Smith's Bible Dictionary - I

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(whom God chooses), one of the sons of David, (2 Samuel 5:15; 1
Chronicles 3:6; 14:6) (born in Jerusalem. B.C. after 1044.)


(devouring the people), a city of Manasseh, with villages or towns
dependent on it. (Judges 1:27) It appears to have been situated in the
territory of either Issachar or Asher. (Joshua 17:11) The ascent of Gur
was "at Ibleam," (2 Kings 9:27) somewhere near the present Jenin,
probably to the north of it.


(whom Jehovah will build up), son of Jehoram, a Benjamite. (1
Chronicles 9:8)


(whom Jehovah will build up), a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 9:8)


(Hebrew), a Merarite Levite of the family of Jaaziah, (1 Chronicles
24:27) in the time of David. (B.C. 1014.)


(illustrious), a native of Bethlehem of Zebulun, who judged Israel
for seven years after Jephthah. (Judges 12:8,10) (B.C. 1137.)


(inglorious), the son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. (1 Samuel
4:21) (B.C. about 1100.)


(little image), the modern Konieh, was the capital of
Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. It was a large and rich city, 120 miles north
from the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Taurus mountains, and on
the great line of communication between Ephesus and the western coast of
the peninsula on one side, and Tarsus, Antioch and the Euphrates on the
other. Iconium was a well-chosen place for missionary operations. (Acts
14:1,3,21,22; 16:1,2; 18:23) Paul's first visit here was on his first
circuit, in company with Barnabas; and on this occasion he approached it
from Antioch in Pisidia, which lay to the west. The modern Konieh
is between two and three miles in circumference and contains over 30,000
inhabitants. It contains manufactories of carpets and leather.


(memorial of God), one of the cities of the tribe of Zebulun, named
between Shimron and Bethlehem. (Joshua 19:15)


(stout), one of the three sons of Abi-Etam, among the families of
Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)


(timely or lovely).

  • The father of Abinadab. (1 Kings 4:14)

  • A descendant of Gershom, son of Levi. (1 Chronicles 6:21)

  • Son of Zechariah, ruler of the tribe of Manasseh east of Jordan in the
    time of David. (1 Chronicles 27:21) (B.C. 1014.)

  • A seer whose "visions" against Jeroboam incidentally contained some of
    the acts of Solomon. (2 Chronicles 9:29) He appears to have written a
    chronicle or story relating to the life and reign of Abijah. (2 Chronicles
    13:22) (B.C. 961.)

  • The grandfather of the prophet Zechariah. (Zechariah 1:1,7)

  • The chief of those who assembled at Casiphia at the time of the second
    caravan from Babylon. He was one of the Nethinim. (Ezra 8:17) comp. Ezra
    8:20 (B.C. 536.)


An image or anything used as an object of worship in place of the true
God. Among the earliest objects of worship, regarded as symbols of deity,
were the meteoric stones,which the ancients believed to have been images
of the Gods sent down from heaven. From these they transferred their
regard to rough unhewn blocks, to stone columns or pillars of wood, in
which the divinity worshipped was supposed to dwell, and which were
connected, like the sacred stone at Delphi, by being anointed with oil and
crowned with wool on solemn days. Of the forms assumed by the idolatrous
images we have not many traces in the Bible. Dagon, the fish-god of the
Philistines, was a human figure terminating in a fish; and that the Syrian
deities were represented in later times in a symbolical human shape we
know for certainty. When the process of adorning the image was completed,
it was placed in a temple or shrine appointed for it. Epist. (Jeremiah
12:1; Jeremiah 19:1) ... Wisd. 13:15; (1 Corinthians 18:10) From these
temples the idols were sometimes carried in procession, Epist. (Jeremiah
4:26) on festival days. Their priests were maintained from the idol
treasury, and feasted upon the meats which were appointed for the
idols’ use. Bel and the Dragon 3,13.


strictly speaking denotes the worship of deity in a visible form, whether
the images to which homage is paid are symbolical representations of the
true God or of the false divinities which have been made the objects of
worship in his stead. I. History of idolatry among the Jews. -- The
first undoubted allusion to idolatry or idolatrous customs in the Bible is
in the account of Rachel's stealing her father's teraphim. (Genesis 31:19)
During their long residence in Egypt the Israelites defiled themselves
with the idols of the land, and it was long before the taint was removed.
(Joshua 24:14; Ezekiel 20:7) In the wilderness they clamored for some
visible shape in which they might worship the God who had brought them out
of Egypt. (Exodus 32:1) ... until Aaron made the calf, the embodiment of
Apis and emblem of the productive power of nature. During the lives of
Joshua and the elders who outlived him they kept true to their allegiance;
but the generation following who knew not Jehovah nor the works he had
done for Israel, swerved from the plain path of their fathers and were
caught in the toils of the foreigner. (Judges 2:1) ... From this time
forth their history becomes little more than a chronicle of the inevitable
sequence of offence and punishment. (Judges 2:12,14) By turns each
conquering nation strove to establish the worship of its national God. In
later times the practice of secret idolatry was carried to greater
lengths. Images were set up on the corn-floors, in the wine-vats, and
behind the doors of private houses, (Isaiah 57:8; Hosea 9:1,2) and to
check this tendency the statute in (27:15) was originally promulgated.
Under Samuel's administration idolatry was publicly renounced, (1 Samuel
7:3-6) but in the reign of Solomon all this was forgotten, even Solomon's
own heart being turned after other gods. (1 Kings 11:14) Rehoboam
perpetuated the worst features of Solomon's idolatry. (1 Kings 14:22-24)
erected golden calves at Beth-el and at Dan, and by this crafty
state’ policy severed forever the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. (1
Kings 12:26-33) The successors of Jeroboam followed in his steps, till
Ahab. The conquest of the ten tribes by Shalmaneser was for them the last
scene Of the drama of abominations which had been enacted uninterruptedly
for upwards of 250 years. Under Hezekiah a great reform was inaugurated,
that was not confined to Judah and Benjamin, but spread throughout Ephraim
and Manasseh. (2 Chronicles 31:1) and to all external appearances idolatry
was extirpated. But the reform extended little below the surface. (Isaiah
29:13) With the death of Josiah ended the last effort to revive among the
people a purer ritual. If not a purer faith. The lamp of David, which had
long shed but a struggling ray, flickered for a while and then went out in
the darkness of Babylonian Captivity. Though the conquests of Alexander
caused Greek influence to be felt, yet after the captivity better
condition of things prevailed, and the Jews never again fell into
idolatry. The erection of synagogues had been assigned as a reason for the
comparative purity of the Jewish worship after the captivity, while
another cause has been discovered in the hatred for images acquired by the
Jews in their intercourse with the Persians. II. Objects of
. -- The sun and moon were early selected as outward symbols
of all-pervading power, and the worship of the heavenly bodies was not
only the most ancient but the most prevalent system of idolatry. Taking
its rise in the plains of Chaldea, it spread through Egypt, Greece,
Scythia, and even Mexico and Ceylon. Comp. (4:19; 17:3; Job 31:20-28) In
the later times of the monarchy, the planets or the zodiacal signs
received, next to the sun and moon, their share of popular adoration. (2
Kings 23:5) Beast-worship, as exemplified in the calves of Jeroboam, has
already been alluded to of pure hero-worship among the Semitic races we
find no trace. The singular reverence with which trees have been honored
is not without example in the history of the Hebrew. The terebinth (oak)
at Mamre, beneath which Abraham built an altar, (Genesis 12:7; 13:18) and
the memorial grove planted by him at Beersheba, (Genesis 21:33) were
intimately connected with patriarchal worship. Mountains and high places
were chosen spots for offering sacrifice and incense to idols, (1 Kings
11:7; 14:23) and the retirement of gardens and the thick shade of woods
offered great attractions to their worshippers. (2 Kings 16:4; Isaiah
1:29; Hosea 4:13) The host of heaven was worshipped on the house-top. (2
Kings 23:12; Jeremiah 19:3; 32:29; Zephaniah 1:5) (The modern objects of
idolatry are less gross than the ancient, but are none the less idols.
Whatever of wealth or honor or pleasure is loved and sought before God and
righteousness becomes an object of idolatry. -- ED.) III. Punishment of
. -- Idolatry to an Israelite was a state offence, (1 Samuel
15:23) a political crime of the greatest character, high treason against
the majesty of his king. The first and second commandments are directed
against idolatry of every form. Individuals and communities were equally
amenable to the rigorous code. The individual offender was devoted to
destruction, (Exodus 22:20) his nearest relatives were not only bound to
denounce him and deliver him up to punishment, (13:2-10) but their hands
were to strike the first blow, when, on the evidence of two witnesses at
least, he was stoned. (17:2-5) To attempt to seduce others to false
worship was a crime of equal enormity. (13:6-10) IV. Attractions of
. -- Many have wondered why the Israelites were so easily led
away from the true God, into the worship of idols. (1) Visible, outward
signs, with shows, pageants, parades, have an attraction to the natural
heart, which often fail to perceive the unseen spiritual realities. (2)
But the greatest attraction seems to have been in licentious revelries and
obscene orgies with which the worship of the Oriental idols was observed.
This worship, appealing to every sensual passion, joined with the
attractions of wealth and fashion and luxury, naturally was a great
temptation to a simple, restrained, agricultural people, whose worship and
law demands the greatest purity of heart and of life. -- ED.)




(whom God will avenge).

  • One of the spies, son of Joseph, of the tribe of Issachar. (Numbers
    13:7) (B.C. 1490.)

  • One of the heroes of David's guard, son of Nathan of Zobah. (2 Samuel
    23:36) (B.C. 1046.)


(whom Jehovah makes great), a prophet or holy man -- "the man of
God" -- named once only, (Jeremiah 36:4) as the father of Hanan. (B.C.
before 406.)


(whom God will avenge), a son of Nehemiah; a descendant of the
royal house of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:22) (B.C. 406.)



  • The partial or contracted form of the name IJE-ABARIM. (Numbers

  • A town in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 16:29)


(ruin of Abarim), one of the later halting-places of the children
of Israel. (Numbers 21:11; 33:44) It was on the boundary -- the southeast
boundary -- of the territory of Moab; in the waste uncultivated
"wilderness" on its skirts.


(a ruin), a town in the north of Palestine, belonging to the tribe
of Naphtali. It was taken and plundered by the captains of Ben-hadad, (1
Kings 15:20; 2 Chronicles 16:4) and a second time by Tiglath-pileser. (2
Kings 16:29) It was situated a few miles northwest of the site of Dan, in
a fertile and beautiful little plain called Merj’ Ayun.


(perverse), the father of Ira the Tekoite. (2 Samuel 23:26; 1
Chronicles 11:28; 27:9) (B.C. before 1046.)


(exalted), an Ahohite, one of the heroes of David's guard (1
Chronicles 11:29) (B.C. 1046.)


an extensive district lying along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, from
the boundary of Italy on the north of Epirus on the south, and contiguous
to Moessia and Macedonia on the east. (Romans 6:19)




(whom God will fill up), father or progenitor of Micaiah the
prophet. (2 Chronicles 18:7,8) The form IMLAH is employed in the parallel
narrative. (1 Kings 12:8,9) (B.C. before 896.)


that is, God with us, the title applied by the apostle Matthew to
the Messiah, born of the Virgin, (Matthew 1:23; Isaiah 7:14) because Jesus
was God united with man, and showed that God was dwelling with men.



  • The founder of an important family of priests. (1 Chronicles 9:12;
    Nehemiah 11:13) This family had charge of, and gave its name to, the
    sixteenth course of the service. (1 Chronicles 24:14) (B.C. 1014.)

  • Apparently the name of a place in Babylonia. (Ezra 2:59; Nehemiah


(holding back), a descendant of Asher, son of Helem. (1 Chronicles
7:35) comp. 1Chr 7:40 (B.C. about 1461.)


(holding back).

  • The first born of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30) (B.C. 1706.)

  • Kore ben-Imnah, the Levite, assisted in the reforms of Hezekiah. (2
    Chronicles 31:14) (B.C. 726.)


(stubborn), a descendant of Asher, of the family of Zophah (1
Chronicles 7:36) (B.C. after 1445.)



  • A man of Judah, of the great family of Pharez. (1 Chronicles 9:4)
    (B.C. much before 536.)

  • Father or progenitor of Zaccur. (Nehemiah 3:2) (B.C. before 446.)


from the Latin "to burn," "a mixture of gums or spices and the like, used
for the purpose of producing a perfume when burned;" or the perfume itself
of the spices, etc., burned in worship. The incense employed in the
service of the tabernacle walls compounded of the perfumes stacte, onycha,
galbanum and pure frankincense. All incense which was not made of these
ingredients was forbidden to be offered. (Exodus 30:9) Aaron, as high
priest, was originally appointed to offer incense each morning and
evening. The times of offering incense were specified in the instructions
first given to Moses. (Exodus 30:7,8) When the priest entered the holy
place with the incense, all the people were removed from the temple, and
from between the porch and the altar. Cf. (Luke 1:10) Profound silence was
observed among the congregation who were praying without, cf. (Revelation
8:1) and at a signal from the perfect the priest cast the incense on the
fire and, bowing reverently toward the holy of holies, retired slowly
backward. The offering of incense has formed part of the religious
ceremonies of most ancient nations. It was an element in the idolatrous
worship of the Israelites. (2 Chronicles 34:25; Jeremiah 11:12,17; 48:35)
It would seem to be symbolical, not of itself, but of that which makes
acceptable, the intercession of Christ. In (Revelation 8:3,4) the incense
is of as something distinct from offered with the prayers of, all the
saints cf. (Luke 1:10) and in Reve 6:8 It is the golden vials, and not the
odors or incense, which are said to be the prayers of saints.


The name of India does not occur in the Bible before the book of Esther
where it is noticed as the limit of the territories of Ahasuerus in the
east, as Ethiopia was in the west. (Esther 1:1; 8:9) The India of the book
of Esther is not the peninsula of Hindostan, but the country surrounding
the Indus, the Punjab and perhaps Scinde. The people and
productions of that country must have been tolerably well known to the
Jews. An active trade was carried on between India and western Asia. The
trade opened by Solomon with Ophir through the Red Sea consisted chiefly
of Indian articles.






The Hebrew word (malon) thus rendered literally signified "a
lodging-place for the night." Inns, in our sense of the term were, as they
still are, unknown in the East, where hospitality is religiously
practiced. The khans or caravanserais are the representatives of European
inns, and these were established but gradually. The halting-place of a
caravan was selected originally on account of its proximity to water or
pasture, by which the travellers pitched their tents and passed the night.
Such was undoubtedly the "inn" at which occurred the Incident in the life
of Moses narrated in (Exodus 4:24) comp. Genesis42:27 On the more
frequented routes, remote from towns, (Jeremiah 9:2) caravanserais were in
course of time erected, often at the expense of the wealthy. "A
caravanserai is a large and substantial square building... Passing through
strong gateway, the guest enters a large court, in the centre of which is
a spacious raised platform, used for sleeping upon at night or for the
devotions of the faithful during the day. Around this court are arranged
the rooms of the building."


Dr. Knapp given as the definition of inspiration, "an extra-ordinary
divine agency upon teachers while giving instruction, whether oral or
written, by which they were taught what and how they should write or
speak." Without deciding on any of the various theories of inspiration,
the general doctrine of Christians is that the Bible is so inspired by God
that it is the infallible guide of men, and is perfectly trustworthy in
all its parts, as given by God.


in the Authorized Version, means urgent, urgently or fervently, as will be
seen from the following passages: (Luke 7:4; 23:23; Acts 26:7; Romans


(whom Jehovah frees), a descendant of Benjamin, one of the
Bene-Shashak. (1 Chronicles 8:25)


(city). (1 Chronicles 7:12) [IRI]


(watchful of a city).

  • "The Jairite," named in the catalogue of David's great officers. (2
    Samuel 20:26)

  • One of the heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:38; 1 Chronicles

  • Another of David's guard, a Tekoite, son of Ikkesh- (2 Samuel 23:26; 1
    Chronicles 11:28) (B.C. 1046-1014.)


(fleet), son of Enoch; grandson of Cain, and father of Mehujael.
(Genesis 4:18)


(belonging to a city), a leader of the Edomites, (Genesis 36:43; 1
Chronicles 1:54) i.e. the chief of a family or tribe. No identification of
him has been found.


or Ir (belonging to a city), a Benjamite, son of Bela. (1
Chronicles 7:7,12)


(seen by the Lord), son of Shelemiah, a captain in the ward, who
met Jeremiah in the gate of Jerusalem called the "gate of Benjamin"
accused him of being about to desert to the Chaldeans; and led him back to
the princes. (Jeremiah 37:13,14) (B.C. 589.)


(serpent city), a name which, like many other names of places,
occurs in the genealogical lists of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:12)


(pious), one of the cities of Naphtali, (Joshua 19:38) hitherto
totally unknown.


is mentioned with brass as the earliest of known metals. (Genesis 4:22)
The natural wealth in iron of the soil of Canaan is indicated by
describing it as a land whose stones are iron." (8:9) (Recent explorations
have shown that iron ore is abundant in the northern part of Palestine. --
ED.) The book of Job contains passages which indicate that iron was a
metal well known. Sheet-iron was used for cooking utensils. (Ezekiel 4:3)
cf. Levi 7:9 That it was plentiful in the time of David appears from (1
Chronicles 22:3) The market of Tyre was supplied with bright or polished
iron by the merchants of by Dan and Javan. (Ezekiel 27:19) The Chalybes of
the Pontus were celebrated as workers in iron in very ancient times. The
product of their labor is supposed to be alluded to in (Jeremiah 16:12) as
being of superior quality. Specimens of Assyrian iron-work overlaid with
bronze were discovered by Mr. Layard, and are now in the British Museum.
Iron weapons of various kinds were found at Nimroud, but fell to pieces on
exposure to the air.


(God heals), one of the cities of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:27) No trace
has yet been discovered of its situation.


(city of the sun), a city of the Danites (Joshua 19:41) probably
identical with Beth-shemesh.


(watch), the eldest son of the great Caleb son of Jephunneh. (1
Chronicles 4:15) (B.C. 1451.)


(laughter), the son whom Sara bore to Abraham, in the hundredth
year of his age, at Gerar. (B.C. 1897.) In his infancy he became the
object of Ishmael's jealousy; and in his youth the victim, in intention,
of Abraham's great sacrificial act of faith. When forty years old he
married Rebekah his cousin, by whom, when he was sixty, he had two sons,
Esau and Jacob. Driven by famine to Gerar, he acquired great wealth by his
flocks but was repeatedly dispossessed by the Philistines of the wells
which he sunk at convenient stations. After the deceit by which Jacob
acquired his father's blessing Isaac sent his son to seek a wife in
Padan-aram; and all that we know of him during the last forty-three years
of his life in that he saw that GOD, with a large and prosperous family,
return to him at Hebron. (Genesis 36:27) before he died there, at the age
of 180 years. He was buried by his two sons in the cave of Machpelah. In
the New Testament reference is made to the offering of Isaac (Hebrews
11:17; James 2:21) and to his blessing his sons. (Hebrews 11:20) In
(Galatians 4:28-31) he is contrasted with Ishmael. In reference to the
offering up of Isaac by Abraham, the primary doctrine taught are those of
sacrifice and substitution, as the means appointed by God for taking away
sin; and, as co-ordinate with these, the need of the obedience of faith,
on the part of man, to receive the benefit. (Hebrews 11:17) The animal
which God provided and Abraham offered was in the whole history of
sacrifice the recognized type of "the Lamb of God, that taketh away the
sins of the world." Isaac is the type of humanity itself, devoted to death
for sin.


the prophet, son of Amoz. The Hebrew name signifies Salvation of
(a shortened form of Jehovah), He prophesied concerning Judah and
Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of
Judah, (Isaiah 1:1) covering probably 758 to 698 B.C. He was married and
had two sons. Rabbinical tradition says that Isaiah, when 90 years old,
was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by order of Manasseh, to
which it is supposed that reference is made in (Hebrews 11:37)


I. Chapters 1-5 contain Isaiah's prophecies in the reigns of Uzziah and
Jotham, foretelling that the present prosperity of Judah should be
destroyed, and that Israel should be brought to desolation. In chs. 6, 7
he announces the birth of the child Immanuel, which in ch. 9 is more
positively predicted. Chs. 9-12 contain additional prophecies against
Israel, chs. (Isaiah 10:5-12) (6) being the most highly-wrought passages
in the whole book. Chs. 13-23 contain chiefly a collection of utterances,
each of which is styled a "burden," fore-telling the doom of Babylon,
Philistia, Moab, Ethiopia, Egypt and Tyre. The ode of triumph in ch.
(Isaiah 14:3-23) is among the most poetical passages in all literature.
Chs. 24-27 form one prophecy, essentially connected with the preceding ten
"burdens," chs. 13-23, of which it is in effect a general summary. Chs.
23-35 predict the Assyrian invasion, and chs. 36-39 have reference to this
invasion; prophecies that were so soon fulfilled. (2 Kings 19:35) II. The
last 27 chapters form a separate prophecy, and are supposed by many
critics to have been written in the time of the Babylonian captivity, and
are therefore ascribed to a "later Isaiah;" but the best reasons are in
favor of but one Isaiah. This second part falls into three sections, each
consisting of nine chapters: --

  • The first section, chs 40-48 has for its main topic the comforting
    assurance of the deliverance from Babylon by Koresh (Cyrus), who is even
    named twice. ch. (Isaiah 41:2,3,25; 44:28; 45:1-4,13; 46:11;

  • The second section, chs. 49-56, is distinguished from the first by
    several features. The person of Cyrus as well as his name and the
    specification of Babylon, disappear altogether. Return from exile is
    indeed spoken of repeatedly and at length, ch. (Isaiah 49:9-26; 51:9-52;
    12; 55:12,13; 57:14) but in such general terms as admit of being applied
    to the spiritual and Messianic as well as to the literal restoration.

  • This section is mainly occupied with various practical exhortations
    founded upon the views of the future already set forth. In favor of the
    authenticity of the last 27 chapters the following reasons may be
    advanced: -- (a) The unanimous testimony of Jewish and Christian
    tradition, comp. Ecclus. 48:24, and the evidence of the New Testament
    quotations. (Matthew 3:3; Luke 4:17; Acts 8:28; Romans 10:16,20) (b) The
    unity of design which connects these last 27 chapters with the preceding;
    the oneness of diction which pervades the whole book; the peculiar
    elevation and grandeur of style which characterize the second part as well
    as the first; the absence of any other name than Isaiah's claiming the
    authorship; lastly, the Messianic predictions which mark its inspiration
    and remove the chief ground of objection against its having been written
    by Isaiah. In point of style we can find no difficulty in recognizing in
    the second part the presence of the same plastic genius as we discover in
    the first.


(one who looks forth), daughter of Haran the brother of Abram, and
sister of Milcah and of Lot. (Genesis 11:29) In the Jewish traditions she
is identified with Sarai. (B.C. about 1920.)




(praising), a man in the line of Judah, commemorated as the "father
of Eshtemos." (1 Chronicles 4:17)


(left behind), a son of Abraham and Keturah, (Genesis 25:2; 1
Chronicles 1:32) and the progenitor of a tribe of northern Arabia. (B.C.
after 1856.)


(he that dwells at Nobl), son of Rapha, one of the race of
Philistine giants, who attacked David in battle, but was slain by Abishai.
(2 Samuel 21:16,17) (B.C. 1018.)


(man of shame) the youngest of Saul's four sons, and his legitimate
successor. (B.C. 1068.) Ish-bosheth was "forty years old when he began to
reign over Israel, and reigned two years." (2 Samuel 3:10) During these
two years he reigned at Mahanaim, though only in name. The wars and
negotiations with David were entirely carried on by Abner (2 Samuel 2:12;
3:6,12) The death of Abner deprived the house of Saul of its last
remaining support. When Ish-bosheth heard of it, "his hands were feeble,
and all the Israelites were troubled." He was murdered in his bed.



  • A man of the descendants of Judah, son of Appaim, (1 Chronicles 2:31)
    one of the great house of Hezron.

  • In a subsequent genealogy of Judah we find another Ishi, with a son
    Zoheth. (1 Chronicles 4:20)

  • Head of a family of the tribe of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:42)

  • One of the heads of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan. (1
    Chronicles 5:24)


(my husband). This word occurs in (Hosea 2:16) It is the Israelite
term, in opposition to Baali, the Canaanite term, with the same meaning,
though with a significance of its own.


(whom Jehovah lends), the fifth of the five sons of Izrahiah, one
of the heads of the tribe of Issachar in the time of David. (1 Chronicles
7:3) (B.C. 1046.)


(whom Jehovah lends), a lay Israelite of the Bene-Harim who had
married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:31) (B.C. 459.)


(desolation), a name in the genealogy of Judah. (1 Chronicles


(whom God hears).

  • The son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian his concubine; born when
    Abraham was fourscore and six years old. (Genesis 16:15,16) (B.C. 1910.)
    Ishmael was the first-born of his father. He was born in Abraham's house
    when he dwelt in the plain of Mamre; and on the institution of the
    covenant of circumcision, was circumcised, he being then thirteen years
    old (Genesis 17:26) With the institution of the covenant, God renewed his
    promise respecting Ishmael. He does not again appear in the narrative
    until the weaning of Isaac. At the great feast made in celebration of the
    weaning, "Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had borne
    unto Abraham, mocking," and urged Abraham to cast him and his mother out.
    Comforted by the renewal of God's promise to make of Ishmael a great
    nation, Abraham sent them away, and they departed and wandered in the
    wilderness of Beersheba. His mother took Ishmael a wife out of the land of
    Egypt." (Genesis 21:9-21) This wife of Ishmael was the mother of the
    twelve sons and one daughter. Of the later life of Ishmael we know little.
    He was present with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. He died at the age of
    137 years. (Genesis 25:17,18) The sons of Ishmael peopled the north and
    west of the Arabian peninsula, and eventually formed the chief element of
    the Arab nation, the wandering Bedouin tribes. They are now mostly
    Mohammedans who look to him as their spiritual father, as the Jews look to
    Abraham. Their language, which is generally acknowledged to have been the
    Arabic community so called, has been adopted with insignificant exceptions
    throughout Arabia. The term "Ishmaelite" occur on three occasions:
    (Genesis 37:25,27,28; 39:1; Judges 8:24; Psalms 83:6)

  • One of the sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul through Meribbaal or
    Mephibosheth. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44)

  • A man of Judah, father of Zebadiah. (2 Chronicles 19:11)

  • Another man of Judah, son of Jehohanan; one of the captains of
    hundreds who assisted Jehoiada in restoring Joash to the throne. (2
    Chronicles 23:1)

  • A priest of the Bene-Pashur, who was forced by Ezra to relinquish his
    foreign wife. (Ezra 10:22)

  • The son of Nethaniah; a perfect marvel of craft and villainy, whose
    treachery forms one of the chief episodes of the history of the period
    immediately succeeding the first fall of Jerusalem. His exploits are
    related in (Jeremiah 40:7; Jeremiah 41:16) with a short summary. During
    the siege of the city he had fled across the Jordan where he found a
    refuge at the court of Baalis. After the departure of the Chaldeans,
    Ishmael made no secret of his intention to kill the superintendent left by
    the king of Babylon and usurp his position. Of this Zedaliah was warned in
    express terms by Johanan and his companions, but notwithstanding
    entertained Ishmael and his followers at a feast, (Jeremiah 41:1) during
    which Ishmael murdered Gedaliah and all his attendants. The same night he
    killed all Zedaliah's establishment, including some Chaldean soldiers who
    were there. For two days the massacre remained entirely unknown to the
    people of the town. On the second day eighty devotees were bringing
    incense and offerings to the ruins of the temple. At his invitation they
    turned aside to the residence of the superintendent, and there Ishmael and
    his band butchered nearly the whole number: ten only escaped by offering a
    heavy ransom for their lives. This done he descended to the town,
    surprised and carried off the daughters of King Zedekiah, who had been
    sent there by Nebuchadnezzar for safety, with their eunuchs and their
    Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 41:10,16) and all the people of the town, and
    made off with his prisoners to the country of the Ammonites. The news of
    the massacre had by this time got abroad, and Ishmael was quickly pursued
    by Johanan and his companions. He was attacked, two of his bravos slain,
    the whole of the prey recovered; and Ishmael himself with the remaining
    eight of his people, escaped to the Ammonites.


(decendant of Ishmael). [ISHMAEL]


(Jehovah hears), son of Obadiah; the ruler of the tribe of Zebulun
in the time of King David. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B.C. 1046.)


(1 Chronicles 2:17) and Ish’me-elites (descendants of
), (Genesis 37:25,27,28; 39:1) the form in which the
descendants of Ishmael are given in a few places in the Authorized


(whom Jehovah keeps), a Benjamite, one of the family of Elpaal. (1
Chronicles 8:18) (B.C. before 538.)


(man of glory), one of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan,
son of Hammoleketh. (1 Chronicles 7:18) (B.C. 1491.)


(bald), a Benjamite, one of the family of Shashak. (1 Chronicles
8:22) (B.C. before 588.)


(men of Tob), apparently one of the small kingdoms or states which
formed part of the general country of Aram, named with Zobah, Rehob and
Maacah. (2 Samuel 10:6,8)


(quiet), the second son of Asher. (Genesis 46:17) (B.C. 1706.)


(quiet), the third son of Asher, (1 Chronicles 7:30) founder of a
family bearing his name. (Numbers 26:44) Authorized Version "Jesuites."
(B.C. 1706.)


(quiet), the second son of Saul by his wife Ahinoam (1 Samuel 14:4)
comp. 1Sam 14:50 (Died B.C. 1053.)


The radical sense of the Hebrew word seems to be "habitable places," as
opposed to water, and in this sense it occurs in (Isaiah 42:15) Hence it
means secondarily any maritime district, whether belonging to a continent
or to an island; thus it is used of the shore of the Mediterranean,
(Isaiah 20:6; 23:2,6) and of the coasts of Elishah, (Ezekiel 27:7) i.e. of
Greece and Asia Minor.


(whom Jehovah upholds), a Levite who was one of the overseers of
offerings during the revival under King Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:13)
(B.C. 776.)


(Jehovah hears), a Gibeonite, one of the chiefs of those warriors,
who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:4). (B.C. 1064.)


(bald), a Benjamite of the family of Beriah; one of the heads of
his tribe. (1 Chronicles 8:16) (B.C. before 588.)


(the prince that prevails with God).

  • The name given, (Genesis 32:28) to Jacob after his wrestling with the
    angel, (Hosea 12:4) at Peniel. Gesenius interprets Israel "soldier of

  • It became the national name of the twelve tribes collectively. They
    are so called in (Exodus 3:16) and afterward.

  • It is used in a narrower sense, excluding Judah, in (1 Samuel 11:8; 2
    Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16) Thenceforth it was assumed and accepted as the
    name of the northern kingdom.

  • After the Babylonian captivity, the returned exiles resumed the name
    Israel as the designation of their nation. The name Israel is also used to
    denote lay-men, as distinguished from priests, Levites and other
    ministers. (Ezra 6:16; 9:1; 10:25; Nehemiah 11:3) etc.


I. the kingdom. -- The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh, who was
commissioned in the latter days of Solomon to announce the division of the
kingdom, left one tribe (Judah) to the house of David, and assigned ten to
Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:31,35) These were probably Joseph (Ephraim and
Manasseh), Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Gad
and Reuben; Levi being intentionally omitted. Eventually the greater part
of Benjamin, and probably the whole of Simeon and Dan, were included as if
by common consent in the kingdom of Judah. With respect to the conquests
of David, Moab appears to have been attached to the kingdom of Israel. (2
Kings 3:4) so much of Syria as remained subject to Solomon, see (1 Kings
11:24) would probably be claimed by his successor in the northern kingdom;
and Ammon was at one time allied (2 Chronicles 20:1) we know not how
closely or how early, with Moab. The seacoast between Accho and Japho
remained in the possession of Israel. The whole population may perhaps
have amounted to at least three and a half millions. II. the
. -- Shechem was the first capital of the new kingdom. (1
Kings 12:25) Subsequently Tirzah became the royal residence, if not the
capital, of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:17) and of his successors. cf. (1 Kings
15:33; 16:8,17,23) Samaria was chosen by Omri. (1 Kings 16:24) Jezreel was
probably only a royal residence of some of the Israelitish kings. III.
History. -- The kingdom of Israel lasted 254 years, from B.C. 975
to B.C. 721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the
names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Israel,
at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods: (a)
B.C. 975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to
make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a
dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation.
Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor
of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of
Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and
after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of
half the people. (b) B.C. 929-884. For forty-five years Israel wag
governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an
alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of
Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in
the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah,
and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of
Elisha. (c) B.C. 884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation,
awaited the kingdom of Israel under the dynasty of Jehu. Hazael, the
ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal,
and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost
the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between
them; and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the
conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the
Syrians; and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of
Israel, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from
Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last
king of Jehu's line. (d) B.C. 772-721. Military violence, it would seem,
broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably
convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is
followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the
first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for
the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was
sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign,
cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and
transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under
Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of
Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria interposing
summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the
indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute
Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders
Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was
punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a
three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the
ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious
decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and
deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to
Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of
that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua
from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that "after the
destruction of the kingdom of Israel, B.C. 721, the name
’Israel’ began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No
doubt many of the kingdom of Israel joined the later kingdom of the Jews
after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom. -- ED.)


(descendant of Israel). In (2 Samuel 17:25) Ithra, the father of
Amasa, is called "an Israelite," while in (1 Chronicles 2:17) he appears
as "Jether the Ishmaelite." The latter is undoubtedly the true


(reward). I. The ninth son of Jacob and the fifth of Leah. (Genesis
30:17,18) (B.C. 1753-45) At the descent into Egypt four sons are ascribed
to him, who founded the four chief families of the tribes. (Genesis 46:13;
Numbers 26:23,25; 1 Chronicles 7:1) The number of the fighting men of
Issachar, when taken in the census at Sinai, was 54,400. During the
journey they seem to have steadily increased. The allotment of Issachar
lay above that of Manasseh. (Joshua 19:17-23) In the words of Josephus,
"it extended in length from Carmel to the Jordan, in breadth to Mount
Tabor." This territory was, as it still is, among the richest land in
Palestine. It is this aspect of the territory of Issachar which appears to
be alluded to in the blessing of Jacob.

  • A Korhite Levite, one of the door-keepers of the house of Jehovah,
    seventh son of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:5)


(whom Jehovah lends).

  • A descendant of Moses by his younger son Eliezer. (1 Chronicles 24:21)
    comp. 1Chr 23:17; 26:25 (B.C. after 1451.)

  • A Levite of the house of Kohath and family of Uzziel. (1 Chronicles
    24:26) (Uncertain date.)


(Leviticus 15:2,3; 22:4; Numbers 5:2; 2 Samuel 3:29) In (Leviticus 15:3) a
distinction is introduced, which merely means that the cessation of the
actual flux does not constitute ceremonial cleanness, but that the patient
must abide the legal time, seven days, ver 13, and perform the prescribed
purifications and sacrifice. ver. 14.


(quiet), second son of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30) (B.C. 1706.)


(quiet), third son of Asher, (Genesis 46:17) founder of a family
called after him, though in the Authorized Version appearing as THE
JESUITES. (Numbers 26:44) (B.C. 1706.)




This word is used in the New Testament, (Acts 18:2; 27:1; Hebrews 13:24)
in the usual sense of the period, i.e. in its true geographical sense, as
denoting the whole natural peninsula between the Alps and the Straits of


(with the Lord), a Benjamite, son of Ribai of Gibeah, one of the
heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:31) (B.C. 1046.)


(land of palms), the youngest son of Aaron. (Exodus 6:23) (B.C.
1491.) After the death of Nadab and Abihu, (Leviticus 10:1) Eleazar and
Ithamar were appointed to succeed to their places in the priestly office.
(Exodus 28:1,40,43; Numbers 3:3,4; 1 Chronicles 24:2) In the distribution
of services belonging to the tabernacle, and its transport on the march of
the Israelites, the Gershonites and the Merarites were placed under the
superintendence of Ithamar. (Exodus 38:21; Numbers 4:21-33) The high
priesthood passed into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, but for
what reason we are not informed.


(God is with me).

  • A Benjamite, son of Jesaiah. (Nehemiah 11:7)

  • One of two persons -- Ithiel and Ucal -- to whom Agur ben-Jakeh
    delivered his discourse. (Proverbs 30:1) (B.C. about 900.)


(bereavedness), a Moabite, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1
Chronicles 11:46)


(given), one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua
15:23) No trace of its existence has yet been discovered.


(excellence), an Israelite, (2 Samuel 17:25) or Ishmaelite, (1
Chronicles 2:17) the father of Amasa by Abigail, David's sister. (B.C.
before 1023.)



  • A son of Dishon, a Horite, (Genesis 36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41) and
    probably a phylarch of a tribe of the Horim. (Genesis 36:30) (B.C. about

  • A descendant of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30-40)


(abundance of people), son of David, born to him in Hebron, and
distinctly specified as the sixth, and as the child of Eglah, David's
wife. (2 Samuel 3:5; 1 Chronicles 3:3)


(belonging to Jether), The, the designation of two of the
members of David's guard, Ira and Gareb. (2 Samuel 23:38; 1 Chronicles
11:40) They may have come from Jattir, in the mountains of Judah. (B.C


(time of the judge), one of the landmarks of the boundary of
Zebulun. (Joshua 19:13) It has not been identified.


(with the Lord).

  • "Ittai the Gittite," i.e. the native of Gath, a Philistine in the army
    of King David. He appears only during the revolution of Absalom. (B.C.
    1023.) We first discern him on the morning of David's flight. The king
    urges him to return. (2 Samuel 15:18,19) Comp. 1Sam 23:13; 27:2;
    30:9,10,19,20 But ittai is firm; he is the king's slave, and wherever his
    master goes he will go. Accordingly he is allowed by David to proceed.
    When the army was numbered and organized by David at Mahanaim, Ittai again
    appears, now in command of a third part of the force. (2 Samuel

  • Son of Ribai, from Gibeah of Benjamin; one of the thirty heroes of
    David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:29)


(land of Jether), a small province on the northwestern border of
Palestine, lying along the base of Mount Hermon, only mentioned in (Luke
3:1) Jetur the son of Ishmael gave his name like the rest of his brethren,
to the little province he colonized. (Genesis 25:15,16) It adjoined
Trachonitis, and lay along the base of Libanus between Tiberias and
Damascus. At the place indicated is situated the modern province of
Jedur, which is the Arabic form of the Hebrew Jetur


(ruined), or A’va, which is mentioned in Scripture
twice, (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13) comp. Isai 37:13 In connection with Hena and
Sepharvaim, and once, (2 Kings 17:24) in connection with Babylon and
Cuthah, must be sought in Babylonia, and is probably identical with the
modern Hit, on the Euphrates.


The word translated "ivory" literally signifies the "tooth" of any animal,
and hence more especially denotes the substance of the projecting tusks of
elephants. The skilled work-men of Hiram, king of Tyre, fashioned the
great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold. (1 Kings
10:18; 2 Chronicles 9:17) The ivory thus employed was supplied by the
caravans of Dedan, (Isaiah 21:13; Ezekiel 27:15) or was brought, with apes
and peacocks, by the navy of Tarshish. (1 Kings 10:22) The "ivory house"
of Ahab, (1 Kings 22:39) was probably a palace, the walls of which were
panelled with ivory, like the palace of Menelaus described by Homer. Odys.
iv. 73. Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were in use among the Hebrews.
(Amos 6:4)


(oil), the form in which the name Izhar is given in the Authorized
Version of (Numbers 3:19) only.


(descendant of Izhar), The. A family of Kohathite Levites,
descended from Izhar the son of Kohath, (Numbers 3:27) called also
"Izharites" (1 Chronicles 26:23,29)


(oil), son of Kohath grandson of Levi, uncle of Aaron and Moses and
father of Korah. (Exodus 6:18,21; Numbers 3:19; 16:1; 1 Chronicles 6:2,18)
(B.C. after 1490.) Izhar was the head of the family of the Izharites, (1
Chronicles 24:22; 26:23) or Izeharites. (Numbers 3:27; 1 Chronicles


(whom Jehovah causes to sparkle), a chieftain of Issachar. (1
Chronicles 7:3)


(descendant of Zerah), The, the designation of Shamhuth (1
Chronicles 27:8) Its real force probably Zerahite, that is, from the great
Judaic family of Zerah.


(creator), a Levite leader of the fourth course or ward in the
service of the house of God. (1 Chronicles 25:11) In ver. 3 he is called
ZERI. (B.C. 1014.)

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