Smith's Bible Dictionary - L



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LAADAH


(order), the son of Shelah and grandson of Judah. (1 Chronicles
4:21)


LAADAN


(put in order).

  • An Ephraimite, ancestor of Joshua the son of Nun. (1 Chronicles
    7:26)

  • The son of Gershom, elsewhere called LIBNI. (1 Chronicles 23:7,8,9;
    26:21)


LABAN


(white).

  • Son of Bethuel, brother of Rebekah and father of Leah and Rachel.
    (B.C. about 1860-1740.) The elder branch of the family remained at Haran,
    Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan, and it is there
    that we first meet with Laban, as taking the leading part in the betrothal
    of his sister Rebekah to her cousin Isaac. (Genesis 24:10,29-60; 27:43;
    29:5) The next time Laban appears in the sacred narrative it is as the
    host of his nephew Jacob at Haran. (Genesis 29:13,14) [JACOB] Jacob
    married Rachel and Leah, daughters of Laban, and remained with him 20
    years, B.C. 1760-1740. But Laban's dishonest and overreaching practice
    toward his nephew shows from what source Jacob inherited his tendency to
    sharp dealing. Nothing is said of Laban after Jacob left him.

  • One of the landmarks named in the obscure and disputed passage (1:1)
    The mention of Hezeroth has perhaps led to the only conjecture regarding
    Laban of which the writer is aware, namely, that it is identical with
    LIBNAH. (Numbers 33:20)


LACEDAEMONIANS


in Greece the inhabitants of Sparta or Lacedaemon, with whom the Jews
claimed kindred. 1 Macc. 12:2,5,6,20,21; 14:20,23; 15:23; 2 Macc. 5:9.


LACHISH


(invincible), a city lying south of Jerusalem, on the borders of
Simeon, and belonging to the Amorites, the king of which joined with four
others, at the invitation of Adonizedek king of Jerusalem, to chastise the
Gibeonites for their league with Israel. (Joshua 10:3,5) They were routed
by Joshua at Beth-horon, and the king of Lachish fell a victim with the
others under the trees at Makkedah. ver. (Joshua 10:26) The destruction of
the town shortly followed the death of the king. vs. (Joshua 10:31-33) In
the special statement that the attack lasted two days, in
contradistinction to the other cities which were taken in one (see ver.
35), we gain our first glimpse of that strength of position for which
Lachish was afterward remarkable. Lachish was one of the cities fortified
and garrisoned by Rehoboam after the revolt of the northern kingdom. (2
Chronicles 11:9) In the reign of Hezekiah it was one of the cities taken
by Sennacherib. This siege is considered by Layard and Hincks to be
depicted on the slabs found by the former in one of the chambers of the
palace at Kouyunjik. After the return from captivity, Lachish with its
surrounding "fields" was reoccupied by the Jews. (Nehemiah 11:30)


LAEL


(of God), the father of Eliasaph. (Numbers 3:24)


LAHAD


(oppression), son of Jahath, one of the descendants of Judah. (1
Chronicles 4:2)


LAHAIROI


(well of the living God), The well. In this form is given in
the Authorized Version of (Genesis 24:62) and Genesis25:11 The name of the
famous well of Hagar's relief, in the oasis of verdure round which Isaac
afterward resided. It was southwest of Beersheba.


LAHMAM


(provisions), a town in the lowland district of Judah. (Joshua
15:40)


LAHMI


(warrior), the brother of Goliath the Gittite, slain by Elhanan the
son of Zair or Zaor. (1 Chronicles 20:5) (B.C. 1020.)


LISH


(lion), the city which was taken by the Danites, and under its new
name of Dan became famous as the northern limit of the nation. (Judges
18:7,14,27,29) [DAN] It was near the sources of the Jordan. In the
Authorized Version Laish is again mentioned in the account of
Sennacherib's march on Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:30) This Laish is probably
the small village Laishah, lying between Gallim and Anathoth in Benjamin,
and of which hitherto no traces have been found. (Fairbairn's "Imperial
Bible Dictionary" suggests that it may be the present little village
el-Isawiyeh, in a beautiful valley a mile northeast of Jerusalem.
-- ED.)


LAISH


(lion), father of Phaltiel, to whom Saul had given Michal, David's
wife. (1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:15)


LAKES


[PALESTINA AND PALESTINE]


LAKUM


(fortification), properly formed the landmarks of the boundary of
Naphtali. (Joshua 19:33)


LAMBS


are the young of sheep, but originally included also the young of goats.
They formed an important part of almost every sacrifice. (Exodus 29:38-41;
Numbers 28:9,11; 29:2,13-40) etc. [On the paschal lamb see PASSOVER]


LAMECH


(powerful), properly Lemech.

  • The fifth lineal descendant from Cain. (Genesis 4:18-24) He is the
    only one except Enoch, of the posterity of Cain, whose history is related
    with some detail. His two wives, Adah and Zillah, and his daughter Naamah,
    are, with Eve, the only antediluvian women whose names are mentioned by
    Moses. His three sons, Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain, are celebrated in
    Scripture as authors of useful inventions. The remarkable poem which
    Lamech uttered may perhaps be regarded as Lamech's son of exultation on
    the invention of the sword by his son Tubal-cain, in the possession of
    which he foresaw a great advantage to himself and his family over any
    enemies.

  • The father of Noah. (Genesis 5:29)


LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH


Title. -- The Hebrew title of this book, Ecah, is taken,
like the titles of the five books of Moses, from the Hebrew word with
which it opens. Author. -- The poems included in this collection
appear in the Hebrew canon with no name attached to them, but Jeremiah has
been almost universally regarded as their author. Date. -- The
poems belong unmistakably to the last days of the kingdom, or the
commencement of the exile, B.C. 629-586. They are written by one who
speaks, with the vividness and intensity of an eye-witness, of the misery
which he bewails. Contents. -- The book consists of five chapter,
each of which, however, is a separate poem, complete in itself, and having
a distinct subject, but brought at the same time under a plan which
includes them all. A complicated alphabetic structure pervades nearly the
whole book. (1) Chs. 1,2 and 4 contain twenty-two verses each, arranged in
alphabetic order, each verse falling into three nearly balanced clauses;
ch. (Lamentations 2:19) forms an exception, as having a fourth clause. (2)
Ch. 3 contains three short verses under each letter of the alphabet, the
initial letter being three times repeated. (3) Ch. 5 contains the same
number of verses as chs. 1,2,4, but without the alphabetic order. Jeremiah
was not merely a patriot-poet, weeping over the ruin of his country; he
was a prophet who had seen all this coming, and had foretold it as
inevitable. There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which
appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than
this. The book has supplied thousands with the fullest utterance for their
sorrows in the critical periods of national or individual suffering. We
may well believe that it soothed the weary years of the Babylonian exile.
It enters largely into the order of the Latin Church for the services of
passion-week. On the ninth day of the month of Ab (July-August), the
Lamentations of Jeremiah were read, year by year, with fasting and
weeping, to commemorate the misery out of which the people had been
delivered.


LAMP


  • That part of the golden candlestick belonging to the tabernacle which
    bore the light; also of each of the ten candlesticks placed by Solomon in
    the temple before the holy of holies. (Exodus 25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2
    Chronicles 4:20; 13:11; Zechariah 4:2) The lamps were lighted every
    evening and cleansed every morning. (Exodus 30:7,8)

  • A torch or flambeau, such as was carried by the soldiers of Gideon.
    (Judges 7:16,20) comp. Judg 15:4 The use in marriage processions of lamps
    fed with oil is alluded to in the parable of the ten virgins. (Matthew
    25:1) Modern Egyptian lamps consist of small glass vessels with a tube at
    the bottom containing a cotton wick twisted around a piece of straw. For
    night travelling, a lantern composed of waxed cloth strained over a sort
    of cylinder of wire rings, and a top and bottom of perforated copper. This
    would, in form at least, answer to the lamps within pitchers of Gideon.
    "The Hebrews, like the ancient Greeks and Romans, as well as the modern
    Orientals, were accustomed to burn lamps all night. This custom, with the
    effect produced by their going out or being extinguished, supplies various
    figures to the sacred writers. (2 Samuel 21:17; Proverbs 13:9; 20:20) On
    the other hand, the keeping up of a lamp's light is used as a symbol of
    enduring and unbroken succession. (1 Kings 11:36; 15:4; Psalms 132:17) "
    -- McClintock and Strong.


LANCET


This word is found in (1 Kings 18:28) only. The Hebrew term is
romach, which is elsewhere rendered, and appears to mean a javelin
or light spear. In the original edition of the Authorized Version (1611)
the word is "lancers."


LANGUAGE


[TONGUES, CONFUSION OF, CONFUSION OF]


LANTERN


(so called of its shining) occurs only in (John 18:3) (It there probably
denotes any kind of covered light, in distinction from a simple taper or
common house-light, as well as from a flambeau. Lanterns were much
employed by the Romans in military operations. Two, of bronze, have been
found among the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. They are cylindrical,
with translucent horn sides, the lamp within being furnished with an
extinguisher. -- ED.)


LAODICEA


(justice of the people), a town in the Roman province of Asia
situated in the valley of the Maeander, on a small river called the Lycus,
with Colossae and Hierapolis a few miles distant to the west. Built, or
rather rebuilt, by one of the Seleucid monarchs, and named in honor of his
wife, Laodicea became under the Roman government a place of some
importance. Its trade was considerable; it lay on the line of a great
road; and it was the seat of a conventus. From the third chapter
and seventeenth verse of Revelation we should gather it was a place of
great wealth. Christianity was introduced into Laodicea, not, however, as
it would seem, through the direct agency of St. Paul. We have good reason
for believing that when, in writing from Rome to the Christians of
Colossae, he sent a greeting to those of Laodicea, he had not personally
visited either place. But the preaching of the gospel at Ephesus, (Acts
18:19; Acts 19:41) must inevitably have resulted in the formation of
churches in the neighboring cities, especially where Jews were settled;
and there were Jews in Laodicea. In subsequent times it became a Christian
city of eminence, the see of bishop and a meeting-place of councils. The
Mohammedan invaders destroyed it, and it is now a scene of utter
desolation, as was prophesied in (Revelation 3:14-22) and the extensive
ruins near Denislu justify all that we read of Laodicea in Greek
and Roman writers. Another biblical subject of interest is connected with
Laodicea. From (Colossians 4:16) it appears that St. Paul wrote a letter
to this place when he wrote the letter to Colossae. Ussher's view is that
it was the same as the Epistle to the Ephesians, which was a circular
letter sent to Laodicea among other places. The apocryphal Epistola ad
Laodicenses
is a late and clumsy forgery.


LAODICEANS


the inhabitants of Laodicea. (Colossians 4:16; Revelation 3:14)


LAPIDOTH


(torches), the inhabitants of Laodicea. (Colossians 4:16;
Revelation 3:14)


LAPWING


(Heb. duciphath) occurs only in (Leviticus 11:19) and in the
parallel passage of (14:18) amongst the list of those birds which were
forbidden by the law of Moses to be eaten by the Israelites. Commentators
generally agree that the hoopoe is the bird intended. The hoopoe is
an occasional visitor to England, arriving for the most part in the
autumn. Its crest is very elegant; each of the long feathers forming it is
tipped with black.


LASEA


(Acts 27:8) a city of Crete, the ruins of which were discovered in 1856, a
few miles to the eastward of Fair Havens.


LASHA


(fissure), a place noticed in (Genesis 10:19) as marking the limit
of the country of the Canaanites. It lay somewhere in the southeast of
Palestine. Jerome and other writers identify it with Callirrhoe, a spot
famous for hot springs, near the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.


LASHARON


(the plain), one of the Canaanite towns whose kings were killed by
Joshua. (Joshua 12:18)


LACHET


the thong or fastening by which the sandal was attached to the foot. It
occurs int he proverbial expression in (Genesis 14:23) and is there used
to denote something trivial or worthless. Another semi-proverbial
expression in (Luke 3:16) points to the fact that the office of bearing
and unfastening the shoes of great personages fell to the meanest
slaves.


LATIN


the language spoken by the Romans, is mentioned only in (John 19:20) and
Luke 23:38


LATIN VERSIONS


[See VULGATE, THE, THE]


LATTICE


this word is used for a latticed window or simply a network placed before
a window or balcony. Perhaps the network through which Ahaziah fell and
received his mortal injury was on the parapet of his palace. (2 Kings 1:2)
(The latticed window is much used in warm eastern countries. It frequently
projects from the wall (like our bay windows), and is formed of
reticulated work, often highly ornamental, portions of which are hinged so
that they may be opened or shut at pleasure. The object is to keep the
apartments cool by intercepting the direct rays of the sun, while the air
is permitted to circulate freely. -- Fairbairn. [See HOUSE and WINDOW]


LAVER


  • In the tabernacle, a vessel of brass containing water for the priests
    to wash their hands and feet before offering sacrifice. It stood in the
    fore offering sacrifice. It stood in the court between the altar and the
    door of the tabernacle. (Exodus 30:19,21) It rested on a basis, i.e. a
    foot, which, was well as the laver itself, was made from the mirrors of
    the women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle court. (Exodus 38:8)
    The form of the laver is not specified, but may be assumed to have been
    circular. Like the other vessels belonging to the tabernacle, it was,
    together with its "foot," consecrated with oil. (Leviticus 8:10,11)

  • In Solomon's temple, besides the great molten sea, there were ten
    lavers of brass, raised on bases, (1 Kings 7:27,39) five on the north and
    five on the south side of the court of the priests. They were used for
    washing the animals to be offered in burnt offerings. (2 Chronicles
    4:6)


LAW


The word is properly used, in Scripture as elsewhere, to express a
definite commandment laid down by any recognized authority; but when the
word is used with the article, and without any words of limitation, it
refers to the expressed will to God, and in nine cases out of ten to the
Mosaic law, or to the Pentateuch of which it forms the chief portion. The
Hebrew word torah (law) lays more stress on its moral authority, as
teaching the truth and guiding in the right way; the Greek nomos
(law), on its constraining power as imposed and enforced by a recognized
authority. The sense of the word, however, extends its scope and assumes a
more abstracts character in the writings of St. Paul. Nomos, when
used by him with the article, still refers in general to the law of Moses;
but when used without the article, so as to embrace any manifestation of
"law," it includes all powers which act on the will of man by compulsion,
or by the pressure of external motives, whether their commands be or be
not expressed in definite forms. The occasional use of the word "law" (as
in (Romans 3:27) "law of faith") to denote an internal principle of
action does not really mitigate against the general rule. It should also
be noticed that the title "the Law" is occasionally used loosely to refer
to the whole of the Old Testament, as in (John 10:34) referring to (Psalms
82:6) in (John 15:25) referring to (Psalms 35:19) and in (1 Corinthians
14:21) referring to (Isaiah 28:11,12)


LAW OF MOSES


It will be the object of this article to give a brief analysis of the
substance of this law, to point out its main principles, and to explain
the position which it occupies in the progress of divine revelation. In
order to do this the more clearly, it seems best to speak of the law, 1st.
In relation to the past; 2d. In its own intrinsic character.

  • (a) In reference to the past, it is all-important, for the
    proper understanding of the law, to remember its entire dependence on the
    Abrahamic covenant. See (Galatians 3:17-24) That covenant had a twofold
    character. It contained the "spiritual promise" of the Messiah; but it
    contained also the temporal promises subsidiary to the former. (b) The
    nature of this relation of the law to the promise is clearly
    pointed out. The belief in God as the Redeemer of man, and the hope of his
    manifestation as such int he person of the Messiah, involved the belief
    that the Spiritual Power must be superior to all carnal obstructions, and
    that there was in man spiritual element which could rule his life by
    communion with a spirit from above. But it involved also the idea of an
    antagonistic power of evil, from which man was to be redeemed, existing in
    each individual, and existing also in the world at large. (c) Nor is it
    less essential to remark the period of the history at which it was
    given. It marked and determined the transition of Israel from the
    condition of a tribe to that of a nation, and its definite assumption of a
    distinct position and office in the history of the world. (d) Yet, though
    new in its general conception, it was probably not wholly new in its
    materials.
    There must necessarily have been, before the law,
    commandments and revelations of a fragmentary character, under which
    Israel had hitherto grown up. So far therefore as they were consistent
    with the objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and the laws
    of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the Mosaic system. (e) In close
    connection with, and almost in consequence of, this reference to
    antiquity, we find an accommodation of the law to the temper and
    circumstances of the Israelites, to which our Lord refers int he case of
    divorce, (Matthew 19:7,8) as necessarily interfering with its absolute
    perfection. In many cases it rather should be said to guide and modify
    existing usages than actually to sanction them; and the ignorance of their
    existence may lead to a conception of its ordinances not only erroneous,
    but actually the reverse of the truth. (f) In close connection with this
    subject we observe also the gradual process by which the law was
    revealed
    to the Israelites. In Ex 20-23, in direct connection with the
    revelation from Mount Sinai, that which may be called the rough outline of
    the Mosaic law is given by God, solemnly recorded by Moses, and accepted
    by the people. In Ex 25-31, there is a similar outline of the Mosaic
    ceremonial. On the basis of these it may be conceived that the fabric of
    the Mosaic system gradually grew up under the requirements of the time.
    The first revelation of the law in anything like a perfect form is found
    in the book of Deuteronomy. yet even then the revelation was not final; it
    was the duty of the prophets to amend and explain it in special points,
    (Ezekiel 18:1) ... and to bring out more clearly its great
    principles.

  • In giving an analysis of the substance of the law, it will
    probably be better to treat it, as any other system of laws is usually
    treated, by dividing it into -- I. Laws Civil; II. Laws Criminal: III.
    Laws Judicial and Constitutional; IV. Laws Ecclesiastical and Ceremonial.
    I. LAWS CIVIL.

  • LAW OF PERSONS. (a) FATHER AND SON. -- the power of a father to
    be held sacred; cursing or smiting, (Exodus 21:15,17; Leviticus 20:9) and
    stubborn and willful disobedience, to be considered capital crimes. But
    uncontrolled power of life and death was apparently refused to the father,
    and vested only in the congregation. (21:18-21) Right of the
    first-born
    to a double portion of the inheritance not to be set aside
    by partiality. (21:15-17) Inheritance by daughters to be allowed in
    default of sons, provided, (Numbers 27:6-8) comp. Numb 36:1 ... that
    heiresses married in their own tribe. Daughters unmarried to be
    entirely dependent on their father. (Numbers 30:3-5) (b) HUSBAND AND WIFE.
    -- the power of a husband to be so great that a wife could never be
    sui juris, or enter independently into any engagement, even before
    God. (Numbers 30:6-15) A widow or a divorced wife became independent, and
    did not against fall under her father's power. ver. (Numbers 30:9)
    Divorce (for uncleanness) allowed, but to be formal and
    irrevocable. (24:1-4) Marriage within certain degrees forbidden.
    (Leviticus 18:1) ... etc. A slave wife, whether bought or captive,
    not to be actual property, nor to be sold; if illtreated, to be ipso
    facto
    free. (Exodus 21:7-9; 21:10-14) Slander against a wife's
    virginity to be punished by fine,a nd by deprived of power of divorce; on
    the other hand, ante-connubial uncleanness in her to be punished by death.
    (22:13-21) the raising up of seed (Levirate law) a formal right to
    be claimed by the widow, under pain of infamy, with a view to preservation
    of families. (25:5-10) (c) MASTER AND SLAVE. -- Power of master so far
    limited
    that death under actual chastisement was punishable, (Exodus
    21:20) and maiming was to give liberty ipso facto. vs. (Exodus
    21:26,27) The Hebrew slave to be freed at the sabbatical year, and
    provided with necessaries (his wife and children to go with only if they
    came to his master with him), unless by his own formal act he consented to
    be a perpetual slave. (Exodus 21:1-6; 15:12-18) In any case, it would
    seem, to be freed at the jubilee, (Leviticus 25:10) with his children. If
    sold to a resident alien, to be always redeemable, at a price proportioned
    to the distance of the jubilee. (Leviticus 25:47-54) Foreign slaves
    to be held and inherited as property forever, (Leviticus 25:45,46) and
    fugitive slaves from foreign nations not to be given up. (23:15) (d)
    STRANGERS. -- These seem never to have been sui juris, or able to
    protect themselves, and accordingly protection and kindness toward them
    are enjoined as a sacred duty. (Exodus 22:21; Leviticus 19:33,34)

  • LAW OF THINGS. (a) LAWS OF LAND (AND PROPERTY). -- (1) All land to
    be the property of God alone
    , and its holders to be deemed his
    tenants. (Leviticus 25:23) (2) All sold land therefore to return
    to its original owners
    at the jubilee, and the price of sale to be
    calculated accordingly; and redemption on equitable terms to be allowed at
    all times. (Leviticus 25:25-27) A house sold to be redeemable
    within a year; and if not redeemed, to pass away altogether, ch.
    (Leviticus 25:29,30) But the houses of the Levites, or those in
    unwalled villages, to be redeemable at all times, in the same way as land;
    and the Levitical suburbs to be inalienable. ch. (Leviticus 25:31-34) (3)
    Land or houses sanctified, or tithes, or unclean firstlings, to be
    capable of being redeemed, at six-fifths value (calculated according to
    the distance from the jubilee year by the priest); if devoted by the owner
    and unredeemed, to be hallowed at the jubilee forever, and given to the
    priests; if only by a possessor, to return to the owner at the jubilee.
    (Leviticus 27:14-34) (4) Inheritance. (b) LAWS OF DEBT. -- (1)
    All debts (to an Israelite) to be released at the seventh
    (sabbatical year; a blessing promised to obedience, and a curse on refusal
    to lend. (15:1-11) (2) Usury (from Israelites) not to be taken.
    (Exodus 22:25-27; 23:19,20) (3) Pledges not to be insolently or
    ruinously exacted. (24:6,10-13,17,18) (c) TAXATION. -- (1)
    Census-money, a poll-tax (of a half shekel), to be paid for the
    service of the tabernacle.
    (Exodus 30:12-16) All spoil in war to be
    halved; of the combatants’ half, one five-hundreth, of the people's,
    one fiftieth, to be paid for a "heave offering" to Jehovah. (2)
    Tithes. -- (a) Tithes of all produce to be given for
    maintenance of the Levites. (Numbers 18:20-24) (Of this one tenth to be
    paid as a heave offering for maintenance of the priests. vs. (Numbers
    18:24-32)) (b) Second tithe to be bestowed in religious feasting
    and charity, either at the holy place or (every third year) at home.
    (14:22-28) (c) First-fruits of corn, wine and oil (at least one
    sixtieth, generally one fortieth, for the priests) to be offered at
    Jerusalem, with a solemn declaration of dependence on God the King of
    Israel. (Numbers 18:12,13; 26:1-15) Firstlings of clean beasts; the
    redemption money (five shekels) of man and (half shekel, or one shekel) of
    unclean beasts to be given to the priests after sacrifice. (Numbers
    18:15-18) (3) Poor laws. -- (a) Gleanings (in field or
    vineyard) to be a legal right of the poor. (Leviticus 19:9,10; 24:19-22)
    (b) Slight trespass (eating on the spot) to be allowed as legal.
    (23:24,25) (c) Wages to be paid day by day. (24:15) (4)
    Maintenance of priests. (Numbers 18:8-32) (a) Tenth of
    Levites’ tithe
    . (See 2a.) (b) The heave and wave
    offerings
    (breast and right shoulder of all peace offerings). (c)
    The meat and sin offerings, to be eaten solemnly and only
    in the holy place. (c) First-fruits and redemption money. (See 2c.)
    (e) Price of all devoted things, unless specially given for a
    sacred service. A man's service, or that of his household, to be redeemed
    at 50 shekels for man, 30 for woman, 20 for boy and 10 for girl. II. LAWS
    CRIMINAL.

  • OFFENCES AGAINST GOD (of the nature of treason.) 1St Command.
    Acknowledgment of false gods, (Exodus 22:20) as e.g. Molech,
    (Leviticus 20:1-5) and generally all idolatry. (13; 17:2-5) 2Nd
    Command. Witchcraft and false prophecy. (Exodus 22:18; 18:9-22;
    Leviticus 19:31) 3Rd Command. Blasphemy. (Leviticus 24:15,16) 4Th
    Command. Sabbath-breaking. (Numbers 15:32,36) Punishment in all
    cases, death by stoning
    . Idolatrous cities to be utterly
    destroyed.

  • OFFENCES AGAINST MAN. 5Th Command. Disobedience to or cursing
    or smiting of parents, (Exodus 21:15,17; Leviticus 20:9; 21:18-21)
    to be punished by death by stoning, publicly adjudged and inflicted; so
    also of disobedience to the priests (as judges) or the Supreme Judge.
    Comp. (1 Kings 21:10-14) (Naboth); (2 Chronicles 24:21) (Zechariah). 6Th
    Command. (1) Murder to be punished by death without sanctuary or
    reprieve, or satisfaction. (Exodus 21:12,14; 19:11-13) Death of a slave,
    actually under the rod, to be punished. (Exodus 21:20,21) (2) Death by
    negligence
    to be punished by death. (Exodus 21:28-30) (3)
    Accidental homicide : the avenger of blood to seek safety by flight
    to a city of refuge, there to remain till the death of the high priest.
    (Numbers 35:9-28; 4:41-43; 19:4-10) (4) Uncertain murder to be
    expiated by formal disavowal and sacrifice by the elders of the nearest
    city. (21:1-9) (5) Assault to be punished by lex talionis,
    or damages. (Exodus 21:18,19,22-25; Leviticus 24:19,20) 7Th Command. (1)
    Adultery to be punished by death of both offenders; the rape of a
    married or betrothed woman, by death of the offender. (22:13-27) (2)
    Rape or seduction of an unbetrothed virgin to be compensated by
    marriage, with dowry (50 shekels), and without power of divorce; or, if
    she be refused, by payment of full dowry. (Exodus 22:16,17; 22:28,29) (3)
    Unlawful marriages (incestuous, etc.) to be punished, some by
    death, some by childlessness. (Leviticus 20:1) ... 8Th command. (1)
    Theft to be punished by fourfold or double restitution; or
    nocturnal robber might be slain as an outlaw. (Exodus 22:1-4) (2)
    Trespass and injury of things lent to be compensated. (Exodus
    23:5-15) (3) Perversion of justice (by bribes, threats, etc.), and
    especially oppression of strangers, strictly forbidden. (Exodus 22:9) etc.
    (4) Kidnapping to be punished by death. (24:7) 9Th Command.
    False witness to be punished by lex talionis. (Exodus
    23:1-3; 19:16-21) Slander of a wife's chastity, by fine and loss of power
    of divorce. (22:18,19) A fuller consideration of the tables of the Ten
    Commandments is given elsewhere. [TEN COMMANDMENTS COMMANDMENTS] III. LAWS
    JUDICIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL.

  • JURISDICTION. (a) Local judges (generally Levites as more
    skilled in the law) appointed, for ordinary matters, probably by the
    people with approbation of the supreme authority (as of Moses in the
    wilderness), (Exodus 18:25; 1:15-18) through all the land. (16:18) (b)
    Appeal to the priests (at the holy place), or to the judge ;
    their sentence final, and to be accepted under pain of death. See
    (17:8-13) comp. appeal to Moses, (Exodus 18:26) (c) Two witnesses
    (at least) required in capital matters. (Numbers 35:30; 17:6,7) (d)
    Punishment, except by special command, to be personal, and not to
    extend to the family. (24:16) Stripes allowed and limited, (25:1-3) so as
    to avoid outrage on the human frame. All this would be to a great extent
    set aside -- 1st. By the summary jurisdiction of the king, see (1 Samuel
    22:11-19) (Saul); (2 Samuel 12:1-5; 14:4-11; 1 Kings 3:16-28) which
    extended even to the deposition of the high priest. (1 Samuel 22:17,18; 1
    Kings 2:26,27) The practical difficulty of its being carried out is seen
    in (2 Samuel 15:2-6) and would lead of course to a certain delegation of
    his power. 2Nd. By the appointment of the Seventy, (Numbers 11:24-30) with
    a solemn religious sanction. In later times there was a local sanhedrin of
    twenty-three in each city, and two such in Jerusalem, as well as the Great
    Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy members, besides the president, who was
    to be the high priest if duly qualified, and controlling even the king and
    high priest. The members were priest, scribes (Levites), and elders (of
    other tribes). A court of exactly this nature is noticed as appointed to
    supreme power by Jehoshaphat. See (2 Chronicles 19:8-11)

  • ROYAL POWER. The king's power limited by the law, as written
    and formally accepted by the king; and directly forbidden to be despotic.
    (Military conquest discouraged by the prohibition of the use of horses.
    See (Joshua 11:6) For an example of obedience to this law see (2 Samuel
    8:4) and of disobedience to it see (1 Kings 10:26-29) (17:14-20) comp.
    1Sam 10:25 Yet he had power of taxation (to one tenth) and of compulsory
    service, (1 Samuel 8:10-18) the declaration of war, (1 Samuel 11:1) ...
    etc. There are distinct traces of a "mutual contract," (2 Samuel 5:3) a
    "league," (2 Kings 11:17) the remonstrance with Rehoboam being clearly not
    extraordinary. (1 Kings 13:1-6) The princes of the congregation.
    -- The heads of the tribes, see (Joshua 9:15) seem to have had authority
    under Joshua to act for the people, comp. (1 Chronicles 27:16-22) and in
    the later times "the princes of Judah" seem to have had power to control
    both the king and the priests. See (Jeremiah 26:10-24; 38:4,5) etc.

  • ROYAL REVENUE. (1) Tenth of produce. (2) Domain land. (1
    Chronicles 27:26-29) Note confiscation of criminal's land. (1 Kings 21:15)
    (3) Bond service, (1 Kings 5:17,18) chiefly on foreigners. (1
    Kings 9:20-22; 2 Chronicles 2:16,17) (4) Flocks and herds. (1
    Chronicles 27:29-31) (5) Tributes (gifts) from foreign kings. (6)
    Commerce ; especially in Solomon's time. (1 Kings 10:22,29) etc.
    IV. ECCLESIASTICAL AND CEREMONIAL LAW.

  • LAW OF SACRIFICE (considered as the sign and the appointed means of
    the union with God, on which the holiness of the people depended). A.
    ORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) The whole burnt offering, (Leviticus 1:1)
    ... of the herd or the flock; to be offered continually, (Exodus 29:38-42)
    and the fire on the altar never to be extinguished. (Leviticus 6:8-13) (b)
    The meat offering, (Leviticus 2; 6:14-23) of flour, oil and
    frankincense, unleavened and seasoned with salt. (c) The peace
    offering,
    (Leviticus 3:1; Leviticus 7:11-21) of the herd or the flock;
    either a thank offering or a vow or free-will offering. (d) The sin
    offering
    or trespass offering. Le 4,5,6 (A) For sins committed
    in ignorance. Le 4 (B) For vows unwittingly made and broken, or
    uncleanness unwittingly contracted. Levi 5 (C) For sins wittingly
    committed. (Leviticus 6:1-7) b. EXTRAORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) At the
    consecration of priests.
    Le 8,9 (b) At the purification of
    women.
    Le 12 (c) At the cleansing of lepers. Le 13,14 (d) On
    the great day of atonement.
    Le 16 (e) On the great festivals. Le
    23

  • LAW OF HOLINESS (arising from the union with God through sacrifice).
    a. HOLINESS OF PERSONS. (1) Holiness of the whole people as
    "children of God," (Exodus 19:5,6; Leviticus 11-15,17,18; 14:1-21) shown
    in (a) The dedication of the first-born, (Exodus 13:2,12,13; 22:29,30)
    etc.; and the offering of all firstlings and first-fruits. Deuteronomy 26,
    etc. (b) Distinction of clean and unclean food. Levi 11; Deuteronomy 14.
    (c) Provision for purification. Levi 12,13,14,15; (23:1-4) (d) Laws
    against disfigurement. (Leviticus 19:27; 14:1) comp. (25:3) against
    excessive scourging. (e) Laws against unnatural marriages and lusts. Le
    18,20 (2) Holiness of the priests (and Levites). (a) Their
    consecration. Le 8,9; Ex 29 (b) Their special qualifications and
    restrictions. (Leviticus 21:1; Leviticus 22:1-9) (c) Their rights,
    (18:1-6; Numbers 18:1) ... and authority. (17:8-13) b. HOLINESS OF PLACES
    AND THINGS. (a) The tabernacle with the ark, the vail, the altars,
    the laver, the priestly robes, etc. Ex 25-28,30. (b) The holy place
    chosen for the permanent erection of the tabernacle, (12:1; 14:22-29)
    where only all sacrifices were to be offered and all tithes, firstfruits,
    vows, etc., to be given or eaten. c. HOLINESS OF TIMES. (a) The
    Sabbath.
    (Exodus 20:9-11; 23:12) etc. (b) The sabbatical year.
    (Exodus 23:10,11; Leviticus 25:1-7) etc. (c) The year of jubilee.
    (Leviticus 25:8-16) etc. (d) The passover. (Exodus 12:3-27;
    Leviticus 23:4,5) (e) The feast of weeks (pentecost). (Leviticus
    23:15) etc. (f) The feast of tabernacles. (Leviticus 23:33-43) (g)
    The feast of trumpets. (Leviticus 23:23-25) (h) The day of
    atonement
    . (Leviticus 23:26-32) etc. Such is the substance of the
    Mosaic law. The leading principle of the whole is its THEOCRATIC
    CHARACTER, its reference, that is, of all action and thoughts of men
    directly and immediately to the will of God. It follows from this
    that it is to be regarded not merely as a law, that is, a rule of conduct
    based on known truth and acknowledged authority, but also as a
    revelation of God's nature and his dispensations. But this
    theocratic character of the law depends necessarily on the belief in
    God
    , as not only the creator and sustainer of the world, but as, by
    special covenant, the head of the Jewish nation. This immediate
    reference to God as their king is clearly seen as the groundwork of their
    whole polity. From this theocratic nature of the law follow important
    deductions with regard to (a) the view which it takes of political
    society; (b) the extent of the scope of the law; (c) the penalties by
    which it is enforced; and (d) the character which it seeks to impress on
    the people. (a) The Mosaic law seeks the basis of its polity, first, in
    the absolute sovereignty of God; next, in the relationship of each
    individual to God, and through God to his countrymen. It is clear that
    such a doctrine, while it contradicts none of the common theories, yet
    lies beneath them all. (b) The law, as proceeding directly from God and
    referring directly to him, is necessarily absolute in its supremacy
    and unlimited in its scope. It is supreme over the governors, as
    being only the delegates of the Lord, and therefore it is incompatible
    with any despotic authority in them. On the other hand, it is supreme over
    the governed, recognizing no inherent rights in the individual as
    prevailing against or limiting the law. It regulated the whole life of an
    Israelite. His actions were rewarded and punished with great minuteness
    and strictness -- and that according to the standard, not of their
    consequences but of their intrinsic morality. (c) The penalties and
    rewards
    by which the law is enforced are such as depend on the direct
    theocracy. With regard to individual actions, it may be noticed that, as
    generally some penalties are inflicted by the subordinate and some only
    the supreme authority, so among the Israelites some penalties came from
    the hand of man, some directly from the providence of God. (d) But perhaps
    the most important consequence of the theocratic nature of the law was the
    peculiar character of goodness which it sought to impress on the
    people.
    The Mosaic law, beginning with piety as its first object,
    enforces most emphatically the purity essential to those who, by their
    union with God, have recovered the hope of intrinsic goodness, while it
    views righteousness and love rather as deductions from these than as
    independent objects. The appeal is not to any dignity of human nature, but
    to the obligations of communion with a holy God. The subordination,
    therefore, of this idea also to the religious idea is enforced; and so
    long as the due supremacy of the latter was preserved, all other duties
    would find their places in proper harmony.


LAWYER


The title "lawyer" is generally supposed to be equivalent to the title
"scribe." The scribe expounded the law in the synagogues and schools. [See
SCRIBES]


LAYING ON OF HANDS


This "formed at an early period a part of the ceremony observed on the
appointment and consecration of persons to high and holy undertakings;"
(and in the Christian Church was especially used in setting apart men to
the ministry and to other holy offices. It is a symbolical act expressing
the imparting of spiritual authority and power. -- ED.)


LAZARUS


(whom God helps), another form of the Hebrew name Eleazar.

  • Lazarus of Bethany, the brother of Martha and Mary. (John 11:1) All
    that we know of him is derived from the Gospel of St. John, and that
    records little more than the facts of his death and resurrection. The
    language of (John 11:1) implies that the sisters were the better known.
    Lazarus is "of Bethany, of the village of Mary and her sister Martha."
    From this and from the order of the three names in (John 11:5) we may
    reasonably infer that Lazarus was the youngest of the family. All the
    circumstances of John 11 and 12 point to wealth and social position above
    the average.

  • The name of a poor man in the well-known parable of (Luke 16:19-31)
    The name of Lazarus has been perpetuated in an institution of the
    Christian Church. The leper of the Middle Ages appears as a lazzaro
    . The use of lazaretto and lazarhouse for the leper
    hospitals then founded in all parts of western Christendom, no less than
    that of lazaroni for the mendicants of Italian towns, is an
    indication of the effect of the parable upon the mind of Europe in the
    Middle Ages, and thence upon its later speech.


LEAD


This is one of the most common of metals, found generally in veins of
rocks, though seldom in a metallic state, and most commonly in combination
with sulphur. It was early known to the ancients, and the allusions to it
in Scripture indicate that the Hebrews were well acquainted with its uses.
The rocks in the neighborhood of Sinai yielded it in large quantities, and
it was found in Egypt. In (Job 19:24) the allusion is supposed to be to
the practice of carving inscriptions upon stone and pouring molten lead
into the cavities of the letters, to render them legible and at the same
time preserve them from the action of the air.


LEAF, LEAVES


The word occurs in the Authorized Version either in singular or plural
number in three different senses.

  • Leaf of a tree. The righteous are often compared to green leaves.
    (Jeremiah 17:8) The ungodly, on the other hand, are "as an oak whose leaf
    fadeth." (Isaiah 1:30)

  • Leaves of doors. The hebrew word, which occurs very many times in the
    Bible, and which in (1 Kings 6:32) (margin) and 1Kin 6:34 Is translated
    "leaves" in the Authorized Version, signifies beams, ribs, sides,
    etc.

  • Leaves of a book or roll occurs in this sense only in (Jeremiah 36:23)
    The Hebrew word (literally doors) would perhaps be more correctly
    translated columns.


LEAH


(wearied), the daughter of Laban. (Genesis 29:16) The dullness or
weakness of her eyes was so notable that it is mentioned as a contrast to
the beautiful form and appearance of her younger sister Rachel. Her father
took advantage of the opportunity which the local marriage rite afforded
to pass her off in her sister's stead on the unconscious bridegroom, and
excused himself to Jacob by alleging that the custom of the country
forbade the younger sister to be given first in marriage. Jacob's
preference of Rachel grew into hatred of Leah after he had married both
sisters. Leah, however, bore to him in quick succession Reuben, Simeon,
Levi, Judah, then Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah, before Rachel had a child.
She died some time after Jacob reached the south country in which his
father Isaac lived. She was buried in the family grave in Machpelah, near
Hebron. (Genesis 49:31) (B.C. about 1720.)


LEASING


(falsehood). This word is retained in the Authorized Version of
(Psalms 4:2; 5:6) from the older English versions; but the Hebrew word of
which it is the rendering is elsewhere almost uniformly translated "lies."
(Psalms 40:4; 58:3) etc.


LEATHER


The notices of leather in the Bible are singularly few; indeed the word
occurs but twice in the Authorized Version, and in each instance in
reference to the same object, a girdle. (2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4) There
are, however, other instances in which the word "leather" might with
propriety be substituted for "skin." (Leviticus 11:32; 13:48; Numbers
31:20) Though the material itself is seldom noticed, yet we cannot doubt
that it was extensively used by the Jews; shoes, bottles, thongs,
garments, ropes and other articles were made of it. The art of tanning,
however, was held in low esteem by the Jews.


LEAVEN


Various substances were known to have fermenting qualities; but the
ordinary leaven consisted of a lump of old dough in a high state of
fermentation, which was mixed into the mass of dough prepared for baking.
The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made to the Lord
by fire. During the passover the Jews were commanded to put every particle
of leaven from the house. The most prominent idea associated with leaven
in connection with the corruption which it had undergone,a nd which
it communicated to bread in the process of fermentation. It is to this
property of leaven that our Saviour points when he speaks of the "leaven
(i.e. the corrupt doctrine) of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees,"
(Matthew 16:6) and St. Paul, when he speaks of the "old leaven." (1
Corinthians 5:7) (Another quality in leaven is noticed in the Bible,
namely, its secretly penetrating and diffusive power. In this respect it
was emblematic of moral influence generally, whether good or bad; and
hence our Saviour adopts it as illustrating the growth of the kingdom of
heaven in the individual heart and in the world at large: because (1) its
source is from without; (2) it is secret in its operation; (3) it spreads
by contact of particle with particle; (4) it is widely diffusive, one
particle of leaven being able to change any number of particles of flour;
and because (5) it does not act like water, moistening a certain amount of
flour, but is like a plant, changing the particles it comes in contact
with into its own nature, with like propagating power. -- ED.)


LEBANA


(white), one of the Nethinim whose descendants returned from
Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:48) He is called Lebanah.


LEBANAH


(white) in (Ezra 2:45)


LEBANON


a mountain range in the north of Palestine. The name Lebanon signifies
white, and was applied either on account of snow which, during a
great part of the year, cover its whole summit, or on account of the white
color of its limestone cliffs and peaks. It is the "white mountain" -- the
Mont Blane of Palestine. Lebanon is represented in Scripture as lying upon
the northern border of the land of Israel. (1:7; 11:24; Joshua 1:4) Two
distinct ranges bear this name. They run in parallel lines from southwest
to northeast for about 90 geographical miles, enclosing between them a
long, fertile valley from five to eight miles wide, anciently called
Coele-Syria. The western range is the "Libanus" of the old
geographers and the Lebanon of Scripture. The eastern range was called
"Anti-Libanus" by geographers, and "Lebanon toward the sunrising" by the
sacred writers. (Joshua 13:5)

  • Lebanon -- the western range -- commences on the south of the
    deep ravine of the Litany, the ancient river Leontes, which drains
    the valley of Cole-Syria, and falls into the Mediterranean five miles
    north of Tyre. It runs northeast in a straight line parallel to the coast,
    to the opening from the Mediterranean into the plain of Emesa, called in
    Scripture the "entrance of Hamath." (Numbers 34:8) Here Nehr
    el-Kebir
    -- the ancient river Eleutherus -- sweeps round its northern
    end, as the Leontes does round its southern. The average elevation of the
    range is from 6000 to 8000 feet; but two peaks rise considerably higher.
    On the summits of both these peaks the snow remains in patches during the
    whole summer. The line of cultivation runs along at the height of about
    6000 feet; and below this the features of the western slopes are entirely
    different. The rugged limestone banks are scantily clothed with the
    evergreen oak, and the sandstone with pines; while every available spot is
    carefully cultivated. The cultivation is wonderful, and shows what all
    Syria might be if under a good government. Fig trees cling to the naked
    rock; vines are trained along narrow ledges; long ranges of mulberries, on
    terraces like steps of stairs, cover the more gentle declivities; and
    dense groves of olives fill up the bottoms of the glens. Hundreds of
    villages are seen -- here built among labyrinths of rocks, there clinging
    like among labyrinths of rocks, there clinging like swallows’ nests
    to the sides of cliffs; while convents, no less numerous, are perched on
    the top of every peak. The vine is still largely cultivated in every part
    of the mountain. Lebanon also abounds in olives, figs and mulberries;
    while some remnants exist of the forests of pine, oak and cedar which
    formerly covered it. (1 Kings 5:6; Ezra 3:7; Psalms 29:5; Isaiah 14:8)
    Considerable numbers of wild beasts still inhabit its retired glens and
    higher peaks; the writer has seen jackals, hyaenas, wolves, bears and
    panthers. (2 Kings 14:9; Solomon 4:8); Habb 2:17 Along the base of Lebanon
    runs the irregular plain of Phoenicia -- nowhere more than two miles wide,
    and often interrupted by bold rocky spurs that dip into the sea. The main
    ridge of Lebanon is composed of Jura limestone, and abounds in fossils.
    Long belts of more recent sandstone run along the western slopes, which
    are in places largely impregnated with iron. Lebanon was originally
    inhabited by the Hivites and Giblites. (Joshua 13:5,6; Judges 3:3) The
    whole mountain range was assigned to the Israelites, but was never
    conquered by them. (Joshua 13:2-6; Judges 3:1-3) During the Jewish
    monarchy it appears to have been subject of the Phoenicians. (1 Kings
    5:2-6; Ezra 3:7) From the Greek conquest until modern times Lebanon had no
    separate history.

  • Anti-Libanus. -- The main chain of Anti-Libanus commences in
    the plateau of Bashan, near the parallel of Caesarea Philippi, runs north
    to Hermon, and then northeast in a straight line till it stinks down into
    the great plain of Emesa, not far from the site of Riblah. Hermon is the
    loftiest peak; the next highest is a few miles north of the site of Abila,
    beside the village of Bludan, and has an elevation of about 7000
    feet. The rest of the ridge averages about 5000 feet; it is in general
    bleak and barren, with shelving gray declivities, gray cliffs and gray
    rounded summits. Here and there we meet with thin forests of dwarf oak and
    juniper. The western slopes descend abruptly into the Buka’a
    ; but the features of the eastern are entirely different. Three side
    ridges here radiate from Hermon, like the ribs of an open fan, and form
    the supporting walls of three great terraces. Anti-Libanus is only once
    distinctly mentioned in Scripture, where it is accurately described as
    "Lebanon toward the sunrising." (Joshua 13:5)


LEBAOTH


(lionesses), a town which forms one of the last group of the cities
of "the south" in the enumeration of the possessions of Judah, (Joshua
15:32) probably identical with Beth-lebaoth.


LEBBAEUS


(a man of heart), one name of Jude, who was one of the twelve
apostles.


LEBONAH


(frankincense), a place named in (Judges 21:19) only. Lebonah has
survived to our times under the almost identical form of el-Lubban
. It lies to the west of and close to the Nablus road, about eight
miles north of Beitan (Bethel) and two from Seilun
(Shiloh).


LECAH


(progress), a name mentioned in the genealogies of Judah, (1
Chronicles 4:21) only, as one of the descendants of Shelah, the third son
of Judah by the Canaanites Bath-shua.


LEECH


[HORSE-LEECH]


LEEKS


(Heb. chatsir). The leek was a bulbous vegetable resembling the
onion. Its botanical name is Allium porrum. The Israelites in the
wilderness longed for the leeks and onions of Egypt. (Numbers 11:5) The
word chatsir, which in (Numbers 11:5) is translated leeks,
occurs twenty times in the Hebrew text. The Hebrew term, which properly
denotes grass, is derived from a root signifying "to be green,"
and may therefore stand in this passage for any green food -- lettuce,
endive, etc.; it would thus be applied somewhat in the same manner as we
use the term "greens;" yet as the chatsir is mentioned together
with onions and garlic in the text, and as the most ancient versions
unanimously understand leeks by the Hebrew word, we may be
satisfied with our own translation.


LEES


the coarser parts of a liquor, its sediment or dregs. "Wine on the lees"
means a generous, full-bodied liquor. (Isaiah 25:6) Before the wine was
consumed, it was necessary to strain off the lees; such wine was then
termed "well refined." (Isaiah 25:6) To drink the lees, or "dregs," was an
expression for the endurance of extreme punishment. (Psalms 75:8)


LEGION


the chief subdivision of the Roman army, containing about 6000 infantry,
with a contingent of cavalry. The term does not occur in the Bible in its
primary sense, but appears to have been adopted in order to express any
large number, with the accessory ideas of order and subordination.
(Matthew 26:53; Mark 5:9)


LEHABIM


(fiery, flaming), occurring only in (Genesis 10:13) the name of a
Mizraite people or tribe. There can be no doubt that they are the same as
the Rebu or Lebu of the Egyptian inscriptions,a nd that from them Libya
and the Libyans derived their name. These primitive Libyans appear to have
inhabited the northern part of Africa to the west of Egypt, though
latterly driven from the coast by the Greek colonists of the
Cyrenaica.


LEHI


(jaw bone), a place in Judah, probably on the confines of the
Philistines’ country, between it and the cliff Etam; the scene of
Samson's well-known exploit with the jaw bone. (Judges 15:9,14,19) It may
perhaps be identified with Beit-Likiyeh, a village about two miles
below the upper Beth-horon.


LEMUEL


(dedicated to God), the name of an unknown king to whom his mother
addressed the prudential maxims contained in (Proverbs 31:1-9) The
rabbinical commentators identified Lemuel with Solomon. Others regard him
as king or chief of an Arab tribe dwelling on the borders of Palestine,
and elder brother of Agur, whose name stands at the head of (Proverbs
30:1)


LENTILS


(Heb. ’adashim), a leguminous plant bearing seeds resembling
small beans. The red pottage which Jacob prepared and for which Esau sold
his birthright was made from them. (Genesis 25:34) There are three of four
kinds of lentils, all of which are much esteemed in those countries where
they are grown, viz., the south of Europe, Asia and north Africa. The red
lentil is still a favorite article of food in the East. Lentil bread is
eaten by the poor of Egypt. The lentil is much used with other pulse in
Roman Catholic countries during Lent; and some are of opinion that from
this usage the season derives its name.


LEOPARD


(Heb. namer) is invariably given by the Authorized Version as the
translation of the Hebrew word, which occurs in the seven following
passages: (Solomon 4:8; Isaiah 11:6; Jeremiah 5:6; 13:23; Daniel 7:6;
Hosea 13:7); Habb 1:8 Leopard occurs also in Ecclus. 28:23 and in
(Revelation 13:2) From (Solomon 4:8) we learn that the hilly ranges of
Lebanon were in ancient times frequented by these animals. They are now
not uncommonly seen in and about Lebanon and the southern maritime
mountains of Syria. Under the name namer, which means "spotted,"
it is not improbable that another animal, namely the cheetah (Gueparda
jubata
), may be included; which is tamed by the Mohammedans of Syria,
who employ it in hunting the gazelle.


LEPER, LEPROSY


The predominant and characteristic form of leprosy in the Old Testament is
a white variety, covering either the entire body or a large tract of its
surface, which has obtained the name of Lepra mosaica. Such were
the cases of Moses, Miriam, Naaman and Gehazi. (Exodus 4:6; Numbers 12:10;
2 Kings 5:1,27) comp. Levi 13:13 But, remarkably enough, in the Mosaic
ritual diagnosis of the disease, (Leviticus 13:1; Leviticus 14:1) ... this
kind, when overspreading the whole surface, appears to be regarded as
"clean." (Leviticus 13:12,13,16,17) The Egyptian bondage, with its studied
degradations and privations, and especially the work of the kiln under an
Egyptian sun, must have had a frightful tendency to generate this class of
disorders. The sudden and total change of food, air, dwelling and mode of
life, caused by the exodus, to this nation of newly-emancipated slaves,
may possibly have had a further tendency to produce skin disorders, and
severe repressive measures may have been required in the desert-moving
camp to secure the public health or to allay the panic of infection. Hence
it is possible that many, perhaps most, of this repertory of symptoms may
have disappeared with the period of the exodus, and the snow-white form,
which had pre-existed, may alone have ordinarily continued in a later age.
The principal morbid features are a rising or swelling, a scab or
baldness, and a bright or white spot. (Leviticus 13:2) But especially a
white swelling in the skin, with a change of the hair of the part from the
natural black to white or yellow, ch. (Leviticus 13:3,4,10,20,25,30) or an
appearance of a taint going "deeper than the skin," or, again, "raw flesh"
appearing in the swelling, ch. (Leviticus 13:10,14,15) was a critical sign
of pollution. The tendency to spread seems especially to have been relied
on. A spot most innocent in other respects, if it "spread much abroad,"
was unclean; whereas, as before remarked, the man so wholly overspread
with the evil that it could find no further range was on the contrary
"clean." ch. (Leviticus 13:12,13) These two opposite criteria seem to show
that whilst the disease manifested activity, the Mosaic law imputed
pollution to and imposed segregation on the suffered, but that the point
at which it might be viewed as having run its course was the signal for
his readmission to communion. It is clear that the leprosy of Levi 13,14
means any severe disease spreading on the surface of the body in the way
described, and so shocking of aspect, or so generally suspected of
infection, that public feeling called for separation. It is now undoubted
that the "leprosy" of modern Syria, and which has a wide range in Spain,
Greece and Norway, is the Elephantiasis graecorum. It is said to
have been brought home by the crusaders into the various countries of
western and northern Europe. It certainly was not the distinctive white
leprosy, nor do any of the described symptoms in Levi 13 point to
elephantiasis. "White as snow," (2 Kings 5:27) would be a inapplicable to
elephantiasis as to small-pox. There remains a curious question as regards
the leprosy of garments and houses. Some have though garments worn by
leprous patients intended. This classing of garments and house-walls with
the human epidermis, as leprous, has moved the mirth of some and the
wonder of others. Yet modern science has established what goes far to
vindicate the Mosaic classification as more philosophical than such
cavils. It is now known that there are some skin diseases which originate
in an acarus, and others which proceed from a fungus. In these we may
probably find the solution of the paradox. The analogy between the insect
which frets the human skin and that which frets the garment that covers it
-- between the fungous growth that lines the crevices of the epidermis and
that which creeps in the interstices of masonry -- is close enough for the
purposes of a ceremonial law. It is manifest also that a disease in the
human subject caused by an acarus or by a fungus would be certainly
contagious, since the propagative cause could be transferred from person
to person. (Geikie in his "Life of Christ" says: "Leprosy signifies
smiting, because it was supposed to be a direct visitation of
Heaven. It began with little specks on the eyelids and on the palms of the
hands, and gradually spread over different parts of the body, bleaching
the hair white wherever it showed itself, crusting the affected parts with
shining scales, and causing swellings and sores. From the skin it slowly
ate its way through the tissues, to the bones and joints, and even to the
marrow, rotting the whole body piecemeal. The lungs, the organs of speech
and hearing, and the eyes, were attacked in turn, till at last consumption
or dropsy brought welcome death. The dread of infection kept men aloof
from the sufferer; and the law proscribed him as above all men unclean.
The disease was hereditary to the fourth generation." Leprosy in the
United States.
-- The Medical Record, February, 1881, states
that from the statistics collected by the Dermatological Society it
appears that there are between fifty and one hundred lepers in the United
States at present. Is modern leprosy contagious? -- Dr. H.S.
Piffard of New York, in the Medical Record, February, 1881,
decides that it is in a modified degree contagious. "A review of the
evidence led to the conclusion that this disease was not contagious by
ordinary contact; but it may be transmitted by the blood and secretions. A
recent writer, Dr. Bross, a Jesuit missionary attached to the lazaretto at
Trinidad, takes the ground that the disease in some way or other is
transmissible. It is a well-established fact that when leprosy has once
gained for itself a foothold in any locality, it is apt to remain there
and spread. The case of the Sandwich Islands illustrates the danger. Forty
years ago the disease did not exits there; now one-tenth of the
inhabitants are lepers." This is further confirmed by the fact stated by
Dr. J. Hutchinson, F.R.S., that "We find that nearly everywhere the
disease is most common on the seashore, and that, when it spreads inland,
it generally occurs on the shores of lakes or along the course of large
rivers." Leprosy as a type of sin. -- "Being the worst form of
disease, leprosy was fixed upon by God to be the especial type of
sin,
and the injunctions regarding it had reference to its typical
character." It was (1) hereditary; (2) contagious; (3) ever tending to
increase; (4) incurable except by the power of God; (5) a shame and
disgrace; (6) rendering one alone in the world; (7) deforming, unclean;
(8) "separating the soul from God, producing spiritual death; unfitting it
forever for heaven and the company of they holy, and insuring its eternal
banishment, as polluted and abominable." (9) Another point is referred to
by Thompson (in "The Land and the Book"): "Some, as they look on infancy,
reject with horror the thought that sin exists within. But so might any
one say who looked upon the beautiful babe in the arms of a leprous
mother. But time brings forth the fearful malady. New-born babes of
leprous parents are often as pretty and as healthy in appearance as any;
but by and by its presence and workings become visible in some of the
signs described in the thirteenth chapter of Leviticus." -- ED.)


LESHEM


(precious stone), another form of Laish, afterward Dan, occurring
in (Joshua 19:47)


LETUSHIM


(hammered), the name of the second of the sons of Dedan son of
Jokshan. (Genesis 25:3)


LEUMMIM


(peoples), the name of the third of the descendants of Dedan son of
Jokshan, (Genesis 25:3) being in the plural form, like his brethren,
Asshurim and Letushim.


LEVI


(joined).

  • The name of the third son of Jacob by his wife Leah. (B.C. about
    1753.) The name, derived from lavah, "to adhere," gave utterance
    to the hope of the mother that the affections of her husband, which had
    hitherto rested on the favored Rachel, would at last be drawn to her:
    "This time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have borne him
    three sons." (Genesis 29:34) Levi, with his brother Simeon, avenged with a
    cruel slaughter the outrage of their sister Dinah. [DINAH] Levi, with his
    three sons, Gershon, Kohath and Merari, went down to Egypt with his father
    Jacob. (Genesis 47:11) When Jacob's death draws near, and the sons are
    gathered round him, Levi and Simeon hear the old crime brought up again to
    receive its sentence. They no less than Reuben, the incestuous firstborn,
    had forfeited the privileges of their birthright. (Genesis 49:5-7)
    [LEVITES]

  • Two of the ancestors of Jesus. (Luke 3:24,29)

  • Son of Alphaeus or Matthew; one of the apostles. (Mark 2:14; Luke
    5:27,29) [See MATTHEW]


LEVIATHAN


(jointed monster) occurs five times in the text of the Authorized
Version, and once in the margin of (Job 3:8) where the text has
"mourning." In the Hebrew Bible the word livyathan, which is, with
the foregoing exception, always left untranslated in the Authorized
Version, is found only in the following passages: (Job 3:8; 41:1; Psalms
74:14; 104:26; Isaiah 27:1) In the margin of (Job 3:8) and text of (Job
41:1) the crocodile is most clearly the animal denoted by the Hebrew word.
(Psalms 74:14) also clearly points to this same saurian. The context of
(Psalms 104:26) seems to show that in this passage the name represents
some animal of the whale tribe, which is common in the Mediterranean; but
it is somewhat uncertain what animal is denoted in (Isaiah 27:1) As the
term leviathan is evidently used in no limited sense, it is not
improbable that the "leviathan the piercing serpent," or "leviathan the
crooked serpent," may denote some species of the great rock-snakes which
are common in south and west Africa.


LEVITES


(descendants of Levi). Sometimes the name extends to the whole
tribe, the priests included, (Exodus 6:25; Leviticus 25:32; Numbers 35:2;
Joshua 21:3,41) etc; sometimes only to those members of the tribe who were
not priests, and as distinguished from them. Sometimes again it is added
as an epithet of the smaller portion of the tribe, and we read of "the
priests the Levites." (Joshua 3:3; Ezekiel 44:15) The history of the tribe
and of the functions attached to its several orders is essential to any
right apprehension of the history of Israel as a people. It will fall
naturally into four great periods: -- I. The time of the exodus.
-- There is no trace of the consecrated character of the Levites till the
institution of a hereditary priesthood in the family of Aaron, during the
first withdrawal of Moses to the solitude of Sinai. (Exodus 24:1) The next
extension of the idea of the priesthood grew out of the terrible crisis of
Exod 32. The tribe stood forth separate and apart, recognizing even in
this stern work the spiritual as higher than the natural. From this time
they occupied a distinct position. The tribe of Levi was to take the place
of that earlier priesthood of the first-born as representatives of the
holiness of the people. At the time of their first consecration there were
22,000 of them, almost exactly the number of the first-born males in the
whole nation. As the tabernacle was the sign of the presence among the
people of their unseen King, so the Levites were, among the other tribes
of Israel, as the royal guard that waited exclusively on him. It was
obviously essential for their work as the bearers and guardians of the
sacred tent that there should be a fixed assignment of duties; and now
accordingly we meet with the first outlines of the organization which
afterward became permanent. The division of the tribe into the three
sections that traced their descent from the sons of Levi formed the
groundwork of it. The work which they all had to do required a man's full
strength, and therefore, though twenty was the starting-point for military
service, Numb 1, they were not to enter on their active service till they
were thirty. (Numbers 4:23,30,35) At fifty they were to be free from all
duties but those of superintendence. (Numbers 8:25,26) (1) The Kohathites,
as nearest of kin to the priests, held from the first the highest offices.
They were to bear all the vessels of the sanctuary, the ark itself
included. (Numbers 3:31; 4:15; 31:35) (2) the Gershonites had to carry the
tent-hangings and curtains. (Numbers 4:22-26) (3) The heavier burden of
the boards, bars and pillars of the tabernacle fell on the sons of Merari.
The Levites were to have no territorial possessions. In place of them they
were to receive from the others the tithes of the produce of the land,
from which they, in their turn, offered a tithe to the priests, as a
recognition of their higher consecration. (Numbers 18:21,24,26; Nehemiah
10:37) Distinctness and diffusion were both to be secured by the
assignment to the whole tribe of forty-eight cities, with an outlying
"suburb," (Numbers 35:2) of meadowland for the pasturage of their flocks
and herds. The reverence of the people for them was to be heightened by
the selection of six of these as cities of refuge. Through the whole land
the Levites were to take the place of the old household priests, sharing
in all festivals and rejoicings. (12:19; 14:26,27; 26:11) Every third year
they were to have an additional share in the produce of the land. (14:28;
26:12) To "the priests the Levites" was to belong the office of
preserving, transcribing and interpreting the law. (17:9-12; 31:26) II.
The period of the judges. -- The successor of Moses, though
belonging to another tribe, did all that could be done to make the duty
above named a reality. The submission of the Gibeonites enabled him to
relieve the tribe-divisions of Gershon and Merari of the most burdensome
of their duties. The conquered Hivites became "hewers of wood and drawers
of water" for the house of Jehovah and for the congregation. (Joshua 9:27)
As soon as the conquerors had advanced far enough to proceed to a
partition of the country, the forty-eight cities were assigned to them.
III. The monarchy. -- When David's kingdom was established, there
came a fuller organization of the whole tribe. Their position in relation
to the priesthood was once again definitely recognized. In the worship of
the tabernacle under David, as afterward in that of the temple, the
Levites were the gatekeepers, vergers, sacristans, choristers, of the
central sanctuary of the nation. They were, in the language of (1
Chronicles 23:24-32) to which we may refer as almost the locus
classicus
on this subject, "to wait on the sons of Aaron for the
service of the house of Jehovah, in the courts, and the chambers, and the
purifying of all holy things." They were, besides this, "to stand every
morning to thank and praise Jehovah, and likewise at even." They were,
lastly, "to offer" -- i.e. to assist the priest in offering -- "all burnt
sacrifices to Jehovah in the sabbaths and on the set feasts." They lived
for the greater part of the year in their own cities, and came up at fixed
periods to take their turn of work. (1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 26:1)
... The educational work which the Levites received for their peculiar
duties, no less than their connection, more or less intimate, with the
schools of the prophets, would tend to make them the teachers of the
others, the transcribers and interpreters of the law, the chroniclers of
the times in which they lived. (Thus they became to the Israelites what
ministers and teachers are to the people now, and this teaching and
training the people in morality and religion was no doubt one of the chief
reasons why they were set apart by God from the people, and yet among the
people. -- ED.) The revolt of the ten tribes, and the policy pursued by
Jeroboam, who wished to make the priests the creatures and instruments of
the king, and to establish a provincial and divided worship, caused them
to leave the cities assigned to them in the territory of Israel, and
gather round the metropolis of Judah. (2 Chronicles 11:13,14) In the
kingdom of Judah they were, from this time forward, a powerful body,
politically as well as ecclesiastically. IV. After the captivity.
-- During the period that followed the captivity of the Levites
contributed to the formation of the so-called Great Synagogue. They, with
the priests, formed the majority of the permanent Sanhedrin, and as such
had a large share in the administration of justice even in capital cases.
They appear but seldom in the history of the New Testament.


LEVITICUS


The third book in the Pentateuch is called Leviticus because it relates
principally to the Levites and priests and their services. The book is
generally held to have been written by Moses. Those critics even who hold
a different opinion as to the other books of the Pentateuch assign this
book in the main to him. One of the most notable features of the book is
what may be called its spiritual meaning. That so elaborate a ritual
looked beyond itself we cannot doubt. It was a prophecy of things to come;
a shadow whereof the substance was Christ and his kingdom. We may not
always be able to say what the exact relation is between the type and the
antitype; but we cannot read the Epistle to the Hebrews and not
acknowledge that the Levitical priests "served the pattern and type of
heavenly things;" that the sacrifices of the law pointed to and found
their interpretation in the Lamb of God; that the ordinances of outward
purification signified the true inner cleansing of the heart and
conscience from dead works to serve the living God. One idea -- HOLINESS
-- moreover penetrates the whole of this vast and burdensome ceremonial,
and gives it a real glory even apart from any prophetic significance.


LIBANUS


[LEBANON]


LIBERTINES


This word, which occurs once only in the New Testament -- (Acts 6:9) -- is
the Latin libertini, that is, "freedmen." They were probably Jews
who, having been taken prisoners by Pompey and other Roman generals in the
Syrian wars, had been reduced to slavery and had afterward been
emancipated, and returned, permanently or for a time, to the country of
their fathers.


LIBNAH


(whiteness).

  • A royal city of the Canaanites which lay in the southwest part of the
    Holy Land, taken by Joshua immediately after the rout of Beth-horon. It
    was near Lachish, west of Makkedah. It was appropriated with its "suburbs"
    to the priests. (Joshua 21:13; 1 Chronicles 6:57) In the reign of Jehoram
    the son of Jehoshaphat it "revolted" form Judah at the same time with
    Edom. (2 Kings 8:22; 2 Chronicles 21:10) Probably the modern Ayak
    el-Menshiyeh
    .

  • One of the stations at which the Israelites encamped on their journey
    between the wilderness of Sinai and Kadesh. (Numbers 33:20,21)


LIBNI


(white).

  • The eldest son of Gershon the son of Levi, (Exodus 6:17; Numbers 3:18;
    1 Chronicles 6:17,20) and ancestor of the family of the Libnites. (B.C.
    after 1700.)

  • The son of Mahli or Mahali, son of Merari, (1 Chronicles 6:29) as the
    text at present stands. It is probable, however, that he is the same with
    the preceding, and that something has been omitted. Comp. ver. (1
    Chronicles 6:29) with 1Chr 6:20,42


LIBYA


This name occurs only in (Acts 2:10) It is applied by the Greek and Roman
writers to the African continent, generally, however, excluding Egypt.


LICE


(Heb. cinnam, cinnim). this word occurs in the Authorized Version
only in (Exodus 8:16-18) and in (Psalms 105:31) both of which passages
have reference to the third great plague of Egypt. The Hebrew word has
given occasion to whole pages of discussion. Some commentators, and indeed
modern writers generally, suppose that gnats are the animals intended by
the original word; while, on the other hand, the Jewish rabbis, Josephus
and others, are in favor of the translation of the Authorized Version.
Upon the whole it appears that there is not sufficient authority for
departing from this translation. Late travellers (e.g. Sir Samuel Baker)
describe the visitation of vermin in very similar terms: -- "It is as
though the very dust were turned into lice." The lice which he describes
are a sort of tick, not larger than a grain of sand, which when filled
with blood expand to the size of a hazel nut. -- Canon Cook.


LIEUTENANTS


The Hebrew achash darpan was the official title of the satraps or
viceroys who governed the provinces of the Persian empire; it is rendered
"prince" in (Daniel 3:2; 6:1)


LIGN ALOES


[ALOES, LIGN ALOES]


LIGURE


(Heb. leshem), a precious stone mentioned in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12)
as the first in the third row of the high priest's breastplate. It is
impossible to say, with any certainty, what stone is denoted by the Hebrew
term; but perhaps tourmaline, or more definitely the red variety
known as rubellite, has better claims than any other mineral.
Rubellite is a hard stone, and used as a gem, and is sometimes sold for
red sapphire.


LIKHI


(learned), a Manassite, son of Shemidah the son of Manasseh. (1
Chronicles 7:19)


LILY


(Heb. shushan, shoshannah). Although there is little doubt that the
Hebrew word denotes some plant of the lily species, it is by no means
certain what individual of this class it specially designates. The plant
must have been a conspicuous object on the shores of the Lake of
Gennesaret, (Matthew 6:28; Luke 12:27) it must have flourished in the deep
broad valleys of Palestine, (Solomon 2:1) among the thorny shrubs, ib.
(Solomon 2:2) and pastures of the desert, ib. (Solomon 2:16; 4:5; 6:3) and
must have been remarkable for its rapid and luxuriant growth. (Hosea
14:5), Ecclus. 39:14. That its flowers were brilliant in color would seem
to be indicated in (Matthew 6:28) where it is compared with the gorgeous
robes of Solomon; and that this color was scarlet or purple is implied in
(Solomon 5:13) There appears to be no species of lily which so completely
answers all these requirements as the Lilium chalcedonicum, or
scarlet martagon, which grows in profusing in the Levant. But direct
evidence on the point is still to be desired from the observation of
travellers. (It is very probable that the term lily here is
general, not referring to any particular species, but to a large class of
flowers growing in Palestine, and resembling the lily, as the tulip, iris,
gladiolus, etc. -- ED.)


LIME


the substance obtained form limestone, shells, etc., by heat. It is
noticed only three times in the Bible, viz., in (27:2) (Authorized Version
"plaster"), (Isaiah 33:12) and Amos 2:1


LINEN


cloth made from flax. Several different Hebrew words are rendered linen,
which may denote different fabrics of linen or different modes of
manufacture. Egypt was the great centre of the linen trade. Some linen,
made form the Egyptian byssus, a flax that grew on the banks of
the Nile, was exceedingly soft and of dazzling whiteness. This linen has
been sold for twice its weight in gold. Sir J.G. Wilkinson says of it,
"The quality of the fine linen fully justifies all the praises of
antiquity, and excites equal admiration at the present day, being to the
touch comparable to silk, and not inferior in texture to our finest
cambric."


LINTEL


the beam which forms the upper part of the framework of a door.


LINUS


(a net), a Christian at Rome, known to St. Paul and to Timothy, (2
Timothy 4:21) who was the first bishop of Rome after the apostles. (A.D.
64.)


LION


"The most powerful, daring and impressive of all carnivorous animals, the
most magnificent in aspect and awful in voice." At present lions do not
exist in Palestine; but they must in ancient times have been numerous. The
lion of Palestine was in all probability the Asiatic variety, described by
Aristotle and Pliny as distinguished by its short and curly mane, and by
being shorter and rounder in shape, like the sculptured lion found at
Arban. It was less daring than the longer named species, but when driven
by hunger it not only ventured to attack the flocks in the desert in
presence of the shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:34; Isaiah 31:4) but laid waste
towns and villages, (2 Kings 17:25,26; Proverbs 22:13; 26:13) and devoured
men. (1 Kings 13:24; 20:36) Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old
Testament, the lion was the achievement of the princely tribe of Judah,
while in the closing book of the canon it received a deeper significance
as the emblem of him who "prevailed to open the book and loose the seven
seals thereof." (Revelation 5:5) On the other hand its fierceness and
cruelty rendered it an appropriate metaphor for a fierce and malignant
enemy. (Psalms 7:2; 22:21; 57:4; 2 Timothy 4:17) and hence for the
arch-fiend himself. (1 Peter 5:8)


LIZARD


(that which clings to the ground) (Heb. letaah. (Leviticus
11:30) Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia. The
lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard
(Ptyodactylus gecko) which is common in Egypt and in parts of
Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Palestine. It is reddish brown
spotted with white. The gecko lives on insects and worms, which it
swallows whole. It derives its name from the peculiar sound which some of
the species utter.


LOAMMI


(not my people), the figurative name given by the prophet Hosea to
his second son by Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, (Hosea 1:9) to denote the
rejection of the kingdom of Israel by Jehovah. Its significance is
explained in vs. 9,10


LOAN


The law strictly forbade any interest to be taken for a loan to any poor
person, and at first, as it seems, even in the case of a foreigner; but
this prohibition was afterward limited to Hebrews only, from whom, of
whatever rank, not only was no usury on any pretence to be exacted, but
relief to the poor by way of loan was enjoined, and excuses for evading
this duty were forbidden. (Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35,37) As commerce
increased, the practice of usury, and so also of suretyship, grew up; but
the exaction of it from a Hebrew appears to have been regarded to a late
period as discreditable. (Psalms 15:5; Proverbs 6:1,4; 11:15; 17:18;
20:16; 22:26; Jeremiah 15:10; Ezekiel 18:13) Systematic breach of the law
in this respect was corrected by Nehemiah after the return from captivity.
(Nehemiah 5:1,13) The money-changers, who had seats and tables in the
temple, where traders whose profits arose chiefly from the exchange of
money with those who came to pay their annual half-shekel. The Jewish law
did not forbid temporary bondage in the case of debtors, but it forbade a
Hebrew debtor to be detained as a bondman longer than the seventh year, or
at farthest the year of jubilee. (Exodus 21:2; Leviticus 25:39,42;
15:9)


LOAVES


[BREAD]


LOCK


Where European locks have not been introduced, the locks of eastern houses
are usually of wood, and consist of a partly hollow bolt from fourteen
inches to two feet long for external doors or gates, or from seven to nine
inches for interior doors. The bold passes through a groove in a piece
attached to the door into a socket in the door-post.


LOCUST


a well-known insect, of the grasshopper family, which commits terrible
ravages on vegetation in the countries which it visits. "The common brown
locust is about three inches in length, and the general form is that of a
grasshopper." The most destructive of the locust tribe that occur in the
Bible lands are the (Edipoda migratoria and the Acridium
peregrinum
; and as both these species occur in Syria and Arabia,
etc., it is most probable that one or other is denoted in those passages
which speak of the dreadful devastations committed by these insects.
Locusts occur in great numbers, and sometimes obscure the sun. (Exodus
10:15; Judges 6:5; Jeremiah 46:23) Their voracity is alluded to in (Exodus
10:12,15; Joel 1:4,7) They make a fearful noise in their flight. (Joel
2:5; Revelation 9:9) Their irresistible progress is referred to in (Joel
2:8,9) They enter dwellings, and devour even the woodwork of houses.
(Exodus 10:6; Joel 2:9,10) They do not fly in the night. (Nahum 3:17) The
sea destroys the greater number. (Exodus 10:19; Joel 2:20) The flight of
locusts is thus described by M. Olivier (Voyage dans l’ Empire
Othoman
, ii. 424): "With the burning south winds (of Syria) there
come from the interior of Arabia and from the most southern parts of
Persia clouds of locusts (Acridium peregrinum), whose ravages to
these countries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of the
heaviest hail in Europe. We witnessed them twice. It is difficult to
express the effect produced on us by the sight of the whole atmosphere
filled on all sides and to a great height by an innumerable quantity of
these insects, whose flight was slow and uniform, and whose noise
resembled that of rain: the sky was darkened, and the light of the sun
considerably weakened. In a moment the terraces of the houses, the
streets, and all the fields were covered by these insects, and in two days
they had nearly devoured all the leaves of the plants. Happily they lived
but a short time, and seemed to have migrated only to reproduce themselves
and die; in fact, nearly all those we saw the next day had paired, and the
day following the fields were covered with their dead bodies." "Locusts
have been used as food from the earliest times. Herodotus speaks of a
Libyan nation who dried their locusts in the sun and ate them with milk.
The more common method, however, was to pull off the legs and wings and
roast them in an iron dish. Then they thrown into a bag, and eaten like
parched corn, each one taking a handful when he chose." -- Biblical
Treasury. Sometimes the insects are ground and pounded, and then mixed
with flour and water and made into cakes, or they are salted and then
eaten; sometimes smoked; sometimes boiled or roasted; again, stewed, or
fried in butter.


LOD


[LYDDA]


LODEBAR


(without pasture), a place named with Mahanaim, Rogelim and other
transjordanic towns, (2 Samuel 17:27) and therefore no doubt on the east
side of the Jordan. It was the native place of Machir-ben-Ammiel. (2
Samuel 9:4,5)


LODGE, TO


This word, with one exception only, has, at least in the narrative
portions of the Bible, almost invariably the force of "passing the
night."


LOG


[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES AND MEASURES]


LOIS


(agreeable), the grandmother of Timothy, and doubtless the mother
of his mother, Eunice. (2 Timothy 1:5) It seems likely that Lois had
resided long at Lystra; and almost certain that from her, as well as from
Eunice, Timothy obtained his intimate knowledge of the Jewish Scriptures.
(2 Timothy 3:15) (A.D. before 64.)


LOOKINGGLASSES


[MIRRORS]


LORD


[GOD]


LORDS DAY, THE


(Kuriake Hemera), (Revelation 1:10) (only), the weekly festival of
our Lord's resurrection, and identified with "the first day of the week,"
or "Sunday," of every age of the Church. Scripture says very little
concerning this day; but that little seems to indicate that the
divinely-inspired apostles, by their practice and by their precepts,
marked the first day of the week as a day for meeting together to break
bread, for communicating and receiving instruction, for laying up
offerings in store for charitable purposes, for occupation in holy thought
and prayer. [See SABBATH]


LORDS PRAYER


the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples. (Matthew 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4)
"In this prayer our Lord shows his disciples how an infinite variety of
wants and requests can be compressed into a few humble petitions. It
embodies every possible desire of a praying heart, a whole world of
spiritual requirements; yet all in the most simple, condensed and humble
form, resembling, in this respect, a pearl on which the light of heaven
plays." -- Lange. "This prayer contains four great general sentiments,
which constitute the very soul of religion, -- sentiments which are the
germs of all holy deeds in all worlds. (1) Filial reverence : God
is addressed not as the great unknown, not as the unsearchable governor,
but as a father, the most intelligible, attractive and transforming name.
It is a form of address almost unknown to the old covenant, now an then
hinted at as reminding the children of their rebellion. (Isaiah 1:2); Mali
1:6 Or mentioned as a last resource of the orphan and desolate creature,
(Isaiah 63:16) but never brought out in its fullness, as indeed it could
not be, till he was come by whom we have received the adoption of sons."
-- Alford. (2) "Divine loyalty : ’Thy kingdom come.’
(3) Conscious dependence : ’Give us this day,’ etc. (4)
Unbounded confidence : ’For thine is the power,’ etc."
-- Dr. Thomas’ Genius of the Gospels. The doxology, "For thine is
the kingdom" etc., is wanting in many manuscripts. It is omitted in the
Revised Version; but it nevertheless has the authority of some
manuscripts, and is truly biblical, almost every word being found in (1
Chronicles 29:11) and is a true and fitting ending for prayer.


LORDS SUPPER


The words which thus describe the great central act of the worship of the
Christian Church occur but in a single passage of the New Testament -- (1
Corinthians 11:20)

  • Its institution. -- It was instituted on that night when Jesus
    and his disciples met together to eat the passover, (Matthew 26:19; Mark
    14:16; Luke 22:13) (on Thursday evening, April 6, A.D. 30). It was
    probably instituted at the third cup (the cup of blessing) of the
    passover [see on PASSOVER], Jesus taking one of the unleavened cakes used
    at the feast and breaking it and giving it to his disciples with the cup.
    The narratives of the Gospels show how strongly the disciples were
    impressed with the words which had given a new meaning to the old familiar
    acts. They had looked on the bread and the wine as memorials of the
    deliverance from Egypt. They were not told to partake of them "in
    remembrance" of their Master and Lord. The words "This is my body" gave to
    the unleavened bread a new character. They had been prepared for language
    that would otherwise have been so startling, by the teaching of John ch.
    (John 6:32-58) and they were thus taught to see in the bread that was
    broken the witness of the closest possible union and incorporation with
    their Lord. The cup, which was "the new testament in his blood," would
    remind them, in like manner, of the wonderful prophecy in which that new
    covenant had been foretold. (Jeremiah 31:31-34) "Gradually and
    progressively he had prepared the minds of his disciples to realize the
    idea of his death as a sacrifice. he now gathers up all previous
    announcements in the institution of this sacrament." -- Cambridge Bible.
    The festival had been annual. No rule was given as to the time and
    frequency of the new feast that thus supervened on the old, but the
    command "Do this as oft as ye drink it," (1 Corinthians 11:25) suggested
    the more continual recurrence of that which was to be their memorial of
    one whom they would wish never to forget. Luke, in the Acts, describes the
    baptized members of the Church as continuing steadfast in or to the
    teaching of the apostles, in fellowship with them and with each other, and
    in breaking of bread and in prayers. (Acts 2:42) We can scarcely
    doubt that this implies that the chief actual meal of each day was one in
    which they met as brothers, and which was either preceded or followed by
    the more solemn commemorative acts of the breaking of the bread and the
    drinking of the cup. It will be convenient to anticipate the language and
    the thoughts of a somewhat later date, and to say that, apparently, they
    thus united every day the Agape or feast of love with the celebration of
    the Eucharist. At some time, before or after the meal of which they
    partook as such, the bread and the wine would be given with some special
    form of words or acts, to indicate its character. New converts would need
    some explanation of the meaning and origin of the observance. What would
    be so fitting and so much in harmony with the precedents of the paschal
    feast as the narrative of what had passed ont he night of its institution?
    (1 Corinthians 11:23-27)

  • Its significance. -- The Lord's Supper is a reminder of the
    leading truths of the gospel: (1) Salvation, like this bread, is the gift
    of God's love. (2) We are reminded of the life of Christ -- all he was and
    did and said. (3) We are reminded, as by the passover, of the grievous
    bondage of sin from which Christ redeems us. (4) It holds up the
    atonement, the body of Christ broken, his blood shed, for us. (5) In
    Christ alone is forgiveness and salvation from sin, the first need of the
    soul. (6) Christ is the food of the soul. (7) We must partake by faith, or
    it will be of no avail. (8) We are taught to distribute to one another the
    spiritual blessings God gives us. (9) By this meal our daily bread is
    sanctified. (10) The most intimate communion with God in Christ. (11)
    Communion with one another. (12) It is a feast of joy. "Nothing less than
    the actual joy of heaven is above it." (13) It is a prophecy of Christ's
    second coming, of the perfect triumph of his kingdom. (14) It is holding
    up before the world the cross of Christ; not a selfish gathering of a few
    saints, but a proclamation of the Saviour for all. Why did Christ ordain
    bread to be used in the Lord's Supper, and not a lamb ?
    Canon Walsham How replies, "Because the types and shadows were to cease
    when the real Sacrifice was come. There was to be no more shedding of
    blood when once his all-prevailing blood was shed. There must be nothing
    which might cast a doubt upon the all-sufficiency of that. " (Then,
    the Lamb being sacrificed once for all, what is needed is to teach the
    world that Christ is now the bread of life. Perhaps also it was because
    bread was more easily provided, and fitted thus more easily to be a part
    of the universal ordinance. -- ED.)

  • Was it a permanent ordinance? -- "’Do this in remembrance
    of me’ points to a permanent institution. The command is therefore
    binding on all who believe in Christ; and disobedience to it is sin, for
    the unbelief that keeps men away is one of the worst of sins." -- Prof.
    Riddle. "The subsequent practice of the apostles, (Acts 2:42,46; 20:7) and
    still more the fact that directions for the Lord's Supper were made a
    matter of special revelation to Paul, (1 Corinthians 11:23) seem to make
    it clear that Christ intended the ordinance for a perpetual one, and that
    his apostles so understood it." -- Abbott.

  • Method of observance. -- "The original supper was taken in a
    private house, an upper chamber, at night, around a table, reclining,
    women excluded, only the ordained apostles admitted. None of these
    conditions are maintained to-day by any Christian sect." But it must be
    kept with the same spirit and purpose now as then.


LORUHAMAH


(the uncompassionated), the name of the daughter of Hosea the
prophet, given to denote the utterly ruined condition of the kingdom of
Israel. (Hosea 1:6)


LOT


(veil or covering), the son of Haran, and therefore the
nephew of Abraham. (Genesis 11:27,31) (B.C. before 1926-1898.) His sisters
were Milcah the wife of Nahor, and Iscah, by some identified with Sarah.
haran died before the emigration of Terah and his family from Ur of the
Chaldees, ver. 28, and Lot was therefore born there. He removed with the
rest of his kindred to Charran, and again subsequently with Abraham and
Sarai to Canaan. ch. (Genesis 12:4,5) With them he took refuge in Egypt
from a famine,a nd with them returned, first to the "south," ch. (Genesis
13:1) and then to their original settlement between Bethel and Ai. vs.
(Genesis 13:3,4) But the pastures of the hills of Bethel, which had with
ease contained the two strangers on their first arrival, were not able any
longer to bear them, so much had their possessions of sheep, goats and
cattle increased. Accordingly they separated, Lot choosing the fertile
plain of the Jordan, and advancing as far as Sodom. (Genesis 13:10-14) The
next occurrence in the life of Lot is his capture by the four kings of the
east and his rescue by Abram. ch. (Genesis 13:14) The last scene preserved
to us in the history of Lot is too well known to need repetition. He was
still living in Sodom, (Genesis 19:1) ... from which he was rescued by
some angels on the day of its final overthrow. he fled first to Zoar, in
which he found a temporary refuge during the destruction of the other
cities of the plain. Where this place was situated is not known with
certainty. [ZOAR] The end of Lot's wife is commonly treated as one of the
difficulties of the Bible; but it surely need not be so. It cannot be
necessary to create the details of the story where none are given. On
these points the record is silent. The value and the significance of the
story to us are contained in the allusion of Christ. (Luke 17:32) Later
ages have not been satisfied so to leave the matter, but have insisted on
identifying the "pillar" with some one of the fleeting forms which the
perishable rock of the south end of the Dead Sea is constantly assuming in
its process of decomposition and liquefaction. From the incestuous
intercourse between Lot and his two daughters sprang the nations of Moab
and Ammon.


LOT


(literally a pebble). The custom of deciding doubtful questions by
lot is one of great extent and high antiquity. Among the Jews lots were
used with the expectation that God would so control them as to give a
right direction to them. They were very often used by God's appointment.
"As to the mode of casting lots, we have no certain information. Probably
several modes were practiced." "Very commonly among the Latins little
counters of wood were put into a jar with so narrow a neck that only one
could come out at a time. After the jar had been filled with water and the
contents shaken, the lots were determined by the order in which the bits
of wood, representing the several parties, came out with the water. in
other cases they were put into a wide open jar, and the counters were
drawn out by the hand. Sometimes again they were cast in the manner of
dice. The soldiers who cast lots for Christ's garments undoubtedly used
these dice." -- Lyman Abbott.


LOTAN


(covering), the eldest son of Seir the Horite. (Genesis
36:20,22,29; 1 Chronicles 1:38,39)


LOTS, FEATS OF


[PURIM]


LOVE FEASTS


(Agape), (2 Peter 2:13; Jude 1:12) an entertainment in which the
poorer members of the church partook, furnished from the contributions of
Christians resorting to the eucharistic celebration, but whether before or
after may be doubted. The true account of the matter is probably that
given by Chrysostom, who says that after the early community of goods had
ceased the richer members brought to the church contributions of food and
drink, of which, after the conclusion of the services and the celebration
of the Lord's Supper, all partook together, by this means helping to
promote the principle of love among Christians. The intimate connection
especially in early times, between the Eucharist itself and the love
feasts has led some to speak of them as identical. The love feasts were
forbidden to be held in churches by the Council of Laudicea, A.D. 320; but
in some form or other they continued to a much later period.


LUBIM


(dwellers in a thirsty land),a nation mentioned as contributing,
together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak's army, (2 Chronicles 12:3)
and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah's army, (2
Chronicles 16:8) spoken of by Nahum, (Nahum 3:9) with Put or Phut, as
helping No-amon (Thebes), of which Cush and Egypt were the strength. Upon
the Egyptian monuments we find representations of a people called Rebu or
Lebu, who correspond to the Lubim, and who may be placed on the African
coast to the westward of Egypt, perhaps extending far beyond the
Cyrenaica.


LUCAS


(Philemon 1:24) [LUKE]


LUCIFER


(light-bearer), found in (Isaiah 14:12) coupled with the epithet
"son of the morning," clearly signifies a "bright star," and probably what
we call the morning star. In this passage it is a symbolical
representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Its
application, from St. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven
arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture
represented as the type of tyrannical and self idolizing power, and
especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the
Apocalypse.


LUCIUS


  • A kinsman or fellow tribesman of St. Paul, (Romans 16:21) by whom he
    is said by tradition to have been ordained bishop of the church of
    Cenchreae. He is thought by some to be the same with Lucius of
    Cyrene.

  • Lucius of Cyrene is first mentioned in the New Testament in company
    with Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Manaen and Saul, who are described as
    prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch. (Acts 13:1) Whether Lucius
    was one of the seventy disciples is quite a matter of conjecture; but it
    is highly probable that he formed one of the congregation to whom St.
    Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, (Acts 2:10) and there can hardly
    be a doubt that he was one of "the men of Cyrene" who, being "scattered
    abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen," went to Antioch
    preaching the Lord Jesus. (Acts 11:19,20)


LUD


(strife) the fourth name in the list of the children of Shem,
(Genesis 10:22) comp. 1Chr 1:17 Supposed to have been the ancestor of the
Lydians.


LUDIM


(strife), (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11) a Mizraite people or
tribe descended from Ludim the son of Mizraim; also called Lydians. It is
probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps farther
than any other Mizraite tribe. Lud and the Ludim are mentioned in four
passages of the prophets -- (Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10;
38:5) There call be no doubt that but one nation is intended in these
passages, and it seems that the preponderance of evidence is in favor of
the Mizaraite Ludim.


LUHITH


(made of tables or boards), The ascent of, a place in Moab,
occurs only in (Isaiah 15:5) and the parallel passage of Jeremiah.
(Jeremiah 48:5) In the days of Eusebius and Jerome it was still known, and
stood between Areopolis (Rabbath-moab) and Zoar.


LUKE


(light-giving), or Lu’cas, is an abbreviated form of
Lucanus. It is not to be confounded with Lucius, (Acts 13:1; Romans 16:21)
which belongs to a different person. The name Luke occurs three times in
the New Testament -- (Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11); Phle 1:24 -- And
probably in all three the third evangelist is the person spoken of.
Combining the traditional element with the scriptural we are able to trace
the following dim outline of the evangelist's life. He was born at Antioch
in Syria, and was taught the science of medicine. The well known tradition
that Luke was also a painter, and of no mean skill, rests on the authority
of late writers. He was not born a Jew, for he is not reckoned among those
"of the circumcision" by St. Paul. Comp. (Colossians 4:11) with ver. 14.
The date of his conversion is uncertain. He joined St. Paul at Troas, and
shared his Journey into Macedonia. The sudden transition to the first
person plural in (Acts 16:9) is most naturally explained after all the
objections that have been urged, by supposing that Luke the writer of the
Acts, formed one of St. Paul's company from this point. As far as Philippi
the evangelist journeyed with the apostle. The resumption of the third
person on Paul's departure from that place, (Acts 17:1) would show that
Luke was now left behind. During the rest of St. Paul's second missionary
journey we hear of Luke no more; but on the third journey the same
indication reminds us that Luke is again of the company, (Acts 20:5)
having joined it apparently at Philippi, where he had been left. With the
apostle he passed through Miletus, Tyre and Caesarea to Jerusalem. ch.
Acts 20:6; 21:18 As to his age and death there is the utmost uncertainty.
He probably died a martyr, between A.D. 75 and A.D. 100. He wrote the
Gospel that bears his name, and also the book of Acts.


LUKE, GOSPEL OF


The third Gospel is ascribed, by the general consent of ancient
Christendom, to "the beloved physician," Luke, the friend and companion of
the apostle Paul.

  • Date of the Gospel of Luke. -- From (Acts 1:1) it is clear
    that the Gospel described "the former treatise" was written before the
    Acts of the Apostles; but how much earlier is uncertain. Perhaps it was
    written at Caesarea during St. Paul's imprisonment there, A.D. 58-60.

  • Place where the Gospel was written. -- If the time has been
    rightly indicated, the place would be Caesarea.

  • Origin of the Gospel. -- The preface, contained in the first
    four verses of the Gospel, describes the object of its writer. Here are
    several facts to be observed. There were many narratives of the life of
    our Lord Current at the early time when Luke wrote his Gospel. The ground
    of fitness for the task St. Luke places in his having carefully followed
    out the whole course of events from the beginning. He does not claim the
    character of an eye-witness from the first but possibly he may have been a
    witness of some part of our Lord's doings. The ancient opinion that Luke
    wrote his Gospel under the influence of Paul rests on the authority of
    Irenreus, Tertulian, Origen and Eusebius. The four verses could not have
    been put at the head of a history composed under the exclusive guidance of
    Paul or of any one apostle and as little could they have introduced a
    gospel simply communicated by another. The truth seems to be that St.
    Luke, seeking information from every quarter, sought it from the preaching
    of his be loved master St. Paul; and the apostle in his turn employed the
    knowledge acquired from other sources by his disciple.

  • Purpose for which the Gospel was written. -- The evangelist
    professes to write that Theophilus "might know the certainty of those
    things wherein he had been instructed." ch, (Luke 1:4) This Theophilus was
    probably a native of Italy and perhaps an inhabitant of Rome, in tracing
    St. Paul's journey to Rome, places which an Italian might be supposed not
    to know are described minutely, (Acts 27:8,12,16) but when he comes to
    Sicily and Italy this is neglected. Hence it would appear that the person
    for whom Luke wrote in the first instance was a Gentile reader; and
    accordingly we find traces in the Gospel of a leaning toward Gentile
    rather than Jewish converts.

  • Language and style of the Gospel. -- It has never been doubted
    that the Gospel was written in Greek, whilst Hebraisms are frequent,
    classical idioms and Greek compound words abound, for which there is
    classical authority. (Prof. Gregory, in "Why Four Gospels" says that Luke
    wrote for Greek readers, and therefore the character and needs of the
    Greeks furnish the key to this Gospel. The Greek was the representation of
    reason and humanity. He looked upon himself as having the mission of
    perfecting man. He was intellectual, cultured, not without hope of a
    higher world. Luke's Gospel therefore represented the character and career
    of Christ as answering the conception of a perfect and divine humanity.
    Reason, beauty righteousness and truth are exhibited as they meet in Jesus
    in their full splendor. Jesus was the Saviour of all men, redeeming them
    to a perfect and cultured manhood. -- ED.)


LUNATICS


(from the Latin Luna, the moon, because insane persons, especially
those who had lucid intervals, were once supposed to be affected by the
changes of the moon). This word is used twice in the New Testament --
(Matthew 4:24; 17:15) Translated epileptic in the Revised Version.)
It is evident that the word itself refers to same disease affecting both
the body and the mind, which might or might not be a sign of possession By
the description of (Mark 9:17-26) it is concluded that this disease was
epilepsy.


LUZ


(almond tree). It seems impossible to discover with precision
whether Luz and Bethel represent one and the same town -- the former the
Canannite, the latter the Hebrew, name -- or whether they were distinct
places, though in close proximity. The most probable conclusion is that
the two places were, during the times preceding the conquest, distinct,
Luz being the city and Bethel the pillar and altar of Jacob that after the
destruction of Luz by the tribe of Ephraim the town of Bethel arose. When
the original Luz was destroyed, through the treachery of one of its
inhabitants, the man who had introduced the Israelites into the town went
into the "land of the Hittites" and built a city which he named after the
former one. (Judges 1:28) Its situation, as well as that of the land of
the Hittites," has never been discovered, and is one of the favorable
puzzles of Scripture geographers.


LYCAONIA


(land of Lycanon, or wolf land), a district of Asia Minor.
From what is said in (Acts 14:11) of "the speech of Lycaonia," it is
evident that the inhabitants of the district, in St. Paul's day, spoke
something very different from ordinary Greek. Whether the language was
some Syrian dialect or a corrupt form of Greek has been much debated. The
fact that the Lycaonians were similar with the Greek mythology is
consistent with either supposition. Lycaonia is for the most part a dreary
plain, bare of trees, destitute of fresh water, and with several salt
lakes. (It was about 20 miles long from east to west, and 13 miles wide.
"Cappadocia is on the east, Galatia on the north, Phrygia on the west and
Cilicia on the south "Among its chief cities are Derbe, Lystra and
Iconium. -- ED.) After the provincial system of Rome had embraced the
whole of Asia Minor, the boundaries of the provinces were variable; and
Lycaonia was, politically, sometimes in Cappadocia, sometimes in Galatia.
Paul visited it three times in his missionary tours.


LYCIA


(land of Lycus) is the name of that southwestern region of the
peninsula of Asia Minor which is immediately opposite the island of
Rhodes. The Lycians were incorporated in the Persian empire, and their
ships were conspicuous in the great war against the Greeks (Herod. vii.
91, 92). After the death of Alexander the Great, Lycia was included in the
Greek Seleucid kingdom, and was a part of the territory which the Romans
forced Antiochus to cede. It was not till the reign of Claudius that Lycia
became part of the Roman provincial system. At first it was combined with
Pamiphylia. Such seems to have been the condition of the district when St.
Paul visited the Lycian towns of Patara, (Acts 21:1) and Myra. (Acts 27:5)
At a later period of the Roman empire Lyoia was a separate province, with
Myra for it capital.


LYDDA


(strife), the Greek form of the name, (Acts 9:32,35,38) which
appears in the Hebrew records as LOD a town of Benjamin, founded by Shamed
or Shamer. (1 Chronicles 8:12; Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 7:37; 11:35) It is
still called Lidd or Ludd, and stands in part of the great
maritime plain which anciently bore the name of Sharon. It is nine miles
from Joppa, and is the first town on the northernmost of the two roads
between that place and Jerusalem. The watercourse outside the town is said
still to bear the name of Abi-Butrus (Peter), in memory the
apostle. It was destroyed by Vespasian, and was probably not rebuilt till
the time of Hadrian, when it received the name of Diospois. When Eusebius
wrote (A.D. 320-330) Diospolis was a well-known and much-frequented town.
The modern town is, for a Mohammedan place, buy and prosperous.


LYDIA


(land of Lydus), a maritime province in the west of Asia Minor
bounded by Mysia on the north, Phrygia on the east, and Caria on the
south. It is enumerated among the districts which the Romans took away
from Antiochos the Great after the battle of Magnesia in B.C. 190, and
transferred to Eumenus II. king of Pergamus. Lydia is included in the
"Asia" of the New Testament.


LYDIA


the first European convert of St. Paul, and afterward his hostess during
his first stay at Philippi. (Acts 18:14,15) also Acts 18:40 (A.D. 47.) She
was a Jewish proselyte at the time of the apostle's coming; and it was at
the Jewish Sabbath-worship by the side of a stream ver 13, that the
preaching of the gospel reached her heart. Her native place was Thyatira,
in the province of Asia. ver. 14; (Revelation 2:18) Thyatira was famous
for its dyeing works; and Lydia wars connected with this trade, as a
seller either of dye or of dyed goods. We infer that she was a person of
considerable wealth.


LYSANIAS


(that drives away sorrow), mentioned by St. Luke in one of his
chronological passages, ch. (Luke 3:1) as being tetrarch. of Abilene (i.e.
the district round Abila) in the thirteenth year of Tiberius (A.D. 26), at
the time when Herod Antipas was tetrarch of Galilee and Herod Philip
tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis.


LYSIAS


(dissolving), a nobleman of the blood-royal, 1Macc 3:32; 2Macc
11:1, who was entrusted he Antiochus Epiphanes (cir. B.C. 166) with the
government of southern Syria and the guardianship of his son Antiochus
Eupator. 1Macc 3:32; 2Macc. 10:11. After the death of Antiochus Epiphanes,
B.C. 184, Lysias assumed the government as guardian of his son, who was
pet a child. 1Macc 6:17. In B.C. 164 he, together with his ward, fell into
the hands of Demetrius Soter, who put them both to death. 1Macc 7:2-4;
2Macc 14:2.


LYSIAS CLAUDIUS


a chief captain of the band, that is, tribune of the Roman cohort who
rescued St. Paul from the hands of the infuriated mob at Jerusalem, and
sent him under a guard to Felix, the governor or proconsul of Caesarea.
(Acts 21:31) seq.; Acts 23:26; 24:7 (A.D. 55.)


LYSIMACHUS


"a son of Ptolemaeus of Jerusalem," the Greek translator of the book of
Esther. Comp. (Esther 9:20)


LYSTRA


This place has two points of interest in connection respectively with St.
Paul's first and second missionary Journeys: (1) as the place where divine
honors were offered to him, and where he was presently stoned, (Acts 14:1)
... (2) as the home of his chosen companion and fellow missionary
Timotheus. (Acts 16:1) Lystra was in the eastern part of the great plain
of Lycaonia, and its site may be identified with the ruins called
Bin-bir-Kilisseh, at the base of a conical mountain of volcanic
structure, named the Karadagh.


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