's mighty men.
(B.C. 1015.)


(of every tribe), one of the coast-regions in the south of Asia
Minor, having Cilicia on the east and Lycia on the west. In St. Paul's
time it was not only a regular province, but the emperor Claudius had
united Lycia with it, and probably also a good part of Pisidia. It was in
Pamphylia that St. Paul first entered Asia Minor, after preaching the
gospel in Cyprus. He and Barnabas sailed up the river Cestrus to Perga.
(Acts 13:13) The two missionaries finally left Pamphylia by its chief
seaport Attalia. Many years afterward St. Paul sailed near the coast.
(Acts 27:5)


Of the six words so rendered in the Authorized Version, two seem to imply
a shallow pan or plate, such as is used by the Bedouine and Syrians for
baking or dressing rapidly their cakes of meal, such as were used in legal
oblations; the others, a deeper vessel or caldron for boiling meat, placed
during the process on three stones.


(sweet), an article of commerce exported from Palestine to Tyre,
(Ezekiel 27:17) the nature of which is a pure matter of conjecture, as the
term occurs nowhere else. A comparison of the passage in Ezekiel with
(Genesis 43:11) leads to the supposition that pannag represents some of
the spices grown in Palestine.




(boiling, or hot), a town at the west end of Cyprus,
connected by a react with Salamis at the east end. It was founded B.C.
1184 (during the period of the judges in Israel). Paul and Barnabas
travelled, on their first missionary expedition, "through the isle" from
the latter place to the former, (Acts 13:6) The great characteristic of
Paphos was the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, who was fabled to have here
risen from the sea. Her temple, however, was at "Old Paphos" now called
Kuklia. The harbor and the chief town were at "New Paphos," ten
miles to the northwest. The place is still called Baffa.


(The word parable is in Greek parable (parabole) which signifies
placing beside or together, a comparison, a parable is therefore literally
a placing beside, a comparison, a similitude, an illustration of one
subject by another. -- McClintock and Strong. As used in the New Testament
it had a very wide application, being applied sometimes to the shortest
proverbs, (1 Samuel 10:12; 24:13; 2 Chronicles 7:20) sometimes to dark
prophetic utterances, (Numbers 23:7,18; 24:3; Ezekiel 20:49) sometimes to
enigmatic maxims, (Psalms 78:2; Proverbs 1:6) or metaphors expanded into a
narrative. (Ezekiel 12:22) In the New Testament itself the word is used
with a like latitude in (Matthew 24:32; Luke 4:23; Hebrews 9:9) It was
often used in a more restricted sense to denote a short narrative under
which some important truth is veiled. Of this sort were the parables of
Christ. The parable differs from the fable (1) in excluding brute and
inanimate creatures passing out of the laws of their nature and speaking
or acting like men; (2) in its higher ethical significance. It differs
from the allegory in that the latter, with its direct personification of
ideas or attributes, and the names which designate them, involves really
no comparison. The virtues and vices of mankind appear as in a drama, in
their own character and costume. The allegory is self-interpreting; the
parable demands attention, insight, sometimes an actual explanation. It
differs from a proverb in that it must include a similitude of some kind,
while the proverb may assert, without a similitude, some wide
generalization of experience. -- ED.) For some months Jesus taught in the
synagogues and on the seashore of Galilee as he had before taught in
Jerusalem, and as yet without a parable. But then there came a change. The
direct teaching was met with scorn unbelief hardness, and he seemed for a
time to abandon it for that which took the form of parables. The worth of
parables as instruments of teaching lies in their being at once a test of
character and in their presenting each form of character with that which,
as a penalty or blessing, is adapted to it. They withdraw the light from
those who love darkness. They protect the truth which they enshrine from
the mockery of the scoffer. They leave something even with the careless
which may be interpreted and understood afterward. They reveal on the
other hand, the seekers after truth. These ask the meaning of the parable,
and will not rest until the teacher has explained it. In this way the
parable did work, found out the fit hearers and led them on. In most of
the parables it is possible to trace something like an order.

  • There is a group which have for their subject the laws of the divine
    kingdom. Under this head we have the sower, (Matthew 13:1; Mark 4:1; Luke
    8:1)... the wheat and the tares (Matthew 13:1) ... etc.

  • When the next parables meet us they are of a different type and occupy
    a different position. They are drawn from the life of men rather than from
    the world of nature. They are such as these -- the two debtors, (Luke 7:1)
    ... the merciless servant, (Matthew 18:1) ... the good Samaritan, (Luke
    10:1) ... etc.

  • Toward the close of our Lord's ministry the parables are again
    theocratic but the phase of the divine kingdom on which they chiefly dwell
    is that of its final consummation. In interpreting parables note -- (1)
    The analogies must be real, not arbitrary; (2) The parables are to be
    considered as parts of a whole, and the interpretation of one is not to
    override or encroach upon the lessons taught by others; (3) The direct
    teaching of Christ presents the standard to which all our interpretations
    are to be referred, and by which they are to be measured.


This is a word of Persian origin, and is used in the Septuagint as the
translation of Eden. It means "an orchard of pleasure and fruits," a
"garden" or "pleasure ground," something like an English park. It is
applied figuratively to the celestial dwelling of the righteous, in
allusion to the garden of Eden. (2 Corinthians 12:4; Revelation 2:7) It
has thus come into familiar use to denote both that garden and the heaven
of the just.


(heifer-town) one of the cities in the territory allotted to
Benjamin, named only in the lists of the conquest. (Joshua 18:23)


(peace of caverns), a desert or wilderness, bounded on the north by
Palestine, on the east by the valley of Arabah, on the south by the desert
of Sinai, and on the west by the wilderness of Etham, which separated it
from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt. The first notice of Paran is in
connection with the invasion of the confederate kings. (Genesis 14:6) The
detailed itinerary of the children of Israel in (Numbers 33:1) ... does
not mention Paran because it was the name of a wide region; but the many
stations in Paran are recorded, chs. 17-36. and probably all the eighteen
stations were mentioned between Hazeroth and Kadesh were in Paran. Through
this very wide wilderness, from pasture to pasture as do modern Arab
tribes, the Israelites wandered in irregular lines of march. This region
through which the Israelites journeyed so long is now called by the name
it has borne for ages -- Bedu et-Tih, "the wilderness of
wandering." ("Bible Geography," Whitney.) "Mount" Paran occurs only in two
poetic passages, (33:2); Habb 3:3 It probably denotes the northwestern
member of the Sinaitic mountain group which lies adjacent to the Wady
. (It is probably the ridge or series of ridges lying on the
northeastern part of the desert of Paran, not far from Kadesh. -- ED.)


(open apartment), a word occurring in Hebrew and Authorized Version
only in (1 Chronicles 26:18) It would seem that Parbar was some place on
the west side of the temple enclosure, probably the suburb mentioned by
Josephus as lying in the deep valley which separated the west wall of the
temple from the city opposite it.




a word in English usage meaning the common room of the family, and hence
probably in Authorized Version denoting the king's audience-chamber, so
used in reference to Eglon. (Judges 3:20-25)


(superior), one of the ten sons of Haman slain by the Jews in
Shushan. (Esther 9:9) (B.C. 473.)


(abiding), one of the seven deacons, "men of honest report, full of
the Holy Ghost and wisdom." (Acts 8:5) There is a tradition that he
suffered martyrdom at Philippi in the reign of Trajan.


(delicate), father or ancestor of Elizaphan prince of the tribe of
Zebulun. (Numbers 34:25) (B.C. before 1452.)


(flea). The descendants of Parosh, in number 2172, returned front
Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:3; Nehemiah 7:8) Another detachment of
150 males, with Zechariah at their head, accompanied Ezra. (Ezra 8:3) They
assisted in the building of the well of Jerusalem, (Nehemiah 3:26) and
signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:14) (B.C. before


(given by prayer), the eldest of Haman's ten sons who were slain by
the Jews in Shushan. (Esther 9:7) (B.C. 473.)


This name occurs only in (Acts 2:9) where it designates Jews settled in
Parthia. Parthia proper was the region stretching along the southern flank
of the mountains which separate the great Persian desert from the desert
of Kharesm. It lay south of Hyrcania, east of Media and north of Sagartia.
The ancient Parthians are called a "Scythic" race, and probably belonged
to the great Turanian family. After being subject in succession to the
Persians and the Seleucidae, they revolted in B.C. 256. and under Arsaces
succeeded in establishing their independence. Parthia, in the mind of the
writer of the Acts, would designate this empire, which extended from India
to the Tigris and from the Chorasmian desert to the shores of the Southern
Ocean; hence the prominent position of the name Parthians in the list of
those prevent at Pentecost. Parthia was a power almost rivalling Rome --
the only existing power which had tried its strength against Rome and not
been worsted in the encounter. The Parthian dominion lasted for nearly
five centuries, commencing in the third century before and terminating in
the third century after our era. The Parthians spoke the Persian


(Heb. kore) occurs only (1 Samuel 26:20) and Jere 17:11 The
"hunting this bird upon the mountains," (1 Samuel 26:20) entirely agrees
with the habits of two well-known species of partridge, viz. Caccabis
, the Greek partridge (which is the commonest partridge of
the holy land), and Ammoperdix heyii. Our common partridge,
Perdix cinerea, does not occur in Palestine. (The Greek partridge
somewhat resembles our red-legged partridge in plumage, but is much
larger. In every part of the hill country it abounds, and its ringing
call-note in early morning echoes from cliff to cliff alike amid the
barrenness of the hills of Judea and in the glens of the forest of Carmel.
Tristram's Nat. Hist. of Bible. The flesh of the partridge and the
eggs are highly esteemed as food, and the search for the eggs at the
proper time of the year is made a regular business.-ED.)


(flourishing), the father of Jehoshaphat, Solomon's commissariat
officer in Issachar. (1 Kings 4:17) (B.C. about 1017.)


(Oriental regions), the name of an unknown place or country whence
the gold was procured for the decoration of Solomon's temple. (2
Chronicles 3:6) We may notice the conjecture that it is derived from the
Sanscrit purva, "eastern," and is a general term for the east.


(cut off), son of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles


(boundary of blood). [EPHES-DAMMIM]



  • Son of Eshton, in an obscure fragment of the genealogies of Judah. (1
    Chronicles 4:12)

  • The "sons of Paseah" were among the Nethinim who returned with
    Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:49)



  • One of the families of priests of the chief house of Malchijah. (1
    Chronicles 9:12; 24:9; Nehemiah 11:12; Jeremiah 21:1; 38:1) In the time of
    Nehemiah this family appears to have become a chief house, and its head
    the head of a course. (Ezra 2:38; Nehemiah 7:41; 10:3) The individual from
    whom the family was named was probably Pushur the son of Malchiah, who in
    the reign of Zedekiah was one of the chief princes of the court. (Jeremiah
    38:1) (B.C. 607.) He was sent, with others, by Zedekiah to Jeremiah at the
    time when Nebuchudnezzar was preparing his attack upon Jerusalem.
    (Jeremiah 21:1) ... Again somewhat later Pashur joined with several other
    chief men in petitioning the king that Jeremiah might be put to death as a
    traitor. (Jeremiah 38:4)

  • Another person of this name, also a priest, and "chief governor of the
    house of the Lord," is mentioned in (Jeremiah 20:1) He is described as
    "the son of Immer." (1 Chronicles 24:14) probably the same as Amariah.
    (Nehemiah 10:3; 12:2) etc. In the reign of Jehoiakim he showed himself as
    hostile to Jeremiah as his namesake the son of Malchiah did afterward, and
    put him in the stocks by the gate of Benjamin. For this indignity to God's
    prophet Pashur was told by Jeremiah that his name was changed to
    Magor-missabib (terror on every side) and that he and all his house
    should be carried captives to Babylon and there die. (Jeremiah 20:1-6)
    (B.C. 589.)


Used in the plural, (Jeremiah 22:20) probably to denote the mountain
region of Abarim on the east side of Jordan. It also denotes a river ford
or mountain gorge or pass.


the first of the three great annual festivals of the Israelites celebrated
in the month Nisan (March-April, from the 14th to the 21st. (Strictly
speaking the Passover only applied to the paschal supper and the feast of
unleavened bread followed, which was celebrated to the 21st.) (For the
corresponding dates in our month, see Jewish calendar at the end of
this volume.) The following are the principal passages in the Pentateuch
relating to the Passover: (Exodus 12:1-51; 13:3-10; 23:14-19; 34:18-26;
Leviticus 23:4-14; Numbers 9:1-14; 28:16-25; 16:1-6) Why instituted
. -- This feast was instituted by God to commemorate the deliverance of
the Israelites from Egyptian bondage and the sparing of their firstborn
when the destroying angel smote the first-born of the Egyptians. The
deliverance from Egypt was regarded as the starting-point of the Hebrew
nation. The Israelites were then raised from the condition of bondmen
under a foreign tyrant to that of a free people owing allegiance to no one
but Jehovah. The prophet in a later age spoke of the event as a
and a redemption of the nation. God declares himself
to be "the Creator of Israel." The Exodus was thus looked upon as the
birth of the nation; the Passover was its annual birthday feast. It was
the yearly memorial of the dedication of the people to him who had saved
their first-born from the destroyer, in order that they might be made holy
to himself. First celebration of the Passover. -- On the tenth day
of the month, the head of each family was to select from the flock either
a lamb or a kid, a male of the first year, without blemish. If his family
was too small to eat the whole of the lamb, he was permitted to invite his
nearest neighbor to join the party. On the fourteenth day of the month he
was to kill his lamb, while the sun was setting. He was then to take blood
in a basin and with a sprig of hyssop to sprinkle it on the two side-posts
and the lintel of the door of the house. The lamb was then thoroughly
roasted, whole. It was expressly forbidden that it should be boiled, or
that a bone of it should be broken. Unleavened bread and bitter herbs were
to be eaten with the flesh. No male who was uncircumcised was to join the
company. Each one was to have his loins girt, to hold a staff in his hand,
and to have shoes on his feet. He was to eat in haste, and it would seem
that he was to stand during the meal. The number of the party was to be
calculated as nearly as possible, so that all the flesh of the lamb might
be eaten; but if any portion of it happened to remain, it was to be burned
in the morning. No morsel of it was to be carried out of the house. The
lambs were selected, on the fourteenth they were slain and the blood
sprinkled, and in the following evening, after the fifteenth day of the
had commenced the first paschal meal was eaten. At midnight the firstborn
of the Egyptians were smitten. The king and his people were now urgent
that the Israelites should start immediately, and readily bestowed on them
supplies for the journey. In such haste did the Israelites depart, on that
very day, (Numbers 33:3) that they packed up their kneading troughs
containing the dough prepared for the morrow's provisions, which was not
yet leavened. Observance of the Passover in later times. -- As the
original institution of the Passover in Egypt preceded the establishment
of the priesthood and the regulation of the service of the tabernacle. It
necessarily fell short in several particulars of the observance of the
festival according to the fully-developed ceremonial law. The head of the
family slew the lamb in his own house, not in the holy place; the blood
was sprinkled on the doorway, not on the altar. But when the law was
perfected, certain particulars were altered in order to assimilate the
Passover to the accustomed order of religious service. In the twelfth and
thirteenth chapters of Exodus there are not only distinct references to
the observance of the festival in future ages (e.g.) (Exodus
12:2,14,17,24-27,42; 13:2,5,8-10) but there are several injunctions which
were evidently not intended for the first Passover, and which indeed could
not possibly have been observed. Besides the private family festival,
there were public and national sacrifices offered each of the seven days
of unleavened bread. (Numbers 28:19) On the second day also the
first-fruits of the barley harvest were offered in the temple. (Leviticus
23:10) In the latter notices of the festival in the books of the law there
are particulars added which appear as modifications of the original
institution. (Leviticus 23:10-14; Numbers 28:16-25; 16:1-6) Hence it is
not without reason that the Jewish writers have laid great stress on the
distinction between "the Egyptian Passover" and "the perpetual Passover."
Mode and order of the paschal meal. -- All work except that
belonging to a few trades connected with daily life was suspended for some
hours before the evening of the 14th Nisan. It was not lawful to eat any
ordinary food after midday. No male was admitted to the table unless he
was circumcised, even if he were of the seed of Israel. (Exodus 12:48) It
was customary for the number of a party to be not less than ten. When the
meal was prepared, the family was placed round the table, the
paterfamilias taking a place of honor, probably somewhat raised above the
rest. When the party was arranged the first cup of wine was filled, and a
blessing was asked by the head of the family on the feast, as well as a
special, one on the cup. The bitter herbs were then placed on the table,
and a portion of them eaten, either with Or without the sauce. The
unleavened bread was handed round next and afterward the lamb was placed
on the table in front of the head of the family. The paschal lamb could be
legally slain and the blood and fat offered only in the national
sanctuary. (16:2) Before the lamb was eaten the second cup of wine was
filled, and the son, in accordance with (Exodus 12:26) asked his father
the meaning of the feast. In reply, an account was given of the sufferings
of the Israelites in Egypt and of their deliverance, with a particular
explanation of (26:5) and the first part of the Hallel (a contraction from
Hallelujah), Psal 113, 114, was sung. This being gone through, the
lamb was carved and eaten. The third cup of wine was poured out and drunk,
and soon afterward the fourth. The second part of the Hallel, Psal 115 to
118 was then sung. A fifth wine-cup appears to have been occasionally
produced, But perhaps only in later times. What was termed the greater
Hallel, Psal 120 to 138 was sung on such occasions. The Israelites who
lived in the country appear to have been accommodated at the feast by the
inhabitants of Jerusalem in their houses, so far its there was room for
them. (Matthew 26:18; Luke 22:10-12) Those who could not be received into
the city encamped without the walls in tents as the pilgrims now do at
Mecca. The Passover as a type. -- The Passover was not only
commemorative but also typical. "The deliverance which it commemorated was
a type of the great salvation it foretold." -- No other shadow of things
to come contained in the law can vie with the festival of the Passover in
expressiveness and completeness. (1) The paschal lamb must of course be
regarded as the leading feature in the ceremonial of the festival. The
lamb slain typified Christ the "Lamb of God." slain for the sins of the
world. Christ "our Passover is sacrificed for us." (1 Corinthians 5:7)
According to the divine purpose, the true Lamb of God was slain at nearly
the same time as "the Lord's Passover" at the same season of the year; and
at the same time of the day as the daily sacrifice at the temple, the
crucifixion beginning at the hour of the morning sacrifice and ending at
the hour of the evening sacrifice. That the lamb was to be roasted and not
boiled has been supposed to commemorate the haste of the departure of the
Israelites. It is not difficult to determine the reason of the command
"not a bone of him shall be broken." The lamb was to be a symbol of unity
-- the unity of the family, the unity of the nation, the unity of God with
his people whom he had taken into covenant with himself. (2) The
unleavened bread ranks next in importance to the paschal lamb. We are
warranted in concluding that unleavened bread had a peculiar sacrificial
character, according to the law. It seems more reasonable to accept St,
Paul's reference to the subject, (1 Corinthians 5:6-8) as furnishing the
true meaning of the symbol. Fermentation is decomposition, a dissolution
of unity. The pure dry biscuit would be an apt emblem of unchanged
duration, and, in its freedom from foreign mixture, of purity also. (3)
The offering of the omer or first sheaf of the harvest, (Leviticus
23:10-14) signified deliverance from winter the bondage of Egypt being
well considered as a winter in the history of the nation. (4) The
consecration of the first-fruits, the firstborn of the soil, is an easy
type of the consecration of the first born of the Israelites, and of our
own best selves, to God. Further than this (1) the Passover is a type of
deliverance from the slavery of sin. (2) It is the passing over of the
doom we deserve for your sins, because the blood of Christ has been
applied to us by faith. (3) The sprinkling of the blood upon the
door-posts was a symbol of open confession of our allegiance and love. (4)
The Passover was useless unless eaten; so we live upon the Lord Jesus
Christ. (5) It was eaten with bitter herbs, as we must eat our passover
with the bitter herbs of repentance and confession, which yet, like the
bitter herbs of the Passover, are a fitting and natural accompaniment. (6)
As the Israelites ate the Passover all prepared for the journey, so do we
with a readiness and desire to enter the active service of Christ, and to
go on the journey toward heaven. -- ED.)


(city of Patarus), a Lycian city situated on the southwestern shore
of Lycia, not far from the left bank of the river Xanthus. The coast here
is very mountainous and bold. Immediately opposite is the island of
Rhodes. Patara was practically the seaport of the city of Xanthus, which
was ten miles distant. These notices of its position and maritime
importance introduce us to the single mention of the place in the Bible --
(Acts 21:1,2)


(region of the south), a part of Egypt, and a Mizraite tribe whose
people were called Pathrusim. In the list of the Mizraites the Pathrusim
occur after the Naphtuhim and before the Caluhim; the latter being
followed by the notice of the Philistines and by the Caphtorim. (Genesis
10:13,14; 1 Chronicles 1:12) Pathros is mentioned in the prophecies of
Isaiah, (Isaiah 11:11) Jeremiah (Jeremiah 44:1,15) and Ezekiel. (Ezekiel
29:14; 30:13-18) It was probably part or all of upper Egypt, and we may
trace its name in the Pathyrite name, in which Thebes was situated.


people of Pathros. [PATHROS]


(Revelation 1:9) a rugged and bare island in the AEgean Sea, 20 miles
south of Samos and 24 west of Asia Minor. It was the scene of the
banishment of St. John in the reign of Domitian, A.D. 95. Patmos is
divided into two nearly equal parts, a northern and a southern, by a very
narrow isthmus where, on the east side are the harbor and the town. On the
hill to the south, crowning a commanding height, is the celebrated
monastery which bears the name of "John the Divine." Halfway up the
descent is the cave or grotto where tradition says that St. John received
the Revelation.


(father of a tribe), the name given to the head of a family or
tribe in Old Testament times. In common usage the title of patriarch is
assigned especially to those whose lives are recorded in Scripture
previous to the time of Moses, as Adam, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. ("In the
early history of the Hebrews we find the ancestor or father of a family
retaining authority over his children and his children's children so long
as he lived, whatever new connections they might form when the father died
the branch families did not break off and form new communities, but
usually united under another common head. The eldest son was generally
invested with this dignity. His authority was paternal. He was honored as
central point of connection and as the representative of the whole
kindred. Thus each great family had its patriarch or head, and each tribe
its prince, selected from the several heads of the families which it
embraced." -- McClintock and Strong.) ("After the destruction of
Jerusalem, patriarch was the title of the chief religious rulers of the
Jews in Asia and in early Christian times it became the designation of the
bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem." --
American Cyclopedia.)


(paternal),a Christian at Rome to whom St. Paul sends his
salutation. (Romans 16:14) Like many other names mentioned in Roma 16 this
was borne by at least one member of the emperor's household. Suet. Galba.
20; Martial, Ep. ii. 32, 3. (A.D. 55.)


(bleating) (but in (1 Chronicles 1:50) PAI), the capital of Hadar
king of Edom. (Genesis 36:39) Its position is unknown.


(small, little). Nearly all the original materials for the life St.
Paul are contained in the Acts of the Apostles and in the Pauline
epistles. Paul was born in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. (It is not
improbable that he was born between A.D. 0 and A.D. 5.) Up to the time of
his going forth as an avowed preacher of Christ to the Gentiles, the
apostle was known by the name of Saul. This was the Jewish name which he
received from his Jewish parents. But though a Hebrew of the Hebrews, he
was born in a Gentile city. Of his parents we know nothing, except that
his father was of the tribe of Benjamin, (Philemon 3:5) and a Pharisee,
(Acts 23:6) that Paul had acquired by some means the Roman franchise ("I
was free born,") (Acts 22:23) and that he was settled in Tarsus. At Tarsus
he must have learned to use the Greek language with freedom and mastery in
both speaking and writing. At Tarsus also he learned that trade of
"tent-maker," (Acts 18:3) at which he afterward occasionally wrought with
his own hands. There was a goat's-hair cloth called cilicium manufactured
in Cilicia, and largely used for tents, Saul's trade was probably that of
making tents of this hair cloth. When St. Paul makes his defence before
his countrymen at Jerusalem, (Acts 22:1) ... he tells them that, though
born in Tarsus he had been "brought up" in Jerusalem. He must therefore,
have been yet a boy when was removed, in all probability for the sake of
his education, to the holy city of his fathers. He learned, he says, at
the feet of Gamaliel." He who was to resist so stoutly the usurpations of
the law had for his teacher one of the most eminent of all the doctors of
the law. Saul was yet "a young man," (Acts 7:58) when the Church
experienced that sudden expansion which was connected with the ordaining
of the seven appointed to serve tables, and with the special power and
inspiration of Stephen. Among those who disputed with Stephen were some
"of them of Cilicia." We naturally think of Saul as having been one of
these, when we find him afterward keeping the clothes of those suborned
witnesses who, according to the law, (17:7) were the first to cast stones
at Stephen. "Saul," says the sacred writer significantly "was consenting
unto his death." Saul's conversion. A.D. 37. -- The persecutor was
to be converted. Having undertaken to follow up the believers "unto
strange cities." Saul naturally turned his thoughts to Damascus. What
befell him as he journeyed thither is related in detail three times in the
Acts, first by the historian in his own person, then in the two addresses
made by St. Paul at Jerusalem and before Agrippa. St. Luke's statement is
to be read in (Acts 9:3-19) where, however, the words "it is hard for thee
to kick against the pricks," included in the English version, ought to be
omitted (as is done in the Revised Version). The sudden light from heaven;
the voice of Jesus speaking with authority to his persecutor; Saul struck
to the ground, blinded, overcome; the three-days suspense; the coming of
Ananias as a messenger of the Lord and Saul's baptism, -- these were the
leading features at the great event, and in these we must look for the
chief significance of the conversion. It was in Damascus that he was
received into the church by Ananias, and here to the astonishment of all
his hearers, he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues, declaring him to be
the Son of God. The narrative in the Acts tells us simply that he was
occupied in this work, with increasing vigor, for "many days," up to the
time when imminent danger drove him from Damascus. From the Epistle to the
Galatians, (Galatians 1:17,18) we learn that the many days were at least a
good part of "three years," A.D. 37-40, and that Saul, not thinking it
necessary to procure authority to teach from the apostles that were before
him, went after his conversion to Arabia, and returned from thence to us.
We know nothing whatever of this visit to Arabia; but upon his departure
from Damascus we are again on a historical ground, and have the double
evidence of St. Luke in the Acts of the apostle in his Second Epistle the
Corinthians. According to the former, the Jews lay in wait for Saul,
intending to kill him, and watched the gates of the city that he might not
escape from them. Knowing this, the disciples took him by night and let
him down in a basket from the wall. Having escaped from Damascus, Saul
betook himself to Jerusalem (A.D. 40), and there "assayed to join himself
to the disciples; but they were all afraid of him, and believed not he was
a disciple." Barnabas’ introduction removed the fears of the
apostles, and Saul "was with them coming in and going out at Jerusalem."
But it is not strange that the former persecutor was soon singled out from
the other believers as the object of a murderous hostility. He
was,therefore, again urged to flee; and by way of Caesarea betook himself
to his native city, Tarsus. Barnabas was sent on a special mission to
Antioch. As the work grew under his hands, he felt the need of help, went
himself to Tarsus to seek Saul, and succeeded in bringing him to Antioch.
There they labored together unremittingly for a whole year." All this time
Saul was subordinate to Barnabas. Antioch was in constant communication
with Cilicia, with Cyprus, with all the neighboring countries. The Church
was pregnant with a great movement, and time of her delivery was at hand.
Something of direct expectation seems to be implied in what is said of the
leaders of the Church at Antioch, that they were "ministering to the Lord
and fasting," when the Holy Ghost spoke to them: "Separate me Barnabas and
Saul for the work whereunto I have called them." Everything was done with
orderly gravity in the sending forth of the two missionaries. Their
brethren after fasting and prayer, laid their hands on them, and so they
departed. The first missionary journey. A.D. 45-49. -- As soon as
Barnabas and Saul reached Cyprus they began to "announce the word of God,"
but at first they delivered their message in the synagogues of the Jews
only. When they had gone through the island, from Salamis to Paphos, they
were called upon to explain their doctrine to an eminent Gentile, Sergius
Paulus, the proconsul, who was converted. Saul's name was now changed to
Paul, and he began to take precedence of Barnabas. From Paphos "Paul and
his company" set sail for the mainland, and arrived at Perga in Pamphylia.
Here the heart of their companion John failed him, and he returned to
Jerusalem. From Perga they travelled on to a place obscure in secular
history, but most memorable in the history of the Kingdom of Christ --
Antioch in Pisidia. Rejected by the Jews, they became bold and outspoken,
and turned from them to the Gentiles. At Antioch now, as in every city
afterward, the unbelieving Jews used their influence with their own
adherents among the Gentiles to persuade the authorities or the populace
to persecute the apostles and to drive them from the place. Paul and
Barnabas now travelled on to Iconium where the occurrences at Antioch were
repeated, and from thence to the Lycaonian country which contained the
cities Lystra and Derbe. Here they had to deal with uncivilized heathen.
At Lystra the healing of a cripple took place. Thereupon these pagans took
the apostles for gods, calling Barnabas, who was of the more imposing
presence, Jupiter, and Paul, who was the chief speaker, Mercurius.
Although the people of Lystra had been so ready to worship Paul and
Barnabas, the repulse of their idolatrous instincts appears to have
provoked them, and they allowed themselves to be persuaded into hostility
be Jews who came from Antioch and Iconium, so that they attacked Paul with
stones, and thought they had killed him. He recovered, however as the
disciples were standing around him, and went again into the city. The next
day he left it with Barnabas, and went to Derbe, and thence they returned
once more to Lystra, and so to Iconium and Antioch. In order to establish
the churches after their departure they solemnly appointed "elders" in
every city. Then they came down to the coast, and from Attalia, they
sailed; home to Antioch in Syria, where they related the successes which
had been granted to them, and especially the opening of the door of faith
to the Gentiles." And so the first missionary journey ended. The
council at Jerusalem.
-- Upon that missionary journey follows most
naturally the next important scene which the historian sets before us --
the council held at Jerusalem to determine the relations of Gentile
believers to the law of Moses. (Acts 15:1-29; Galatians 2) Second
missionary journey
. A.D. 50-54. -- The most resolute courage, indeed,
was required for the work to which St. Paul was now publicly pledged. He
would not associate with himself in that work one who had already shown a
want of constancy. This was the occasion of what must have been a most
painful difference between him and his comrade in the faith and in past
perils, Barnabas. (Acts 15:35-40) Silas, or Silvanus, becomes now a chief
companion of the apostle. The two went together through Syria and Cilicia,
visiting the churches, and so came to Derbe and Lystra. Here they find
Timotheus, who had become a disciple on the former visit of the apostle.
Him St. Paul took and Circumcised. St. Luke now steps rapidly over a
considerable space of the apostle's life and labors. "They went throughout
Phrygia and the region of Galatia." (Luke 16:6) At this time St. Paul was
founding "the churches of Galatia." (Galatians 1:2) He himself gives some
hints of the circumstances of his preaching in that region, of the
reception he met with, and of the ardent though unstable character of the
people. (Galatians 4:13-15) Having gone through Phrygia and Galatia, he
intended to visit, the western coast; but "they were forbidden by the Holy
Ghost to preach the "word" there. Then, being on the borders of Mysia,
they thought of going back to the northeast into Bithynia; but again the
Spirit of Jesus "suffered them not," so they passed by Mysia and
came down to Troas. St. Paul saw in a vision a man,of Macedonia, who
besought him, saying, "Come over into Macedonia and help us." The vision
was at once accepted as a heavenly intimation; the help wanted, by the
Macedonians was believed to be the preaching of the gospel. It is at this
point that the historian, speaking of St. Paul's company, substitutes "we"
for "they." He says nothing of himself we can only infer that St. Luke, to
whatever country he belonged, became a companion of St. Paul at Troas. The
party thus reinforced, immediately set sail from Troas, touched at
Samothrace, then landed on the continent at Neapolis, and thence journeyed
to Philippi. The first convert in Macedonia was Lydia, an Asiatic woman,
at Philippi. (Acts 18:13,14) At Philippi Paul and Silas were arrested,
beaten and put in prison, having cast out the spirit of divination from a
female slave who had brought her masters much gain by her power. This
cruel wrong was to be the occasion of a signal appearance of the God of
righteousness and deliverance. The narrative tells of the earthquake, the
jailer's terror, his conversion and baptism. (Acts 16:26-34) In the
morning the magistrates sent word to the prison that the men might be let
go; but Paul denounced plainly their unlawful acts, informing them
moreover that those whom they had beaten and imprisoned without trial;
were Roman citizens. The magistrates, in great alarm, saw the necessity of
humbling themselves. They came and begged them to leave the city. Paul and
Silas consented to do so, and, after paying a visit to "the brethren" in
the house of Lydia, they departed. Leaving St. Luke, and perhaps Timothy
for a short time at Philippi, Paul and Silas travelled through Amphipolis
and Apollonia and stopped again at Thessalonica. Here again, as in
Pisidian Antioch, the envy of the Jews was excited, and the mob assaulted
the house of Jason with whom Paul and Silas were staying as guests, and,
not finding them, dragged Jason himself and some other brethren before the
magistrates. After these signs of danger the brethren immediately sent
away Paul and Silas by night. They next came to Berea. Here they found the
Jews more noble than those at Thessalonica had been. Accordingly they
gained many converts, both Jews and Greeks; but the Jews of Thessalonica,
hearing of it, sent emissaries to stir up the people, and it was thought
best that Paul should himself leave the city whilst Silas and Timothy
remained-behind. Some of the brethren went with St. Paul as far as Athens,
where they left him carrying back a request to Silas and Timothy that they
would speedily join him. Here the apostle delivered that wonderful
discourse reported in (Acts 17:22-31) He gained but few converts at
Athens, and soon took his departure and went to Corinth. He was testifying
with unusual effort and anxiety when Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia
and joined him. Their arrival was the occasion of the writing of the First
Epistle to the Thessalonians. The two epistles to the Thessalonians -- and
these alone -- belong to the present missionary journey. They were written
from Corinth A.D. 52, 53. When Silas and Timotheus came to Corinth, St.
Paul was testifying to the Jews with great earnestness, but with little
success. Corinth was the chief city of the province of Achaia, and the
residence of the proconsul. During St. Paul stay the proconsular office
was held by Gallio, a brother of the philosopher Seneca. Before him the
apostle was summoned by his Jewish enemies, who hoped to bring the Roman
authority to bear upon him as an innovator in religion. But Gallio
perceived at once, before Paul could "open his mouth" to defend himself,
that the movement was due to Jewish prejudice, and refused to go into the
question. Then a singular scene occurred. The Corinthian spectators,
either favoring Paul or actuated only by anger against the Jews, seized on
the principal person of those who had brought the charge, and beat him
before the judgment-seat. Gallio left these religious quarrels to settle
themselves. The apostle therefore, was not allowed to be "hurt," and
remained some time longer at Corinth unmolested. Having been the
instrument of accomplishing this work, Paul departed for Jerusalem,
wishing to attend a festival there. Before leaving Greece, he cut off his
hair at Cenchreae, in fulfillment of a vow. (Acts 18:18) Paul paid a visit
to the synagogue at Ephesus, but would not stay. Leaving Ephesus, he
sailed to Caesarea, and from thence went up to Jerusalem, spring, A.D. 54,
and "saluted the church." It is argued, from considerations founded on the
suspension of navigation during the winter months, that the festival was
probably the Pentecost. From Jerusalem the apostle went almost immediately
down to Antioch, thus returning to the same place from which he had
started with Silas. Third missionary journey, including the stay at
. A.D. 54-58. (Acts 18:23; Acts 21:17) -- The great epistles
which belong to this period, those to the Galatians, Corinthians and
Romans, show how the "Judaizing" question exercised at this time the
apostle's mind. St. Paul "spent some time" at Antioch, and during this
stay as we are inclined to believe, his collision with St. Peter
(Galatians 2:11-14) took place. When he left Antioch, he "went over all
the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the
disciples," and giving orders concerning the collection for the saints. (1
Corinthians 18:1) It is probable that the Epistle to the Galatians was
written soon after this visit -- A.D. 56-57. This letter was in all
probability sent from Ephesus. This was the goal of the apostle's
journeyings through Asia Minor. He came down to Ephesus from the upper
districts of Phrygia. Here he entered upon his usual work. He went into
the synagogue, and for three months he spoke openly, disputing and
persuading concerning "the kingdom of God." At the end of this time the
obstinacy and opposition of some of the Jews led him to give up
frequenting the synagogue, and he established the believers as a separate
society meeting "in the school of Tyrannus." This continued for two years.
During this time many things occurred of which the historian of the Acts
chooses two examples, the triumph over magical arts and the great
disturbance raised by the silversmiths who made shrines Diana -- among
which we are to note further the writing of the First Epistle to the
Corinth A.D. 57. Before leaving Ephesus Paul went into Macedonia, where he
met Titus, who brought him news of the state of the Corinthian church.
Thereupon he wrote the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, A.D. 57, and
sent it by the hands of Titus and two other brethren to Corinth. After
writing this epistle, St. Paul travelled throughout Macedonia, perhaps to
the borders of Illyricum, (Romans 15:19) and then went to Corinth. The
narrative in the Acts tells us that "when he had gone over those parts
(Macedonia), and had given them much exhortation he came into Greece, and
there abode three months." (Acts 20:2,3) There is only one incident which
we can connect with this visit to Greece, but that is a very important one
-- the writing of his Epistle to the Romans, A.D. 58. That this was
written at this time from Corinth appears from passages in the epistle
itself and has never been doubted. The letter is a substitute for the
personal visit which he had longed "for many years" to pay. Before his
departure from Corinth, St. Paul was joined again by St. Luke, as we infer
from the change in the narrative from the third to the first person. He
was bent on making a journey to Jerusalem, for a special purpose and
within a limited time. With this view he was intending to go by sea to
Syria. But he was made aware of some plot of the Jews for his destruction,
to be carried out through this voyage; and he determined to evade their
malice by changing his route. Several brethren were associated with him in
this expedition, the bearers no doubt, of the collections made in all the
churches for the poor at Jerusalem. These were sent on by sea, and
probably the money with them, to Troas, where they were to await Paul. He,
accompanied by Luke, went northward through Macedonia. Whilst the vessel
which conveyed the rest of the party sailed from Troas to Assos, Paul
gained some time by making the journey by land. At Assos he went on board
again. Coasting along by Mitylene, Chios, Samos and Trogyllium, they
arrived at Miletus. At Miletus, however there was time to send to Ephesus,
and the elders of the church were invited to come down to him there. This
meeting is made the occasion for recording another characteristic and
representative address of St. Paul. (Acts 20:18-35) The course of the
voyage from Miletas was by Coos and Rhodes to Patara, and from Patara in
another vessel past Cyprus to Tyre. Here Paul and his company spent seven
days. From Tyre they sailed to Ptolemais, where they spent one day, and
from Ptolemais proceeded, apparently by land, to Caesarea. They now
"tarried many days" at Caesarea. During this interval the prophet Agabus,
(Acts 11:28) came down from Jerusalem, and crowned the previous
intimations of danger with a prediction expressively delivered. At this
stage a final effort was made to dissuade Paul from going up to Jerusalem,
by the Christians of Caesarea and by his travelling companions. After a
while they went up to Jerusalem and were gladly received by the brethren.
This is St. Paul's fifth an last visit to Jerusalem. St. Paul's
imprisonment: Jerusalem
. Spring, A.D. 58. -- He who was thus
conducted into Jerusalem by a company of anxious friends had become by
this time a man of considerable fame among his countrymen. He was widely
known as one who had taught with pre-eminent boldness that a way into
God's favor was opened to the Gentiles, and that this way did not lie
through the door of the Jewish law. He had thus roused against himself the
bitter enmity of that unfathomable Jewish pride which was almost us strong
in some of those who had professed the faith of Jesus as in their
unconverted brethren. He was now approaching a crisis in the long
struggle, and the shadow of it has been made to rest upon his mind
throughout his journey to Jerusalem. He came "ready to die for the name of
the Lord Jesus," but he came expressly to prove himself a faithful Jew and
this purpose is shown at every point of the history. Certain Jews from
"Asia," who had come up for the pentecostal feast, and who had a personal
knowledge of Paul, saw him in the temple. They set upon him at once, and
stirred up the people against him. There was instantly a great commotion;
Paul was dragged out of the temple, the doors of which were immediately
shut, and the people having him in their hands, were going to kill him.
Paul was rescued from the violence of the multitude by the Roman officer,
who made him his own prisoner, causing him to be chained to two soldiers,
and then proceeded to inquire who he was and what he had done. The inquiry
only elicited confused outcries, and the "chief captain" seems to have
imagined that the apostle might perhaps be a certain Egyptian pretender
who recently stirred up a considerable rising of the people. The account
In the (Acts 21:34-40) tells us with graphic touches how St. Paul obtained
leave and opportunity to address the people in a discourse which is
related at length. Until the hated word of a mission to the Gentiles had
been spoken, the Jews had listened to the speaker. "Away with such a
fellow from the earth," the multitude now shouted; "it is not fit that he
should live." The Roman commander seeing the tumult that arose might well
conclude that St. Paul had committed some heinous offence; and carrying
him off, he gave orders that he should be forced by scourging to confess
his crime. Again the apostle took advantage of his Roman citizenship to
protect himself from such an outrage. The chief captain set him free from
bonds, but on the next day called together the chief priests and the
Sanhedrin, and brought Paul as a prisoner before them. On the next day a
conspiracy was formed which the historian relates with a singular fullness
of detail. More than forty of the Jews bound themselves under a curse
neither to eat nor drink until they had killed Paul. The plot was
discovered, and St. Paul was hurried away from Jerusalem. The chief
captain, Claudius Lysias determined to send him to Caesarea to Felix, the
governor or procurator of Judea. He therefor put him in charge of a strong
guard of soldiers, who took him by night as far as Antipatris. From thence
a smaller detachment conveyed him to Caesarea, where they delivered up
their prisoner into the hands of the governor. Imprisonment at
A.D. 58-60. -- St. Paul was henceforth to the end of the
period embraced in the Acts, if not to the end of his life, in Roman
custody. This custody was in fact a protection to him, without which he
would have fallen a victim to the animosity of the Jews. He seems to have
been treated throughout with humanity and consideration. The governor
before whom he was now to be tried, according to Tacitus and Josephus, was
a mean and dissolute tyrant. After hearing St, Paul's accusers and the
apostle's defence, Felix made an excuse for putting off the matter, and
gave orders that the prisoner should be treated with indulgence and that
his friends should be allowed free access to him. After a while he heard
him again. St. Paul remained in custody until Felix left the province. The
unprincipled governor had good reason to seek to ingratiate himself with
the Jews; and to please them, be handed over Paul, as an untried prisoner,
to his successor, Festus. Upon his arrival in the province, Festus went up
without delay from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and the leading Jews seized the
opportunity of asking that Paul might be brought up there for trial
intending to assassinate him by the way. But Festus would not comply with
their request, He invited them to follow him on his speedy return to
Caesarea, and a trial took place there, closely resembling that before
Felix. "They had certain questions against him," Festus says to Agrippa,
"of their own superstition (or religion), and of one Jesus, who was dead,
whom Paul affirmed to be alive. And being puzzled for my part as to such
inquiries, I asked him whether he would go to Jerusalem to be tried
there." This proposal, not a very likely one to be accepted, was the
occasion of St. Paul's appeal to Caesar. The appeal having been allowed,
Festus reflected that he must send with the prisoner a report of "the
crimes laid against him." He therefore took advantage of an opportunity
which offered itself in a few days to seek some help in the matter. The
Jewish prince Agrippa arrived with his sister Bernice on a visit to the
new governor. To him Festus communicated his perplexity. Agrippa expressed
a desire to hear Paul himself. Accordingly Paul conducted his defence
before the king; and when it was concluded Festus and Agrippa, and their
companions, consulted together, and came to the conclusion that the
accused was guilty of nothing that deserved death or imprisonment.
"Agrippa"s final answer to the inquiry of Festus was, "This man might have
been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar." The voyage to
Rome and shipwreck.
Autumn, A.D. 60. -- No formal trial of St. Paul
had yet taken place. After a while arrangements were made to carry "Paul
and certain other prisoners," in the custody of a centurion named Julius,
into Italy; and amongst the company, whether by favor or from any other
reason, we find the historian of the Acts, who in chapters 27 and 28 gives
a graphic description of the voyage to Rome and the shipwreck on the
Island of Melita or Malta. After a three-months stay in Malta the soldiers
and their prisoners left in an Alexandria ship for Italy. They touched at
Syracuse, where they stayed three days, and at Rhegium, from which place
they were carried with a fair wind to Puteoli, where they left their ship
and the sea. At Puteoli they found "brethren," for it was an important
place and especially a chief port for the traffic between Alexandria and
Rome; and by these brethren they were exhorted to stay a while with them.
Permission seems to have been granted by the centurion; and whilst they
were spending seven days at Puteoli news of the apostle's arrival was sent
to Rome. (Spring, A.D. 61.) First imprisonment of St. Paul at Rome
. A.D. 61-63. -- On their arrival at Rome the centurion delivered up his
prisoners into the proper custody that of the praetorian prefect. Paul was
at once treated with special consideration and was allowed to dwell by
himself with the soldier who guarded him. He was now therefore free "to
preach the gospel to them that were at Rome also;" and proceeded without
delay to act upon his rule -- "to the Jews first," But as of old, the
reception of his message by the Jews was not favorable. He turned,
therefore, again to the Gentiles, and for two years he dwelt in his own
hired house. These are the last words of the Acts. But St. Paul's career
is not abruptly closed. Before he himself fades out of our sight in the
twilight of ecclesiastical tradition, we have letters written by himself
which contribute some particulars to his biography. Period of the later
-- To that imprisonment to which St. Luke has introduced us
-- the imprisonment which lasted for such a tedious time, though tempered
by much indulgence -- belongs the noble group of letters to Philemon, to
the Colossians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians. The three former
of these were written at one time, and sent by the same messengers.
Whether that to the Philippians was written before or after these we
cannot determine; but the tone of it seems to imply that a crisis was
approaching, and therefore it is commonly regarded us the latest of the
four. In this epistle St. Paul twice expresses a confident hope that
before long he may be able to visit the Philippians in person. (Philemon
1:25; 2:24) Whether this hope was fulfilled or not has been the occasion
of much controversy. According to the general opinion the apostle was
liberated from imprisonment at the end of two years, having been acquitted
by Nero A.D. 63, and left Rome soon after writing the letter to the
Philippians. He spent some time in visits to Greece, Asia Minor and Spain,
and during the latter part of this time wrote the letters (first epistles)
to Timothy and Titus from Macedonia, A.D. 65. After these were written he
was apprehended again and sent to Rome. Second imprisonment at Rome
. A.D. 65-67. -- The apostle appears now to have been treated not as an
honorable state prisoner but as a felon, (2 Timothy 2:9) but he was
allowed to write the second letter to Timothy, A.D. 67. For what remains
we have the concurrent testimony of ecclesiastical antiquity that he was
beheaded at Rome, by Nero in the great persecutions of the Christians by
that emperor, A.D. 67 or 68.




a temporary movable tent or habitation.

  • Soc, properly an enclosed place, also rendered "tabernacle,"
    "covert" and "den;" once only "pavilion." (Psalms 27:5) (Among the
    Egyptians pavilions were built in a similar style to houses, though on a
    smaller scale in various parts of the country, and in the foreign
    districts through which the Egyptian armies passed, for the use of the
    king -- Wilkinson.)

  • Succah, Usually "tabernacle" and "booth."

  • Shaphrur and shaphrir, a word used once only, in
    (Jeremiah 49:10) to signify glory or splendor, and hence probably to be
    understood of the splendid covering of the royal throne.


(Heb. tuccyyim). Among the natural products which Solomon's fleet
brought home to Jerusalem, mention is made of "peacocks," (1 Kings 10:22;
2 Chronicles 9:21) which is probably the correct translation. The Hebrew
word may be traced to the Talmud or Malabaric togei,


(Heb. gabish). The Hebrew word in (Job 28:18) probably means
"crystal." Pearls, however are frequently mentioned in the New Testament,
(Matthew 13:45; 1 Timothy 2:9; Revelation 17:4; 21:21) and were considered
by the ancients among the most precious of gems, and were highly esteemed
as ornaments. The kingdom of heaven is compared to a "pearl of great
price." In (Matthew 7:6) pearls are used metaphorically for anything of
value, or perhaps more especially for "wise sayings." (The finest
specimens of the pearl are yielded by the pearl oyster (Avicula
), still found in abundance in the Persian Gulf and near
the coasts of Ceylon, Java and Sumatra. The oysters grow in clusters on
rocks in deep water, and the pearl is found inside the shell, and is the
result of a diseased secretion caused by the introduction of foreign
bodies, as sand, etc., between the mantle and the shell. They are obtained
by divers trained to the business. March or April is the time for pearl
fishing. A single shell sometimes yields eight to twelve pearls. The size
of a good Oriental pearl varies from that of a pea to about three times
that size. A handsome necklace of pearls the size of peas is worth ,000.
Pearls have been valued as high as ,000 or ,000 apiece. -- ED.)


(whom God redeems), the son of Ammihud, and prince of the tribe of
Naphtali. (Numbers 34:28)


(whom the rock (i.e. God) redeems), father of Gamaliel, the
chief of the tribe of Manasseh at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:10;
2:20; 7:54,59; 10:23) (B.C. 1491.)


(whom Jehovah redeems).

  • The father of Zebudah, mother of King Jehoiakim. (2 Kings 23:38) (B.C.
    before 648.)

  • The brother of Salathiel or Shealtiel and father of Zerubbabel who is
    usually called the "son of Shealtiel," being, as Lord A. Hervey
    conjectures, in reality his uncle's successor and heir, in consequence Of
    the failure of issue in the direct line. (1 Chronicles 3:17-19) (B.C.
    before 536.)

  • Son of Parosh, that is, one of the family or that name, who assisted
    Nehemiah in repairing the walls of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:25) (B.C. about

  • Apparently a priest; one of those who stood on the left hand of Ezra
    when he read the law to the people. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C. 445.)

  • A Benjamite, ancestor of Sallu. (Nehemiah 11:7)

  • A Levite in the time of Nehemiah, (Nehemiah 13:13) apparently the same
    as 4.

  • The father of Joel, prince of the half tribe of Manasseh in the reign
    of David. (1 Chronicles 27:20) (B.C. before 1013.)


(open-eyed), son of Remaliah, originally a captain of Pekaiah king
of Israel, murdered his master seized the throne, and became the 18th
sovereign of the northern kingdom, B.C. 757-740. Under his predecessors
Israel had been much weakened through the payment of enormous tribute to
the Assyrians (see especially) (2 Kings 15:20) and by internal wars and
conspiracies. Pekah seems to have steadily applied himself to the
restoration of power. For this purpose he contracted a foreign alliance,
and fixed his mind on the plunder of the sister kingdom of Judah. He must
have made the treaty by which he proposed to share its spoil with Rezin
king of Damascus, when Jotham was still on the throne of Jerusalem (2
Kings 10:37) but its execution was long delayed, probably in consequence
of that prince's righteous and vigorous administration. (2 Chronicles
27:1) ... When however his weak son Ahaz succeeded to the crown of David,
the allies no longer hesitated, but entered upon the siege of Jerusalem,
B.C. 742. The history of the war is found in 2Kin 13 and 2Chr 28. It is
famous as the occasion of the great prophecies in Isai 7-9. Its chief
result was the Jewish port of Elath on the Red Sea; but the unnatural
alliance of Damascus and Samaria was punished through the complete
overthrow of the ferocious confederates by Tiglath-pileser. The kingdom of
Damascus. was finally suppressed and Rezin put to death while Pekah was
deprived of at least half his kingdom, including all the northern portion
and the whole district to the east of Jordan. Pekah himself, now fallen
into the position of an Assyrian vassal was of course compelled to abstain
from further attacks on Judah. Whether his continued tyranny exhausted the
patience of his subjects, or whether his weakness emboldened them to
attack him, is not known; but, from one or the other cause, Hoshea the son
of Elah conspired against him and put him to death.


(whose eyes Jehovah opened), son and successor of Menahem was the
17th king of the separate kingdom of Israel, B.C. 759-757. After a brief
reign of scarcely two years a conspiracy was organized against him by
Pekah, who murdered him and seized the throne.


(visitation), an appellative applied to the Chaldeans. (Jeremiah
50:21; Ezekiel 23:23) Authorities are undecided as to the meaning of the


(distinguished by Jehovah).

  • A son of Elioenai, of the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24)
    (B.C. after 400.)

  • One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law, (Nehemiah
    8:7) He afterward sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:10)


(judged by Jehovah), the son of Amzi and ancestor of Adaiah.
(Nehemiah 11:12)


(delivered by Jehovah).

  • Son of Hananiah the son of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:21) (B.C. after

  • One of the captains of the marauding band of Simeonites who in the
    reign of Hezekiah made an expedition to Mount Seir and smote the
    Amalekites. (1 Chronicles 4:42) (B.C. about 700.)

  • One of the heads of the people, and probably the name of a family who
    sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:22) (B.C. about 440.)

  • The son of Benaiah. and one of the princes of the people against whom
    Ezekiel was directed to utter the words of doom recorded in (Ezekiel
    11:5-12) (B.C. about 592.)


(division, part), son of Eber and brother of Joktan. (Genesis
10:25; 11:16) The only incident connected with his history is the
statement that "in his days was the earth divided." an event embodied in
the meaning of his name -- "division." The reference is to a division of
the family of Eber himself, the younger branch of which (the Joktanids)
migrated into southern Arabia, while the elder remained in



  • A son of Jahdai in an obscure genealogy. (1 Chronicles 2:47)

  • The son of Azmaveth, that is, either a native of the place of that
    name or the son of one of David's heroes. (1 Chronicles 12:3) (B.C. about



  • The father of On the Reubenite who joined Dathan and Abiram in their
    rebellion. (Numbers 16:1) (B.C. 1490.)

  • Son of Jonathan and a descendant of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles


(couriers). [CHERETHITES]


(Heb. kaath, sometimes translated "cormorant," as (Isaiah 34:11;
Zephaniah 2:14) though in the margin correctly rendered "pelican"), a
voracious waterbird, found most abundantly in tropical regions. It is
equal to the swan in size. (It has a flat bill fifteen inches long, and
the female has under the bill a pouch capable of great distension. It is
capacious enough to hold fish sufficient for the dinner of half a dozen
men. The young are fed from this pouch, which is emptied of the food by
pressing the pouch against the breast. The pelican's bill has a crimson
tip, and the contrast of this red tip against the white breast probably
gave rise to the tradition that the bird tore her own breast to feed her
young with her blood. The flesh of the pelican was forbidden to the Jews.
(Leviticus 11:18) -- ED.) The psalmist in comparing his pitiable condition
to the pelican, (Psalms 102:6) probably has reference to its general
aspect as it sits in apparent melancholy mood, with its bill resting on
its breast.


Two of David's men, Helez and Ahijah, are called Pelonites. (1 Chronicles
11:27,36) (B.C. about 1015.) From (1 Chronicles 27:10) it appears that the
former was of the tribe of Ephraim, and "Pelonite" would therefore be an
appellation derived from his place of birth or residence. "Ahijah the
Pelonite" appears in (2 Samuel 23:34) as "Eliam the son of Ahithophel the
Gilonite," of which the former is a corruption.




(face of God) the name which Jacob gave to the place in which he
had wrestled with God: "He called the name of the place ’face of
El,’ for I have seen Elohim face to face." (Genesis 32:30) In
(Genesis 32:31) and the other passages in which the name occurs, its form
is changed to PENUEL. From the narrative it is evident that Peniel lay
somewhere on the north bank of the Jabbok, and between that torrent and
the fords of the Jordan at Succoth, a few miles north of the glen where
the Jabbok falls into the Jordan.


(coral or pearl), one of the two wives of Elkanah. (1 Samuel 1:2)
(B.C. 1125.)


In the New Testament "penny," either alone or in the compound
"pennyworth," occurs as the rendering of the Roman denarius.
(Matthew 20:2; 22:10; Mark 6:37; 12:15; Luke 20:24; John 6:7; Revelation
6:6) The denarius was the chief Roman silver coin, and was worth about 15
to 17 cents.


is the Greek name given to the five books commonly called the "five books
of Moses." This title is derived from "pente",five, and "teucos") which,
meaning originally "vessel" "instrument," etc., came In Alexandrine Greek
to mean "book" hence the fivefold book. In the time of Ezra and Nehemiah
it was called "the law of Moses," (Ezra 7:6) or "the book of the law of
Moses," (Nehemiah 8:1) or simply "the book of Moses." (2 Chronicles 25:4;
35:12; Ezra 6:13; Nehemiah 13:1) This was beyond all reasonable doubt our
existing Pentateuch. The book which was discovered the temple in the reign
of Josiah, and which is entitled, (2 Chronicles 34:14) "a book of the law
of Jehovah by the hand of Moses," was substantially, it would seem the
same volume, though it may afterward have undergone some revision by Ezra.
The present Jews usually called the whole by the name of Torah,
i.e. "the Law," or Torath Mosheh "the Law of Moses." The division
of the whole work into five parts was probably made by the Greek
translators; for the titles of the several books are not of Hebrew but of
Greek origin. The Hebrew names are merely taken from the first words of
each book, and in the first instance only designated particular sections
and not whole books. The MSS. of the Pentateuch form a single roll or
volume, and are divided not into books but into the larger and smaller
sections called Parshiyoth and Sedarim. The five books of
the Pentateuch form a consecutive whole. The work, beginning with the
record of creation end the history of the primitive world, passes on to
deal more especially with the early history of the Jewish family, and
finally concludes with Moses’ last discourses and his death. Till
the middle of the last century it was the general opinion of both Jews and
Christians that the whole of the Pentateuch was written by Moses, with the
exception of a few manifestly later additions, -- such as the, 34th
chapter of Deuteronomy, which gives the account of Moses death. The
attempt to call in question the popular belief was made by Astruc, doctor
and professor of medicine in the Royal College at Paris, and court
physician to Louis XIV. He had observed that throughout the book of
Genesis, and as far as the 6th chapter of Exodus, traces were to be found
of two original documents, each characterized by a distinct use of the
names of God; the one by the name Elohim, and the other by the name
Jehovah. [GOD] Besides these two principal documents, he supposed Moses to
have made use of ten others in the composition of the earlier part of his
work. The path traced by Astruc has been followed by numerous German
writers; but the various hypotheses which have been formed upon the
subject cannot be presented in this work. It is sufficient here to state
that there is evidence satisfactory that the main bulk of the Pentateuch,
at any rate, was written by Moses, though the probably availed himself of
existing documents in the composition of the earlier part of the work.
Some detached portions would appear to be of later origin; and when we
remember how entirely, during some periods of Jewish history, the law
seems to have been forgotten, and again how necessary it would be after
the seventy years of exile to explain some of its archaisms, and to add
here and there short notes to make it more intelligible to the people,
nothing can be more natural than to suppose that such later additions were
made by Ezra and Nehemiah. To briefly sum up the results of our inquiry --

  • The book of Genesis rests chiefly on documents much earlier than the
    time of Moses though it was probably brought to very nearly its, present
    shape either by Moses himself or by one of the elders who acted under

  • The books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers are to a great extent
    Mosaic. Besides those portions which are expressly declared to have been
    written by him other portions, and especially the legal sections, were, if
    not actually written, in all probability dictated by him.

  • Deuteronomy, excepting the concluding part, is entirely the work of
    Moses as it professes to be.

  • It is not probable that this was written before the three preceding
    books, because the legislation in Exodus and Leviticus, as being the more
    formal, is manifestly the earlier whilst Deuteronomy is the spiritual
    interpretation and application of the law. But the letter is always before
    the spirit; the thing before its interpretation.

  • The first composition of the Pentateuch as a whole could not
    have taken place till after the Israelites entered Cannan. It is probable
    that Joshua and the elders who were associated with him would provide for
    its formal arrangement, custody and transmission.

  • The whole work did not finally assume its present shape till its
    revision was undertaken by Ezra after the return from the Babylonish
    captivity. For an account of the separate books see GENESIS, EXODUS,


that is, the fiftieth day (from a Greek word meaning fiftieth), or Harvest
Feast, or Feast of Weeks, may be regarded as a supplement to the Passover.
It lasted for but one day. From the sixteenth of Nisan seven weeks were
reckoned inclusively, and the next or fiftieth day was the day of
Pentecost, which fell on the sixth of Sivan (about the end of May).
(Exodus 23:16; 34:22; Leviticus 23:15,22; Numbers 28) See Jewish
at the end of this volume. The Pentecost was the Jewish
harvest-home, and the people were especially exhorted to rejoice before
Jehovah with their families their servants, the Levite within their gates,
the stranger, the fatherless and the widow in the place chosen by God for
his name, as they brought a free-will offering of their hand to Jehovah
their God. (16:10,11) The great feature of the celebration was the
presentation of the two loaves made from the first-fruits of the
wheat harvest. With the loaves two lambs were offered as a peace offering
and all were waved before Jehovah and given to the priests; the leaves
being leavened, could not be offered on the altar. The other sacrifices
were, a burnt offering of a young bullock, two, rams and seven lambs with
a meat and drink offering, and a kid for a sin offering. (Leviticus
23:18,19) Till the pentecostal leaves were offered, the produce of the
harvest might not be eaten, nor could any other firstfruits be offered.
The whole ceremony was the completion of that dedication of the harvest to
God as its giver, and to whom both the land and the people were holy,
which was begun by the offering of the wave-sheaf at the Passover. The
interval is still regarded as a religious season. The Pentecost is the
only one of the three great feasts which is not mentioned as the memorial
of events in the history of the Jews; but such a significance has been
found in the fact that the law was given from Sinai on the fiftieth day
after the deliverance from Egypt. Comp. Exod 12 and 19. In the exodus the
people were offered to God as living first fruits; at Sinai their
consecration to him as a nation was completed. The typical significance of
the Pentecost is made clear from the events of the day recorded in the
Acts of the Apostles. Acts 2. Just as the appearance of God on Sinai was
the birthday of the Jewish nation, so was the Pentecost the birthday of
the Christian Church.




(cleft), a mountain peak in Moab belonging to the Abarim range, and
near Pisgah, to which, after having ascended Pisgah, the prophet Balaam
was conducted by Balak that he might look upon the whole host of Israel
and curse them. (Numbers 23:14,28) In four passages -- (Numbers 25:18)
twice; Numb 31:16; Josh 22:17 -- Peor occurs as a contraction for
Baal-peor. [BAAL.)


(a breach), Mount, a name which occurs in (Isaiah 28:21)
only -- unless the place which it designates is identical with the
Baal-perazim mentioned as the scene of one of David's victories over the
Philistines, which was in the valley of Rephaim, south of Jerusalem, on
the road to Bethlehem.


(dung), the son of Machir by his wife Maachah. (1 Chronicles


(breach). The "children of Perez," or Pharez, the son of Judah,
appear to have been a family of importance for many centuries. (1
Chronicles 27:3; Nehemiah 11:4,6)


(breaking of Uzzah), (1 Chronicles 13:11) and PEREZ-UZZAH (2 Samuel
6:8) the title which David conferred on the threshing-floor of Nachon or
Cidon, in commemoration of the sudden death of Uzzah. (B.C. 1042.)


The free use of perfumes was peculiarly grateful to the Orientals,
(Proverbs 27:9) whose olfactory nerves are more than usually sensitive to
the offensive smells engendered by the heat of their climate. The Hebrews
manufactured their perfumes chiefly from spices imported from Arabia
though to a certain extent also from aromatic plants growing in their own
country. Perfumes entered largely into the temple service, in the two
forms of incense and ointment. (Exodus 30:22-38) Nor were they less used
in private life; not only were they applied to the person, but to garment,
(Psalms 45:8; Solomon 4:11) and to articles of furniture, such as beds.
(Proverbs 7:17)


(earthy), a city of Pamphylia, (Acts 13:13) situated on the river
Cestius, at a distance of 60 stadia (7 1/2 miles) from its mouth, and
celebrated in antiquity for the worship of Artemis (Diana).


(in Revised Version Pergamum) (height, elevation), a city of
Mysia, about 3 miles to the north of the river Caicus, and 20 miles from
its present mouth. It was the residence of a dynasty of Greek princes
founded after the time of Alexander the Great, and usually called the
Attalic dynasty, from its founder, Attalus. The sumptuousness of the
Attalic princes hall raised Pergamos to the rank of the first city in Asia
as regards splendor. The city was noted for its vast, library, containing
200,000 volumes. Here were splendid temples of Zeus or Jupiter, Athene,
Apollo and AEsculapius. One of "the seven churches of Asia" was in
Pergamos. (Revelation 1:11; 2:12-17) It is called "Satan's seat" by John,
which some suppose to refer to the worship of AEsculapius, from the
serpent being his characteristic emblem. Others refer it to the
persecutions of Christians, which was work of Satan. The modern name of
the city is Bergama.


In the Revised Version for Pergamos. (Revelation 1:11) Pergamum is the
form usual in the classic writers.


(grain, kernel), The children of Perida returned from Babylon with
Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:57) (B.C. before 536.)


and Per’izzites (belonging to a village), one of the
nations inhabiting the land of promise before and at the time of its
conquest by Israel. (B.C. 1450.) They are continually mentioned in the
formula so frequently occurring to express the promised land. (Genesis
15:20; Exodus 3:8,17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11) The notice in the book of Judges
locates them in the southern part of the holy land. The signification of
the name is not by any means clear. It possibly meant rustics, dwellers in
open, unwalled villages, which are denoted by a similar word.


mentioned only in 2 Macc. 9:2, was the capital of Persia proper, and the
occasional residence of the Persian court from the time of Darius
Hystaspes, who seems to have been its founder, to the invasion of
Alexander. Its wanton destruction by that conqueror is well known. Its
site is now called the Chehl-Minar, or Forty Pillars. Here, on a
platform hewn out of the solid rock the sides of which face the four
cardinal points, are the remains of two great palaces, built respectively
by Darius Hytaspes and his son Xerxes, besides a number of other edifices,
chiefly temples. They are of great extent and magnificence, covering an
area of many acres.


(pure, splended), Per'sians. Persia proper was a tract of no
very large dimensions on the Persian Gulf, which is still known as
Fars or Farsistan, a corruption of the ancient appellation.
This tract was bounded on the west by Susiana or Elam, on the north by
Media on the south by the Persian Gulf and on the east by Carmania. But
the name is more commonly applied, both in Scripture and by profane
authors to the entire tract which came by degrees to be included within
the limits of the Persian empire. This empire extended at one time from
India on the east to Egypt and Thrace on the west, and included. besides
portions of Europe and Africa, the whole of western Asia between the Black
Sea, the Caucasus, the Caspian and the Jaxartes on the north, the Arabian
desert the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean on the south. The only
passage in Scripture where Persia designates the tract which has been
called above "Persia proper" is (Ezekiel 38:5) Elsewhere the empire is
intended. The Persians were of the same race as the Medes, both being
branches of the great Aryan stock.

  • Character of the nation. -- The Persians were a people of
    lively and impressible minds, brave and impetuous in war, witty,
    passionate, for Orientals truthful, not without some spirit of generosity:
    and of more intellectual capacity than the generality of Asiatics. In the
    times anterior to Cyrus they were noted for the simplicity of their
    habits, which offered a strong contrast to the luxuriousness of the Medes;
    but from the late of the Median overthrow this simplicity began to
    decline. Polygamy was commonly practiced among them. They were fond of the
    pleasures of the table. In war they fought bravely, but without

  • Religion. -- The religion which the Persians brought with
    there into Persia proper seems to have been of a very simple character,
    differing from natural religion in little except that it was deeply
    tainted with Dualism. Like the other Aryans, the Persians worshipped one
    supreme God. They had few temples, and no altars or images.

  • Language. -- The Persian language was closely akin to the
    Sanskrit, or ancient language of India. Modern Persian is its degenerate
    representative, being largely impregnated with Arabic.

  • History. -- The history of Persia begins with the revolt from
    the Medes and the accession of Cyrus the Great, B.C. 558. Cyrus defeated
    Croesus, and added the Lydian empire to his dominions. This conquest was
    followed closely by the submission of the Greek settlements on the Asiatic
    coast, and by the reduction of Caria and Lycia The empire was soon
    afterward extended greatly toward the northeast and east. In B.C. 539 or
    538, Babylon was attacked, and after a stout defence fell into the hands
    of Cyrus. This victory first brought the Persians into contact with the
    Jews. The conquerors found in Babylon an oppressed race -- like
    themselves, abhorrers of idols, and professors of a religion in which to a
    great extent they could sympathize. This race Cyrus determined to restore
    to their own country: which he did by the remarkable edict recorded in the
    first chapter of Ezra. (Ezra 1:2-4) He was slain in an expedition against
    the Massagetae or the Derbices, after a reign of twenty-nine years. Under
    his son and successor, Cambyses, the conquest of Egypt took place, B.C.
    525. This prince appears to be the Ahasuerus of (Ezra 4:6) Gomates,
    Cambyses’ successor, reversed the policy of Cyrus with respect to
    the Jews, and forbade by an edict the further building of the temple.
    (Ezra 4:17-22) He reigned but seven months, and was succeeded by Darius.
    Appealed to, in his second year, by the Jews, who wished to resume the
    construction of their temple, Darius not only granted them this privilege,
    but assisted the work by grants from his own revenues, whereby the Jews
    were able to complete the temple as early as his sixth year. (Ezra 6:1-15)
    Darius was succeeded by Xerxes, probably the Ahasuerus of Esther.
    Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, reigned for forty years after his death and
    is beyond doubt the king of that name who stood in such a friendly
    relation toward Ezra, (Ezra 7:11-28) and Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 2:1-9) etc.
    He is the last of the Persian kings who had any special connection with
    the Jews, and the last but one mentioned in Scripture. His successors were
    Xerxes II., Sogdianus Darius Nothus, Artaxerxes Mnemon, Artaxerxes Ochus,
    and Darius Codomannus, who is probably the "Darius the Persian" of
    Nehemiah (Nehemiah 12:22) These monarchs reigned from B.C. 424 to B.C.
    330. The collapse of the empire under the attack of Alexander the Great
    took place B.C. 330.


(a Persian woman), a Christian woman at Rome, (Romans 16:12) whom
St. Paul salutes. (A.D. 55.)


The same as PERIDA. (Ezra 2:55)




(a rock or stone). The original name of this disciple was Simon,
i.e. "hearer." He was the son of a man named Jonas, (Matthew 16:17; John
1:42; 21:16) and was brought up in his father's occupation, that of a
fisherman. He and his brother Andrew were partners of John end James, the
sons of Zebedee, who had hired servants. Peter did not live, as a mere
laboring man, in a hut by the seaside, but first at Bethsaida, and
afterward in a house at Capernaum belonging to himself or his
mother-in-law, which must have been rather a large one, since he received
in it not only our Lord and his fellow disciples, but multitudes who were
attracted by the miracles and preaching of Jesus. Peter was probably
between thirty and forty pears of age at the date of his call. That call
was preceded by a special preparation. Peter and his brother Andrew,
together with their partners James and John, the sons ,of Zebedee, were
disciples of John the Baptist when he was first called by our Lord. The
particulars of this are related with graphic minuteness by St. John. It
was upon this occasion that Jesus gave Peter the name Cephas, a Syriac
word answering to the Greek Peter, and signifying a stone or rock. (John
1:35-42) This first call led to no immediate change in Peter's external
position. He and his fellow disciples looked henceforth upon our Lord as
their teacher, but were not commanded to follow him as regular disciples.
They returned to Capernaum, where they pursued their usual business,
waiting for a further intimation of his will. The second call is recorded
by the other three evangelists; the narrative of Luke being apparently
supplementary to the brief and, so to speak official accounts given by
Matthew and Mark. It took place on the Sea of Galilee near Capernaum,
where the four disciples Peter and Andrew, James and John were fishing.
Some time was passed afterward in attendance upon our Lord's public
ministrations in Galilee, Decapolis, Peraea and Judea. The special
designation of Peter and his eleven fellow disciples took place some time
afterward, when they were set apart as our Lord's immediate attendants.
See (Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19) (the most detailed account); Luke 6:13
They appear to have then first received formally the name of apostles, and
from that time Simon bore publicly, and as it would seem all but
exclusively, the name Peter, which had hitherto been used rather as a
characteristic appellation than as a proper name. From this time there can
be no doubt that Peter held the first place among the apostles, to
whatever cause his precedence is to be attributed. He is named first in
every list of the apostles; he is generally addressed by our Lord as their
representative; and on the most solemn occasions he speaks in their name.
The distinction which he received, and it may be his consciousness of
ability, energy, zeal and absolute devotion to Christ's person, seem to
have developed a natural tendency to rashness and forwardness bordering
upon resumption. In his affection and self-confidence Peter ventured to
reject as impossible the announcement of the sufferings and humiliation
which Jesus predicted, and heard the sharp words, "Get thee behind me,
Satan; thou art an offence unto me, for thou savorest not the things that
be of God but those that be of men." It is remarkable that on other
occasions when St. Peter signalized his faith and devotion, he displayed
at the time, or immediately afterward, a more than usual deficiency in
spiritual discernment and consistency. Toward the close of our Lord's
ministry Peter's characteristics become especially prominent. At the last
supper Peter seems to have been particularly earnest in the request that
the traitor might be pointed out. After the supper his words drew out the
meaning of the significant act of our Lord in washing his disciples’
feet. Then too it was that he made those repeated protestations of
unalterable fidelity, so soon to be falsified by his miserable fall. On
the morning of the resurrection we have proof that Peter, though humbled,
was not crushed by his fall. He and John were the first to visit the
sepulchre; he was the first who entered it. We are told by Luke and by
Paul that Christ appeared to him first among the apostles. It is
observable; however, that on that occasion he is called by his original
name, Simon not Peter; the higher designation was not restored until he
had been publicly reinstituted, so to speak, by his Master. That
reinstitution -- an event of the very highest import-took place at the Sea
of Galilee. John 21. The first part of the Acts of the Apostles is
occupied by the record of transactions in nearly all forth as the
recognized leader of the apostles. He is the most prominent person in the
greatest event after the resurrection, when on the day of Pentecost the
Church was first invested with the plenitude of gifts and power. When the
gospel was first preached beyond the precincts of Judea, he and John were
at once sent by the apostles to confirm the converts at Samaria.
Henceforth he remains prominent, but not exclusively prominent, among the
propagators of the gospel. We have two accounts of the first meeting of
Peter and Paul -- (Acts 9:26; Galatians 1:17,18) This interview was
followed by another event marking Peter's position -- a general
apostolical tour of visitation to the churches hitherto established. (Acts
9:32) The most signal transaction after the day of Pentecost was the
baptism of Cornelius. That was the crown and consummation of Peter's
ministry. The establishment of a church in great part of Gentile origin at
Antioch and the mission of Barnabas between whose family and Peter there
were the bonds of near intimacy, set the seal upon the work thus
inaugurated by Peter. This transaction was soon followed by the
imprisonment of our apostle. His miraculous deliverance marks the close of
this second great period of his ministry. The special work assigned to him
was completed. From that time we have no continuous history of him. Peter
was probably employed for the most part in building up and completing the
organization of Christian communities in Palestine and the adjoining
districts. There is, however strong reason to believe that he visited
Corinth at an early period. The name of Peter as founder or joint founder
is not associated with any local church save the churches of Corinth,
Antioch or Rome, by early ecclesiastical tradition. It may be considered
as a settled point that he did not visit Rome before the last year of his
life; but there is satisfactory evidence that he and Paul were the
founders of the church at Rome, and suffered death in that city. The time
and manner of the apostle's martyrdom are less certain. According to the
early writers, he suffered at or about the same time with Paul, and in the
Neronian persecution, A.D. 67,68. All agree that he was crucified. Origen
says that Peter felt himself to be unworthy to be put to death in the same
manner as his Master, and was therefore, at his own request, crucified
with his head downward. The apostle is said to have employed interpreters.
Of far more importance is the statement that Mark wrote his Gospel under
the teaching of Peter, or that he embodied in that Gospel the substance of
our apostle's oral instructions. [MARK, GOSPEL OF] The only written
documents which Peter has left are the First Epistle -- about which no
doubt has ever been entertained in the Church -- and the Second, which has
been a subject of earnest controversy.


The external evidence of authenticity of this epistle is of the strongest
kind and the internal is equally strong. It was addressed to the churches
of Asia Minor which had for the most part been founded by Paul and his
companions, Supposing it to have been written at Babylon, (1 Peter 5:13)
it ia a probable conjecture that Silvanus, By whom it was transmitted to
those churches, had joined Peter after a tour of visitation, and that his
account of the condition of the Christians in those districts determined
the apostle to write the epistle. (On the question of this epistle having
been written at Babylon commentators differ. "Some refer it to the famous
Babylon in Asia, which after its destruction was still inhabited by a
Jewish colony; others refer it to Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo;
still others understand it mystically of heathen Rome, in which sense
’Babylon’ is certainly used in the Apocalypse of John." --
Schaff.) The objects of the epistle were --

  • To comfort and strengthen the Christians in a season of severe

  • To enforce the practical and spiritual duties involved in their

  • To warn them against special temptations attached to their

  • To remove all doubt as to the soundness and completeness of the
    religious system which they had already received. Such an attestation was
    especially needed by the Hebrew Christians, who were to appeal from Paul's
    authority to that of the elder apostles, and above all to that of Peter.
    The last, which is perhaps the very principal object, is kept in view
    throughout the epistle, and is distinctly stated (1 Peter 5:12) The
    harmony of such teaching with that of Paul is sufficiently obvious. Peter
    belongs to the school, or to speak more correctly, is the leader of the
    school, which at once vindicates the unity of the law and the gospel, and
    puts the superiority of the latter on its true basis-that of spiritual
    development. The date of this epistle is uncertain, but Alford believes it
    to have been written between A.D. 63 and 67.


The following is a brief outline of the contents of this epistle: The
customary opening salutation is followed by an enumeration of Christian
blessings and exhortation to Christian duties. (2 Peter 1:1-13) Referring
then to his approaching death, the apostle assigns as grounds of assurance
for believers his own personal testimony as eye-witness of the
transfiguration and the sure word of prophecy -- that is the testimony of
the Holy Ghost. vs. (2 Peter 1:14-21) The danger of being misled by false
prophets is dwelt upon with great earnestness throughout the second
chapter, which is almost identical in language and subject with the
Epistle of Jude. The overthrow of all opponents of Christian truth is
predicted in connection with prophecies touching the second advent of
Christ, the destruction of the world by fire, and the promise of new
heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness. ch. 3. This
epistle of Peter presents questions of difficulty. Doubts as to its
genuineness were entertained by the early Church; in the time of Eusebius
it was reckoned among the disputed books, and was not formally admitted
into the canon until the year 393, at the Council of Hippo. These
difficulties, however, are insufficient to justify more than hesitation in
admitting its ,genuineness. A majority of names may be quoted in support
of the genuineness and authenticity of this epistle. (It is very uncertain
as to the time when it was written. It was written near the close of
Peter's life -- perhaps about A.D. 68 -- from Rome or somewhere on the
journey thither from the East -- Alford.)


(freed by Jehovah).

  • A priest, over the nineteenth course in the reign of David. (1
    Chronicles 24:16) (B.C. 1020.)

  • A Levite in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra
    10:23) He is probably the same who is mentioned in (Nehemiah 9:5) (B.C.

  • The son of Meshezabeel, and descendant of Zerah. (Nehemiah 11:24)
    (B.C. 446.)


(soothsayer), a town of Mesopotamia, where Balaam resided, and
situated "upon the river," possibly the Euphrates. (Numbers 22:5; 23:4)
Its position is wholly unknown.


(vision of God), the father of the prophet Joel. (Joel 1:1) (B.C.
before 800.)


(my wages) properly Peullethai, the eighth son of Obed-edom. (1
Chronicles 26:5) (B.C. 1020.)


(division). Peleg the son of Eber. (Luke 3:35)


(distinguished), Pallu the son of Reuben is so called in the
Authorized Version of (Genesis 46:9) (B.C. about 1706.)


(my deliverance), the son of Laish of Gallim, to whom Saul gave
Michal in marriage after his mad jealousy had driven David forth as an
outlaw. (1 Samuel 25:4-1) In (2 Samuel 3:15) he is called PHALTIEL. With
the exception of this brief mention of his name, and the touching little
episode in (2 Samuel 3:16) nothing more is heard of Phalti. (B.C.


The same as Phalti. (2 Samuel 5:15)


(face of God), the father of Anna, the prophetess of the tribe of
Aser. (Luke 2:36) (B.C. about 80.)


the common title of the native kings of Egypt in the Bible, corresponding
to P-ra or Ph-ra "the sun," of the hieroglyphics. Brugsch, Ebers and other
modern Egyptologists define it to mean ’the great house," which
would correspond to our "the Sublime Porte." As several kings are
mentioned only by the title "Pharaoh" in the Bible, it is important to
endeavor to discriminate them:

  • The Pharaoh of Abraham. (Genesis 12:15) -- At the time at
    which the patriarch went into Egypt, it is generally held that the
    country, or at least lower Egypt, was ruled by the Shepherd kings, of whom
    the first and moat powerful line was the fifteenth dynasty, the undoubted
    territories of which would be first entered by one coming from the east.
    The date at which Abraham visited Egypt was about B.C. 2081, which would
    accord with the time of Salatis the head of the fifteenth dynasty,
    according to our reckoning.

  • The Pharoah of Joseph. (Genesis 41:1) ... -- One of the
    Shepherd kings perhaps Apophis, who belonged to the fifteenth dynasty. He
    appears to have reigned from Joseph's appointment (or perhaps somewhat
    earlier) until Jacob's death, a period of at least twenty-six years, from
    about B.C. 1876 to 1850 and to have been the fifth or sixth king of the
    fifteenth dynasty.

  • The Pharoah of the oppression. (Exodus 1:8) -- The first
    Persecutor of the Israelites may be distinguished as the Pharaoh of the
    oppression, from the second, the Pharoah of the exodus especially as he
    commenced and probably long carried on the persecution. The general view
    is that he was an Egyptian. One class of Egyptologists think that Amosis
    (Ahmes), the first sovereign of the eighteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of
    the oppression; but Brugsch and others identify him with Rameses II. (the
    Sesostris of the Greeks), of the nineteenth dynasty. (B.C. 1340.)

  • The Pharoah of the exodus. (Exodus 5:1) -- Either Thothmes
    III., as Wilkinson, or Menephthah son of Rameses II., whom Brugsch thinks
    was probably the Pharaoh of the exodus, who with his army pursued the
    Israelites and were overwhelmed in the Red Sea. "The events which form the
    lamentable close of his rule over Egypt are Passed over by the monuments
    (very naturally) with perfect silence. The dumb tumults covers the
    misfortune: which was suffered, for the record of these events was
    inseparably connected with the humiliating confession of a divine
    visitation, to which a patriotic writer at the court of Pharaoh would
    hardly have brought his mind." The table on page 186 gives some of the
    latest opinions.

  • Pharaoh, father-in-law of Mered. -- In the genealogies of the
    tribe of Judah, mention is made of the daughter of a Pharaoh married to an
    Israelite -- " Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh. which Mered took." (1
    Chronicles 4:18)

  • Pharaoh, brother-in-law of Hadad the Edomite. -- This king
    gave Haadad. as his wife, the sister of his own wife, Tahpenes. (1 Kings

  • Pharaoh, father-in-law of Solomon. -- The mention that the
    queen was brought into the city of David while Solomon's house and the
    temple and the city wall were building shows that the marriage took place
    not later than the eleventh year of the king, when the temple was
    finished, having been commenced in the Pharaoh led an expedition into
    Palestine. (1 Kings 9:16)

  • Pharaoh, the opponent of Sennacherib. -- This Pharaoh, (Isaiah
    36:6) can only be the Sethos whom Herodotus mentions as the opponent of
    Sennacherib and who may reasonably be supposed to be the Zet of

  • Pharoah-necho. -- The first mention in the Bible of a proper
    name with the title Pharaoh is the case of Pharaoh-necho, who is also
    called Necho simply. This king was of the Saite twenty-sixth dynasty, of
    which Manetho makes him either the fifth or the sixth ruler. Herodotus
    calls him Nekos, and assigns to him a reign of sixteen years, which is
    confirmed by the monuments. He seems to have been an enterprising king, as
    he is related to have attempted to complete the canal connecting the Red
    Sea with the Nile, and to have sent an expedition of Phoenicians to
    circumnavigate Africa, which was successfully accomplished. At the
    commencement of his reign B.C. 610, he made war against the king of
    Assyria, and, being encountered on his way by Josiah, defeated and slew
    the king of Judah at Megiddo. (2 Kings 23:29,30; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24)
    Necho seems to have soon returned to Egypt. Perhaps he was on his way
    thither when he deposed Jehoahaz. The army was probably posted at
    Carchemish, and was there defeated by Nebuchadnezzar in the fourth year of
    Necho, B.C. 607, that king not being, as it seems, then at its head.
    (Jeremiah 46:1,2,6,10) This battle led to the loss of all the Asiatic
    dominions of Egypt. (2 Kings 24:7)

  • Pharaoh-hophra. -- The next king of Egypt mentioned in the
    Bible is Pharaoh-hophra, the second successor of Necho, from whom he was
    separated by the six-years reign of Psammetichus II. He came to the throne
    about B.C. 589, and ruled nineteen years. Herodotus who calls him Apries,
    makes him son of Psammetichus II., whom he calls Psammis, and
    great-grandson of Psammetichus I. In the Bible it is related that
    Zedekiah, the last king of Judah was aided by a Pharaoh against
    Nebuchadnezzar, in fulfillment of it treaty, and that an army came out of
    Egypt, so that the Chaldeans were obliged to raise the siege of Jerusalem.
    The city was first besieged in the ninth year of Zedekiah B.C. 590, and
    was captured in his eleventh year, B.C. 588. It was evidently continuously
    invested for a length of time before was taken, so that it is most
    probable that Pharaoh's expedition took place during 590 or 589. The
    Egyptian army returned without effecting its purpose. (Jeremiah 27:5-8;
    Ezekiel 17:11-18) comp. 2Kin 25:1-4 No subsequent Pharaoh is mentioned in
    Scripture, but there are predictions doubtless referring to the
    misfortunes of later princes until the second Persian conquest, when the
    prophecy, "There shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt," (Ezekiel
    30:13) was fulfilled. (In the summer of 1881 a large number of the mummies
    of the Pharaohs were found in a tomb near Thebes -- among them Raskenen,
    of the seventeenth dynasty, Ahmes I., founder of the eighteenth dynasty,
    Thothmes I,II, and III., and Rameses I. It was first thought that Rameses
    II, of the nineteenth dynasty, was there, But this was found to be a
    mistake. A group of coffins belonging to the twenty-first dynasty has been
    found, and it is probable that we will learn not a little about the early
    Pharaohs, especially from the inscriptions on their shrouds. -- ED.)


Three Egyptian princesses, daughters of Pharaohs, are mentioned in the
Bible: --

  • The preserver of Moses, daughter of the Pharaoh who first oppressed
    the Israelites. (Exodus 2:6-10) Osborn thinks her name was Thouoris,
    daughter of Rameses II, others that her name was Merrhis. (B.C.

  • Bithiah wife of Mered, an Israelite. daughter of a Pharaoh of an
    uncertain age, probably of about the time of the exodus. (1 Chronicles
    4:18) [PHARAOH, No. 5]

  • A wife of Solomon. (1 Kings 3:1; 7:8; 8:24) [PHARAOH, 7]


The wife of one Pharaoh, the king who received Hadad the Edomite, is
mentioned in Scripture. She is called "queen," and her name, Tahpenes, is


The son of Judah. (Matthew 1:3; Luke 3:33)


(Perez, (1 Chronicles 27:3) Phares, (Matthew 1:3; Luke 3:33) 1 Esd. 5:6),
twin son, with Zarah or Zerah, of Judah and Tamer his daughter-in-law.
(B.C. 1730.) The circumstances of his birth are detailed in Gen. 38.
Pharez occupied the rank of Judah's second son, and from two of his sons
sprang two new chief houses, those of the Hezronites and Hamulites. From
Hezron's second son Ram, or Aram, sprang David and the kings of Judah, and
eventually Jesus Christ. In the reign of David the house of Pharez seems
to have been eminently distinguished.


a religious party or school among the Jews at the time of Christ, so
called from perishin, the Aramaic form of the Hebrew word
perushim, "separated." The chief sects among the Jews were the
Pharisees, the Sadducees and the Essenes, who may be described
respectively as the Formalists, the Freethinkers and the Puritans. A
knowledge of the opinions and practices of the Pharisees at the time of
Christ is of great importance for entering deeply into the genius of the
Christian religion. A cursory perusal of the Gospels is sufficient to show
that Christ's teaching was in some respects thoroughly antagonistic to
theirs. He denounced them in the bitterest language; see (Matthew 15:7,8;
23:5,13,14,15,23; Mark 7:6; Luke 11:42-44) and compare (Mark 7:1-5; 11:29;
12:19,20; Luke 6:28,37-42) To understand the Pharisees is by contrast an
aid toward understanding the spirit of uncorrupted Christianity.

  • The fundamental principle all of the of the Pharisees, common to them
    with all orthodox modern Jews, is that by the side of the written law
    regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew
    people there was on oral law to complete and to explain the written law,
    given to Moses on Mount Sinai and transmitted by him by word of mouth. The
    first portion of the Talmud, called the Mishna or "second law," contains
    this oral law. It is a digest of the Jewish traditions and a compendium of
    the whole ritual law, and it came at length to be esteemed far above the
    sacred text.

  • While it was the aim of Jesus to call men to the law of God itself as
    the supreme guide of life, the Pharisees, upon the Pretence of maintaining
    it intact, multiplied minute precepts and distinctions to such an extent
    that the whole life of the Israelite was hemmed in and burdened on every
    side by instructions so numerous and trifling that the law was almost if
    not wholly lost sight of. These "traditions" as they were called, had long
    been gradually accumulating. Of the trifling character of these
    regulations innumerable instances are to be found in the Mishna. Such were
    their washings before they could eat bread, and the special minuteness
    with which the forms of this washing were prescribed; their bathing when
    they returned from the market; their washing of cups, pots, brazen
    vessels, etc.; their fastings twice in the week, (Luke 18:12) were their
    tithing; (Matthew 23:23) and such, finally, were those minute and
    vexatious extensions of the law of the Sabbath, which must have converted
    God's gracious ordinance of the Sabbath's rest into a burden and a pain.
    (Matthew 12:1-13; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 18:10-17)

  • It was a leading aim of the Redeemer to teach men that true piety
    consisted not in forms, but in substance, not in outward observances, but
    in an inward spirit. The whole system of Pharisaic piety led to exactly
    opposite conclusions. The lowliness of piety was, according to the
    teaching of Jesus, an inseparable concomitant of its reality; but the
    Pharisees sought mainly to attract the attention and to excite the
    admiration of men. (Matthew 6:2,6,16; 23:5,6; Luke 14:7) Indeed the whole
    spirit of their religion was summed up not in confession of sin and in
    humility, but in a proud self righteousness at variance with any true
    conception of man's relation to either God or his fellow creatures.

  • With all their pretences to piety they were in reality avaricious,
    sensual and dissolute. (Matthew 23:25; John 13:7) They looked with
    contempt upon every nation but their own. (Luke 10:29) Finally, instead of
    endeavoring to fulfill the great end of the dispensation whose truths they
    professed to teach, and thus bringing men to the Hope of Israel, they
    devoted their energies to making converts to their own narrow views, who
    with all the zeal of proselytes were more exclusive and more bitterly
    opposed to the truth than they were themselves. (Matthew 22:15)

  • The Pharisees at an early day secured the popular favor and thereby
    acquired considerable political influence. This influence was greatly
    increased by the extension of the Pharisees over the whole land and the
    majority which they obtained in the Sanhedrin. Their number reached more
    than six thousand under the Herods. Many of them must have suffered death
    for political agitation. In the time of Christ they were divided
    doctrinally into several schools, among which those of Hillel and Shammai
    were most noted. -- McClintock and Strong.

  • One of the fundamental doctrines of the Pharisees was a belief in a
    future state
    . They appear to have believed in a resurrection of the
    dead, very much in the same sense: as the early Christians. They also
    believed in "a divine Providence acting side by side with the free will of
    man." -- Schaff.

  • It is proper to add that it would be a great mistake to suppose that
    the Pharisees were wealthy and luxurious much more that they had
    degenerated into the vices which were imputed to some of the Roman popes
    and cardinals during the two hundred years preceding the Reformation.
    Josephus compared the Pharisees to the sect of the Stoics. He says that
    they lived frugally, in no respect giving in to luxury. We are not to
    suppose that there were not many individuals among them who were upright
    and pure, for there were such men as Nicodemus, Gamaliel, Joseph of
    Arimathea and Paul.


(Ezra 8:3) [See PAROSH]


(swift), the second of the "two rivers of Damascus" -- Abana and
Pharpar -- alluded to by Naaman. (2 Kings 5:18) The two principal streams
in the district of Damascus are the Barada and the Awaj, the former being
the Abana and the latter the Pharpur. The Awaj rises on the southeast
slopes of Hermon, and flows into the most southerly of the three lakes or
swamps of Damascus.


the descendants of Parez the son of Judah. (Numbers 26:20)


(Nehemiah 7:51) [PASEAH, 2]


a town on the coast of Asia Minor, on the confines of Lycia and Pamphylia,
and consequently ascribed by the ancient writers sometimes to one and
sometimes to the other. 1 Macc. 15:23.




(Acts 27:12) (more properly Phoenix, as it is translated in the Revised
Version), the name of a haven in Crete on the south coast. The name was no
doubt derived from the Greek word for the palm tree, which Theophrastus
says was indigenous in the island. It is the modern Lutro. [See


(strong), chief captain of the army of Abimelech, king of the
Philistines of Gerar in the days of both Abraham, (Genesis 21:22,32) and
Isaac. (Genesis 28:26) (B.C. 1900.)


strictly Philadelphi’a (brotherly love), a town on the
confines of Lydia and Phrygia Catacecaumene, 25 southeast of Sardis, and
built by Attalus II., king of Pergamos, who died B.C. 138. It was situated
on the lower slopes of Tmolus, and is still represented by a town called
Allah-shehr (city of God). Its elevation is 952 feet above the sea.
The original population of Philadelphia. Seems to have been Macedonian;
but there was, as appears from (Leviticus 3:9) a synagogue of Hellenizing
Jews there, as well as a Christian church. (It was the seat of one of "the
seven churches of Asia.") The locality was subject to constant
earthquakes, which in the time of Strabo rendered even the town walls of
Philadelphia unsafe. The expense of reparation was constant, and hence
perhaps the poverty of the members of the church. (Revelation 3:8) (The
church was highly commended.) (Revelation 3:7-13) Even Gibbon bears the
following well-known testimony to the truth of the prophecy, "Because thou
hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee in the hour of
temptation": "At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the (Greek) emperor
encompassed, all sides by the Turks, her valiant citizens defended their
religion and freedom above fourscore years. Among the Greek colonies and
churches of Asia, Philadelphia is still erect, a column in a scene of
ruins." "The modern town (Allah-shehr, city of God), although
spacious, containing 3000 houses and 10,000 inhabitants, is badly built;
the dwellings are mean and the streets filthy. The inhabitants are mostly
Turks. A few ruins are found, including remains of a wall and about
twenty-five churches. In one place are four strong marble pillars, which
once supported the dome of a church. One of the old mosques is believed by
the native Christians to have been the church in which assembled the
primitive Christians addressed in the Apocalypse." Whitney's Bible


the name of the Christian to whom Paul addressed his epistle in behalf of
Onesimus. He was a native probably of Colosse, or at all events lived in
that city when the apostle wrote to him: first, because Onesimus was a
Colossian, (Colossians 4:9) and secondly because Archippus was a
Colossian, (Colossians 4:17) whom Paul associates with Philemon at the
beginning of his letter. (Philemon 1:1,2) It is related that Philemon
became bishop of Colosse, and died as a martyr under Nero. It is evident
from the letter to him that Philemon was a man of property and influence,
since he is represented as the head of a numerous household, and as
exercising an expensive liberality toward his friends and the poor in
general. He was indebted to the apostle Paul as the medium of his personal
participation in the gospel. It is not certain under what circumstances
they became known to each other. It is evident that on becoming a disciple
he gave no common proof of the sincerity and power of his faith. His
character as shadowed forth in the epistle to him, is one of the noblest
which the sacred record makes known to us.


is one of the letters which the apostle wrote during his first captivity
at Rome A.D. 63 or early in A.D. 64. Nothing is wanted to confirm the
genuineness of the epistle: the external testimony is unimpeachable; nor
does the epistle itself offer anything to conflict with this decision. The
occasion of the letter was that Onesimus, a slave of Philemon, had run
away from him to Rome, either desiring liberty or, as some suppose, having
committed theft. (Philemon 1:18) Here he was converted under the
instrumentality of Paul. The latter; intimately connected with the master
and the servant, was naturally anxious to effect a reconciliation between
them. He used his influence with Onesimus, ver. 12, to induce him to
return to Colosse and place himself again at the disposal of his master.
On his departure, Paul put into his hand this letter as evidence that
Onesirnus was a true and approved disciple of Christ, and entitled as such
to received, not as a servant but above a servant, as a brother in the
faith. The Epistle to Philemon has one peculiar feature -- its aesthetical
character it may be termed -- which distinguishes it from all the other
epistles. The writer had peculiar difticulties to overcame; but Paul, it
is confessed, has shown a degree of self-denial and a fact in dealing with
them which in being equal to the occasion could hardly be greater.


(beloved) was possibly a disciple of Hymenaeus, with whom he is
associated in (2 Timothy 2:17) and who is named without him in an earlier
epistle. (1 Timothy 1:20) (A.D. 68-64) Thep appear to have been persons
who believed the Scripture of the Old Testament, but misinterpreted them,
allegorizing away the doctrine of the resurrection and resolving it all
into figure and metaphor. The delivering over unto Satan. seems to have
been a form of excommunication declaring the person reduced to the state
of a heathen; and in the apostolic age it was accompanied with
supernatural or miraculous effects upon the bodies of the persons so


(lover of horses) the apostle was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew
and Peter, (John 1:44) and apparently was among the Galilean peasants of
that district who flocked to hear the preaching of the Baptist. The manner
in which St. John speaks of him indicates a previous friendship with the
sons of Jona and Zebedee, and a consequent participation in their
messianic hopes. The close union of the two in John 6 and 12 suggests that
he may have owed to Andrew the first tidings that the hope had been
fulfilled. The statement that Jesus found him (John 1:43) implies a
previous seeking. In the lists of the twelve apostles, in the Synoptic
Gospel, his name is as uniformly at the head of the second group of four
as the name of Peter is at that of the first, (Matthew 10:3; Mark 5:18;
Luke 6:14) and the facts recorded by St. John give the reason of this
priority. Philip apparently was among the first company of disciples who
were with the Lord at the commencement of his ministry at the marriage at
Cana, on his first appearance as a prophet in Jerusalem, John 2. The first
three Gospels tell us nothing more of him individually. St.John with his
characteristic fullness of personal reminiscences, records a few
significant utterances. (John 6:5-9; 12:20-22; 14:8) No other fact
connected with the name of Philip is recorded in the Gospels. He is among
the company of disciples at Jerusalem after the ascension (Acts 1:13) and
on the day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain and apocryphal,
According tradition he preached in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis.


is first mentioned in the account of the dispute between the Hebrew and
Hellenistic disciples in Acts 6. He is one of the deacons appointed to
superintend the daily distribution of food and alms, and so to remove all
suspicion of partiality. The persecution of which Saul was the leader must
have stopped the "daily ministrations" of the Church. The teachers who had
been most prominent were compelled to take flight, and Philip was among
them. It is noticeable that the city of Samaria, is the first scene of his
activity. Acts 8. He is the precursor of St. Paul in his work, as Stephen
had been in his teaching. The scene which brings Philip and Simon the
sorcerer into contact with each other, (Acts 8:9-13) which the magician
has to acknowledge a power over nature greater than his own, is
interesting. This step is followed by another. On the road from Jerusalem
to Gaza he meets the Ethiopian eunuch. (Acts 8:26) ff. The History that
follows is interesting as one of the few records in the New Testament of
the process of individual conversion. A brief sentence tells us that
Philip continued his work as a preacher at Azotus (Ashdod) and among the
other cities that had formerly belonged to the Philistines, and, following
the coast-line, came to Caesarea. Then for a long period -- not less than
eighteen or nineteen years -- we lose sight of him. The last glimpse of
him in the New Testament is in the account of St. Paul's journey to
Jerusalem. It is to his house as to one well known to them, that St. Paul
and his companions turn for shelter. He has four daughters, who possess
the gift of prophetic utterance and who apparently give themselves to the
work of teaching instead of entering on the life of home. (Acts 21:8,9) He
is visited by the prophets and elders of Jerusalem. One tradition places
the scene of his death at Hierapolis in Phrygia. According to another, he
died bishop of Tralles. The house in which he and-his daughters had lived
was pointed out to travellers in the time of Jerome.


(named from Philip of Macedonia), a city of Macedonia about nine miles
from the sea, to the northwest of the island of Thasos which is twelve
miles distant from its port Neapolis, the modern Kavalla. It is
situated in a plain between the ranges of Pangaeus and Haemus. The
Philippi which St. Paul visited was a Roman colony founded by Augustus
after the famous battle of Philippi, fought here between Antony and
Octavius and Brutus and Cassius, B.C. 42. The remains which strew the
ground near the modern Turkish village Bereketli are no doubt
derived from that city. The original town, built by Philip of Macedonia,
was probably not exactly on the same site. Philip, when he acquired
possession of the site, found there a town named Datus or
Datum, which was probably in its origin a factory of the
Phoenicians, who were the first that worked the gold-mines in the
mountains here, as in the neighboring Thasos. The proximity of the
goldmines was of course the origin of so large a city as Philippi, but the
plain in which it lies is of extraordinary fertility. The position, too,
was on the main road from Rome to Asia, the Via Egnatia, which
from Thessalonica to Constantinople followed the same course as the
existing post-road. On St. Paul's visits to Philippi, see the following
article. At Philippi the gospel was first preached in Europe. Lydia was
the first convert. Here too Paul and Silas were imprisoned. (Acts 16:23)
The Philippians sent contributions to Paul to relieve his temporal


was St. Paul from Rome in A.D. 62 or 63. St. Paul's connection with
Philippi was of a peculiar character, which gave rise to the writing of
this epistle. St. Paul entered its walls A.D. 52. (Acts 16:18) There, at a
greater distance from Jerusalem than any apostle had yet penetrated, the
long-restrained energy of St, Paul was again employed in laying the
foundation of a Christian church, Philippi was endeared to St. Paul not
only by the hospitality of Lydia, the deep sympathy of the converts, and
the remarkable miracle which set a seal on his preaching, but, also by the
successful exercise of his missionary activity after a long suspense, and
by the happy consequences of his undaunted endurance of ignominies which
remained in his memory, (Philemon 1:30) after the long interval of eleven
years. Leaving Timothy and Luke to watch over the infant church, Paul and
Silas went to Thessalonica, (1 Thessalonians 2:2) whither they were
followed by the alms of the Philippians, (Philemon 4:16) and thence
southward. After the lapse of five years, spent chiefly at Corinth and
Ephesus, St. Paul passed through Macedonia, A.D. 57, on his way to Greece,
and probably visited Philippi for the second time, and was there joined by
Timothy. He wrote at Philippi his second Epistle to the Corinthians. On
returning from Greece, (Acts 20:4) he again found a refuge among his
faithful Philippians, where he spent some days at Easter, A.D. 58, with
St. Luke, who accompanied him when he sailed from Neapolis. Once more, in
his Roman captivity, A.D. 62, their care of him revived-again. They sent
Epaphroditus bearing their alms for the apostle's support, and ready also
to tender his personal service. (Philemon 2:25) St. Paul's aim in writing
is plainly this: while acknowledging the alms of the Philippians and the
personal services of their messenger, to give them some information
respecting his own condition, and some advice respecting theirs. Strangely
full of joy and thanksgiving amidst adversity, like the apostle's midnight
hymn from the depth of his Philippian dungeon, this epistle went forth
from his prison at Rome. In most other epistles he writes with a sustained
effort to instruct, or with sorrow, or with indignation; he is striving to
supply imperfect or to correct erroneous teaching, to put down scandalous
impurity or to schism in the church which he addresses. But in this
epistle, though he knew the Philippians intimately and was not blind to
the faults and tendencies to fault of some of them, yet he mentions no
evil so characteristic of the whole Church as to call for general censure
on his part or amendment on theirs. Of all his epistles to churches, none
has so little of an official character as this.


(Heb. Pelesheth) (land of sojourners). The word thus
translated (in) (Psalms 60:8; 87:4; 108:9) is in the original identical
with that elsewhere rendered Palestine, which always means land of the
Philistines. (Philistia was the plain on the southwest coast of Palestine.
It was 40 miles long on the coast of the Mediterranean between Gerar and
Joppa, and 10 miles wide at the northern end and 20 at the southern. --
ED.) This plain has been in all ages remarkable for the extreme richness
of its soil. It was also adapted to the growth of military power; for
while the itself permitted. the use of war-chariots, which were the chief
arm of offence, the occasional elevations which rise out of it offered
secure sites for towns and strongholds. It was, moreover, a commercial
country: from its position it must have been at all times the great
thoroughfare between Phoenicia and Syria in the north and Egypt and Arabia
in the south.


(immigrants), The origin of the Philistines is nowhere expressly
stated in the Bible; but as the prophets describe them as "the
Philistines-from Caphtor," (Amos 9:7) and "the remnant of the maritime
district of Caphtor" (Jeremiah 47:4) it is prima facie probable that they
were the Caphtorim which came out of Caphtor" who expelled the Avim from
their territory and occupied it; in their place, (2:23) and that these
again were the Caphtorim mentioned in the Mosaic genealogical table among
the descendants of Mizraim. (Genesis 10:14) It has been generally assumed
that Caphtor represents Crete, and that the Philistines migrated from that
island, either directly or through Egypt, into Palestine. But the name
Caphtor is more probably identified with the Egyptian Coptos. [CAPHTOR,
CAPHTORIM] History. -- The Philistines must have settled in the
land of Canaan before the time of Abraham; for they are noticed in his day
as a pastoral tribe in the neighborhood of Gerur. (Genesis 21:32,34;
26:1,8) Between the times of Abraham and Joshua the Philistines had
changed their quarters, and had advanced northward into the plain of
Philistia. The Philistines had at an early period attained proficiency in
the arts of peace. Their wealth was abundant, (Judges 16:5,19) and they
appear in all respects to have been a prosperous people. Possessed of such
elements of power, they had attained in the time of the judges an
important position among eastern nations. About B.C. 1200 we find them
engaged in successful war with the Sidonians. Justin xviii. 3. The
territory of the Philistines having been once occupied by the Canaanites,
formed a portion of the promised land, and was assigned the tribe of
Judah. (Joshua 15:2,12,45-47) No portion of it, however, was conquered in
the lifetime of Joshua, (Joshua 13:2) and even after his death no
permanent conquest was effected, (Judges 3:3) though we are informed that
the three cities of Gaza, Ashkelon and Ekron were taken. (Judges 1:18) The
Philistines soon recovered these, and commenced an aggressive policy
against the Israelites, by which they gained a complete ascendancy over
them. Individual heroes were raised up from time to time, such as Shamgar
the son of Anath, (Judges 3:31) and still more Samson, Judg 13-16, but
neither of these men succeeded in permanently throwing off the yoke. The
Israelites attributed their past weakness to their want, of unity, and
they desired a king, with the special object of leading them against the
foe. (1 Samuel 8:20) Saul threw off the yoke; and the Philistines were
defeated with great slaughter at Geba. (1 Samuel 13:3) They made no
attempt to regain their supremacy for about twenty-five years, and the
scene of the next contest shows the altered strength of the two parties.
It was no longer in the central country, but in a ravine leading down to
the Philistine plain, the valley of Elah, the position of which is about
14 miles southwest of Jerusalem. On this occasion the prowess of young
David secured success to Israel, and the foe was pursued to the gates of
Gath and Ekron. (1 Samuel 17:1) ... The power of the Philistines was,
however, still intact on their own territory. The border warfare was
continued. The scene of the next conflict was far to the north, in the
valley of Esdraelon. The battle on this occasion proved disastrous to the
Israelites; Saul himself perished, and the Philistines penetrated across
the Jordan and occupied the, forsaken cities. (1 Samuel 31:1-7) On the
appointment of David to be king, he twice attacked them, and on each
occasion with signal success, in the first case capturing their images, in
the second pursuing them "from Geba until thou come to Gazer." (2 Samuel
5:17-25; 1 Chronicles 14:8-16) Henceforth the Israelites appear as the
aggressors. About seven years after the defeat at Rephaim, David, who had
now consolidated his power, attacked them on their own soil end took Gath
with its dependencies. The whole of Philistine was included in Solomon's
empire. Later when the Philistines, joined by the Syrians and Assyrians,
made war on the kingdom of Israel, Hezekiah formed an alliance with the
Egyptians, as a counterpoise to the Assyrians, and the possession of
Philistia became henceforth the turning-point of the struggle between the
two great empires of the East. The Assyrians under Tartan, the general of
Sargon, made an expedition against Egypt, and took Ashdod, as the key of
that country. (Isaiah 20:1,4,5) Under Senacherib, Philistia was again the
scene of important operations. The Assyrian supremacy was restored by
Esarhaddon, and it seems probable that the Assyrians retained their hold
on Ashdod until its capture, after a long siege, by Psammetichus. It was
about this time that Philistia was traversed by vast Scythian horde on
their way to Egypt. The Egyptian ascendancy was not as yet re-established,
for we find the next king, Necho, compelled to besiege Gaza on his return
from the battle of Megiddo. After the death of Necho the contest was
renewed between the Egyptians and the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, and
the result was specially disastrous to the Philistines. The "old hatred"
that the Philistines bore to the Jews was exhibited in acts of hostility
at the time of the Babylonish captivity, (Ezekiel 25:15-17) but on the
return this was somewhat abated, for some of the Jews married Philistine
women, to the great scandal of their rulers. (Nehemiah 13:23,24) From this
time the history of Philistia is absorbed in the struggles of the
neighboring kingdoms. The latest notices of the Philistines as a nation
occur in 1 Macc. 3-5. Institutions, religion, etc. -- With regard
to the institutions of the Philistines our information is very scanty, The
five chief cities had, as early as the days of Joshua, constituted
themselves into a confederacy, restricted however, in all probability, to
matters of offence and defence. Each was under the government of a prince,
(Joshua 13:3; Judges 3:3) etc.; (1 Samuel 18:30; 29:6) and each possessed
its own territory. The Philistines appear to have been deeply imbued with
superstition: they carried their idols with them on their campaigns, (2
Samuel 5:21) and proclaimed their victories in their presence. (1 Samuel
31:9) The gods whom they chiefly worshipped were Dagon, (Judges 16:23; 1
Samuel 5:3-5; 1 Chronicles 10:10) 1Macc. 10:83, Ashtaroth, (1 Samuel
31:10) Herod. I. 105, and Baalzebub. (2 Kings 1:2-6)


a Christian at Rome to whom St. Paul sends his salutation. (Romans


It is the object of the following article to give some account (I.) of
that development of thought among the Jews which answered to the
philosophy of the West; (II.) of the systematic progress of Greek
philosophy as forming a complete whole; and (III.) of the contact of
Christianity with philosophy. I. THE PHILOSOPHIC DISCIPLINE OF THE JEWS.
-- Philosophy, if we limit the word strictly to describe the free pursuit
of knowledge of which truth is the one complete end is essentially of
western growth. In the East the search after wisdom has always been
connected with practice. The history of the Jews offers no exception to
this remark: there is no Jewish philosophy, properly so called. The method
of Greece was to proceed from life to God; the method of Israel (so to
speak) was to proceed from God to life. The axioms of one system are the
conclusions of the other. The one led to the successive abandonment of the
noblest domains of science which man had claimed originally as his own,
till it left bare systems of morality; the other, in the fullness of time,
prepared many to welcome the Christ -- the Truth. The philosophy of the
Jews, using the word in a large sense, is to be sought for rather in the
progress of the national life than in special books. Step by step the idea
of the family was raised into that of the people; and the kingdom
furnished the basis of those wider promises which included all nations in
one kingdom of heaven. The social, the political, the cosmical relations
of man were traced out gradually in relation to God. The philosophy of the
Jews is thus essentially a moral philosophy, resting on a definite
connection with God. The doctrines of Creation and Providence, of an
infinite divine person and of a responsible human will, which elsewhere
form the ultimate limits of speculation, are here assumed at the outset.
The Psalms, which, among the other infinite lessons which they convey,
give a deep insight into the need of a personal apprehension of truth,
everywhere declare the absolute sovereignty of God over the material and
the moral world. One man among all is distinguished among the Jews as "the
wise man". The description which is given of his writings serves as a
commentary on the national view of philosophy (1 Kings 4:30-33) The lesson
of practical duty, the full utterance of "a large heart," ibid. 29, the
careful study of God's creatures, -- this is the sum of wisdom. Yet in
fact the very practical aim of this philosophy leads to the revelation of
the most sublime truth. Wisdom was gradually felt to be a person, throned
by God and holding converse with men. (Proverbs 8:1) ... She was seen to
stand in open enmity with "the strange woman"), who sought to draw them
aside by sensuous attractions; and thus a new step was made toward the
central doctrine of Christianity: -- the incarnation of the Word. Two
books of the Bible, Job and Ecclesiastes, of which the latter at any rate
belongs to the period of the close of the kingdom, approach more nearly
than any others to the type of philosophical discussions. But in both the
problem is moral and not metaphysical. The one deals with the evils which
afflict "the perfect and upright;" the other with the vanity of all the
pursuits and pleasures of earth. The captivity necessarily exercised a
profound influence. The teaching of Persia Jewish thought. The teaching of
Persia seems to have been designed to supply important elements in the
education of the chosen people. But it did yet more than this. The contact
of the Jews with Persia thus gave rise to a traditional mysticism. Their
contact with Greece was marked by the rise of distinct sects. In the third
century B.C. the great Doctor Antigonus of Socho bears a Greek name, and
popular belief pointed to him as the teacher of Sadoc and Boethus the
supposed founders of Jewish rationalism. At any rate we may date from this
time the twofold division of Jewish speculation, The Sadducees appear as
the supporters of human freedom in its widest scope; the Pharisees of a
religious Stoicism. At a later time the cycle of doctrine was completed,
when by a natural reaction the Essenes established as mystic Asceticism.
II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. -- The various attempts which
have been made to derive western philosophy from eastern sources have
signally failed. It is true that in some degree the character of Greek
speculation may have been influenced, at least in its earliest-stages, by
religious ideas which were originally introduced from the East; but this
indirect influence does hot affect the real originality of the Greek
teachers. The very value of Greek teaching lies in the fact that it was,
as far as is possible, a result of simple reason, or, if faith asserts ifs
prerogative, the distinction is sharply marked. Of the various
classifications of the Greek schools which have been proposed, the
simplest and truest seems to be that which divides the history of
philosophy into three great periods, the first reaching to the era of the
Sophists, the next to the death of Aristotle, the third to the Christian
era. In the first period the world objectively is the great centre of
inquiry; in the second, the "ideas" of things, truth, and being; in the
third, the chief interest of philosophy falls back upon the practical
conduct of life. After the Christian era philosophy ceased to have any
true vitality in Greece, but it made fresh efforts to meet the conditions
of life at Alexandria and Rome.

  • The pre-Socratic schools. -- The first Greek philosophy was
    little more than an attempt to follow out in thought the mythic
    cosmogonies of earlier poets. What is the one permanent element which
    underlies the changing forms of things? -- this was the primary inquiry,
    to which the Ionic school endeavored to find an answer. Thales (cir. B.C.
    639-543) pointed to moisture (water) as the one source and supporter of
    life. Anaximenes (cir. B.C. 520-480) substituted air for wafer. At a much
    later date (cir. B.C. 460) Diogenes of Apollonia represented this
    elementary "air" as endowed with intelligence.

  • The Socratic schools. -- In the second period of Greek
    philosophy the scene and subject were both changed. A philosophy of ideas,
    using the term in its widest sense, succeeded a philosophy of nature, in
    three generations Greek speculation reached its greatest glory in the
    teaching of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The famous sentence in which
    Aristotle characterizes the teachings of Socrates (B.C.465-399) places his
    scientific position in the clearest light. There are two things, he says,
    which we may rightly attribute to Socrates -- inductive reasoning and
    general definition. By the first he endeavored to discover the permanent
    element which underlies the changing forms of appearances and the
    varieties of opinion; by the second he fixed the truth which he had thus
    gained. But, besides this, Socrates rendered another service to truth.
    Ethics occupied in his investigations the primary place which had hitherto
    been held by Physics. The great aim of his induction was to establish the
    sovereignty of Virtue. He affirmed the existence of a universal law of
    right and wrong. He connected philosophy with action, both in detail and
    in general. On the one side he upheld the supremacy of Conscience, on the
    other the working of Providence.

  • The post-Socratic schools. -- after Aristotle, philosophy took
    a new direction. Speculation became mainly personal. Epicurus (B.C.
    352-270) defined the object of philosophy to be the attainment of a happy
    life. The pursuit of truth for its own sake he recognized as superfluous.
    He rejected dialectics as a useless study, and accepted the senses, in the
    widest acceptation of the term, as the criterion of truth. But he differed
    widely from the Cyrenaics in his view of happiness. The happiness at which
    the wise man aims is to be found, he said, not in momentary gratification,
    but in life-long pleasure. All things were supposed to come into being by
    chance, and so pass away. The individual was left master of own life.
    While Epicurus asserted in this manner the claims of one part of man's
    nature in the conduct of life, Zeno of Citium (cir. B.C. 280), with equal
    partiality advocated a purely spiritual (intellectual) morality.
    Opposition between the two was complete. The infinite, chance-formed
    worlds of the one stand over against the one harmonious world of the
    other. On the one aide are gods regardless of material things, on the
    other a Being permeating and vivifying all creation. This difference
    necessarily found its chief expression in Ethics. III. CHRISTIANITY IN
    CONTACT WITH ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. -- The only direct trace of the contact
    of Christianity with western philosophy in the New Testament is in the
    account of St. Paul's visit to Athens, (Acts 17:18) and there is nothing
    in the apostolic writings to show that it exercised any important
    influence upon the early Church. Comp. (1 Corinthians 1:22-24) But it was
    otherwise with eastern speculation, which penetrated more deeply through
    the mass of the people. The "philosophy" against which the Colossians were
    warned, (Colossians 2:8) seems undoubtedly to have been of eastern origin,
    containing elements similar to those which were afterward embodied in
    various shapes of Gnosticism, as a selfish asceticism, and a superstitions
    reverence for angels, (Colossians 2:16-23) and in the Epistles to Timothy,
    addressed to Ephesians, in which city St. Paul anticipated the rise of
    false teaching, (Acts 20:30) two distinct forms of error may be traced in
    addition to Judaism, due more or less to the same influence. The writings
    of the sub-apostolic age, with the exception of the famous anecdote of
    Justin Martyr (Dial. 2 -- 1), throw little light upon the relations of
    Christianity and philosophy. Christian philosophy may be in one sense a
    contradiction in terms, for Christianity confessedly derives its first
    principles from revelation, and not from simple reason; but there is no
    less a true philosophy of Christianity, which aims to show how completely
    these meet the instincts and aspirations of all ages. The exposition of
    such a philosophy would be the work of a modern Origen.


(mouth of brass).

  • Son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron. (Exodus 6:25) He is memorable
    for having while quite a youth, by his zeal and energy at the critical
    moment of the licentious idolatry of Shittim, appeased the divine wrath,
    and put a stop to the plague which was destroying the nation. (Numbers
    25:7) (B.C. 1452.) For this he was rewarded by the special approbation of
    Jehovah and by a promise that the priesthood should remain in his family
    forever. (Numbers 25:10-13) He was appointed to accompany as priest the
    expedition by which the Midianites were destroyed. ch. (Numbers 31:6) Many
    years later he also headed the party which was despatched from Shiloh to
    remonstrate against the altar which the transjordanic tribes were reported
    to have built near Jordan. (Joshua 22:13-32) In the partition of the
    country he received an allotment of his own -- a hill on Mount Ephraim
    which bore his name. After Eleazar's death he became high priest -- the
    third of the series. In this capacity he is introduced as giving the
    oracle to the nation during the whole struggle with the Benjamites on the
    matter of Gibeah. (Judges 20:28) The verse which closes the book of Joshua
    is ascribed to Phinehas, as the description of the death of Moses at the
    end of Deuteronomy is to Joshua. The tomb of Phinehas, a place of great
    resort to both Jews and Samaritans, is shown at Awertah, four
    miles southeast of Nablus.

  • Second son of Eli. (1 Samuel 1:3; 2:34; 4:4,11,17,19; 14:3) Phinehas
    was killed with his brother by the Philistines when the ark was captured.
    (B.C. 1125.) [ELI]

  • A Levite of Ezra's time, (Ezra 8:33) unless the meaning be that
    Eleazar was of the family of the great Phinehas.


(burning), a Christian at Rome whom St. Paul salutes. (Romans
16:14) (A.D.55.) Pseudo-Hippolytus makes him one of the seventy disciples
and bishop of Marathon.


(radiant) the first and one of the most important of the Christian
persons the detailed mention of whom nearly all the last chapter of the
Epistle to the Romans. (A.D.55.) What is said of her, (Romans 16:1,2) is
worthy of special notice because of its bearing on the question of the
deaconesses of the apostolic Church.


(land of palm trees) a tract of country, of which Tyre and Sidon
were the principal cities, to the north of Palestine, along the coast of
the Mediterranean Sea bounded by that sea on the west, and by the mountain
range of Lebanon on the east. The name was not the one by which its native
inhabitants called it, but was given to it by the Greeks, from the Greek
word for the palm tree. The native name of Phoenicia was Kenaan
(Canaan) or Kna, signifying lowland, so named in contrast to the
ad joining Aram, i.e. highland, the Hebrew name of Syria. The length of
coast to which the name of Phoenicia was applied varied at different

  • What may be termed Phoenicia proper was a narrow undulating plain,
    extending from the pass of Ras el-Beyad or Abyad, the
    Promontorium Album of the ancients, about six miles south of Tyre, to the
    Nahr el-Auly, the ancient Bostrenus, two miles north of Sidon. The
    plain is only 28 miles in length. Its average breadth is about a mile; but
    near Sidon the mountains retreat to a distance of two miles, and near Tyre
    to a distance of five miles.

  • A longer district, which afterward became entitled to the name of
    Phoenicia, extended up the coast to a point marked by the island of
    Aradus, and by Antaradus toward the north; the southern boundary remaining
    the same as in Phoenicia proper. Phoenicia, thus defined is estimated to
    have been about 120 miles in length; while its breadth, between Lebanon
    and the sea, never exceeded 20 miles, and was generally much less. The
    whole of Phoenicia proper is well watered by various streams from the
    adjoining hills. The havens of Tyre and Sidon afforded water of sufficient
    depth for all the requirements of ancient navigation, and the neighboring
    range of the Lebanon, in its extensive forests, furnished what then seemed
    a nearly inexhaustible supply of timber for ship-building. Language and
    . -- The Phoenicians spoke a branch of the Semitic language so
    closely allied to Hebrew that Phoenician and Hebrew, though different
    dialects, may practically be regarded as the same language. Concerning the
    original race to which the Phoenicians belonged, nothing can be known with
    certainty, because they are found already established along the
    Mediterranean Sea at the earliest dawn of authentic history, and for
    centuries afterward there is no record of their origin. According to
    Herodotus, vii. 89, they said of themselves in his time that they came in
    days of old from the shores of the Red Sea and in this there would be
    nothing in the slightest degree improbable as they spoke a language
    cognate to that of the Arabians, who inhabited the east coast of that sea.
    Still neither the truth nor the falsehood of the tradition can now be
    proved. But there is one point respecting their race which can be proved
    to be in the highest degree probable, and which has peculiar interest as
    bearing on the Jews, viz., that the Phoenicians were of the same race as
    the Canaanites. Commerce, etc. -- In regard to Phoenician trade,
    connected with the Israelites, it must be recollected that up to the time
    of David not one of the twelve tribes seems to have possessed a single
    harbor on the seacoast; it was impossible there fore that they could
    become a commercial people. But from the time that David had conquered
    Edom, an opening for trade was afforded to the Israelites. Solomon
    continued this trade with its king, obtained timber from its territory and
    employed its sailors and workmen. (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Kings 5:9,17,18)
    The religion of the Phoenicians, opposed to Monotheism, was a
    pantheistical personification of the forces of nature and in its most
    philosophical shadowing forth of the supreme powers it may be said to have
    represented the male and female principles of production. In its popular
    form it was especially a worship of the sun, moon and five planets, or, as
    it might have been expressed according to ancient notions, of the seven
    planets -- the most beautiful and perhaps the most natural form of
    idolatry ever presented to the human imagination. Their worship was a
    constant temptation for the Hebrews to Polytheism and idolatry --

  • Because undoubtedly the Phoenicians, as a great commercial people,
    were more generally intelligent, and as we should now say civilized, than
    the inland agricultural population of Palestine. When the simple-minded
    Jews, therefore, came in contact with a people more versatile and
    apparently more enlightened than themselves, but who nevertheless, either
    in a philosophical or in a popular form admitted a system of Polytheism an
    influence would be exerted on Jewish minds tending to make them regard
    their exclusive devotion to their own one God Jehovah, however
    transcendent his attributes, as unsocial and morose.

  • The Phoenician religion had in other respects an injurious effect on
    the people of Palestine, being in some points essentially demoralizing,
    For example, it mentioned the dreadful superstition of burning children as
    sacrifices to a Phoenician god. Again, parts of the Phoenician religion,
    especially the worship of Astarte, fended to encourage dissoluteness in
    the relations of the sexes, and even to sanctify impurities of the most
    abominable description. The only other fact respecting the Phoenicians
    that need be mentioned here is that the invention of letters was
    universally asserted by the Greeks and Romans to have been communicated by
    the Phoenicians to the Greeks. For further details respecting the
    Phoenicians see TYRE and ZIDON, OR SIDON. Phoenicia is now a land of


(dry, barren). Perhaps there is no geographical term in the New
Testament which is less capable of an exact definition. In fact there was
no Roman province of Phrygia till considerably after the first
establishment of Christianity in the peninsula of Asia Minor. The word was
rather ethnological than political, and denoted in a vague manner the
western part of the central region of that peninsula. Accordingly, in two
of the three places where it is used it is mentioned in a manner not
intended to he precise. (Acts 16:6; 18:23) By Phrygia we must understand
an extensive district in Asia Minor which contributed portions to several
Roman provinces, and varying portions at different times. (All over this
district the Jews were probably numerous. The Phrygians were a very
ancient people, and were supposed to be among the aborigines of Asia
Minor. Several bishops from Phrygia were present at the Councils of Nice,
A.D. 325, and of Constantinople, A.D. 381, showing the prevalence of
Christianity at that time -- ED.)


(bough), Gideon's servant, probably his armor-bearer, comp. (1
Samuel 14:1) who accompanied him in his midnight visit to the camp of the
Midianites. (Judges 7:10,11)


(Esther 11:1) [PURIM]


(a bow) the third name in the list of the sons of Ham (Genesis
10:6; 1 Chronicles 1:8) elsewhere applied to an African country or people.
The few mentions of Phut in the Bible clearly indicate a country or people
of Africa, and, it must be added, probably not far from Egypt. (Isaiah
66:19; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10; 30:5; 38:5; Nahum 3:9) Some identify
it with Libya, in the northern part Africa near the Mediterranean Sea;
others, as Mr. Poole, with Nubia, south of Egypt.


(mouth), one of the sons of Issachar, (Genesis 46:13) and founder
of the family of the Punites.


(fugitive). [HERMOGENES]


Used in the Revised Version in (2 Timothy 1:15) for PHYGELLUS.




a town of lower Egypt, mentioned in (Ezekiel 30:17) the same as Bubastis,
so named from the goddess Bubastis. It was situated on the west bank of
the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, about 40 miles front Memphis. It was
probably a city of great importance when Ezekiel foretold its doom.


In two of the three passages in which "picture" is used in the Authorized
Version it denotes idolatrous representations, either independent images
or more usually stones "portrayed," i.e. sculptured in low relief, or
engraved and colored. (Ezekiel 23:14) Layard, Nin. and Rob. ii. 306, 308.
Moveable pictures, in the modern sense, were doubtless unknown to the
Jews. The "pictures of silver" of (Proverbs 25:11) were probably well
surfaces or cornices with carvings.


The rendering "pieces of gold," as in (2 Kings 5:5) is very doubtful; and
"shekels of gold") as designating the value of the whole quantity, not
individual pieces is preferable. Coined money was unknown in Palestine
till the Persian period.


I. In the Old Testament the word "pieces" is used in the Authorized
Version for a word understood in the Hebrew (if we except) (Psalms 68:30)
The phrase is always "a thousand," or the like, "of silver." (Genesis
20:16; 37:28; 45:28; Judges 9:4; 16:5; 2 Kings 6:25; Hosea 3:2; Zechariah
11:12,13) In similar passages the word "shekels" occurs in the Hebrew.
There are other passages in which the Authorized Version supplies the word
"shekels" instead of "pieces," (22:19,29; Judges 17:2,3,4,10; 2 Samuel
18:11,12) and of these the first two require this to be done. The shekel,
be it remembered, was the common weight for money, and therefore most
likely to be understood in an elliptical phrase. The "piece" or shekel of
silver weighed 220 grains, or about half an ounce, and was worth a little
more than half a dollar (55 cents). II. In the New Testament two words are
rendered by the phrase "piece of silver:"

  • Drachma, (Luke 15:8,9) which was a Greek silver coin,
    equivalent, at the time of St. Luke, to the Roman denarias (15 or 16

  • Silver occurs only in the account of the betrayal of our Lord
    for "thirty pieces of silver." (Matthew 26:15; 17:3,5,6,9) It is difficult
    to ascertain what coins are here intended. If the most common silver
    pieces be meant, they would be denarii. The parallel passage in Zachariah,
    (Zechariah 11:12,13) must, however, be taken into consideration where
    shekels (worth about 55 cents) must be understood. It is more probable
    that the thirty pieces of silver were tetradrachms than that they were
    denarii (80 cents).


This word occurs but once in the Authorized Version: "Let them learn first
to show piety at home," better "toward their own household" or family. (1
Timothy 5:4) The choice of this word here instead of the more usual
equivalents -of "godliness," "reverence," and the like, was probably
determined by the special sense of pietas, as "erga parentes,"
i.e. toward parents.




a place before or at which the Israelites encamped, at the close of the
third march from Rameses (the last place before they crossed the Red Sea),
when they went out of Egypt. (Exodus 14:2,9; Numbers 35:7,8) It is an
Egyptian word, signifying "the place where sedge grows."


(armed with a spear), Pontius. Pontius Pilate was the sixth
Roman procurator of Judea, and under him our Lord worked, suffered and
died, as we learn not only from Scripture, but from Tacitus (Ann. xv. 44).
was appointed A.D. 25-6, in the twelfth year of Tiberius. His arbitrary
administration nearly drove the Jews to insurrection on two or three
occasions. One of his first acts was to remove the headquarters of the
army from Caesarea to Jerusalem. The soldiers of course took with them
their standards, bearing the image of the emperor, into the holy city. No
previous governor had ventured on such an outrage. The people poured down
in crowds to Caesarea, where the procurator was then residing, and
besought him to remove the images. After five days of discussion he gave
the signal to some concealed soldiers to surround the petitioners and put
them to death unless they ceased to trouble him; but this only
strengthened their determination, and they declared themselves ready
rather to submit to death than forego their resistance to aa idolatrous
innovation. Pilate then yielded, and the standards were by his orders
brought down to Caesarea. His slaughter of certain Galileans, (Luke 13:1)
led to some remarks from our Lord on the connection between sin and
calamity. It must have occurred at some feast at Jerusalem, in the outer
court of the temple. It was the custom for the procurators to reside at
Jerusalem during the great feasts, to preserve order, and accordingly, at
the time of our Lord's last Passover, Pilate was occupying his official
residence in Herod's palace. The history of his condemnation of our Lord
is familiar to all. We learn from Josephus that Pilate's anxiety to avoid
giving offence to Caesar did not save him from political disaster. The
Samaritans were unquiet and rebellious Pilate led his troops against them,
and defeated them enough. The Samaritans complained to Vitellius, then
president of Syria, and he sent Pilate to Rome to answer their accusations
before the emperor. When he reached it he found Tiberius dead and Caius
(Caligula) on the throne A,D, 36. Eusebius adds that soon afterward
"wearied with misfortunes," he killed himself. As to the scene of his
death there are various traditions. One is that he was banished to Vienna
Allobrogum (Vienne on the Rhone), where a singular monument -- a pyramid
on a quadrangular base, 52 feet high -- is called Pontius Pilate"s tomb,
An other is that he sought to hide his sorrows on the mountain by the lake
of Lucerne, now called Mount Pilatus; and there) after spending years in
its recesses, in remorse and despair rather than penitence, plunged into
the dismal lake which occupies its summit.


(flame of fire), one of the eight sons of Nahor, Abraham's brother
by Iris wife and niece, Milcah. (Genesis 22:22) (B.C. 1900.)


(worship), the name of one of the chief of the people, probably a
family, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:24) (B.C.


The notion of a pillar is of a shaft or isolated pile either supporting or
not supporting a roof. But perhaps the earliest application of the pillar
was the votive or monumental, This in early times consisted of nothing but
a single stone or pile of stones. (Genesis 28:18; 31:40) etc. The stone
Ezel, (1 Samuel 20:19) was probably a terminal stone or a way-mark. The
"place" set up by Saul (1 Samuel 15:12) is explained by St, Jerome to be a
trophy. So also Jacob set up a pillar over Rachel's grave. (Genesis 36:20)
The monolithic tombs and obelisks of Petra are instances of similar usage.
Lastly, the figurative use of the term "pillar," in reference to the cloud
and fire accompanying the Israelites on their march or as in (Solomon 3:6)
and Reve 10:1 Is plainly derived from the notion of an isolated column not
supporting a roof.


or rather "oak of the pillar" (that being the real signification of the
Hebrew word elon), a tree which stood near Shechem and at which the
men of Shechem and the house of Millo assembled to crown Abimelech the son
of Gideon. (Judges 9:6)


(Genesis 30:37,38) "peeled," Isai 18:2; Ezek 29:28 The verb "to pill"
appears in old English as identical in meaning with "to peel, to


(my deliverances), the representative of the priestly house of
Moadiah or Maadiah, in the time of Joiakim the son of Jeshua. (Nehemiah
12:17) (B.C. 445.)


  • Heb. tidhar. (Isaiah 41:19; 60:13) What tree is intended is
    not certain: but the rendering "pine," seems least probable of any.

  • Shemen, (Nehemiah 8:16) is probably the wild olive.


(of the temple), (Matthew 4:5; Luke 4:9) The Greek word ought to be
rendered not a pinnacle, but the pinnacle. The only part of the temple
which answered to the modern sense of pinnacle was the golden spikes
erected on the roof to prevent birds from settling there. Perhaps the word
means the battlement ordered by law to be added to every roof. (According
to Alford it was the roof of Herod's royal portico of the temple,"which
overhung the ravine of Kedron from a dizzy height" -- 600 or 700


(darkness), one of the "dukes" of Edom, -- that is, head or founder
of a tribe of that nation. (Genesis 38:41; 1 Chronicles 1:52)


(Heb. chalil). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root
signifying "to bore, perforate" and is represented with sufficient
correctness by the English "pipe" or "flute," as in the margin of (1 Kings
1:40) The pipe was the type of perforated wind instruments, as the harp
was of stringed instruments. It was made of reed, bronze or copper. It is
one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest, of musical
Instruments. It is associated with the tabret as an instrument of a
peaceful and social character. The pipe and tabret were used at the
banquets of the Hebrews, (Isaiah 5:12) and accompanied the simpler
religious services when the young prophets, returning from the high place,
caught their inspiration from the harmony, (1 Samuel 10:5) or the
pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled
the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple music of the
pipe. (Isaiah 30:29) The sound of the pipe was apparently a soft wailing
note, which made it appropriate to be used in mourning and at funerals
(Matthew 9:23) and in the lament of the prophet over the destruction of
Moab. (Jeremiah 48:36) It was even used in the temple choir, as appears
from (Psalms 87:7) In later times the funeral and death-bed were never
without the professional pipers or flute-players, (Matthew 9:23) a custom
which still exists. In the social and festive life of the Egyptians the
pipe played as prominent a part as among the Hebrews.


(like a wild ass; fleet) the Amorite king of Jarmuth at the time of
Joshua's conquest of Canaan. (Joshua 10:3) (B.C. 1450.)


(princely), "in the land of Ephraim in the mount of the Amalekite,"
a place in (Judges 12:15) Its site, now called Fer’ata, is
about one mile and a half south of the road from Jaffa, by Hableh,
to Nablus. Pirathonites are mentioned in (Judges 12:13,15) and
1Chr 27:14


a native of or dweller in Pirathon. Two such are named in the Bible: --

  • Abdon ben-Hillel. (Judges 12:13,15)

  • "Benaiah the Pirathonite of the children of Ephraim," (1 Chronicles


(section, i.e. peak), (Numbers 21:20; 23:14; 3:27; 34:1) a
mountain range or district, the same as or a part of, that called the
mountains of Abarim. Comp. (32:49) with Deuteronomy 34:1 It lay on the
east of Jordan contiguous to the field of Moab, and immediately opposite
Jericho. Its highest point or summit -- its "head" -- was Mount Nebo. [See


(pitchy) was a district in Asia Minor north of Pamphylia, and
reached to and was partly included in Phrygia. Thus Antioch in Pisidia was
sometimes called a Phrygian town. St. Paul passed through Pisidia twice,
with Barnabas, on the first missionary journey, i.e., both in going from
Perga to Iconium, (Acts 13:13,14,51) and in returning. (Acts 14:21,24,25)
comp. 2Tim 3:11 It is probable also that he traversed the northern part of
the district, with Silas and Timotheus, on the second missionary journey,
(Acts 18:8) but the word Pisidia does not occur except in reference to the
former journey.






The three Hebrew words so translated all represent the same object, viz.,
mineral pitch or asphalt in its different aspects. Asphalt is an opaque,
inflammable substance which bubbles up from subterranean fountains in a
liquid state, and hardens by exposure to the air, but readily melts under
the influence of heat. In the latter state it is very tenacious, and was
used as a cement in lieu of mortar in Babylonia ((Genesis 11:3) as well as
for coating the outside of vessels, (Genesis 6:14) and particularly for
making the papyrus boats of the Egyptians water-tight. (Exodus 2:3) The
jews and Arabians got their supply in large quantities from the Dead Sea,
which hence received its classical name of Lacus Asphaltites.


This word is used in the Authorized Version to denote the earthen
water-jars or pitchers with one or two handles, used chiefly by women for
carrying water, as in the story of Rebekah. (Genesis 24:15-20) but see
Mark 14:13; Luke 22:10 This mode of carrying has been and still is
customary the East and elsewhere. The vessels used for the purpose are
generally borne on the head or the shoulder. The Bedouin women commonly
use skin bottles. Such was the "bottle" carried by Hagar (Genesis 21:14)
The same word is used of the pitchers employed by Gideon's three hundred
men. (Judges 7:16)


(the city of justice), one of the store-cites Israelites for the
first oppressor, the Pharaoh "which knew not Joseph." (Exodus 1:11) It is
probably the Patumus of Herodotus (ii. 1 159), a town on the borders of
Egypt, nest which Necho constructed a canal from the Nile to the Arabian


(harmless), one of the four sons of Micah, the son of Mephibosheth.
(1 Chronicles 8:36; 9:41) (B.C. 1050.)


The plague is considered to be a severe kind of typhus, accompanied by
buboes (tumors). -- Like the cholera, it is most violent at the first
outbreak, causing almost instant death. Great difference of opinion has
obtained as to whether it is contagious or not. It was very prevalent in
the East, and still prevails in Egypt. Several Hebrew words are translated
"pestilence" or "plague" but not one of these words call be considered as
designating by its signification the disease now called the plague.
Whether the disease be mentioned must be judged from the sense of
passages, not from the sense of words. Those pestilences which were sent
as special judgments, and were either supernaturally rapid in their
effects or were in addition directed against particular culprits are
beyond the reach of human inquiry. But we also read of pestilences which,
although sent as judgments, have the characteristics of modern epidemics,
not being rapid beyond nature nor directed against individuals. (Leviticus
26:25; 28:21) In neither of these passages does,it seem certain that the
plague is specified. The notices in the prophets present the same
difficulty. Hezekiah's disease has been thought to have been the plague,
and its fatal nature, as well as the mention of a boil, makes this not
improbable. On the other hand, there Is no mention of a pestilence among
his people at the time.


The occasion on which the plagues were sent is described in Exod 3-12.

  • The plague of blood.When Moses and Aaron came before Pharaoh, a
    miracle was required of them. Then Aaron's rod became "a serpent
    (Authorized Version), or rather "a crocodile." Its being changed into an
    animal reverenced by all the Egyptians, or by some of them, would have
    been an especial warning to Pharaoh, The Egyptian magicians called by the
    king produced what seemed to be the same wonder, yet Aaron's rod swallowed
    up the others. (Exodus 7:3-12) This passage, taken alone would appear to
    indicate that the magicians succeeded in working wonders, but, if it is
    compared with the others which relate their opposition on the occasions of
    the first three plagues, a contrary inference seems more reasonable for
    the very first time that Moses wrought his miracle without giving previous
    notice, the magicians "did so with their enchantments," but failed. A
    comparison with other passages strengthens us in the inference that the
    magicians succeeded merely by juggling. After this warning to Pharaoh,
    Aaron, at the word of Moses, waved his rod over the Nile, and the river
    was turned into blood, with all its canals and reservoirs, and every
    vessel of water drawn from them; the fish died, and the river stank. The
    Egyptians could not drink of it, and digged around it for water. This
    plague was doubly humiliating to the religion of the country, as the Nile
    was held sacred, as well as some kinds of its fish, not to speak of the
    crocodiles, which probably were destroyed. (Exodus 7:16-25) Those who have
    endeavored to explain this plague by natural causes have referred to the
    changes of color to which the Nile is subject, the appearance of the Red
    Sea, and the so called rain and dew of blood of the middle ages; the last
    two occasioned by small fungi of very rapid growth. But such theories do
    not explain why the wonder happened at a time of year when the Nile is
    most clear nor why it killed the fish and made the water unfit to he

  • The plague of frogs. -- When seven days had passed after the
    first plague, the river and all the open waters of Egypt brought forth
    countless frogs, which not only covered the land but filled the houses,
    even in their driest parts and vessels, for the ovens and kneading-troughs
    are specified. This must have been an especially trying judgment to the
    Egyptians, as frogs were included among the sacred animals. (Exodus

  • The plague of lice. -- The dry land was now smitten by the
    rod, and very dust seemed turned into minute noxious insects, so thickly
    did they swarm on man and beast, or rather "in" them. The scrupulous
    cleanliness of the Egyptians would add intolerably to the bodily distress
    of this plague, by which also they again incurred religious defilement. As
    to the species of the vermin, there seems no reason to disturb the
    authorized translation of the word. The magicians, who had imitated by
    their enchantments the two previous miracles, were now foiled. They struck
    the ground, as Aaron did, and repeated their own incantations. but it was
    without effect. (Exodus 8:16-19)

  • The plague of flies. -- After the river and the land, the air
    was smitten, being filled with winged insects, which swarmed in the houses
    and devoured the land, but Goshen was exempted from the plague. The word
    translated "swarms of flies" most probably denotes the great Egyptian
    beetle, Scarabaeus sacer, which is constantly represented in their
    sculptures. Besides the annoying and destructive habits of its tribe, it
    was an object of worship, and thus the Egyptians were again scourged by
    their own superstitions. (Exodus 8:20-32)

  • The plague of the murrain of beasts. -- Still coming closer
    and closer to the Egyptians, God sent a disease upon the cattle, which
    were not only their property but their deities. At the precise time of
    which Moses forewarned Pharaoh, all the cattle of the Egyptians were
    smitten with a murrain and died, but not one of the cattle of the
    Israelites suffered. (Exodus 9:1-7)

  • The plague of boils -- From the cattle the hand of God was
    extended to the persons of the Egyptians. Moses and Aaron were commanded
    to take ashes of the furnace, and to "sprinkle it toward the heaven in the
    sight of Pharaoh." It was to become "small dust" throughout Egypt, and "be
    a boil breaking forth [with] blains upon man and upon beast." (Exodus
    9:8-12) This accordingly came to pass. The plague seems to have been the
    leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis which was long remembered as "the
    botch of Egypt." (28:27,35)

  • The plague of hail. -- The account of the seventh plague is
    preceded by a warning which Moses was commanded to deliver to Pharaoh,
    respecting the terrible nature of the plagues that were to ensue if he
    remained obstinate. Man and beast were smitten, and the herbs and every
    tree broken, save in the land of Goshen. The ruin caused by the hail was
    evidently far greater than that effected by any of the earlier plagues.
    Hail is now extremely rare, but not unknown, in Egypt, and it is
    interesting that the narrative seems to imply that if sometimes falls
    there. (Exodus 9:13-34)

  • The plague of locusts. -- The severity of this plague can be
    well understood by those who have been in Egypt in a part of the country
    where a flight of locusts has alighted. In this case the plague was
    greater than an ordinary visitation, since it extended over a far wider
    space, rather than because it was more intense; for it is impossible to
    imagine any more complete destruction than that always caused by a swarm
    of locusts. (Exodus 10:1-20)

  • The plague of darkness. -- "There was a darkness in all the
    land of Egypt three days;" while "all the children of Israel had light in
    their dwellings." It has been illustrated by reference to the samoom and
    the hot wind of the Khamaseen. The former is a sand-storm which occurs in
    the desert, seldom lasting more than a quarter of an hour or twenty
    minutes, but for the time often causing the darkness of twilight, and
    affecting man and beast. The hot wind of the Khamaseen usually blows for
    three days and nights, and carries so much sand with it that it produces
    the appearance of a yellow fog. It thus resembles the samoom, though far
    less powerful and less distressing in its effects. It is not known to
    cause actual darkness. The plague may have been an extremely severe
    sandstorm, miraculous in its violence and duration, for the length of
    three days does not make it natural since the severe storms are always
    very brief. (Exodus 10:21-29)

  • The death of the first-born. -- Before the tenth plague Moses
    went to warn Pharaoh: "Thus saith the Lord, about midnight will I go out
    into the midst of Egypt; and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall
    die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne even to
    the first-born of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the
    first-born of beasts." (Exodus 11:4,5) The clearly miraculous nature of
    this plague, its falling upon man and in its beast; and the singling out
    of the firstborn, puts it wholly beyond comparison with any natural
    pestilence, even the severest recorded in history, whether of the peculiar
    Egyptian plague or of other like epidemics. The history of the ten plagues
    strictly ends with the death of the first-born. The gradual increase in
    severity of the plagues is perhaps the best key to their meaning. They
    seem to have been sent as warnings to the oppressor, to afford him a means
    of seeing God's will and an opportunity of repenting before Egypt was
    ruined. The lesson that Pharaoh's career teaches us seems to be that there
    are men whom the meet signal judgments do not affect so as to cause any
    lasting repentance. The following characteristics of the plagues may be
    specially noticed: (1) Their relation to natural phenomena. Each of the
    inflictions has a demonstrable connection with Egyptian customs and
    phenomena; each is directly aimed at some Egyptian superstition all are
    marvellous, not for the most part as reversing, but as developing, forces
    inherent in nature, and directing them to a special end. -- Canon
    . (2) Their order. They are divided first into nine and one the
    last one standing clearly apart from all the others. The nine are arranged
    in threes. In the first of each three the warning is given to Pharaoh in
    the morning. In the first and second of each three the plague is announced
    beforehand in the third, not. At the third the magicians acknowledge the
    finger of God; at the sixth they cannot stand before Moses; and at the
    ninth Pharaoh refuses to see the face of Moses any more. The gradation of
    the severity of these strokes is no less obvious. In the first three no
    distinction is made among the inhabitants of the land; in the remaining
    seven a distinction is made between the Israelites, who are shielded from,
    and the Egyptians who are exposed to, the stroke. -Kurlz, (3) Their
    duration. It is probable that the plagues extended through a period of
    several months. The first plague occurred probably during the annual
    inundation of the Nile, hence about the middle of June (Edersheim). The
    second, that of the frogs, in September, the time when Egypt often suffers
    in this way. The seventh (hail) came when the barley was in ear, and
    before the wheat was grown, and hence in February; and the tenth came in
    the following March or April. (4) Their significance. The first plague was
    directed against the Nile one of the Egyptian deities, adored as a source
    of life, not only to the produce of the land, but to its inhabitants. The
    second plague, that of the frogs, struck also at the idolatry of Egypt;
    for the frog was an object of worship. The third plague turned the land,
    which was worshipped, into a source of torment the dust produced a curse.
    The fourth plague consisted in the torment of either flies of a ravenous
    disposition, or beetles. If the former, then the air, which was
    worshipped, was turned into a source of exquisite annoyance; if the latter
    then the beetle, one of the most common of the Egyptian idols, swarmed
    with voracious appetite, attacking even man, as the Egyptian beetle still
    does and inflicting painful wounds. The fifth plague, that of murrain,
    struck at the cattle-worship for which Egypt was celebrated. The sixth
    plague, produced by the ashes scattered toward heaven in conformity with
    an ancient Egyptian rite, as if an invocation of the sun-god, continued
    the warfare of Jehovah upon Egyptian idolatry; the religious ceremony
    which was employed to invoke blessing brought disease. The seventh plague,
    beginning a new series, seems to have been aimed like those which
    followed, to demonstrate the power of Jehovah over all the elements, and
    even life itself, in contrast with the impotence of the idols. The storm
    and the hail came at his bidding. The locusts appeared and departed at his
    word. The sun itself was veiled at his command. Nay, the angel of death
    was held and loosed by his hand alone. The tenth plague had an immediate
    relation to idolatry, since it destroyed not only the first-born of man,
    but the first-born of beast; so that the sacred animals in the temples
    were touched by a power higher than those they were supposed to represent.
    The victory was complete; upon all the gods of Egypt, Jehovah had executed
    judgment. -- Rev. Franklin Johnson.


This one term does duty in the Authorized Version for no less than seven
distinct Hebrew words.

  • Abel. This word perhaps answers more nearly to our word
    "meadow" than any other. It occurs in the names of Abel-maim Abel-meholah,
    Abel-shittim and is rendered "plain" in (Judges 11:33) -- "plain of

  • Bik’ah. Fortunately we are able to identify the most
    remarkable of the bik’ahs of the Bible, and thus to ascertain the
    force of the term. The great plain or valley of Coele-Syria, the "hollow
    land" of the Greeks, which separates the two ranges of Lebanon and
    Anti-Lebanon is the most remarkable of them all. Out of Palestine we find
    denoted by the word bik’ah the "plain of the land of Shiner,"
    (Genesis 11:2) the "plain of Mesopotamia," (Ezekiel 3:22,23; 8:4; 37:1,2)
    and the "plain in the province of Dura." (Daniel 3:1)

  • Ha shefelah the invariable designation of the depressed, flat
    or gently-undulating region which intervened between the highlands of
    Judah and the Mediterranean, and was commonly in possession of the

  • Elon. Our translators have uniformly rendered this word
    "plain;" but this is not the verdict of the majority or the most
    trustworthy of the ancient versions. They regard the word as meaning an
    "oak" or "grove of oaks," a rendering supported by nearly all the
    commentators and lexicographers of the present day, The passages in which
    the word occurs erroneously translated "plain" are as-follows: Plain of
    Moreh, (Genesis 12:6; 11:30) plain of Mamre, (Genesis 13:18; 14:13; 18:1)
    plain of Zaanaim, (Judges 4:11) plain of the pillar, (Judges 9:6) plain of
    Meonenim, (Judges 9:37) plain of Tabor, (1 Samuel 10:5)




The Hebrew word (cimah) so rendered occurs in (Job 9:9; 38:31; Amos
6:8) In the last passage our Authorized Version has "the seven stars,"
although the Geneva version translates the word "Pleiades" as in the other
cases. The Pleiades are a group of stars situated on the shoulder of the
constellation Taurus. The rendering "sweet influences" of the Authorized
Version, (Job 38:31) is a relic of the lingering belief in the power which
the stars exerted over human destiny. But Schaff thinks the phrase arose
from the fact that the Pleiades appear about the middle of April, and
hence are associated with the return of spring, the season of sweet


The ploughs of ancient Egypt consisted of a share-often pointed with iron
or bronze -- two handles and a pole which was inserted into the base of
the two handles. Ploughs in Palestine have usually but one handle with a
pole joined to it near the ground and drawn by oxen, cows or camels.


The children of Pochereth of Zebaim were among the children of Solomon's
servants who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:57; Nehemiah 7:59)


  • Lyrical poetry. -- Of the three kinds of poetry which are
    illustrated by the Hebrew literature, the lyric occupies the foremost
    place. That literature abounds with illustrations of all forms of Lyrical
    poetry, in its most manifold and wide-embracing compass, from such short
    ejaculations as the songs of the two Lamechs and Psal 15, 117 and others,
    to the longer chants of victors and thanksgiving, like the songs of
    Deborah and David. Judg 5; Psal 18. The Shemitic nations have nothing
    approaching to an epic poem, and in proportion to this defect the lyric
    element prevailed more greatly, commencing in the pre-Mosaic times,
    flourishing in rude vigor during the earlier periods of the judges, the
    heroic age of the Hebrews, growing with the nation's growth and
    strengthening with its strength, till it reached its highest excellence in
    David, the warrior poet, and from thenceforth began slowly to

  • Gnomic poetry. -- The second grand division of Hebrew poetry
    is occupied by a class of poems which are peculiarly Shemitic, and which
    represent the nearest approaches made by the people of that race to
    anything like philosophic thought. Reasoning there is none: we have only
    results, and those rather the product of observation and reflection than
    of induction or argumentation. As lyric poetry is the expression of the
    poet's own feelings and impulses, so gnomic poetry is the form in which
    the desire of communicating knowledge to others finds vent. Its germs are
    the floating proverbs which pass current in the mouths of the people, and
    embody the experiences of many with the wit of one. The utterer of
    sententious sayings was to the Hebrews the wise man, the philosopher. Of
    the earlier isolated proverbs but few examples remain.

  • Dramatic poetry. -- It is impossible to assert that no form of
    the drama existed among the Hebrew people. It is unquestionably true, as
    Ewald observes, that the Arab reciters of romances will many times in
    their own persons act out a complete drama in recitation, changing their
    voice and gestures with the change of person and subject. Something of
    this kind may possibly have existed among the Hebrews; still there is no
    evidence that it did exist, nor any grounds for making even a probable
    conjecture with regard to it. But the mere fact of the existence of these
    rude exhibitions’ among the Arabs and Egyptians of the present day
    is of no weight when the question to be decided is whether the Song of
    Songs was designed to be so represented, as a simple pastoral drama, or
    whether the book of Job is a dramatic poem or not. Inasmuch as it
    represents an action and a progress, it is a drama as truly and really as
    any poem can be which develops the working of passion and the
    alter-nations of faith, hope, distrust, triumph and confidence and black
    despair, in the struggle which it depicts the human mind as engaged in
    while attempting to solve one of the most intricate problems it can be
    called upon to regard. It is a drama as life is a drama, the most powerful
    of all tragedies but that it is a dramatic poem, intended to be
    represented upon a stage, or capable of being so represented, may be
    confidently denied. One characteristic of Hebrew poetry, not indeed
    peculiar to it, but shared by it in common with the literature of other
    nations, is its intensely national and local coloring. The writers were
    Hebrews of the Hebrews, drawing their inspiration from the mountains and
    rivers of Palestine, which they have immortalized in their poetic figures,
    and even while uttering the sublimest and most universal truths never
    forgetting their own nationality in its narrowest and intensest form.
    Examples of this remarkable characteristic the Hebrew poets stand thick
    upon every page of these writings, and in striking contrast with the vague
    generalizations of the indian philosophic poetry. About one third of the
    Old Testament is poetry in the Hebrew -- a large part of Job, Psalms,
    Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, besides a great part of the
    prophets. Fragments of poetry are also found in the historical books. (The
    form which biblical poetry takes is not of rhyme and metre -- the rhythm
    of quantity in the syllables -- as with us, but the rhythm of the
    thought -- there usually being two corresponding members to each
    distich or verse, which is called a parallelism. To some extent there is
    verbal rhythm. Sometimes there were alliterations, as in the 119th Psalm,
    which is divided up into sections, one for each letter of their alphabet,
    and each of the eight verses in a section begins with the same letter in
    the Hebrew; and chap. 31, vs. 10-31, of the book of Proverbs is an
    alphabetical acrostic in praise of "the virtuous woman." The poetry of the
    Hebrews, in its essential poetic nature, stands in the front rank. It
    abounds in metaphors and images and in high poetic feeling and fervor. --






The pomegranate tree, Punicu granatum, derives its name from the
Latin pomum granatum, "grained apple." The Romans gave it the name
of Punica, as the tree was introduced from Carthage. It belongs to the
natural order Myrtaceae (Myrtle), being, however, rather a tall
bush than a tree, The foliage is dark green, the flowers are crimson, the
fruit, which is about the size of art orange, is red when which in
Palestine is about the middle of October. It contains a quantity of juice.
Mention is made in (Solomon 8:2) of spiced wine of the juice of the
pomegranate. The rind is used in the manufacture of morocco leather, and
together with the bark is sometimes used medicinally. Mr. Royle (Kitto's
Cyc., art "Rimmon") states that this tree is a native of Asia and is to be
traced from Syria through Persia, even to the mountains of northern India.
The pomegranate was early cultivated in Egypt; hence the complaint of the
Israelites in the wilderness of Zin, (Numbers 20:5) this "is no place of
figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates." Carved figures of the pomegranate
adorned the tops of the pillars in Solomon's temple, (1 Kings 7:18,20)
etc.; and worked representations of this fruit, in blue, purple and
scarlet, ornamented the hem of the robe of the ephod. (Exodus


only in (2 Chronicles 4:12,13) In (1 Kings 7:41) "bowls." The word
signifies convex projections belonging to the capitals of pillars.


The ponds of Egypt, (Exodus 7:19; 13:5) were doubtless water left by the
inundation of the Nile. Ponds for fish mentioned in (Isaiah 19:10)




a large district in the north of Asia Minor, extending along the coast of
the Pontus Euxinus Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was
derived. It corresponds nearly to the modern Trebizond. It is three times
mentioned in the New Testament -- (Acts 2:9; 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1) All these
passages agree in showing that there were many Jewish residents in the
district. As to the annals of Pontus, the one brilliant passage of its
history is the life of the great Mithridates. Under Nero the whole region
was made of Roman province, bearing the name of Pontus. It was conquered
by the Turks in A.D. 1461, and is still under their dominion.


Pools, like the tanks of India, are in many parts of Palestine and Syria
the only resource for water during the dry season, and the failure of them
involves drought and calamity. (Isaiah 42:15) Of the various pools
mentioned in Scripture, perhaps the most celebrated are the pools of
Solomon near Bethlehem called by the Arabs el-Burak, from which an
aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with wafer.
(Ecclesiastes 2:6) Ecclus. 24:30, 31.


The general kindly spirit of the law toward the poor is sufficiently shown
by such passages as (15:7) for the reason that (ver. 11) "the poor shall
never cease out of the land." Among the special enactments in their favor
the following must be mentioned:

  • The right of gleaning. (Leviticus 19:9,10; 24:19,21)

  • From the produce of the land in sabbatical years the poor and the
    stranger were to have their portion. (Exodus 23:11; Leviticus 25:6)

  • Re-entry upon land in the jubilee year, with the limitation as to town
    homes. (Leviticus 25:25-30)

  • Prohibition of usury and of retention of pledges. (Exodus 22:25-27;
    Leviticus 25:3,5,37) etc.

  • Permanent bondage forbidden, and manumission of Hebrew bondmen or
    bondwomen enjoined in the sabbatical and jubilee years. (Leviticus
    25:39-42,47-54; 15:12-15)

  • Portions from the tithes to be shared by the poor after the Levites.
    (14:28; 26:12,13)

  • The poor to partake in entertainments at the feasts of Weeks and
    Tabernacles. (16:11,14) see Nehe 8:10

  • Daily payment of wages. (Leviticus 19:13) Principles similar to those
    laid down by Moses are inculcated in the New Testament, as (Luke 3:11;
    14:13; Acts 6:1; Galatians 2:10; James 2:15)


This is the rendering of the Hebrew word libneh, which occurs in
(Genesis 30:37) and Hose 4:13 Several authorities are in favor of the
rendering of the Authorized Version and think that "white poplar"
(Populus alba) is the tree denoted: others understand the "storax
tree" (Styrax officinale, Linn.). Both poplars and storax or
styrax trees are common in Palestine, and either would suit the passages
where the Hebrew term occurs. Storax is mentioned in Ecclus. 24:15,
together with other aromatic substances. The Styrax officinale is a
shrub from nine to twelve feet high, with ovate leaves, which are white
underneath; the flowers are in racemes, and are white or


one of the ten sons of Haman slain by the Jews in Shushan the palace.
(Esther 9:8)


  • Ulam, or ulam. (1 Chronicles 28:11)

  • Misderon ulam, (Judges 3:23) strictly a vestibule, was
    probably a sort of veranda chamber in the works of Solomon, open in front
    and at the sides, but capable of being enclosed with awnings or curtains.
    The porch, (Matthew 26:71) may have been the passage from the street into
    the first court of the house, in which, in eastern houses, is the mastabah
    or stone bench, for the porter or persons waiting, and where also the
    master of the house often receives visitors and transacts business.




This word when used in the Authorized Version does not bear its modern
signification of a carrier of burdens, but denotes in every case a
gate-keeper, from the Latin portarius, the man who attended to the
porta or gate.




  • Probably, as Gesenius argues, the door-case of a door, including the
    lintel and side posts. The posts of the doors of the temple were of olive
    wood. (1 Kings 6:33)

  • A courier or carrier of messages, used among other places in (Job


The term "pot" is applicable to so many sorts of vessels that it can
scarcely be restricted to any one in particular.

  • Asuc (2 Kings 4:2) the earthen jar, deep and narrow, without
    handles, probably like the Roman and Egyptian amphora, inserted in a stand
    of wood or stone.

  • Cheres, an earthen vessel for stewing or seething. (Leviticus
    6:28; Ezekiel 4:9)

  • Dud, a vessel for culinary purposes, perhaps of smaller size.
    (1 Samuel 2:14) The "pots" set before the Rachabites, (Jeremiah 35:5) were
    probably bulging jars or bowls. The water-pots of Cana appear to have been
    large amphorae, such as are in use at the present day in Syria. These were
    of stone or hard earthenware. The water-pot of the Samaritan woman may
    have been a leathern bucket, such as Bedouin women use.


an Egyptian name, also written Potipherah, signifies belonging to the
. Potiphar. with whom the history of Joseph is connected is
described as an officer of Pharaoh chief of the executioners, an
Egyptian." (Genesis 39:1) comp. Genesis37:36 (B.C. 1728.) He appears to
have been a wealthy man. (Genesis 39:4-6) The view we have of Potiphar's
household is exactly in accordance with the representations on the
monuments. When Joseph was accused, his master contented himself with
casting him into prison. (Genesis 39:19,20) After this we hear no more of
Potiphar. [JOSEPH]


was priest or prince of On, and his daughter Asenath was given Joseph to
wife by Pharaoh. (Genesis 41:45,50; 46:20) (B.C. 1715.)


also in Authorized Version "sherd," a broken piece of earthenware.
(Proverbs 26:23)




a piece of ground which, according to the statement of St. Matthew,
(Matthew 27:7) was purchased by the Priests with the thirty pieces of
silver rejected by Judas, and converted into a burial-place for Jews not
belonging to the city. [ACELDAMA]


The art of pottery is one of the most common and most ancient of all
manufactures. It is abundantly evident, both that the Hebrews used
earthenware vessels in the wilderness and that the potter's trade was
afterward carried on in Palestine. They had themselves been concerned in
the potter's trade in Egypt, (Psalms 81:6) and the wall-paintings minutely
illustrate the Egyptian process. The clay, when dug, was trodden by men's
feet so as to form a paste, (Isaiah 41:25) Wisd. 15:7; then placed by the
potter on the wheel beside which he sat, and shaped by him with his hands.
How early the wheel came into use in Palestine is not known, but it seems
likely that it was adopted from Egypt. (Isaiah 45:9; Jeremiah 15:3) The
vessel was then smoothed and coated with a glaze, and finally burnt in a
furnace. There was at Jerusalem a royal establishment of potters, (1
Chronicles 4:23) from whose employment, and from the fragments cast away
in the process, the Potter's Field perhaps received its name. (Isaiah



  • A sum of money put in the Old Testament, (1 Kings 10:17; Ezra 2:69;
    Nehemiah 7:71) for the Hebrew maneh, worth in silver about . In
    the parable of the ten pounds, (Luke 19:12-27) the reference appears to be
    to a Greek pound, a weight used as a money of account, of which sixty went
    to the talent. It was worth to .


(in the Revised Version translated palace,) (Matthew 27:27; John
18:28,33; 19:3) the headquarters of the Roman military governor, wherever
he happened to be. In time of peace some one of the best buildings of the
city which, was the residence of the proconsul or praetor, was selected
for this purpose. Thus at Caesarea that of Herod the Great was occupied by
Felix, (Acts 23:35) and at Jerusalem the new palace erected by the same
prince was the residence of Pilate. After the Roman power was established
in Judea, a Roman guard was always maintained in the Antonia. The
praetorian camp at Rome, to which St. Paul refers, (Philemon 1:13) was
erected by the emperor Tiberius, acting under the advice of Sejanus. It
stood outside the walls, at some distance short of the fourth milestone.
St. Paul appears to have been permitted, for the space of two years, to
lodge, so to speak, "within the rules" of the praetorium, (Acts 28:30)
Although still under the custody of a soldier.


The object of this article will be to touch briefly on --

  • The doctrine of Scripture as to the nature and efficacy of

  • Its directions as to time, place and manner of prayer;

  • Its types and examples of prayer.

  • Scripture does not give any theoretical explanation of the mystery
    which attaches to prayer. The difficulty of understanding real efficacy
    arises chiefly from two sources: from the belief that man lives under
    general laws, which in all cases must be fulfilled unalterably; and the
    opposing belief that he is master of his own destiny, and need pray for no
    external blessing. Now, Scripture, while, by the doctrine of spiritual
    influence it entirely disposes of the latter difficulty, does not so
    entirely solve that part of the mystery which depends on the nature of
    God. It places it clearly before us, and emphasizes most strongly those
    doctrines on which the difficulty turns. Yet while this is so, on the
    other hand the instinct of prayer is solemnly sanctioned and enforced on
    every page. Not only is its subjective effect asserted, but its real
    objective efficacy, as a means appointed by God for obtaining blessing, is
    both implied and expressed in the plainest terms. Thus, as usual in the
    case of such mysteries, the two apparently opposite truths are emphasized,
    because they are needful: to man's conception of his relation to God;
    their reconcilement is not, perhaps cannot be, fully revealed. For, in
    fact, it is involved in that inscrutable mystery which attends on the
    conception of any free action of man as necessary for the working out of
    the general laws of God's unchangeable will. At the same time it is
    clearly implied that such a reconcilement exists, and that all the
    apparently isolated and independent exertions of man's spirit in prayer
    are in some way perfectly subordinated to the one supreme will of God, so
    as to form a part of his scheme of providence. It is also implied that the
    key to the mystery lies in the fact of man's spiritual unity with God in
    Christ, and of the consequent gift of the Holy Spirit. So also is it said
    of the spiritual influence of the Holy Ghost on each individual mind that
    while "we know not what to pray for, "the indwelling" Spirit makes
    intercession for the saints, according to the will of God." (Romans
    8:26,27) Here, as probably in still other cases, the action of the Holy
    Spirit on the soul is to free agents what the laws of nature are to things
    inanimate, and is the power which harmonizes free individual action with
    the universal will of God.

  • There are no directions as to prayer given in the Mosaic law: the duty
    is rather taken for granted, as an adjunct to sacrifice, than enforced or
    elaborated. It is hardly conceivable that, even from the beginning public
    prayer did not follow every public sacrifice. Such a practice is alluded
    to in (Luke 1:10) as common; and in one instance, at the offering of the
    first-fruits, it was ordained in a striking form. (26:12-15) In later
    times it certainly grew into a regular service both in the temple and in
    the synagogue. But, besides this public prayer, it was the custom of all
    at Jerusalem to go up to the temple, at regular hours if possible, for
    private prayer, see (Luke 18:10; Acts 3:1) and those who were absent were
    wont to "open their windows toward Jerusalem," and pray "toward" the place
    of God's presence. (1 Kings 8:46-49; Psalms 5:7; 28:2; 138:2; Daniel 6:10)
    The regular hours of prayer seem to have been three (see) (Psalms 55:17;
    Daniel 6:10) "the evening," that is the ninth hour (Acts 3:1; 10:3) the
    hour of the evening sacrifice, (Daniel 9:21) the "morning," that is, the
    third hour (Acts 2:15) that of the morning sacrifice; and the sixth hour,
    or "noonday." Grace before meat would seem to have been a common practice.
    See (Matthew 15:36; Acts 27:35) The posture of prayer among the Jews seems
    to have been most often standing, (1 Samuel 1:26; Matthew 6:5; Mark 11:25;
    Luke 18:11) unless the prayer were offered with especial solemnity and
    humiliation, which was naturally expressed by kneeling, (1 Kings 8:54)
    comp. 2Chr 6:13; Ezra 9:5; Psal 95:8; Dani 6:10 Or prostration. (Joshua
    7:6; 1 Kings 18:42; Nehemiah 8:6)

  • The only form of prayer given for perpetual use in the Old Testament
    is the one in (26:5-15) connected with the offering of tithes and
    first-fruits, and containing in simple form the important elements of
    prayer, acknowledgment of God's mercy, self-dedication and prayer for
    future blessing. To this may perhaps be added the threefold blessing of
    (Numbers 6:24-26) couched as it is in a precatory form, and the short
    prayer of Moses, (Numbers 10:35,36) at the moving and resting of the cloud
    the former of which was the germ of the 68th Psalm. But of the prayers
    recorded in the Old Testament the two most remarkable are those of Solomon
    at the dedication of the temple, (1 Kings 8:23-58) and of Joshua the high
    priest, and his colleagues, after the captivity. (Nehemiah 9:5-38) It
    appears from the question of the disciples in (Luke 11:1) and from Jewish
    tradition, that the chief teachers of the day gave special forms of prayer
    to their disciples as the badge of their discipleship and the best fruits
    of their learning. All Christian prayer is, of course, based on the Lord's
    Prayer; but its spirit is also guided by that of his prayer in Gethsemane
    and of the prayer recorded by St. John, (John 17:1) ... the beginning of
    Christ's great work of intercession. The influence of these prayers is
    more distinctly traced in the prayers contained in the epistles, see
    (Romans 16:25-27; Ephesians 3:14-21; Philemon 1:3-11; Colossians 1:9-15;
    Hebrews 13:20,21; 1 Peter 5:10,11) etc., than in those recorded in the
    Acts. The public prayer probably in the first instance took much of its
    form and style from the prayers of the synagogues. In the record on prayer
    accepted and granted by God, we observe, as always, a special adaptation
    to the period of his dispensation to which they belong. In the patriarchal
    period, they have the simple and childlike tone of domestic application
    for the ordinary and apparently trivial incidents of domestic life. In the
    Mosaic period they assume a more solemn tone and a national bearing,
    chiefly that of direct intercession for the chosen people. More rarely are
    they for individuals. A special class are those which precede and refer to
    the exercise of miraculous power. In the New Testament they have a more
    directly spiritual hearing. It would seem the intention of Holy Scripture
    to encourage all prayer more especially intercession, in all relations and
    for all righteous objects.




(sarac or sareca, only used (Daniel 6:1) ... the Chaldee
equivalent for Hebrew shter, probably from sara, Zend. a
"head"), a high officer in the Persian court, a chief, a president, used
of the three highest ministers.


The English word is derived from the Greek presbyter, signifying
an "elder" (Heb. cohen). Origin. -- The idea of a priesthood
connects itself in all its forms, pure or corrupted, with the
consciousness, more or less distinct of sin. Men feel that they have
broken a law. The power above them is holier than they are, and they dare
not approach it. They crave for the intervention of some one of whom they
can think as likely to be more acceptable than themselves. He must offer
up their prayers, thanksgivings, sacrifices. He becomes their
representative in "things pertaining unto God." He may become also (though
this does not always follow) the representative of God to man. The
functions of the priest and prophet may exist in the same person. No trace
of a hereditary or caste priesthood meets us in the worship of the
patriarchal age. Once and once only does the word cohen meet us as
belonging to a ritual earlier than the time of Abraham. Melchizedek is
"the priest of the most high God." (Genesis 14:18) In the worship of the
patriarchs themselves, the chief of the family, as such, acted as the
priest. The office descended with the birthright, and might apparently he
transferred with it. When established. -- The priesthood was first
established in the family of Aaron, and all the sons of Aaron were
priests. They stood between the high priest on the one hand and the
Levites on the other. [HIGH PRIEST; LEVITES] The ceremony of their
consecration is described in HIGH PRIEST - 1986 (Exodus 29:1; Leviticus
8:1) ... Dress. -- The dress which the priests wore during their
ministrations consisted of linen drawers, with a close-fitting cassock,
also of linen, white, but with a diamond or chess-board pattern on it.
This came nearly to the feet, and was to be worn in its garment shape.
Comp. (John 19:23) The white cassock was gathered round the body with a
girdle of needle work, in which, as in the more gorgeous belt of the high
priest, blue, purple and scarlet were intermingled with white, and worked
in the form of flowers. (Exodus 28:39,40; 39:2; Ezekiel 44:17-19) Upon
their heads the were to wear caps or bonnets in the form of a cup-shaped
flower, also of fine linen. In all their acts of ministration they were to
be bare footed. Duties. -- The chief duties of the priests were to
watch over the fire on the altar of burnt offering, and to keep it burning
evermore both by day and night, (Leviticus 6:12; 2 Chronicles 13:11) to
feed the golden lamp outside the vail with oil (Exodus 27:20,21; Leviticus
24:2) to offer the morning and evening sacrifices, each accompanied with a
meet offering and a drink offering, at the door of the tabernacle. (Exodus
29:38-44) They were also to teach the children of Israel the statutes of
the Lord. (Leviticus 10:11; 33:10; 2 Chronicles 15:3; Ezekiel 44:23,24)
During the journeys in the wilderness it belonged to them to cover the ark
and all the vessels of the sanctuary with a purple or scarlet cloth before
the Levites might approach them. (Numbers 4:5-15) As the people started on
each days march they were to blow "an alarm" with long silver trumpets.
(Numbers 10:1-8) Other instruments of music might be used by the more
highly-trained Levites and the schools of the prophets, but the trumpets
belonged only to the priests, The presence of the priests on the held of
battle, (1 Chronicles 12:23,27; 2 Chronicles 20:21,22) led, in the later
periods of Jewish history, to the special appointment at such times of a
war priest. Other functions were hinted at in Deuteronomy which might have
given them greater influence as the educators and civilizers of the
people. They were to act (whether individually or collectively does not
distinctly appear) as a court of appeal in the more difficult
controversies in criminal or civil cases. (17:8-13) It must remain
doubtful however how far this order kept its ground during the storms and
changes that followed, Functions such as these were clearly incompatible
with the common activities of men. Provision for support. -- This
consisted --

  • Of one tenth of the tithes which the people paid to the Levites, i.e.
    one per cent on the whole produce of the country. (Numbers 18:26-28)

  • Of a special tithe every third year. (14:28; 26:12)

  • Of the redemption money, paid at the fixed rate of five shekels a
    head, for the first-born of man or beast. (Numbers 18:14-19)

  • Of the redemption money paid in like manner for men or things
    specially dedicated to the Lord. (Leviticus 27:5)

  • Of spoil, captives, cattle and the like, taken in war. (Numbers

  • Of the shew-bread, the flesh of the burnt offerings, peace offerings,
    trespass offerings, (Leviticus 6:26,29; 7:6-10; Numbers 18:8-14) and in
    particular the heave-shoulder and the wave-breast. (Leviticus

  • Of an undefined amount of the firstfruits of corn, wine and oil.
    (Exodus 23:19; Leviticus 2:14; 26:1-10)

  • On their settlement in Canaan the priestly families had thirteen
    cities assigned them, with "suburbs" or pasture-grounds for their flocks.
    (Joshua 21:13-19) These provisions were obviously intended to secure the
    religion of Israel against the dangers of a caste of pauper priests, needy
    and dependent, and unable to bear their witness to the true faith. They
    were, on the other hand as far as possible removed from the condition of a
    wealthy order. Coarses. -- The priesthood was divided into four
    and twenty "courses" or orders, (1 Chronicles 24:1-19; 2 Chronicles 23:8;
    Luke 1:5) each of which was to serve in rotation for one week, while the
    further assignment of special services during the week was determined by
    lot. (Luke 1:9) Each course appears to have commenced its work on the
    Sabbath, the outgoing priests taking the morning sacrifice, and leaving
    that of the evening to their successors. (2 Chronicles 23:8)
    Numbers -- If we may accept the numbers given by Jewish writers as
    at all trustworthy, the proportion of the priesthood population of
    Palestine during the last century of their existence as an order, must
    have been far greater than that of the clergy has ever been in any
    Christian nation. Over and above those that were scattered in the country
    and took their turn there were not fewer than 24,000 stationed permanently
    at Jerusalem,and 12,000 at Jericho. It was almost inevitable that the
    great mass of the order, under such circumstances, should sink in
    character and reputation. The reigns of the two kings David and Solomon
    were the culminating period of the glory of the Jewish priesthood. It will
    be interesting to bring together the few facts that indicate the position
    of the priests in the New Testament period of their history. The number
    scattered throughout Palestine was, as has been stated, very large. Of
    these the greater number were poor and ignorant. The priestly order, like
    the nation, was divided between contending sects. In the scenes of the
    last tragedy of Jewish history the order passes away without honor, "dying
    as a fool dieth." The high priesthood is given to the lowest and vilest of
    the adherents of the frenzied Zealots. Other priests appear as deserting
    to the enemy. The destruction of Jerusalem deprived the order at one blow
    of all but an honorary distinction.


The only special uses of the word "prince" are --

  • "Princes of provinces" (1 Kings 20:14) who were probably local
    governors or magistrates.

  • The "princes" mentioned in (Daniel 6:1) (see Esth 1:1) wore the
    predecessors of the satraps of Darius Hystaspes. The word princess is
    seldom used in the Bible, but the persons to which it alludes --
    "daughters of kings" are frequently mentioned.


In several passages of the New Testament the term "principalities and
powers" appears to denote different orders of angels,good or bad. See
(Ephesians 6:12)


(ancient), (2 Timothy 4:19) or Priscil’la (a
diminutive from Prisca), the wife of Aquila. [AQUILA] To what has been
said elsewhere under the head of AQUILA the following may be added: We
find that the name of the wife is placed before that of the husband in
(Romans 16:3; 2 Timothy 4:19) and (according to some of the best MSS.) in
(Acts 18:26) Hence we should be disposed to conclude that Priscilla was
the more energetic character of the two. In fact we may say that Priscilla
is the example of what the married woman may do for the general service of
the Church, in conJunction with home duties, as Phoebe is the type of the
unmarried servant of the Church, or deaconess.


[For imprisonment as a punishment, see PUNISHMENTS] It is plain that in
Egypt special places were used as prisons, and that they were under the
custody of a military officer. (Genesis 40:3; 42:17) During the wandering
in the desert we read on two occasions of confinement "in ward" --
(Leviticus 24:12; Numbers 15:34) but as imprisonment was not directed by
the law, so we hear of none till the time of the kings, when the prison
appears as an appendage to the palace, or a special part of it. (1 Kings
22:27) Private houses were sometimes used as places of confinement. By the
Romans the tower of Antoni, was used as a prison at Jerusalem, (Acts
23:10) and at Caesarea the praetorium of Herod. The royal prisons In those
days were doubtless managed after the Roman fashion, and chains, fetters
and stocks were used as means of confinement. See (Acts 16:24) One of the
readiest places for confinement was a dry or partially-dry wall or pit.
(Jeremiah 35:6-11)


(leader of the chorus), one of the seven deacons, being the third
of the list, and named next after Stephen and Philip. (Acts 6:5)


(for, or in place of, the consul). At the division of the provinces
by Augustus, in the year B.C. 27, into senatorial and imperial, the
emperor assigned to the senate such portions of territory as were
peaceable and could be held without force of arms. Those which he retained
were called imperial, and were governed by legates and
procurators. [PROCURATOR] Over the senatorial provinces the senate
appointed by lot yearly an officer, who was called "proconsul" and who
exercised purely proconsul, civil functions. The provinces were in
consequence called "proconsular."


The Greek agemon, rendered "governor" in the Authorized Version,
is applied in the New Testament to the officer who presided over the
imperial province of Judea. It is used of Pontius Pilate, (Matthew 27:1)
... of Felix, Acts 23, 24, and of Festus. (Acts 26:30) It is explained
under PROCONSUL that after the battle of Actium, B.C. 27, the provinces of
the Roman empire were divided by Augustus into two portions, giving some
to the senate and reserving to himself the rest. The imperial provinces
were administered by legali. No quaestor came into the emperor's
provinces, but the property and revenues of the imperial treasury were
administered by procuratores. Sometimes a province was governed by a
procurator with the functions of a legatus. This was especially the case
with the smaller provinces an the outlying districts of a larger province;
and such is the relation in which Judea stood to Syria. The headquarters
of the procurator were at Caesarea, (Acts 23:23) where he had a judgment
seat, (Acts 25:6) in the audience chamber, (Acts 25:23) and was assisted
by a council (Acts 25:12) whom he consulted in cases of difficulty. He was
attended by a cohort as body-guard, (Matthew 27:27) and apparently went up
to Jerusalem at the time of the high festivals, and there resided at the
palace of Herod, in which was the praetorium or "judgment hall."
(Matthew 27:27; Mark 15:16) comp. Acts 23:35


The ordinary Hebrew word for prophet is nabi, derived from a verb
signifying "to bubble forth" like a fountain; hence the word means one who
announces or pours forth the declarations of God. The
English word comes from the Greek prophetes (profetes), which
signifies in classical Greek one who speaks for another,
especially one who speaks for a god, and so interprets his will to
man; hence its essential meaning is "an interpreter." The use of the word
in its modern sense as "one who predicts" is post-classical. The larger
sense of interpretation has not, however, been lost. In fact the
English word ways been used in a closer sense. The different meanings or
shades of meanings in which the abstract noun is employed in Scripture
have been drawn out by Locke as follows: "Prophecy comprehends three
things: prediction; singing by the dictate of the Spirit; and
understanding and explaining the mysterious, hidden sense of Scripture by
an immediate illumination and motion of the Spirit." Order and
. -- The sacerdotal order was originally the instrument by
which the members of the Jewish theocracy were taught and governed in
things spiritual. Teaching by act and teaching by word were alike their
task. But during the time of the judges, the priesthood sank into a state
of degeneracy, and the people were no longer affected by the acted lessons
of the ceremonial service. They required less enigmatic warnings and
exhortations, under these circumstances a new moral power was evoked the
Prophetic Order. Samuel himself Levite of the family of Kohath, (1
Chronicles 6:28) and almost certainly a priest, was the instrument used at
once for effecting a reform in the sacerdotal order (1 Chronicles 9:22)
and for giving to the prophets a position of importance which they had
never before held. Nevertheless it is not to be supposed that Samuel
created the prophetic order as a new thing before unknown. The germs both
of the prophetic and of the regal order are found in the law as given to
the Israelites by Moses, (13:1; 18:20; 17:18) but they were not yet
developed, because there was not yet the demand for them. Samuel took
measures to make his work of restoration permanent as well as effective
for the moment. For this purpose he instituted companies or colleges of
prophets. One we find in his lifetime at Ramah, (1 Samuel 19:19,20) others
afterward at Bethel, (2 Kings 2:3) Jericho, (2 Kings 2:2,5) Gilgal; (2
Kings 4:38) and elsewhere. (2 Kings 6:1) Their constitution and object
similar to those of theological colleges. Into them were gathered
promising students, and here they were trained for the office which they
were afterward destined to fulfill. So successful were these institutions
that from the time of Samuel to the closing of the canon of the Old
Testament there seems never to have been wanting due supply of men to keep
up the line of official prophets. Their chief subject of study was, no
doubt, the law and its interpretation; oral, as distinct from symbolical,
teaching being thenceforward tacitly transferred from the priestly to the
prophetic order. Subsidiary subjects of instruction were music and sacred
poetry, both of which had been connected with prophecy from the time of
Moses (Exodus 15:20) and the judges. (Judges 4:4; 5:1) But to belong to
the prophetic order and to possess the prophetic gift are not convertible
terms. Generally, the inspired prophet came from the college of prophets,
and belonged to prophetic order; but this was not always the case. Thus
Amos though called to the prophetic office did not belong to the
prophetic order. (Amos 7:14) The sixteen prophets whose books are in the
canon have that place of honor because they were endowed with the
prophetic gift us well as ordinarily (so far as we know) belonging to the
prophetic order. Characteristics. -- What then are the
characteristics of the sixteen prophets thus called and commissioned and
intrusted with the messages of God to his people?

  • They were the national poets of Judea.

  • They were annalists and historians. A great portion of Isaiah, of
    Jeremiah, of Daniel of Jonah, of Haggai, is direct or in direct

  • They were preachers of patriotism, -- their patriotism being founded
    on the religious motive.

  • They were preachers of morals and of spiritual religion. The system of
    morals put forward by the prophets, if not higher or sterner or purer than
    that of the law, is more plainly declared, and with greater, because now
    more needed, vehemence of diction.

  • They were extraordinary but yet authorized exponents of the law.

  • They held a pastoral or quasi-pastoral office.

  • They were a political power in the state.

  • But the prophets were something more than national poets and
    annalists, preachers of patriotism moral teachers, exponents of the law,
    pastors and politicians. Their most essential characteristic is that they
    were instruments of revealing God's will to man, as in other ways, so
    specially by predicting future events, and in particular foretelling the
    incarnation of the Lord Jesus Christ and the redemption effected by him.
    We have a series of prophecies which are so applicable to the person and
    earthly life of Jesus Christ as to be thereby shown to have been designed
    to apply to him. And if they were designed to apply to him, prophetical
    prediction is proved. Objections have, been urged. We notice only one,
    vis., vagueness. It has been said that the prophecies are too darkly and
    vaguely worded to be proved predictive by the events which they are
    alleged to foretell. But to this might be answered,

  • That God never forces men to believe, but that there is such a union
    of definiteness and vagueness in the prophecies as to enable those who are
    willing to discover the truth, while the willfully blind are not forcibly
    constrained to see it.

  • That, had the prophecies been couched in the form of direct
    declarations, their fulfillment would have thereby been rendered
    impossible or at least capable of frustration.

  • That the effect of prophecy would have been far less beneficial to
    believers, as being less adapted to keep them in a state of constant

  • That the Messiah of revelation could not be so clearly portrayed in
    his varied character as God and man, as prophet, priest and king, if he
    had been the mere teacher."

  • That the state of the prophets, at the time of receiving the divine
    revelation, was such as necessarily to make their predictions fragmentary
    figurative, and abstracted from the relations of time.

  • That some portions of the prophecies were intended to be of double
    application, and some portions to be understood only on their fulfillment,
    Comp. (John 14:29; Ezekiel 36:33)


-- We learn from Holy Scripture that it was by the agency of the Spirit
of God that the prophets received the divine communication; but the means
by which the divine Spirit communicated with the human spirit, and the
conditions of the latter under which the divine communications were
received, have not been clearly declared to us. They are however,
indicated. In (Numbers 12:6-8) we have an exhaustive division of the
different ways in which the revelations of God are made to man.

  • Direct declaration and manifestation: "I will speak mouth to mouth,
    apparently, and the similitude of the Lord shall he behold."

  • Vision.

  • Dream. not though it must be allowed that Scripture language seems to
    point out the state of dream and of trance or ecstasy, as a condition in
    which the human instrument received the divine communications, it does not
    follow that all the prophetic revelations were thus made. Had the prophets
    a full knowledge of that which they predicted? It follows from what we
    have already said that they had not, and could not have. They were the
    "spokesmen" of God, (Exodus 7:1) the "mouth" by which his words were
    uttered, or they were enabled to view and empowered to describe pictures.
    Presented to their spiritual intuition; but there are no grounds for
    believing that, contemporaneously with this miracle, there was wrought
    another miracle, enlarging the understanding of the prophet so as to grasp
    the whole of the divine counsels which he was gazing into, or which he was
    the instrument of enunciating. Names. -- Of the sixteen prophets,
    four are usually called the great prophets, namely, Isaiah, Jeremiah,
    Ezekiel and Daniel, and twelve the Minor prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel,
    Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk,Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah
    and Malachi. They may be divided into four groups: the prophets of the
    northern kingdom -- Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah; the prophets of the southern
    kingdom -- Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah;
    the prophets of the captivity -- Ezekiel and Daniel; the prophets of the
    return -- Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. They may be arranged in the
    following chronological order, namely, Joel, Jonah, Hoses, Amos, Isaiah,
    Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel,
    Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Use of prophecy. -- Predictive prophecy
    is at once a part and an evidence of revelation; at the time that it is
    delivered and until its fulfillment, a part; after it has been fulfilled,
    an evidence. As an evidence, fulfilled prophecy is as satisfactory as
    anything can be; for who can know the future except the Ruler who disposes
    future events? and from whom can come prediction except from him who knows
    the future? Development of Messianic prophecy. -- Prediction, in
    the shape of promise and threatening, begins with the book of Genesis.
    Immediately upon the Fall, hopes of recovery and salvation are held out,
    but the manner in which this salvation is to be effected is left
    altogether indefinite. All that is at first declared is that it shall come
    through a child of woman. (Genesis 3:15) By degrees the area is limited:
    it is to come through the family of Shem, (Genesis 9:26) through the
    family of Abraham, (Genesis 12:3) of Isaac, (Genesis 25:18) of Jacob,
    (Genesis 28:14) of Judah, (Genesis 49:10) Balaam seems to say that it will
    be wrought by a warlike Israelitish King, (Numbers 24:17) Jacob, by a
    peaceful Ruler of the earth, (Genesis 49:10) Moses, by a Prophet like
    himself, i.e. a revealer of a new religious dispensation. (15:15) Nathan's
    announcement, (2 Samuel 7:16) determines further that the salvation is to
    come through the house of David, and through a descendant of David who
    shall be himself a king. This promise is developed by David himself in the
    Messianic psalms. Between Solomon and Hezekiah intervened some two hundred
    years, during which the voice of prophecy was silent. The Messianic
    conception entertained at this time by the Jews might have been that of a
    King of the royal house of David who would arise and gather under his
    peaceful sceptre his own people and strangers. Sufficient allusion to his
    prophetical and priestly offices had been made to create thoughtful
    consideration, but as yet there was, no clear delineation of him in these
    characters. It was reserved for the prophets to bring out these features
    more distinctly. In this great period of prophetism there is no longer any
    chronological development of Messianic prophecy, as in the earlier period
    previous to Solomon. Each prophet adds a feature, one more, another less
    clearly combine the feature, and we have the portrait; but it does not
    grow gradually and perceptibly under the hands of the several artists. Its
    culminating point is found in the prophecy contained in (Isaiah
    52:13-15) and Isai 52:53 Prophets of the New Testament. -- So far
    as their predictive powers are concerned, the Old Testament prophets find
    their New Testament counterpart in the writer of the Apocalypse; but in
    their general character, as specially illumined revealers of God's will,
    their counterpart will rather be found, first in the great Prophet of the
    Church and his forerunner, John the Baptist, and next in all those persons
    who were endowed with the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit in the
    apostolic age, the speakers with tongues and the interpreters of tongues,
    the prophets and the discerners of spirits, the teachers and workers of
    miracles. (1 Corinthians 12:10,28) That Predictive powers did occasionally
    exist in the New Testament prophets is proved by the case of Agabus, (Acts
    11:23) but this was not their characteristic. The prophets of the New
    Testament were supernaturally illuminated expounders and preachers.


(a stranger, a new comer), the name given by the Jews to foreigners
who adopted the Jewish religion. The dispersion of the Jews in foreign
countries, which has been spoken of elsewhere [DISPERSION, THE JEWS OF
THE, THE], enabled them to make many converts to their faith. The converts
who were thus attracted joined, with varying strictness, in the worship of
the Jews. In Palestine itself, even Roman centurions learned to love the
conquered nation built synagogues for them, (Luke 7:5) fasted and prayed,
and gave alms after the pattern of the strictest Jews, (Acts 10:2,30) and
became preachers of the new faith to the soldiers under them. (Acts 10:7)
Such men, drawn by what was best in Judaism were naturally among the
readiest receivers of the new truth which rose out of it, and became, in
many cases, the nucleus of a Gentile Church. Proselytism had, however, its
darker side. The Jews of Palestine were eager to spread their faith by the
same weapons as those with which they had defended it. The Idumaeans had
the alternative offered them by John Hyrcanus of death, exile or
circumcision. The Idumeans were converted in the same way by Aristobulus.
Where force was not in their power, they obtained their ends by the most
unscrupulous fraud. Those who were most active in proselytizing were
precisely those from whose teaching all that was most true and living had
departed. The vices of the Jew were engrafted on the vices of the heathen.
A repulsive casuistry released the convert from obligations which he had
before recognized, while in other things he was bound hand and fool to an
unhealthy superstition. It was no wonder that he became "twofold more the
child of hell," (Matthew 23:15) than the Pharisees themselves. We find in
the Talmud a distinction between proselytes of the gate and proselytes of

  • The term proselytes of the gate was derived from the frequently
    occurring description in the law the stranger that is within (Exodus
    20:10) etc. Converts of thy gates this class were not bound by
    circumcision and the other special laws of the Mosaic code. It is doubtful
    however whether the distinction made in the Talmud ever really

  • The proselytes of righteousness, known also as proselytes of the
    covenant, were perfect Israelites. We learn from the Talmud that, in
    addition to circumcision, baptism was also required to complete their
    admission to the faith. The proselyte was placed in a tank or pool up to
    his neck in water. His teachers, who now acted as his sponsors, repeated
    the great commandments of the law. The baptism was followed as long as the
    temple stood, by the offering or corban.


The title of this book in Hebrew is taken from its first word,
mashal, which originally meant "a comparison." It is sometimes
translated parable, sometimes proverb as here. The superscriptions which
are affixed to several portions of the book, in chs. (Proverbs 1:1; 10:1;
25:1) attribute the authorship of those portions to Solomon the son of
David, king of Israel. With the exception of the last two chapters, which
are distinctly assigned to other author it is probable that the statement
of the superscriptions is in the main correct, and that the majority of
the proverbs contained in the book were uttered or collected by Solomon.
Speaking roughly, the book consists of three main divisions, with two
appendices: --

  • Chs. 1-9 form a connected didactic Wisdom is praised and the youth
    exhorted to devote himself to her. This portion is preceded by an
    introduction and title describing the character and general aim of the

  • Chs. 10-24 with the title "The Proverbs of Solomon," consist of three
    parts: (Proverbs 10:1-22; Proverbs 10:16) a collection of single proverbs
    and detached sentences out of the region of moral teaching and worldly
    prudence; (Proverbs 22:17-24; Proverbs 22:21) a more connected didactic
    poem, with an introduction, (Proverbs 22:17-22) which contains precepts of
    righteousness and prudence; (Proverbs 24:23-34) with the inscription
    "These also belong to the wise," a collection of unconnected maxims, which
    serve as an appendix to the preceding. Then follows the third division
    chs. 25-29, which, according to the superscription, professes to be
    collection of Solomon's proverbs, consisting of single sentences, which
    the men of the court of Hezekiah copied out. The first appendix, ch. 30,
    "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh," is a collection of partly proverbial
    and partly enigmatical sayings; the second, ch. 31, is divided into two
    parts, "The words of King Lemuel," vs. 1-6, and an alphabetical acrostic
    in praise of a virtuous woman, which occupies the rest of the chapter. Who
    was Agur and who was Jakeh, are questions which have been often asked and
    never satisfactorily answered. All that can be said of the first is that
    he was an unknown Hebrew sage, the son of an equally unknown Jakeh, and
    that he lived after the time of Hezekiah. Lemuel, like Agur, is unknown.
    It is even uncertain whether he is to be regarded as a real personage, or
    whether the name is merely symbolical. The Proverbs are frequently quoted
    or alluded to in the New Testament and the canonicity of the book thereby
    confirmed. The following is a list of the principal passages: -- (Proverbs
    1:16) compare Roma 3:10,15 (Proverbs 3:7) compare Roma 12:16 (Proverbs
    3:11,12) compare Hebr 12:5,6, see also Reve 3:19 (Proverbs 3:34) compare
    Jame 4:6 (Proverbs 10:12) compare 1Pet 4:8 (Proverbs 11:31) compare 1Pet
    4:18 (Proverbs 17:13) compare Roma 12:17; 1The 5:15; 1Pet 3:9 (Proverbs
    17:27) compare Jame 1:19 (Proverbs 20:9) compare 1Joh 1:8 (Proverbs 20:20)
    compare Matt 15:4; Mark 7:10 (Proverbs 22:8) (LXX.), compare 2Cor 9:7
    (Proverbs 25:21,22) compare, Roma 12:20 (Proverbs 26:11) compare, 2Pet
    2:22 (Proverbs 27:1) compare, Jame 4:13,14


  • In the Old Testament this word appears in connection with the wars
    between Ahab and Ben-hadad. (1 Kings 20:14,15,19) The victory of the
    former is gained chiefly "by the young" probably men of the princes of the
    provinces the chiefs: of tribes in the Gilead country.

  • More commonly the word is used of the divisions of the Chaldean
    kingdom. (Daniel 2:49; 3:1,30) and the Persian kingdom. (Ezra 2:1;
    Nehemiah 7:6; Esther 1:1,22; 2:3) etc. In the New Testament we are brought
    into contact with the administration of the provinces of the Roman empire.
    The classification of provinces supposed to need military control and
    therefore placed under the immediate government of the Caesar, and those
    still belonging theoretically to the republic and administered by the
    senate, and of the latter again into proconsular and praetorian, is
    recognized, more or less distinctly, in the Gospels and the Acts.
    [PROCONSUL; PROCURATOR] The strategoi of (Acts 16:22)
    ("magistrates," Authorized Version), on the other hand were the
    duumviri or praetors of a Roman colony. The right of any Roman
    citizen to appeal from a provincial governor to the emperor meets us as
    asserted by St. Paul. (Acts 25:11) In the council of (Acts 25:12) we
    recognize the assessors who were appointed to take part in the judicial
    functions of the governor.


The present Hebrew name of the book is Tehill’im, "Praises;"
but in the actual superscriptions of the psalms the word Tehillah is
applied only to one, (Psalms 145:1) ... which is indeed emphatically a
praise-hymn. The LXX. entitled them psalmoi or "psalms," i.e.,
lyrical pieces to be sung to a musical instrument. The Christian Church
obviously received the Psalter from the Jews not only as a constituent
portion of the sacred volume of Holy Scripture, but also as the liturgical
hymn-book which the Jewish Church had regularly used in the temple.
Division of the Psalms. -- The book contains 150 psalms, and may
be divided into five great divisions or books, which must have been
originally formed at different periods. Book I. is, by the
superscriptions, entirely Davidic nor do we find in it a trace of any but
David's authorship. We may well believe that the compilation of the book
was also David's work. Book II. appears by the date of its latest psalm,
(Psalms 46:1) ... to have been compiled in the reign of King Hezekiah. It
would naturally comprise, 1st, several or most of the Levitical psalms
anterior to that date; and 2d, the remainder of the psalms of David
previously uncompiled. To these latter the collector after properly
appending the single psalm of Solomon has affixed the notice that "the
prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended." (Psalms 72:20) Book III.,
the interest of which centers in the times of Hezekiah stretches out, by
its last two psalms, to the reign of Manasseh: it was probably compiled in
the reign of Josiah. It contains seventeen psalms, from Psal 73-89 eleven
by Asaph, four by the sons of Horah, one (86) by David, and one by Ethan.
Book IV. contains the remainder of the psalms up to the date of the
captivity, There are seventeen, from Psal 90-106 -- one by Moses, two by
David, and the rest anonymous. Book V., the psalms of the return, contains
forty-four, from Psal 107-180 -- fifteen by David, one by Solomon and the
rest anonymous. There is nothing to distinguish these two books from each
other in respect of outward decoration or arrangement and they may have
been compiled together in the days of Nehemiah. Connection of the
Psalms with Israelitish history
. -- The psalm of Moses Psal 90, which
is in point of actual date the earliest, faithfully reflects the long,
weary wanderings, the multiplied provocations and the consequent
punishments of the wilderness. It is, however, with David that Israelitish
psalmody may be said virtually to commence. Previous mastery over his harp
had probably already prepared the way for his future strains, when the
anointing oil of Samuel descended upon him, and he began to drink in
special measure, from that day forward, of the Spirit of the Lord. It was
then that, victorious at home over the mysterious melancholy of Saul and
in the held over the vaunting champion of the Philistine hosts, he sang
how from even babes and sucklings God had ordained strength because of his
enemies. Psal 8. His next psalms are of a different character; his
persecutions at the hands of Saul had commenced. When David's reign has
begun, it is still with the most exciting incidents of his history,
private or public, that his psalms are mainly associated. There are none
to which the period of his reign at Hebron can lay exclusive claim. But
after the conquest of Jerusalem his psalmody opened afresh with the solemn
removal of the ark to Mount Zion; and in Psal 24-29 which belong together,
we have the earliest definite instance of David's systematic composition
or arrangement of psalms for public use. Even of those psalms which cannot
be referred to any definite occasion, several reflect the general
historical circumstances of the times. Thus Psal 9 is a thanksgiving for
the deliverance of the land of Israel from its former heathen oppressors.
Psal 10 is a prayer for the deliverance of the Church from the highhanded
oppression exercised from within. The succeeding psalms dwell on the same
theme, the virtual internal heathenism by which the Church of God was
weighed clown. So that there remain very few e.g. Psal 15-17,19,32 (with
its choral appendage, 23), 37 of which some historical account may not be
given. A season of repose near the close of his reign induced David to
compose his grand personal thanksgiving for the deliverances of his whole
life, Psal 18 the date of which is approximately determined by the place
at which it ia inserted in the history. (2 Samuel 22:1) ... It was
probably at this period that he finally arranged for the sanctuary service
that collection of his psalms which now constitutes the first book of the
Psalter. The course of David's reign was not, however, as yet complete.
The solemn assembly convened by him for the dedication of the materials of
the future temple, 1Chr 28, 29, would naturally call forth a renewal of
his best efforts to glorify the God of Israel in psalms; and to this
occasion we doubtless owe the great festal hymns, Psal 65-68, containing a
large review of the past history, present position and prospective glories
of God's chosen people. The supplications of Psal 69, suit best with the
renewed distress occasioned by the sedition of Adonijah. Psal 71 to which
Psal 70 a fragment of a former psalm, is introductory, forms David's
parting strain. Yet that the psalmody of Israel may not seem finally to
terminate with hint, the glories of the future are forthwith anticipated
by his son in Psal 72. The great prophetical ode, Psal 45, connects itself
most readily with the splendors of Jehoshaphat's reign. Psal 42-44, 74 are
best assigned to the reign of Ahaz. The reign of Hezekiah is naturally
rich in psalmody, Psal 46,73,75,76 connect themselves with the resistance
to the supremacy of the Assyrians and the divine destruction of their
host. We are now brought to a series of psalms of peculiar interest,
springing out of the political and religious history of the,separated ten
tribes. In date of actual composition they commence before the times of
Hezekiah. The earliest is probably Psal 80 A supplication for the
Israelitish people at the time of the Syrian oppression. All these psalms
-- 80-83 -- are referred by their superscriptions to the Levite singers,
and thus beer witness to the efforts of the Levites to reconcile the two
branches of the chosen nation. The captivity of Manasseh himself proved to
be but temporary; but the sentence which his sins had provoked upon Judah
and Jerusalem still remained to be executed, and precluded the hope that
God's salvation could be revealed till after such an outpouring of his
judgments as the nation had never yet known. Labor and sorrow must be the
lot of the present generation; through these mercy might occasionally
gleam, but the glory which was eventually to be manifested must be for
posterity alone. The psalms of Book IV. -- bear generally the impress of
this feeling. We pass to Book V. Psal 107 is the opening psalm of the
return, sung probably at the first feast of tabernacles. Ezra 3 A directly
historical character belongs to Psal 120-134, styled in our Authorized
Version "Songs of Degrees." Internal evidence refers these to the period
when the Jews under Nehemiah were, in the very face of the enemy,
repairing the walls of Jerusalem and the title may well signify "songs of
goings up upon the walls," the psalms being from their brevity, well
adapted to be sung by the workmen and guards while engaged in their
respective duties. Psal 139 is a psalm of the new birth of Israel from the
womb of the Babylonish captivity, to a life of righteousness; Psal 140-143
may be a picture of the trials to which the unrestored exiles were still
exposed in the realms of the Gentiles. Henceforward, as we approach the
close of the Psalter, its strains rise in cheerfulness; and it fittingly
terminates with Psal 147-150 which were probably sung on the occasion of
the thanksgiving procession of Nehe 12, after the rebuilding of the walls
of Jerusalem had been completed. Moral characteristics of the
. -- Foremost among these meets us, undoubtedly, the universal
recourse to communion with God. Connected with this is the faith by which
the psalmist everywhere lives in God rather than in himself. It is of the
essence of such faith that his view of the perfections of God should be
true and vivid. The Psalter describes God as he is: it glows with
testimonies to his power and providence, his love and faithfulness, his
holiness and righteousness. The Psalms not only set forth the perfections
of God; they proclaim also the duty of worshipping him by the
acknowledgment and adoration of his perfections. They encourage all
outward rites and means of worship. Among these they recognize the
ordinance of sacrifice as in expression of the worshipper's consecration
of himself to God's service. But not the less do they repudiate the
outward rite when separated from that which it was designed to express.
Similar depth is observable in the view taken by the psalmists of human
sin. In regard to the law, the psalmist, while warmly acknowledging its
excellence, feels yet that it cannot so effectually guide his own
unassisted exertions as to preserve him from error Psal 19. The Psalms
bear repeated testimony to the duty of instructing other in the ways of
holiness. Psal 32,34, 51 This brings us to notice, lastly, the faith of
the psalmists in righteous recompense to all men according to their deeds.
Psal 37, etc. Prophetical character of the Psalms. -- The moral
struggle between godliness and ungodliness, so vividly depicted in the
Psalms, culminates in Holy Scripture, in the life of the Incarnate Son of
God upon earth. It only remains to show that the Psalms themselves
definitely anticipated this culmination. Now there are in the Psalter at
least three psalms of which the interest evidently centers in a person
distinct from the speaker, and which, since they cannot without violence
to the language be interpreted of any but the Messiah, may be termed
directly and exclusively Messianic. We refer to Psal 2,45,110, to which
may perhaps be added, Psal 72. It would be strange if these few psalms
stood, in their prophetical significance absolutely alone among the rest.
And hence the impossibility of viewing the psalms generally,
notwithstanding the drapery in which they are outwardly clothed, as simply
the past devotions of the historical David or the historical Israel. The
national hymns of Israel are indeed also prospective; but in general they
anticipate rather the struggles and the triumphs of the Christian Church
than those of Christ himself.


This was a stringed instrument of music to accompany the voice. The Hebrew
nabel or nebel is so rendered in the Authorized Version in
all passages where if occurs, except in (Isaiah 5:12; 14:11; 22:24),
marg.; (Amos 5:23; 6:6) where it is translated viol. The ancient
viol was a six-stringed guitar. In the Prayer Book version of the Psalms
the Hebrew word is rendered "lute." This instrument resembled the guitar,
but was superior in tone, being larger, and having a convex back, somewhat
like the vertical section of a gourd, or more nearly resembling that of a
pear. These three instruments, the psaltery or sautry, the viol and lute,
are frequently associated in the old English poets and were clearly
instruments resembling each other though still different. The Greek
psalterium (psalterion), from which our word is derived, denotes an
instrument played with the fingers instead of a plectrum or quill, the
verb being used of twanging the bow-string. It is impossible to say
positively with what instrument the nebel of the Hebrew exactly
corresponded, From the fact that nebel in Hebrew also signifies a
wine-bottle or skin it has been conjectured that the term when applied to
a musical instrument denotes a kind of bagpipe. The psalteries of David
were made of cypress, (2 Samuel 6:5) those of Solomon of algum Or almug
trees. (2 Chronicles 9:11) Among the instruments of the band which played
before Nebuchadnezzar's golden image on the plains of Dura, we again meet
with the psaltery. (Daniel 3:6,10,15) pesanterin.


was the common name of the Greek dynasty of Egyptian kings. PTOLEMAEUS I.
SOTER, the son of Lagus, a Macedonian of low rank, distinguished himself
greatly during the campaigns of Alexander; at whose death he secured for
himself the government of Egypt, where he proceeded at once to lay the
foundations of a kingdom, B.C. 323. He abdicated in favor of his youngest
son, Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, two years before his death which took place
in B.C. 283. Ptolemy Soter is described very briefly in Daniel, (Daniel
11:6) as one of those who should receive part of the empire of Alexander
when it was "divided toward the four winds of heaven." PTOLEMAEUS II.
PHILADELPHUS, B.C. 285-247, the youngest son of Ptolemy I., was made king
two years before his father's death, to confirm the irregular succession.
The conflict between Egypt and Syria was renewed during his reign in
consequence of the intrigue of his half brother Magas. Ptolemy bestowed
liberal encouragement on literature and science, founding the great
library and museum at Alexandria, and gathered about him many men of
learning, as the poet Theocritus, the geometer Euclid and the astronomer
Aratua. This reign was a critical epoch for the development of Judaism, as
it was for the intellectual history of the ancient world. The critical
faculty was called forth in place of the creative, and learning in some
sense supplied the place of original speculation. It was impossible on the
Jew who was now become us true a citizen of the world as the Greek, should
remain passive in the conflict of opinions. It is enough now to observe
the greatness of the consequences involved in the union of Greek language
with Jewish thought. From this time the Jew was familiarized with the
great types of western literature, and in some degree aimed at imitating
them. A second time and in new fashion Egypt disciplined a people of God.
It first impressed upon a nation the firm unity of a family and then in
due time reconnected a matured people with the world from which it had
been called out. PTOLEMAEUS III. EUERGETES, B.C. 247-222, was the eldest
son of Ptolemy Philadelphus and brother of Berenice the wife of Antiochus
II. The repudiation and murder of his sister furnished him with an
occasion for invading Syria, cir. B.C. 246. (Daniel 11:7) He extended his
conquests as far as Antioch, and then eastward to Babylon, but was
recalled to Egypt by tidings of seditions which had broken out there. His
success was brilliant and complete. He carried "captives into Egypt their
gods of the conquered nations, with their princes and with their precious
vessels of silver and of gold." (Daniel 11:8) This capture of sacred
trophies earned for the king the name Euergetes -- "Benefactor."
After his return to Egypt, cir. B.C. 243 he suffered a great part of the
conquered provinces to fall again under the power of Seleucus. PTOLEMAEUS
IV. PHILOPATOR, B.C. 222-205. After the death of Ptolemy Euergetes the
line of the Ptolemies rapidly degenerated. Ptolemy Philopator, his eldest
son, who succeeded him, was to the last degree sensual, effeminate and
debased. But externally his kingdom retained its power and splendor and
when circumstances forced him to action. Ptolemy himself showed ability
not unworthy of his race. The description of the campaign of Raphia (B.C.
217) in the book of Daniel gives a vivid description of his character.
(Daniel 11:10-12) cf. Macc. 1:1-3. After offering in the temple at
Jerusalem sacrifices for the success they achieved, he attempted to enter
the sanctuary. A sudden paralysis hindered his design; but when he
returned to Alexandria he determined to inflict on the Alexandrine Jews
the vengeance for his disappointment. He was succeeded by his only child,
Ptolemy V. Epiphanes who was at the time only four or five years old.
PTOLEMAEUS V. EPIPHANES, B.C. 205-181. The reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes was
a critical epoch in the history of the Jews. The rivalry between the
Syrian and Egyptian parties, some time divided the people, came to an open
rupture in the struggles which marked his minority. In the strong language
of Daniel "The robbers of the people exalted themselves to establish the
vision." (Daniel 11:14) The accession of Ptolemy and the confusion of a
disputed regency furnished a favorable opportunity for foreign invasion.
"Many stood up against the king of the south" under Antiochus the Great
and Philip III of Macedonia, who formed a league for the dismemberment of
his kingdom. "So the king of the north [Antiochus] came, and cast up a
mount, and took the most fenced city [Sidon], and the arms of the south
did not withstand" [at Paneas B.C. 198]. (Daniel 11:14,15) The Romans
interfered, and in order to retain the provinces of Coele-Syria, Phoenicia
and Judea, Antiochus "gave him [Ptolemy] a young maiden" [his daughter
Cleopatra as his betrothed wife]. (Daniel 11:27) But in the end his policy
only partially succeeded. After the marriage of Ptolemy and Cleopatra was
consummated B.C. 193, (Cleopatra, did "not stand on his side," but
supported her husband in maintaining the alliance with Rome. The disputed
provinces, however remained in the possession of Antiochus and Ptolemy was
poisoned at the time when he was preparing an expedition to recover them
from Seleucus, the unworthy successor of Antiochus. PTOLEMAEUS VI.
PHILOMETOR, B.C. 181-145. On the death of Ptolemy Epiphanes, his wife
Cleopatra held the regency for her young son, Ptolemy Philometor, and
preserved peace with Syria till she died, B.C. 173. The government then
fell into unworthy hands, and an attempt was made to recover Syria. Comp.
2 Macc. 4:21. Antiochus Epiphanes seems to have made the claim a pretext
for invading Egypt. The generals of Ptolemy were defeated near Pelusium,
probably at the close of B.C. 171, 1 Macc. 1:16 ff; and in the next year
Antiochus, having secured the person of the young king, reduced almost the
whole of Egypt. Comp. 2 Macc. 5:1. Meanwhile Ptolemy Euergetes II., the
younger brother of Ptolemy Philometor, assumed the supreme power at
Alexandris; and Antiochus, under the pretext of recovering the crown for
Philometor, besieged Alexandria in B.C. 169. By this time, however, his
selfish designs were apparent: the brothers were reconciled, and Antiochus
was obliged to acquiesce for the time in the arrangement which they made.
But while doing so he prepared for another invasion of Egypt, and was
already approaching Alexandria when he was met by the Roman embassy led by
C. Popillius Laenas, who, in the name of the Roman senate insisted on his
immediate retreat (B.C.168), a command which the late victory at Pydna
made it impossible to disobey. These campaigns, which are intimately
connected with the visits of Antiochus to Jerusalem in B.C. 170, 168, are
briefly described in (Daniel 11:25,30) The whole of Syria was afterward
subdued by Ptolemy, and he was crowned at Antioch king of Egypt and Asia.
1 Macc. 11:13. Alexander, a rival claimant, attempted to secure the crown,
but was defeated and afterward put to death by Ptolemy. But the latter did
not long enjoy his success. He fell from his horse in the battle and died
within a few days. 1 Macc. 11:18. Ptolemy Philometor is the last king of
Egypt who is noticed in sacred history, and his reign was marked also by
the erection of the temple at Leontopolis.




  • "The son of Dorymenes," 1 Macc. 3:38; 2 Macc. 4:45; comp. Polyb. v,
    61, a courtier who possessed great influence with Antiochus

  • The son of Agesarchus, a Megalopolitan, surnamed Macron, 2 Macc.
    10:12, who was governor of Cyprus during the minority of Ptolemy
    Philometor. He afterward deserted the Egyptian service to join Antiochus
    Epiphanes. He stood in the favor of Antiochus, and received from him the
    government of Phoenicia and Coele-Syria. 2 Macc 8:8; 10:11,12. On the
    accession of Antiochus Eupator his conciliatory policy toward the Jews
    brought him into suspicion at court. He was deprived of his government,
    and in consequence of this disgrace he poisoned himself, cir. B.C. 164. 2
    Macc. 10:13.

  • The son of Abuhus, who married the daughter of Simon the Maccabee. He
    was a man of great wealth, and being invested with the government of the
    district of Jericho, formed the design of usurping the sovereignty of


properly Puvvah. Phuvah the son of Issachar. (Numbers 26:23) (B.C.



  • The father of Tola, a man of the tribe of Issachar and judge of Israel
    after Abimelech. (Judges 10:1) (B.C. 1211.)

  • The son of Issachar, (1 Chronicles 7:1) elsewhere called Phuvah and

  • One of the two midwives to whom Pharaoh gave instructions to kill the
    Hebrew male children at their birth. (Exodus 1:15) (B.C. 1571.)


The class designated by this word in the New Testament were employed as
collectors of the Roman revenue. The Roman senate farmed the
vectigalia (direct taxes) and the portorin (customs) to
capitalists who undertook to pay a given sum into the treasury (in
), and so received the name of publicani. Contracts of
this kind fell naturally into the hands of the equites, as the
richest class of Romans. They appointed managers, under whom were the
portitores, the actual custom-house officers, who examined each
bale of goods, exported or imported, assessed its value more or less
arbitrarily, wrote out the ticket, and enforced payment. The latter were
commonly natives of the province in which they were stationed as being
brought daily into contact with all classes of the population. The name
pubicani was used popularly, and in the New Testament exclusively,
of the portitores. The system was essentially a vicious one. The
portitores were encouraged in the most vexatious or fraudulent
exactions and a remedy was all but impossible. They overcharged whenever
they had an opportunity, (Luke 3:13) they brought false charges of
smuggling in the hope of extorting hush-money (Luke 19:8) they detained
and opened letters on mere suspicion. It was the basest of all
livelihoods. All this was enough to bring the class into ill favor
everywhere. In Judea and Galilee there were special circumstances of
aggravation. The employment brought out all the besetting vices of the
Jewish character. The strong feeling of many Jews as to the absolute
unlawfulness of paying tribute at all made matters worse. The scribes who
discussed the question, (Matthew 22:15) for the most part answered it in
the negative. In addition to their other faults, accordingly, the
publicans of the New Testament were regarded as traitors and apostates,
defiled by their frequent intercourse with the heathen, willing tools of
the oppressor. The class thus practically excommunicated furnished some of
the earliest disciples both of the Baptist and of our Lord. The position
of Zacchaeus as a "chief among the publicans," (Luke 19:2) implies a
gradation of some kind among the persons thus employed.


the chief man -- probably the governor-of Melita, who received and lodged
St. Paul and his companions on the occasion of their being shipwrecked off
that island. (Acts 28:7) (A.D.55.)


(modest), a Christian friend of Timothy at Rome. (2 Timothy 4:21)
(A.D. 84.) According to legend he was the host of St. Peter and friend of
St. Paul. and was martyred under Nero.


According to (1 Chronicles 2:53) the "Puhites" or "Puthites" belonged to
the families of Kirjath-jearim.


(lord), a country or nation mentioned in (Isaiah 66:19) It is
spoken of with distant nations, and is supposed by some to represent the
island Philae in Egypt, and by others Libya.


an Assyrian king, and the first Assyrian monarch mentioned in Scripture.
He made an expedition against Menahem, king of Israel, about B.C. 770. (2
Kings 15:19)


(seeds) usually means peas, beans and the seeds that grow in pods.
In the Authorized Version it occurs only in (Lamentations 1:12,16) as the
translation of words the literal meaning of which is "seeds" of any kind.
Probably the term denotes uncooked grain of any kind, as barley wheat,
millet, vetches, etc.


The earliest theory of punishment current among mankind is doubtless the
one of simple retaliation, "blood for blood." Viewed historically, the
first case of punishment for crime mentioned in Scripture, next to the
Fall itself, is that of Cain, the first murderer. That death was regarded
as the fitting punishment for murder appears plain from the remark of
Lamech. (Genesis 4:24) In the post-diluvian code, if we may so call it,
retribution by the hand of man, even in the case of an offending animal,
for blood shed, is clearly laid dawn. (Genesis 9:5,6) Passing onward to
Mosaic times, we find the sentence of capital punishment, in the case of
murder, plainly laid down in the law. The murderer was to be put to death,
even if he should have taken refuge at God's altar or in a refuge city,
and the same principle was to be carried out even in the case of an
animal. Offences punished with death. -- I. The following offences
also are mentioned in the law as liable to the punishment of death:

  • Striking, or even reviling, a parent. (Exodus 21:15,17)

  • Blasphemy. (Leviticus 24:14,16,23)

  • Sabbath-breaking. (Exodus 31:14; 35:2; Numbers 15:32-36)

  • Witchcraft, and false pretension to prophecy. (Exodus 22:18; Leviticus
    20:27; 13:5; 18:20)

  • Adultery. (Leviticus 20:10; 22:22)

  • Unchastity. (Leviticus 21:9; 22:21,23)

  • Rape. (22:25)

  • Incestuous and unnatural connections. (Exodus 22:19; Leviticus

  • Manstealing. (Exodus 21:16; 24:7)

  • Idolatry, actual or virtual, in any shape. (Leviticus 20:2;
    13:8,10,15; 17:2-7) see Josh 7:1 ... and Josh 22:20 and Numb 25:8

  • False witness in certain cases. (19:16,19) II. But there is a large
    number of offences, some of them included in this list, which are named in
    the law as involving the,penalty of "cutting off from the people. On the
    meaning of this expression some controversy has arisen. There are
    altogether thirty six or thirty seven cases in the Pentateuch in which
    this formula is used. We may perhaps conclude that the primary meaning of
    "cutting off" is a sentence of death to be executed in some cases without
    remission, but in others voidable -- (1) by immediate atonement on the
    offender's part; (2) by direct interposition of the Almighty i.e., a
    sentence of death always "regarded," but not always executed. Kinds of
    . -- Punishments are twofold, Capital and Secondary. I.
    Capital. (A) The following only are prescribed by the law:

  • Stoning, which was the ordinary mode of execution. (Exodus
    17:4; Luke 20:6; John 10:31; Acts 14:5) In the case of idolatry, and it
    may be presumed in other cases also, the witnesses, of whom there were to
    be at least two, were required to cast the first stone. (13:9; Acts

  • Hanging is mentioned as a distinct punishment. (Numbers 25:4; 2
    Samuel 21:6,9)

  • Burning, in pre-Mosaic times, was the punishment for
    unchastity. (Genesis 38:24) Under the law it was ordered in the case of a
    priest's daughter (Leviticus 21:9)

  • Death by the sword or spear is named in the law, (Exodus 19:13;
    32:27; Numbers 25:7) and it occurs frequently in regal and post-Babylonian
    times. (1 Kings 2:25,34; 19:1; 2 Chronicles 21:4) etc.

  • Strangling is said by the rabbis to have been regarded as the
    most common but least severe of the capital punishments, and to have been
    performed by immersing the convict in clay or mud, and then strangling him
    by a cloth twisted round the neck. (B) Besides these ordinary capital
    punishments, we read of others, either of foreign introduction or of an
    irregular kind. Among the former

  • CRUCIFIXION is treated elsewhere.

  • Drowning, though not ordered under the law, was practiced at
    Rome, and is said by St. Jerome to have been in use among the Jews.

  • Sawing asunder or crushing beneath iron instruments. (2 Samuel
    12:31) and perhaps (Proverbs 20:26; Hebrews 11:37)

  • Pounding in a mortar, or beating to death, is alluded to in
    (Proverbs 27:22) but not as a legal punishment, and cases are described. 2
    Macc. 6:28,30.

  • Precipitation, attempted in the case of our Lord at Nazareth, and
    carried out in that of captives from the Edomites, and of St. James, who
    is said to have been cast from "the pinnacle" of the temple. Criminals
    executed by law were burned outside the city gates, and heaps of stones
    were flung upon their graves. (Joshua 7:25,26; 2 Samuel 18:17; Jeremiah
    22:19) II. Of secondary punishments among the Jews, the original
    Principles were,

  • Retaliation, "eye for eye," etc. (Exodus 21:24,25)

  • Compensation, Identical (restitution)or analogous payment for
    loss of time or of power. (Exodus 21:18-36; Leviticus 24:18-21; 19:21)
    Slander against a wife's honor was to be compensated to her parents by a
    fine of one hundred shekels, and the traducer himself to be punished with
    stripes (22:18,19)

  • Stripes, whose number was not to exceed forty, (25:3) whence
    the Jews took care not to exceed thirty-nine. (2 Corinthians 11:24)

  • Scourging with thorns is mentioned (Judges 8:16) The
    stocks are mentioned (Jeremiah 20:2) passing through fire,
    (2 Samuel 12:31) mutilation, (Judges 1:6) 2 Macc. 7:4, and see (2
    Samuel 4:12) plucking out hair, (Isaiah 50:6) in later times,
    imprisonment and confiscation or exile. (Ezra 7:26; Jeremiah 37:15; 38:6;
    Acts 4:3; 5:18; 12:4)


the descendants of Pua, or Puvah, the son of Issachar. (Numbers 26:23)


(darkness) one of the halting-places of the Israelite host during
the last portion of the wandering. (Numbers 33:42,43) By Eusebius and
Jerome, it is identified with Phaeno, which contained the copper-mines so
well known at that period, and was situated between Petra and Zoar.


in its legal and technical sense, is applied to the ritual observances
whereby an Israelite was formally absolved from the taint of uncleanness.
The essence of purification, in all eases, consisted in the use of water,
whether by way of ablution or aspersion; but in the majora delicta
of legal uncleanness, sacrifices of various kinds were added and the
ceremonies throughout bore an expiatory character. Ablution of the person
and of the clothes was required in the cases mentioned in (Leviticus
15:18; 11:25,40; 15:18,17) In cases of childbirth the sacrifice was
increased to a lamb of the first year, with a pigeon or turtle-dove.
(Leviticus 12:8) The ceremonies of purification required in cases of
contact with a corpse or a grave are detailed in (Numbers 19:1) ... The
purification of the leper was a yet more formal proceeding, and indicated
the highest pitch of uncleanness. The rites are described in (Leviticus
14:4-32) The necessity of purification was extended in the post-Babylonian
Period to a variety of unauthorized cases. Cups and pots and brazen
vessels were washed as a matter of ritual observance. (Mark 7:4) The
washing of the hands before meals was conducted in a formal manner. (Mark
7:3) What play have been the specific causes of uncleanness in those who
came up to purify themselves before the Passover, (John 11:55) or in those
who had taken upon themselves the Nazarites’ vow, (Acts 21:24,26) we
are not informed. In conclusion it may he observed that the distinctive
feature. In the Mosaic rites of purification is their expiatory character.
The idea of uncleanness was not peculiar to the Jew; but with all other
nations simple ablution sufficed: no sacrifices were demanded. The Jew
alone was taught by the use of expiatory offerings to discern to its
fullest extent the connection between the outward sign and the inward
fount of impurity.


(lots), the annual festival instituted to commemorate the
preservation of the Jews in Persia from the massacre with which they were
threatened through the machinations of Haman. (Esther 9:1) ... It was
probably called Purim by the Jews in irony. Their great enemy Haman
appears to have been very superstitious, and much given to casting lots.
(Esther 3:7) They gave the name. Purim, or "Lots," to the commemorative
festival because he had thrown lots to ascertain what day would be
suspicious for him to carry into effect the bloody decree which the king
had issued at his instance. (Esther 9:24) The festival lasted two days,
and was regularly observed on the 14th and 15th of Adar. According to
modern custom, as soon as the stars begin to appear, when the 14th of the
month has commenced, candles are lighted up in token of rejoicing, and the
people assemble in the synagogue. After a short prayer and thanksgiving,
the reading of the book of Esther commences. The book is written in a
peculiar manner, on a roll called "the Roll" (Megillah). When the reader
comes to the name of Haman, the congregation cry out, "May his name be
blotted out," or, "Let the name of the ungodly perish." When the Megillah
is read through, the whole congregation exclaim, "Cursed be Haman; blessed
be Mordecai; cursed be Zoresh (the wife of Haman); blessed be Esther;
cursed be all idolaters; blessed be all Israelites, and blessed be
Harbonah who hanged Haman." In the morning service in the synagogue, on
the 14th, after the prayers, the passage is read from the law, (Exodus
17:8-16) which relates the destruction of the Amalekites, the people of
Agag, (1 Samuel 15:8) the supposed ancestor of Haman. (Esther 3:1) The
Megillah is then read again in the same manner. The 14th of Adar, as the
very day of the deliverance of the Jews, is more solemnly kept than the
13th; but when the service in the synagogue is over, all give themselves
up to merry making.


a bag for money. The Hebrews, when on a journey, were provided with a bag,
in which they carried their money, (Genesis 42:35; Proverbs 1:14; 7:20;
Isaiah 46:6) and, if they were merchants, also their weights. (25:13;
Micah 6:11) This bag is described in the New Testament by the terms
balantion (bag) (Luke 10:4; 12:33; 22:35,38) and glossokomon
(originally the bag in which musicians carried the mouth-pieces of their
Instruments). (John 12:6; 13:29) The girdle also served as a purse.
(Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8) Ladies wore ornamental purses. (Isaiah 3:24)


(1 Chronicles 1:8; Nahum 3:9) [PHUT, PUT]


(sulphurous springs), the great landing-place of travelers to Italy
from the Levant, and the harbor to which the Alexandrian corn-ships
brought their cargoes. (Acts 27:13) The celebrated bay which is now the
Bay of Naples was then called "Sinus Puteolanus." The city was at the
northeastern angle of the bay. The name Puteoli arose from the strong
mineral springs which are characteristic of the place. It was a favorite
watering-place of the Romans its hot springs being considered efficacious
for cure of various diseases. Here also ships usually discharged their
passengers and cargoes, partly to avoid doubling the promontory of
Circeium and partly because there was no commodious harbor nearer to Rome.
Hence the ship in which Paul was conveyed from Melita landed the prisoners
at this place, where the apostle stayed a week. (Acts 28:13,14) --
Whitney. The associations of Puteoli with historical personages
are very numerous. Scipio sailed from this place to Spain; Cicero had a
villa in the neighborhood; here Nero planned the murder of his mother;
Vespasian gave to this city peculiar privileges; and here Adrian was
buried. In the fifth century it was ravaged by both Alaric and Genseric,
and it never afterward recovered its former eminence. It is now a
fourth-rate Italian town, still retaining the name of Pozzuoli.
The remains of Puteoli are worthy of mention. Among them are the aqueduct
the reservoirs, portions (probably) of the baths the great amphitheatre
and the building called the temple of Serapis. No Roman harbor has left as
solid a memorial of itself as this one, at which St. Paul landed in


One of the daughters of Putiel was wife of Eleazar the son of Aaron, and
mother of Phinehas. (Exodus 6:25) (B.C. before 1481.)


occurs, (14:5) in the list of clean animals as the rendering of the Heb.
dishon, the name apparently of one species of antelope, though it
is by no means easy to identify it.


the father of Sopater of Berea. (Acts 20:4) in Revised Version. (A.D.

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