Smith's Bible Dictionary - H

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(the courier), a man or a family immediately descended from Ashur.
"father of Tekoa," by his second wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6) (B.C.
after 1450.)


(whom Jehovah hides). Bene-Habaiah were among the sons of the
priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah
7:63) (B.C. before 459).


(embrace), the eighth in order of the minor prophets. Of the facts
of the prophet's life we have no certain information. He probably lived
about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C. 630 or 629.


consists of three chapters, in the first of which he foreshadows the
invasion of Judea by the Chaldeans, and in the second he foretells the
doom of the Chaldeans. The whole concludes with the magnificent psalm in
ch. 3, a composition unrivalled for boldness of conception, sublimity of
thought and majesty of diction.


(light of Jehovah), apparently the head of one of the families of
the Rechabites. (Jeremiah 35:3) (B.C. before 589.)


a coat of mail covering the neck and breast. [ARMS, ARMOR]


(beautiful banks), the "river of Gozan," (2 Kings 17:6) and 2Kin
18:11 Is identified beyond all reasonable doubt with the famous affluent
of the Euphrates, which is called Aborrhas and Chaboras by ancient
writers, and now Khabour.


(whom Jehovah enlightens), the father of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 1:1;


a hill apparently situated in a wood in the wilderness or waste land in
the neighborhood of Ziph, in Judah, in the fastnesses or passes of which
David and his six hundred followers were lurking when the Ziphites
informed Saul of his whereabouts. (1 Samuel 23:19) comp. 1Sam


(wise) Son of, and The Hach’monite. (1
Chronicles 11:11; 27:32) Hachmon or Hachmoni was no doubt the founder of a
family to which these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam was
Zabdiel, (1 Chronicles 27:2) and he is also said to have belonged to the
Korhites. (1 Chronicles 12:6) (B.C. before 1046.)


(mighty), originally the indigenous appellation of the sun among
the Syrians, and thence transferred to the king as the highest of earthly
authorities. The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh.
It is found occasionally in the altered form Hadar. (Genesis 25:15; 36:39)
compared with 1Chr 1:30,50

  • Son of Ishmael. (Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:30)

  • A king of Edom who gained an important victory over the Midianites on
    the field of Moab. (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46)

  • Also a king of Edom, with Pau for his capital. (1 Chronicles

  • A member of the royal house Or Edom. (1 Kings 11:14) ff. In his
    childhood he escaped the massacre under Joab, and fled with a band of
    followers into Egypt. Pharaoh, the predecessor of Solomon's father-in-law,
    treated him kindly, and gave him his sister-in-law in marriage. After
    David's death Hadad resolved to attempt the recovery of his dominion. He
    left Egypt and returned to his own country.


(2 Samuel 8:3-12; 1 Kings 11:23). [HADAREZER]


is, according to the ordinary interpretation of (Zechariah 12:11) a place
in the valley of Megiddo (a part of the plain of Esdraelon, six miles from
Mount Carmel and eleven from Nazareth), where a national lamentation was
held for the death of King Josiah. It was named after two Syrian




(Hadad's help), son of Rehob, (2 Samuel 8:3) the king of the
Aramite state of Zobah, who was pursued by David and defeated with great
loss. (1 Chronicles 18:3,4) (B.C. 1035.) After the first repulse of the
Ammonites and their Syrian allies by Joab, Hadarezer sent his army to the
assistance of his kindred the people of Maachah, Rehob and Ishtob. (1
Chronicles 19:16; 2 Samuel 10:15) comp. 2Sam 10:8 Under the command of
Shophach or Shobach, the captain of the host, they crossed the Euphrates,
joined the other Syrians, and encamped at a place called Helam. David
himself came from Jerusalem to take the command of the Israelite army. As
on the former occasion, the route was complete.


(new), one of the towns of Judah, in the maritime low country,
(Joshua 16:37) only, probably the ADASA of the Maccabean history.


(myrtle), probably the earlier name of Esther. (Esther 2:7)


(new). According to the Authorized Version, one of the towns of
Judah in the extreme south. (Joshua 15:25)


in Revised Version. [See HELL]


(sharp), a place named, with Lod (Lydda) and Ono, only in the later
books of the history. (Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 7:37; 11:34) In the time of
Eusebius a town called Aditha or Adatha existed to the east of Diospolis
(Lydda). This was probably Hadid.


(rest of God), a man of Ephraim. (2 Chronicles 28:12)


(noble honor).

  • The fifth son of Joktan. (Genesis 10:27; 1 Chronicles 1:21) His
    settlements, unlike those of many of Joktan's sons, have not been

  • Son of Tou or Toi king of Hamath; his father's ambassador to
    congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer king of Zobah. (1
    Chronicles 18:10) (B.C. 1035.)

  • The form assumed in Chronicles by the name of the intendant of taxes
    under David, Solomon and Rehoboam. (2 Chronicles 10:18) In Kings the name
    is given in the longer form of ADONIRAM, but in Samuel, (2 Samuel 20:24)
    as ADORAM.


(dwelling), a country of Syria, mentioned once only, by the prophet
Zechariah. (Zechariah 9:1) The addition of the district, with its borders,
is here generally stated; but the name itself seems to have wholly
disappeared. It still remains unknown.


(locust). Bene-Hagab were among the Nethinim who returned from
Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:46) (B.C. before 536.)


(locust). Bene Hagaba were among the Nethinim who came back from
captivity with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:48) The name is slightly different
in form from


under which it is found in the parallel list of (Ezra 2:45)


(flight), an Egyptian woman, the handmaid or slave of Sarah,
(Genesis 16:1) whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, after he
had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan and had no children by Sarah. ch
(Genesis 16:2,3) (B.C. 1912.) When Hagar saw that she had conceived, "her
mistress was despised in her eyes," v. 4, and Sarah, with the anger, we
may suppose, of a free woman rather than of a wife, reproached Abraham for
the results of her own act. Hagar fled, turning her steps toward her
native land through the great wilderness traversed by the Egyptian road.
By the fountain in the way to Shur the angel of the Lord found her,
charged her to return and submit herself under the hands of her mistress,
and delivered the remarkable prophecy respecting her unborn child recorded
in vs. 10-12. On her return she gave birth to Ishmael, and Abraham was
then eighty-six years old. When Ishmael was about sixteen years old, he
was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac at the festival of
his weaning, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. She
again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an
angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed
the former promises to her. (Genesis 21:9-21) St. Paul, (Galatians 4:25)
refers to her as the type of the old covenant of the law.


(named after Hagar), a people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom
the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul. (1 Chronicles
5:10,18-20) The same people, as confederate against Israel, are mentioned
in (Psalms 83:6) It is generally believed that they were named after
Hagar, and that the important town and district of Hejer, on the
borders of the Persian Gulf, represent them.


Jaziz the Hagerite, i.e. the descendant of Hagar, had the charge of
David's sheep. (1 Chronicles 27:31)


(festive), the tenth in order of the minor prophets, and first of
those who prophesied after the captivity. With regard to his tribe and
parentage history and tradition are alike silent.


The style of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though at times it
rises to the dignity of severe invective when the prophet rebukes his
countrymen for their selfish indolence and neglect of God's house. But the
brevity of the prophecies is so great, and the poverty of expression which
characterizes them so striking, as to give rise to a conjecture, not
without reason, that in their present form they are but the outline or
summary of the original discourses. They were delivered in the second year
of Darius Hystaspes (B.C. 620), at intervals from the 1st day of the 6th
month to the 24th day of the 9th month in the same year.


(wanderer) was one of the mighty men of David's guard, according to
(1 Chronicles 11:38) The parallel passage -- (2 Samuel 23:36) -- has "Bani
the Gadite," which is probably the correct reading. (B.C. 1046.)


(festive), second son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:15)


(festival of Jehovah), a Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:30)


a Gadite family sprung from Haggi. (Numbers 26:15)


(festive; a dancer), one of David's wives, the mother of Adonijah.
(2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Kings 1:6) (B.C. 1053.)


Same as AI.


The Hebrews were fully alive to the importance of the hair as an element
of personal beauty. Long hair was admired in the case of young men. (2
Samuel 14:26) In times of affliction the hair was altogether cut off.
(Isaiah 3:17,24; 15:2; Jeremiah 7:29) Tearing the hair (Ezra 9:3) and
letting it go dishevelled were similar tokens of grief. The usual and
favorite color of the hair was black, (Solomon 5:11) as is indicated in
the comparisons in (Solomon 1:5; 4:1) a similar hue is probably intended
by the purple of (Solomon 7:6) Pure white hair was deemed
characteristic of the divine Majesty. (Daniel 7:9; Revelation 1:14) The
chief beauty of the hair consisted in curls, whether of a natural or an
artificial character. With regard to the mode of dressing the hair, we
have no very precise information; the terms used are of a general
character, as of Jezebel, (2 Kings 9:30) and of Judith, ch. 10:3, and in
the New Testament, (1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Peter 3:3) The arrangement of
Samson's hair into seven locks, or more properly braids, (Judges 16:13,19)
involves the practice of plaiting, which was also familiar to the
Egyptians and Greeks. The locks were probably kept in their place by a
fillet, as in Egypt. The Hebrews like other nations of antiquity, anointed
the hair profusely with ointments, which were generally compounded of
various aromatic ingredients, (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalms 23:6;
92:10; Ecclesiastes 9:8) more especially on occasions of festivity or
hospitality. (Luke 7:46) It appears to have been the custom of the Jews in
our Saviour's time to swear by the hair, (Matthew 5:36) much as the
Egyptian women still swear by the side-locks, and the men by their


(young). Johanan son ,of Hakkatan, was the chief of the Bene-Azgad
who returned from Babylon with Ezra. (Ezra 8:12)


(thorn), a priest, the chief of the seventh course in the service
of the sanctuary, as appointed by David. (1 Chronicles 24:10) In (Ezra
2:61) and Nehe 3:4,21 The name occurs again as Koz in the Authorized


(bent). Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from
Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63)


is probably a different place from the Calah of (Genesis 10:11) It may be
identified with the Chalcitis of Ptolemy.


(smooth), The mount, a mountain twice, and twice only,
named, was the southern limit of Joshua's conquests, (Joshua 11:17; 12:7)
but which has not yet been identified.


(trembling), a town of Judah in the mountain district. (Joshua
16:68) The name still remains unaltered attached to a conspicuous hill a
mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, between three and
four miles from the latter.


(necklace), a town on the boundary of Asher, named between Helkath
and Beten. (Joshua 19:25)


used of the court of the high priest's house. (Luke 22:55) In (Matthew
27:27) and Mark 15:16 "Hall" is synonymous with "praetorium," which in
(John 18:28) is in Authorized Version "judgment hall."


(praise ye the Lord). [ALLELUIA]


(enchanter), one of the chief of the people who sealed the covenant
with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:24) (B.C. 410.)


Shallum, son of Halohesh was "ruler of the half part of Jerusalem" at the
time of the repair of the wall by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:12) (B.C.


(hot; sunburnt).

  • The name of one of the three sons of Noah, apparently the second in
    age. (B.C. 2448.) Of the history of Ham nothing is related except his
    irreverence to his father and the curse which that patriarch pronounced.
    The sons of Ham are stated, to have been "Cush and Mizraim and Phut and
    Canaan." (Genesis 10:6) comp. 1Chr 1:8 Egypt is recognized as the "land of
    Ham" in the Bible. (Psalms 78:51; 105:23; 106:22) The other settlements of
    the sons of Ham are discussed under their respective names. The three most
    illustrious Hamite nations -- the Cushites, the Phoenicians and the
    Egyptians -- were greatly mixed with foreign peoples. Their architecture
    has a solid grandeur that we look for in vain elsewhere.

  • According to the present text, (Genesis 14:5) Chedorlaomer and his
    allies smote the Zuzim in a place called Ham, probably in the territory of
    the Ammonites (Gilead), east of the Jordan.


(magnificent), the chief minister or vizier of King Ahasuerus.
(Esther 3:1) (B.C. 473.) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all
the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had
erected for Mordecai. The Targum and Josephus interpret the inscription of
him -- the Agagite -- as signifying that he was of Amalekitish descent.
The Jews hiss whenever his name is mentioned on the day of Purim.


(fortress), the principal city of upper Syria, was situated in the
valley of the Orontes, which it commanded from the low screen of hills
which forms the water-shed between the source of the Orontes and Antioch.
The Hamathites were a Hamitic race, and are included among the descendants
of Canaan. (Genesis 10:18) Nothing appears of the power of Hamath until
the time of David. (2 Samuel 8:9) Hamath seems clearly to have been
included in the dominions of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21-24) The "store-cities"
which Solomon "built in Hamath," (2 Chronicles 8:4) were perhaps staples
for trade. In the Assyrian inscriptions of the time of Ahab (B.C. 900)
Hamath appears as a separate power, in alliance with the Syrians of
Damascus, the Hittites and the Phoenicians. About three-quarters of a
century later Jeroboam the Second "recovered Hamath." (2 Kings 14:28) Soon
afterwards the Assyrians took it, (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13) etc., and from
this time it ceased to be a place of much importance. Antiochus Epiphanes
changed its name to Epiphaneia. The natives, however, called it Hamath
even in St. Jerome's time, and its present name, Hamah, is but
slightly altered from the ancient form.


(fortress of Zobah), (2 Chronicles 8:3) has been conjectured to be
the same as Hamath. But the name Hamath-Zobah would seem rather
suited to another Hamath which was distinguished from the "Great Hamath"
by the suffix "Zobah."


one of the families descended from Canaan, named last in the list.
(Genesis 10:18; 1 Chronicles 1:16)


(warm springs), one of the fortified cities in the territory
allotted to Naphtali. (Joshua 19:35) It was near Tiberias, one mile
distant, and had its name Chammath, "hot baths," because it contained
those of Tiberias. In the list of Levitical cities given out of Naphtali,
(Joshua 21:32) the name of this place seems to be given as


(double), father of the infamous Haman. (Esther 3:1,10; 8:5;


lit. "the king, " unnecessarily rendered in the Authorized Version
as a proper name. (Jeremiah 36:26; 38:6)


(the queen), a daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead. (1
Chronicles 7:17,18) (B.C. between 1706 and 1491.)


(warm springs).

  • A city in Asher, (Joshua 19:28) apparently not far from

  • A city allotted out of the tribe of Naphtali to the Levites, (1
    Chronicles 6:76) and answering to the somewhat similar names HAMMATH and
    HAMMOTH-DOR in Joshua.


(dwelling of the warm springs). [HAMMATH]


(multitude), the name of a city mentioned in Ezekiel. (Ezekiel


(the multitude of God), The valley of, the name to be
bestowed on the ravine or glen, previously known as "the ravine of the
passengers on the east of the sea," after the burial there of "God and all
his multitude." (Ezekiel 39:11,15)


(an ass), a Hivite who at the time of the entrance of Jacob on
Palestine was prince of the land and city of Shechem. (Genesis 33:19;
34:2,4,6,8,13,18,20,24,26) (B.C. 1737.) [DINAH]


(heat, i.e. wrath, of God), a man of Simeon, of the family
of Shaul. (1 Chronicles 4:26)


(pitied), the younger son of Pharez, Judah's son by Tamar. (Genesis
46:12; 1 Chronicles 2:5) (B.C. between 1706-1688.)


the family of the preceding. (Numbers 26:21)


(akin to the dew), daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; one of the wives
of King Josiah. (2 Kings 23:31; 24:18; Jeremiah 52:1) (B.C. 632-619.)


(whom God graciously gave), son of Shallum and cousin of Jeremiah.
(Jeremiah 32:7,8,9,12) and comp. Jere 32:44 (B.C. 589.)



  • One of the chief people of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles

  • The last of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles
    8:38; 9:44) (B.C. 588.)

  • "Son of Maachah," i.e. possibly a Syrian of Aram-maachah, one of the
    heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:43) (B.C. 1046).

  • The sons of Hanan were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon
    with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:46; Nehemiah 7:49) (B.C. 536).

  • One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in his public exposition of the
    law. (Nehemiah 8:7) (B.C. 446.) The same person is probably mentioned in
    ch. (Nehemiah 10:10)

  • One of the "heads" of "the people," who also sealed the covenant.
    (Nehemiah 10:22) (B.C. 410.)

  • Another of the chief laymen on the same occasion. (Nehemiah

  • Son of Zaccur, son of Mattaniah, whom Nehemiah made one of the store.
    keepers of the provisions collected as tithes. (Nehemiah 13:13)

  • Son of Igdaliah. (Jeremiah 35:4) (B.C. 410.)


(whom God graciously gave), The tower of, a tower which
formed part of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:1; 12:39) From these two
passages, particularly from the former, it might almost be inferred that
Hananeel was but another name for the tower of Meah; at any rate they were
close together, and stood between the sheep-gate and the fish-gate. This
tower is further mentioned in (Jeremiah 31:38) The remaining passage in
which it is named, (Zechariah 14:10) also connects this tower with the
"corner-gate," which lay on the other side of the sheep-gate.



  • One of the sons of Heman, and head of the eighteenth course of the
    service. (1 Chronicles 25:4,25)

  • A seer who rebuked (B.C. 941) Asa king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 16:7)
    For this he was imprisoned. ver. 10 He or another Hanani was the father of
    Jehu the seer, who testified against Baasha, (1 Kings 16:1,7) and
    Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 19:2; 20:34)

  • One of the priests who in the time of Ezra had taken strange wives.
    (Ezra 10:20)

  • A brother of Nehemiah, (Nehemiah 1:2) who was made governor of
    Jerusalem under Nehemiah. Ch. (Nehemiah 7:2)

  • A priest mentioned in (Nehemiah 12:36)


(gift of God).

  • One of the fourteen sons of Heman, and chief of the sixteenth course
    of singers. (1 Chronicles 25:4,5,23) (B.C. 1014.)

  • A general in the army of King Uzziah. (2 Chronicles 26:11)

  • Father of Zedekiah, in the reign of Jehoiakim. (B.C. before 605.)

  • Son of Azur, a Benjamite of Gibeon and a false prophet in the reign of
    Zedekiah king of Judah. In the fourth year of his reign, B.C. 595,
    Hananiah withstood Jeremiah the prophet, and publicly prophesied in the
    temple that within two years Jeconiah and all his fellow captives with the
    vessels of the Lord's house, should be brought back to Jerusalem.
    (Jeremiah 28:1) ... Hananiah corroborated his prophecy by taking from off
    the neck of Jeremiah the yoke which he wore by divine command. (Jeremiah
    27:1) ... and breaking it. But Jeremiah was bidden to go tell Hananiah
    that for the wooden yokes which he had broken he should make yokes of
    iron, so firm was the dominion of Babylon destined to he for seventy
    years. The prophet Jeremiah added to this rebuke the prediction of
    Hananiah's death, the fulfillment of which closes the history of this
    false prophet.

  • Grandfather of Irijah, the captain of the ward at the gate of Benjamin
    who arrested Jeremiah on the charge of deserting to the Chaldeans.
    (Jeremiah 37:13) (B.C. before 589.)

  • Head of a Benjamite house. (1 Chronicles 8:24)

  • The Hebrew name of Shadrach. He was of the house of David, according
    to Jewish tradition (Daniel 1:3,6,7,11,19; 2:17)

  • Son of Zerubbabel, (1 Chronicles 3:19) from whom Christ derived his
    descent. He is the same person who is by St. Luke called Joanna. (B.C.
    after 536.)

  • One of the sons of Bebai who returned with Ezra from Babylon (Ezra
    10:28) (B.C. 459.)

  • A priest, one of the makers of the sacred ointments and incense, who
    built a portion of the wall of Jerusalem in the days of Nehemiah.

  • Head of the priestly course of Jeremiah in the days of Joiakim.
    (Nehemiah 12:12) (B.C. 610.)

  • Ruler of the palace at Jerusalem under Nehemiah. The arrangements for
    guarding the gates of Jerusalem were intrusted to him with Hanani the
    Tirshatha's brother. (Nehemiah 7:2,3) (B.C. 446.)

  • An Israelite. (Nehemiah 10:23)


(Acts 18:3; 19:25; Revelation 18:22) A trade was taught to ail the Jewish
boys as a necessary part of their education. Even the greatest rabbis
maintained themselves by trades (Delitzsch). Says Rabbi Jehuda, "He who
does not teach his son a trade is much the same as if he taught him to be
a thief". In the present article brief notice only can be given of such
handicraft trades as are mentioned in Scripture.

  • Smiths or metal-workers. -- The preparation of iron for use
    either in war, in agriculture or for domestic purposes was doubtless one
    of the earliest applications of labor; and together with iron, working in
    brass, or rather copper alloyed with tin (bronze), is mentioned as
    practiced in antediluvian times. (Genesis 4:22) After the establishment of
    the Jews in Canaan, the occupation of a smith became recognized as a
    distinct employment- (1 Samuel 13:19) The smith's work and its results are
    often mentioned in Scripture. (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Kings 6:7; 2 Chronicles
    26:14; Isaiah 44:12; 54:16) The worker in gold and silver must have found
    employment among both the Hebrews and the neighboring nations in very
    early times. (Genesis 24:22,53; 35:4; 38:18) Various processes of the
    goldsmith's work are illustrated by Egyptian monuments. After the conquest
    frequent notices are found of both moulded and wrought metal, including

  • Carpenters are often mentioned in Scripture. (Genesis 6:14;
    Exodus 37; Isaiah 44:13) In the palace built by David for himself the
    workmen employed were chiefly foreigners. (2 Samuel 5:11) That the Jewish
    carpenters must have been able to carve with some skill is evident from
    (Isaiah 41:7; 44:13) In the New Testament the occupation of a carpenter is
    mentioned in connection with Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary, and
    ascribed to our Lord himself. (Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3) The trade included
    our cabinet work as well as carpentering.

  • The masons employed by David and Solomon, at least the chief of
    them, were Phoenicians. (1 Kings 5:18; Ezekiel 27:9) The large stones used
    in Solomon's temple are said by Josephus to have been fitted together
    exactly without either mortar or clamps, but the foundation stones to have
    been fastened with lead. For ordinary building mortar was used; sometimes,
    perhaps, bitumen, as was the case at Babylon. (Genesis 11:3) The wall
    "daubed with untempered mortar" of (Ezekiel 13:10) was perhaps a sort of
    cob-wall of mud or clay without lime, which would give way under heavy
    rain. The use of whitewash on tombs is remarked by our Lord. (Matthew

  • Ship-building must have been exercised to some extent for the
    fishing-vessels on the Lake of Gennesaret. (Matthew 8:23; 9:1; John
    21:3,8) Solomon built ships for his foreign trade. (1 Kings 9:26,27;
    22:48; 2 Chronicles 20:36,37)

  • Apothecaries or perfumers appear to have formed a guild or
    association. (Exodus 30:25,35; 2 Chronicles 16:14; Nehemiah 3:8;
    Ecclesiastes 7:1; 10:1) Ecclus 38:8.

  • Weavers. -- The arts of spinning and weaving both wool and
    linen were carried on in early times, as they usually are still among the
    Bedouins, by women. (Exodus 35:20,26; Leviticus 19:19; 22:11; 2 Kings
    23:7; Ezekiel 16:16; Proverbs 31:13,14) The loom with its beam, (1 Samuel
    17:7) pin, (Judges 16:14) and shuttles (Job 7:6) was perhaps introduced
    later, but as early as David's time. (1 Samuel 17:7)

  • Dyeing and dressing cloth were practiced in Palestine, as were
    also tanning and dressing leather. (Joshua 2:15-18; 2 Kings
    1:8; Matthew 3:4; Acts 9:43)

  • Barbers. (Numbers 6:5,19; Ezekiel 5:1)

  • Tentmakers are noticed in (Acts 18:3)

  • Potters are frequently alluded to. (Jeremiah 18:2-6)

  • Bakers are noticed in Scripture, (Jeremiah 37:21; Hosea 7:4) and the
    well-known valley Tyropoeon probably derived its name from the occupation
    of the cheese-makers, its inhabitants.

  • Butchers, not Jewish, are spoken of (1 Corinthians 10:25)
    Shoemakers, tailors, glaziers and glass vessels painters and
    gold workers are mentioned in the Mishna. Chel. viii. 9; xxix. 3,4;
    xxx. 1.


(Luke 19:20; John 11:44; 20:7; Acts 19:12) These terms were used in much
the same manner and having much the same significance as at the


a place in Egypt mentioned only in (Isaiah 30:4) We think that the Chald
Paraphr. is right in identifying it with Tahpanhes, a fortified town on
the eastern frontier.


  • The "hanging" was a curtain or ’covering’ to close an
    entrance; one was placed before the door of the tabernacle. Exod 26:36,37;

  • The "hangings"; were used for covering, the walls of the court of the
    tabernacles just as tapestry is used in modern times. (Exodus 27:9; 35:17;
    38:9; Numbers 3:26; 4:26)


(grace of God), one of the sons of Ulla of the tribe of Asher. (1
Chronicles 7:39)


(grace), one of the wives of Elkanah, and mother of Samuel. 1Sam
1,2 (B.C. 1141.) A hymn of thanks giving for the birth of her son is in
the highest order of prophetic poetry, its resemblance to that of the
Virgin Mary comp. (1 Samuel 2:1-10) with Luke 1:46-55 See also (Psalms
113:1) ... has been noticed.


(gracious), one of the cities of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:14)


(the favor of God), son of Ephod and prince of Manasseh. (Numbers



  • The third in order of the children of Midian. (Genesis 25:4)

  • Eldest son of Reuben, (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14; Numbers 26:5; 1
    Chronicles 5:3) and founder of the family of the Hanochites. (Numbers



  • Son of Nahash (2 Samuel 10:1,2; 1 Chronicles 19:1,2) king of Ammon,
    who dishonored the ambassadors of David, (2 Samuel 10:4) and involved the
    Ammonites in a disastrous war, (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 19:6) (B.C.

  • A man who, with the people of Zanoah, repaired the ravine gate in the
    wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:13) (B.C. 446).

  • The sixth son of Zalalph, who also assisted in the repair of the wall,
    apparently on the east side. (Nehemiah 3:30) (B.C. 446.)


(two pits), a city of Issachar, mentioned next to Shunem. (Joshua
19:19) About 6 miles northeast of Lejjun, and two miles west of
Solam (the ancient Shunem), stands the village of el’ Afuleh
, which may possibly be the representative of Haphraim.


(mountain land), (1 Chronicles 5:26) only, is either a place
utterly unknown or it must be regarded as identical with Haran or


(fear), a desert station of the Israelites, (Numbers 33:24,25) its
position is uncertain.


(a mountaineer).

  • The third son of Terah, and therefore youngest brother of Abram.
    (Genesis 11:26) (B.C. 1926.) Three children are ascribed to him -- Lot,
    vs. (Genesis 11:27,31) and two daughters, viz., Milcah, who married her
    uncle Nahor, ver. (Genesis 11:29) and Iscah. ver. (Genesis 11:29) Haran
    was born in Ur of the Chaldees, and he died there while his father was
    still living. ver. (Genesis 11:28)

  • A Gershonite Levite in the time of David, one of the family of Shimei.
    (1 Chronicles 23:9)

  • A son of the great Caleb by his concubine Ephah. (1 Chronicles

  • HARAN or CHARRAN, (Acts 7:2,4) name of the place whither Abraham
    migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees, and where the
    descendants of his brother Nahor established themselves. Comp. (Genesis
    24:10) with Genesis27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 24:10)
    or more definitely in Padan-aram, ch. (Genesis 25:20) the cultivated
    district at the foot of the hills, a name well applying to the beautiful
    stretch of country which lies below Mount Masius between the Khabour and
    the Euphrates. Here, about midway in this district, is a small village
    still called Harran. It was celebrated among the Romans, under the
    name of Charrae, as the scene of the defeat of Crassus.


(the mountaineer), The. The destination of three of David's

  • Agee, a Hararite (2 Samuel 23:11)

  • Shammah the Hararite. (2 Samuel 23:33)

  • Sharar, (2 Samuel 23:33) or Sacar, (1 Chronicles 11:35) the Hararite,
    was the father of Ahiam, another member of the guard.


(ass-driver), the third of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs who
served King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483-475.)


(Esther 7:9) the same as the preceding.


(Heb. arnebeth) occurs only in (Leviticus 11:6) and Deuteronomy
14:7 Amongst the animals disallowed as food by the Mosaic law. The hare is
at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Palestine and Syria. It
was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud. They
were no doubt misled as in the case of the shaphfan (hyrax),
by the habit these animals have of moving the jaw about.




(a plucking off), a name occurring in the genealogies of Judah as a
son of Caleb and as "father of Bethgader." (1 Chronicles 2:51) only.


(thicket), The forest of, in which David took refuge, after
at the instigation of the prophet Gad, he had quitted the "hold" or
fastness of the cave of Adullam. (1 Samuel 22:6)


(the Lord is angry), father of Uzziel. (Nehemiah 3:8) (B.C. before


(very poor), an ancestor of Shallum the husband of Huldah. (2 Kings
22:14) (B.C. before 623.)


(inflammation). The sons of Harhur were among the Nethinim who
returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:51; Nehemiah 7:53) (B.C.



  • A priest who had charge of the third division in the house of God. (1
    Chronicles 24:8) (B.C. 1014.)

  • Bene-Harim, probably descendants of the above, to the number of 1017,
    came from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:39; Nehemiah 7:42) (B.C.

  • It further occurs in a list of the families of priests "who went up
    with Zerubbabel and Jeshua," and of those who were their descendants in
    the next generation. (Nehemiah 12:16)

  • Another family of Bene-Harim, 320 in number, came from the captivity
    in the same caravan. (Ezra 2:82; Nehemiah 7:35) (B.C. 536.) They also
    appear among those who had married foreign wives, (Ezra 10:31) as well as
    those who sealed the covenant- (Nehemiah 10:27) (B.C. 410.)


(a plucking-off). A hundred and twelve of the Bene-Hariph returned
from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:24) The name occurs again
among the "heads of the people" who sealed the covenant. ch. (Nehemiah


That this class of persons existed in the earliest states of society is
clear from (Genesis 38:15) Rahab, (Joshua 2:1) is said by the Chald.
Paraphr. to have been an innkeeper; but if there were such persons,
considering what we know of Canaanitish morals, (Leviticus 18:27) we may
conclude that they would, if women, have been of this class. The "harlots"
are classed with "publicans," as those who lay under the ban of society,
in the New Testament. (Matthew 21:32)


(hill of Megiddo), (Revelation 16:16) in the Revised Version for
Armageddon. The change is chiefly Har, hill, in place of Ar
, city.


(panting), one of the sons of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1
Chronicles 7:36)


(fear), The well of, a spring by which Gideon and his great
army encamped on the morning of the day which ended in the rout of the
Midianites. (Judges 7:1) and where the trial of the people by their mode
of drinking apparently took place. The Ain Jalud is very suitable
to the circumstances, as being at present the largest spring in the


the designation of two of the thirty-seven warriors of David's guard,
Shammah and Elika, (2 Samuel 23:25) doubtless denied from a place named


a name occurring in the genealogical lists of Judah. (1 Chronicles


(the same as Harodite) The, the title given to Shammoth, one
of the warriors of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:27)


(workmanship) "of the Gentiles" so called from the mixed
races that inhabited it -- a city in the north of the land of Canaan,
supposed to have stood on the west coast of the lake Merom from which the
Jordan issues forth in one unbroken stream. It was the residence of Sisera
captain of Jabin king of Canaan, (Judges 4:2) and it was the point to
which the victorious Israelites under Barak pursued the discomfited host
and chariots of the second potentate of that name. (Judges 4:16)


The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known
throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the
antediluvian period. (Genesis 4:21) Josephus records that the harp had ten
strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was
smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the


The word so rendered, (2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 20:3) is probably a
threshing-machine. The verb rendered "to harrow," (Job 39:10; Isaiah
28:24; Hosea 10:11) expresses apparently the breaking of the clods, and is
so far analogous to our harrowing -- but whether done by any such machine
as we call a "harrow" is very doubtful.


(deaf). Bene-Harsha were among the families of Nethinim who came
back from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:52; Nehemiah 7:54)


the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe either the
fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is reckoned among the clean
animals, (12:15; 14:5; 15:22) and seems from the passages quoted, as well
as from (1 Kings 4:23) to have been commonly killed for food.


(lofty), father of Aharhel, in one of the most obscure genealogies
of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)


(slit-nosed) father or ancestor of Jedaiah. (Nehemiah 3:10)


(native of Hariph), The, the designation of Shephatiah, one
of the Korhites who repaired to David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C.


(zealous), a man of Jotbah, father of Meshullemeth queen of
Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:9) (B.C. before 644.)




(loved by Jehovah) one of a group of five persons among the
descendants of the royal line of Judah, (1 Chronicles 3:20) apparently
sons of Zerubbabel. (B.C. about 536.)


(the hated), a Benjamite, of one of the chief families in the
tribe. (1 Chronicles 9:7)


(whom God regards).

  • A Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:45)

  • Another Merarite Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:14)

  • The fourth of the six sons of Jeduthun, (1 Chronicles 25:3) who had
    charge of the twelfth course. ver. 19. (B.C. 1014.)

  • One of the descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath- (1 Chronicles

  • The son of Kemuel, who was prince of the tribe of Levi in the time of
    David (1 Chronicles 27:17) (B.C. 1014.)

  • A Levite one of the "chiefs" of his tribe, who officiated for King
    Josiah at his great Passover feast. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B.C. 623).

  • A Merarite Levite who accompanied Ezra from Babylon. (Ezra 8:19)

  • One of the chiefs of the priests who formed part of the same caravan.
    (Ezra 8:24) (B.C. 536.)

  • Ruler of half the circuit or environs of Keilah; he repaired a portion
    of the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:17) (B.C. 446.)

  • One of the Levites who sealed the covenant of reformation after the
    return from the captivity. (Nehemiah 10:11; 12:24) comp. Nehe 12:26 (B.C.

  • Another Levite, son of Bunni. (Nehemiah 11:15)

  • A Levite, son of Mattaniah. (Nehemiah 11:22)

  • A priest of the family of Hilkiah in the days of Joiakim son of
    Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:21)


(whom Jehovah regards), one of the chief of the "people" who sealed
the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:25) (B.C. 410.)


(whom Jehovah regards).

  • Father of Hattush. (Nehemiah 3:10)

  • A Levite who was among those who officiated at the great fast under
    Ezra and Nehemiah when the covenant was sealed. (Nehemiah 9:5) (B.C.


(considerate judge), one of the men (probably Levites) who stood on
Ezra's left hand while he read the law to the people in Jerusalem.
(Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C.410.)


(fat). The sons of Hashem the Gizonite are named amongst the
members of David's guard in (1 Chronicles 11:34) (B.C. before 1014.)


(fatness), a station of the Israelites, mentioned (Numbers 33:29)
as next before Moseroth.



  • A son of Pahath-moab, who assisted in the repair of the wall of
    Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:11) (B.C. 446.)

  • Another who assisted in the same work. (Nehemiah 3:23)

  • One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:23) (B.C. 410.)

  • A Merarite Levite. (Nehemiah 11:15)


(intelligent), the first of a group of five men, apparently the
latter half of the family of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:20)



  • Bene-Hashum, 223 in number, came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
    (Ezra 2:19; 10:33; Nehemiah 7:22) (B.C. before 536.) The chief man of the
    family was among these who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah
    10:18) (B.C. 410.)

  • One of the priests or Levites who stood on Ezra's left hand while he
    read the law to the congregation. (Nehemiah 8:4) (B.C. 410.)


(stripped), one of the families of Nethinim who returned from
captivity in the first caravan (Nehemiah 7:46) Called HASUPHA in (Ezra
2:43) (B.C. 536.)


(very poor), the form in which the name Harhas is given in (2
Chronicles 34:22) comp. 2Kin 22:14


The Bene-Hassenaah rebuilt the fish-gate in the repair of the wall of
Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:3) (B.C. 446.)






(verily), one of the eunuchs in the court of Ahasuerus. (Esther
4:5,6,9,10) (B.C. 474.)


(fearful), one of the sons of Othniel the Kenazite. (1 Chronicles


(captive). Bene-Hatipha (i.e. sons of Hatipha) were among the
Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:54; Nehemiah
7:56) (B.C. 536.)


(exploring). Bene-Hatita (i.e. sons of Hatita) were among the
"porters" (i.e. the gate-keepers) who returned from the captivity with
Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45) (B.C. 536.)


(doubtful). Bene-Hattil were among the children of Solomon's slaves
"who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:57; Nehemiah 7:59)
(B.C. 536.)



  • A descendant of the kings of Judah apparently one of the sons of
    Shechaniah, (1 Chronicles 3:22) in the fourth or fifth generation from
    Zerubbabel. A person of the same name accompanied Ezra from Babylon to
    Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:2) In another statement Hattush is said to have
    returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:2)

  • Son of Hashabniah. one-of those who assisted Nehemiah in the repair of
    the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:10) (B.C. 446.)


(caverns), a province of Palestine twice mentioned by Ezekiel.
(Ezekiel 47:16,17) There can be little doubt that it is identical with the
well-known Greek province of Auranitis and the modern Hauran east
of the Sea of Galilee, on the borders of the desert, in the tetrarchy of



  • A son of Cush. (Genesis 10:7)

  • A son of Joktan. (Genesis 10:29)


(Genesis 2:11)

  • A part of Eden through which flowed the river Pison (Araxes). It was
    probably the Grecian Colchis, in the northeast corner of Asia Minor, near
    the Caspian Sea.

  • A district in Arabia Felix, (Genesis 10:7) named from the second son
    of Cush; probably the district of Kualan, in the northwestern part of


(villages of Jair), certain villages on the east of Jordan, in
Gilead or Bashan, which were taken by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called
after his name. (Numbers 32:41; 3:14) In the records of Manasseh in
(Joshua 13:30) and 1Chr 2:23 The Havoth-jair are reckoned with other
districts as making up sixty "cities." Comp. (1 Kings 4:13) There is
apparently some confusion in these different statements as to what the
sixty cities really consisted of. No less doubtful is the number of the
Havoth-Jair. In (1 Chronicles 2:22) they are specified as twenty-three,
but in (Judges 10:4) as thirty.


(Leviticus 11:16; 14:15; Job 39:26) The hawk includes various species of
the Falconidae. With respect to the passage in Job (l.c.) which
appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to
observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of
Palestine, nearly all are summer migrants. The kestrel remains all the
year, but the others are all migrants from the south.


(Heb. chatsir), the rendering of the Authorized Version in
(Proverbs 27:25) and Isai 15:6 Of the Hebrew term, which occurs frequently
in the Old Testament, and denotes "grass" of any kind. It is quite
probable that the modern Orientals do not make hay in our sense of the
term; but it is certain that the ancients did mow their grass, and
probably made use of the dry material. See (Psalms 37:2) We may remark
that there is an express Hebrew term for "dry grass" or "hay," viz.
chashash, which, in the only two places where the word occurs,
(Isaiah 5:24; 33:11) is rendered "chaff" in the Authorized Version.


(whom God sees), a king of Damascus who reigned from about B.C. 886
to B.C. 840. He appears to have been previously a person in a high
position at the court of Ben-hadad, and was sent by his master to Elisha
to inquire if he would recover from the malady under which he was
suffering. Elisha's answer led to the murder of Ben-hadad by his ambitious
servant, who forthwith mounted the throne. (2 Kings 8:7-15) He was soon
engaged in war with the kings of Judah and Israel for the possession of
the city of Ramoth-gilead. Ibid. (2 Kings 8:28) Towards the close of the
reign of Jehu, Hazael led the Syrians against the Israelites (about B.C.
860), whom he "smote in all their coasts," (2 Kings 10:32) thus
accomplishing the prophecy of Elisha. Ibid . (2 Kings 8:12) At the close
of his life, having taken Gath, ibid. (2 Kings 12:17) comp. Amos 6:2 He
proceeded to attack Jerusalem, (2 Chronicles 24:24) and was about to
assault the city when Joash bribed him to retire. (2 Kings 12:18) Hazael
appears to have died about the year B.C. 840, (2 Kings 13:24) having
reigned forty-six years.


(whom Jehovah sees), a man of Judah of the family of the
Shilonites, or descendants of Shelah. (Nehemiah 11:5)


etc. [HAZER]


(court of death), the third in order of the sons of Joktan (Genesis
10:26) The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and
Hadrumawl, the appellation of a province and an ancient people of
southern Arabia. The capital is Satham, a very ancient city, and its chief
ports are Mirbat, Zafari and Kisheem, from whence a great trade was
carried on in ancient times with India and Africa.


The Hebrew term luz occurs only in (Genesis 30:37) Authorities are
divided between the hazel and the almond tree as representing the
luz. The latter is most probably correct.


(shade coming upon me), the sister of the sons of Etam in the
genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:3)


topographically, seems generally employed for the villages of
people. As a proper name it appears in the Authorized Version --

  • In the plural, HAZERIM and HAZEBOTH, for which see below.

  • In the slightly different form of HAZOR.

  • In composition with other words:

  • HAZAR-ADDAR (village of Addar), a place named as one of the
    landmarks on the southern boundary of the land promised to Israel.
    (Numbers 34:4) ADAR (Joshua 15:3)

  • HAZAR-ENAN (village of fountains), the place at which the
    northern boundary of the land promised to the children of Israel was to
    terminate. (Numbers 34:9,10) comp. Ezek 47:17; 48:1

  • HAZAB GADDAH (village of fortune), one of the towns in the
    southern district of Judah, (Joshua 15:27) named between Moladah and

  • HAZAR-SHUAL (village of jackals), a town in the southern
    district of Judah, lying between Hazar-gaddah and Beersheba. (Joshua
    15:28; 19:3; 1 Chronicles 4:28)

  • HAZAR-SUSAH (village of horses), one of the "cities" allotted
    to Simeon in the extreme south of the territory of Judah. (Joshua


(villages). The Avim, or more accurately the Avvim, are said to
have lived "in the villages (Authorized Version ’Hazerim’) as
far as Gaza," (2:23) before their expulsion by the Caphtorim.


(villages), (Numbers 11:35; 12:16; 33:17; 1:1) a station of the
Israelites in the desert, and perhaps recognizable in the Arabic Ain
, forty miles northeast of Sinai.


and Haz’azon-ta’mar (pruning of palm trees), the
ancient name of Engedi. (Genesis 14:7) The name occurs in the records of
the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 20:2)


(union of God), a Levite in the time of David, of the family of
Shi-mei or Shimi, the younger branch of the (Gershonites. (1 Chronicles
23:9) (B.C. 1014.)


(vision), a son of Nahor, by Milcah his wife. (Genesis 22:22) (B.C.
about 1900.)



  • A fortified city, which on the occupation of the country was allotted
    to Naphtali. (Joshua 19:36) Its position was apparently between Ramah and
    Kedesh, ibid. (Joshua 12:19) on the high ground overlooking the Lake of
    Merom. There is no reason for supposing it a different place from that of
    which Jabin was king. (Joshua 11:1; Judges 4:2,17; 1 Samuel 12:9) It was
    the principal city of the whole of north Palestine. (Joshua 11:10) It was
    fortified by Solomon, (1 Kings 9:15) and its inhabitants were carried
    captive by Tiglath-pileser. (2 Kings 15:29) The most probable site of
    Hazor is Tell Khuraibeh.

  • One of the "cities" of Judah in the extreme south, named next in order
    to Kedesh. (Joshua 15:23)

  • Hazor-Hadattah = "new Hazor" another of the southern towns of Judah.
    (Joshua 15:25)

  • A place in which the Benjamites resided after their return from the
    captivity. (Nehemiah 11:33)


The Hebrews do not appear to have regarded a covering for the head as an
essential article of dress. Hats were unknown. The earliest notice we have
of such a thing is in connection with the sacerdotal vestments. (Exodus
28:40) The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being
worn by nobles, (Job 29:14) ladies, (Isaiah 3:23) and kings, (Isaiah 62:3)
while the peer was an article of holiday dress, (Isaiah 61:3)
Authorized Version "beauty;" (Ezekiel 24:17,23) and was worn at weddings.
(Isaiah 61:10) The ordinary head-dress of the Bedouin consists of the
keffieh, a square handkerchief, generally of red and yellow cotton
or cotton and silk, folded so that three of the corners hang down over the
back and shoulders, leaving the face exposed, and bound round the head by
a cord. It is not improbable that a similar covering was used by the
Hebrews on certain occasions. The Assyrian head-dress is described in
(Ezekiel 23:15) under the terms "exceeding in dyed attire." The word
rendered "hats" in (Daniel 3:21) properly applies to a cloak.


One way of baking much practiced in the East is to place the dough on an
iron plate, either laid on or supported on legs above the vessel sunk in
the ground, which forms the oven. The cakes baked "on the hearth" (Genesis
18:6) were probably baked in the existing Bedouin manner, on hot stones
covered with ashes. The "hearth" of King Jehoiakim's winter palace,
(Jeremiah 36:23) was possibly a pan or brazier of charcoal. From this we
see that the significance of the Hebrew words translated hearth is not the
same as with us.


(Jeremiah 17:6) was some species of juniper, probably the savin, a dwarf,
stunted juniper which grows in the most sterile parts of the desert.




There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old Testament which we
may briefly notice.

  • Raki’a, Authorized Version, firmament. [FIRMAMENT]

  • Shamayim. This is the word used in the expression "the heaven
    and the earth," or "the upper and lower regions." (Genesis 1:1)

  • Marom, used for heaven in (Psalms 18:16; Isaiah 24:18;
    Jeremiah 25:30). Properly speaking it means a mountain as in (Psalms
    102:19; Ezekiel 17:23)

  • Shechakim, "expanses," with reference to the extent of
    heaven. (33:26; Job 35:5) St. Paul's expression "third heaven," (2
    Corinthians 12:2) had led to much conjecture. Grotius said that the Jews
    divided the heaven into three parts, viz.,

  • The air or atmosphere, where clouds gather;

  • The firmament, in which the sun, moon and stars are fixed;

  • The upper heaven, the abode of God and his angels, the invisible realm
    of holiness and happiness the home of the children of God.



  • Grandson of the patriarch Asher, (Genesis 46:17; Numbers 26:45; 1
    Chronicles 7:31) from whom came the Heberites. (Numbers 26:45)

  • The patriarch Eber. (Luke 3:35) [EBER]

  • The father of Socho; a Judite. (1 Chronicles 4:18)

  • A Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:17)

  • A Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:22)

  • A Gadite. (1 Chronicles 5:13)

  • The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his
    temple. (Judges 4:21,22)


This word first occurs as given to Abram by the Canaanites, (Genesis 4:13)
because he had crossed the Euphrates. The name is also derived from Eber,
"beyond, on the other side," Abraham and his posterity being called
Hebrews in order to express a distinction between the races east and west
of the Euphrates. It may also be derived from Heber, one of the
ancestors of Abraham. (Genesis 10:24) The term Israelite was used by the
Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which
they were known to foreigners. The latter was accepted by the Jews in
their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word
Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national
contradistinction, the language.


The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew
language. It is a branch of the Shemitic language, one of the three great
divisions into which all languages have been reduced. It is one of the
earliest of known languages, and some suppose that it was the original
language of man.


  • The author -- There has been a wide difference of opinion
    respecting the authorship of this epistle. For many years Paul was
    considered the author; others think it may have been Luke, Barnabas, or
    Apollos. Much of the theology and the language are similar to Paul's, but
    the authorship of the epistle ia still disputed.

  • To whom written. -- The epistle was probably addressed to the
    Jews in Jerusalem and Palestine. The argument of the epistle is such as
    could he used with most effect to a church consisting exclusively of Jews
    by birth, personally familiar with and attached to the temple

  • Date. -- It was evidently written before the destruction of
    Jerusalem in A.D. 70, probably about A.D. 62-64.

  • Place. -- It was probably written in Italy, while Paul was a
    prisoner at Rome.

  • Contents. -- With respect to the scope of the epistle, it
    should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered
    throughout Judea, (Acts 9:31; Galatians 1:22) were continually exposed to
    persecution from the Jews, (1 Thessalonians 2:14) there was in Jerusalem
    one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the
    Christians. The magnificent national temple might be put against the
    Hebrew Christian; and even if this affliction were not often laid upon
    him, yet there was a secret burden which he bore within him, the knowledge
    that the end of all the beauty and awfulness of Zion was rapidly
    approaching. The writer of this epistle meets the Hebrew Christians on
    their own ground, showing that the new faith gave them Christ the Son of
    God, more prevailing than the high priest as an intercessor; that his
    Sabbath awaited them, his covenant, his atonement, his city heavenly not
    made with hands. Having him, believe in him with all your heart, with a
    faith in the unseen future strong as that of the saints of old, patient
    under present and prepared for coming woe, full of energy and hope and
    holiness and love. Such was the teaching of the Epistle to the



  • The third son of Kohath, who was the second son of Levi. (Exodus 6:18;
    Numbers 3:19; 1 Chronicles 6:2,18; 23:12) He was the founder of a family
    of Hebronites, (Numbers 3:27; 26:58; 1 Chronicles 26:23,30,31), or
    Bene-Hebron. (1 Chronicles 15:9; 23:19)

  • A city of Judah, (Joshua 15:54) situated among the mountains, (Joshua
    20:7) 20 Roman miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of
    Beersheba. Hebron is one of the most ancient cities in the world still
    existing; and in this respect it is the rival of Damascus. It was a
    well-known town when Abraham entered Canaan, 3800 years ago. (Genesis
    13:18) Its original name was Kirjath-arba, (Judges 1:10) "the city of
    Arba;" so called from Arba the father of Anak. (Joshua 15:13,14; 21:13)
    Sarah died at Hebron; and Abraham then bought from Ephron the Hittite the
    field and cave of Machpelah, to serve as a family tomb (Genesis 23:2-20)
    The cave is still there, and the massive walls of the Haram or
    mosque, within which it lies, form the most remarkable object in the whole
    city. Abraham is called by Mohammedans el-Khulil, "the Friend,"
    i.e. of God, and this is the modern name of Hebron. Hebron now contains
    about 5000 inhabitants, of whom some fifty families are Jews. It is
    picturesquely situated in a narrow valley, surrounded by rocky hills. The
    valley runs from north to south; and the main quarter of the town,
    surmounted by the lofty walls of the venerable Haram, lies partly
    on the eastern slope. (Genesis 37:14) comp. Genesis23:19 About a mile from
    the town, up the valley, is one of the largest oak trees in Palestine.
    This, say some, is the very tree beneath which Abraham pitched his tent,
    and it still bears the name of the patriarch.

  • One of the towns in the territory of Asher, (Joshua 19:28) probably
    Ebdon or Abdom.


A family of Kohathite Levites, descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath.
(Numbers 3:27; 26:58; 1 Chronicles 26:23)


The Hebrew words thus rendered denote simply that which surrounds or
encloses, whether it be a stone wall, geder, (Proverbs 24:31;
Ezekiel 42:10) or a fence of other materials. The stone walls which
surround the sheepfolds of modern Palestine are frequently crowned with
sharp thorns.


(eunuch), one of the eunuchs of the court of Ahasuerus. (Esther
2:8,15) (B.C. 474.)


another form of the preceding (Esther 2:3)


(1 Samuel 6:7-12; Job 21:10; Isaiah 7:21) The heifer or young cow was not
commonly used for ploughing, but only for treading out the corn. (Hosea
10:11) but see Judg 14:18 When it ran about without any headstall, (26:4)
hence the expression an "unbroken heifer," (Hosea 4:16) Authorized Version
"backsliding" to which Israel is compared.


The Hebrew institutions relative to inheritance were of a very simple
character. Under the patriarchal system the property was divided among the
sons of the legitimate wives, (Genesis 21:10; 24:36; 25:5) a larger
portion being assigned to one, generally the eldest, on whom devolved the
duty of maintaining the females of the family. The sons of concubines were
portioned off with presents. (Genesis 25:6) At a later period the
exclusion of the sons of concubines was rigidly enforced. (Judges 11:1)
ff. Daughters had no share in the patrimony, (Genesis 21:14) but received
a marriage portion. The Mosaic law regulated the succession to real
property thus: it has to be divided among the sons, the eldest receiving a
double portion, (21:17) the others equal shares; if there were no sons, it
went to the daughters, (Numbers 27:8) on the condition that they did not
marry out of their own tribe, (Numbers 36:6) ff.; otherwise the patrimony
was forfeited. If there were no daughters it went to the brother of the
deceased; if no brother, to the paternal uncle; and, failing these to the
next of kin. (Numbers 27:9-11)


(rust), one of the two wives of Ashur, father of Tekoa. (1
Chronicles 4:5)


(stronghold), a place east of the Jordan but west of the Euphrates
at which the Syrians were collected by Hadarezer, and where David met and
defeated them. (2 Samuel 10:16,17)


(fertile), a town of Asher, probably on the plain of Phoenicia not
far from Sidon. (Judges 1:31)


(fertile), a place mentioned only in (Ezekiel 27:18) Geographers
have hitherto represented Helbon as identical with the city of Aleppo,
called Haleb by the Arabs; but there are strong reasons against
this, and the ancient city must be identified with a village within a few
miles of Damascus still bearing the ancient name Helbon, and still
celebrated as producing the finest grapes in the country.



  • The twelfth captain of the monthly courses for the temple service. (1
    Chronicles 27:15) (B.C. 1014.)

  • An Israelite who seems to have returned from the captivity. (Zechariah
    6:10) (B.C. 520.)


(milk), or He’led (transient) son of Baanah the
Netophathite, one of the heroes of King David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:29; 1
Chronicles 11:30)


(portion), one of the descendants of Manasseh, and second son of
Gilead, (Numbers 26:30) and founder of the Helekites. (B.C. 1445.)



  • A descendant of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:35)

  • A man mentioned only in (Zechariah 6:14) Apparently the same as


(exchange), the place from which the boundary of the tribe of
Naphtali started. (Joshua 19:33)



  • One of "the thirty" of David's guard, (2 Samuel 23:26; 1 Chronicles
    11:27) an Ephraimite, and captain of the seventh monthly course. (1
    Chronicles 27:10) (B.C. 1016.)

  • A man of Judah, son of Azariah. (1 Chronicles 2:39)


(ascending), the father of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary,
(Luke 13:23) perhaps the grandfather of Mary herself. [See GENEALOGY OF


[See ON]


(portion), the town named as the starting-point for the boundary of
the tribe of Asher, (Joshua 19:25) and allotted with its "suburbs" to the
Gershonite Levites. ch. (Joshua 21:31) Perhaps Yerka, seven miles
from Acre.


(field of rock), a smooth piece of ground, apparently close to the
pool of Gibeon, where the combat took place between the two parties of
Joab's men and Abner's men which ended in the death of the whole of the
combatants, and brought on a general battle. (2 Samuel 2:16)


In the Old Testament this is the word generally and unfortunately used by
our translators to render the Hebrew Sheol. It really means the
place of the dead, the unseen world, without deciding whether it be the
place of misery or of happiness. It is clear that in many passages of the
Old Testament Sheol can only mean "the grave," and is rendered in
the Authorized Version; see, for example, (Genesis 37:35; 42:38; 1 Samuel
2:6; Job 14:13) In other passages, however, it seems to Involve a notion
of punishment, and is therefore rendered in the Authorized Version by the
word "hell." But in many cases this translation misleads the reader. In
the New Testament "hell" is the translation of two words, Hades and
Gehenna. The word Hades, like Sheol sometimes means
merely "the grave," (Acts 2:31; 1 Corinthians 15:55; Revelation 20:13) or
in general "the unseen world." It is in this sense that the creeds say of
our Lord, "He went down into hell," meaning the state of the dead in
general, without any restriction of happiness or misery. Elsewhere in the
New Testament Hades is used of a place of torment, (Matthew 11:23; Luke
16:23; 2 Peter 2:4) etc.; consequently it has been the prevalent, almost
the universal, notion that Hades is an intermediate state between
death and resurrection, divided into two parts one the abode of the blest
and the other of the lost. It is used eleven times in the New Testament,
and only once translated "grave." (1 Corinthians 15:55) The word most
frequently used (occurring twelve times) in the New Testament for the
place of future punishment is Gehenna or Gehenna of fire.
This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the
filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol
of the wicked and their destruction. [See HINNOM]


(Grecian), the term applied in the New Testament to Greek-speaking
or "Grecian" Jews. The Hellenists as a body included not only the
proselytes of Greek (or foreign) parentage, but also those. Jews who, by
settling in foreign countries, had adopted the prevalent form of the
current Greek civilization, and with it the use of the common Greek
dialect. (Acts 6:1; 9:29)




(strong), father of Eliab, of the tribe of Zebulun. (Numbers 1:9;
2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16) (B.C. 1491.)


The importance which the later Jews, especially the Pharisees, (Matthew
23:5) attached to the hem or fringe of their garments was founded upon the
regulation in (Numbers 15:38,39) which gave a symbolical meaning to it.


(exterminating). Hori and Hemam were sons of Lotan, the eldest son
of Seir. (Genesis 36:22)



  • Son of Zerah. (1 Chronicles 2:6; 1 Kings 4:31)

  • Son of Joel and grandson of Samuel the prophet, a Kohathite. He is
    called "the singer," rather the musician, (1 Chronicles 6:33) and was the
    first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and
    instrumental music of the temple service in the reign of David. (1
    Chronicles 15:16-22) The 88th Psalm is ascribed to him. (B.C. 1014.)


(heat), a person or place named in the genealogical lists of Judah,
as the origin of the Kenites, and the "father" of the house of Rechab. (1
Chronicles 2:55) (B.C. 1445.)


(pleasant), the eldest son of Dishon, son of Anah the Horite.
(Genesis 36:26) [AMRAM, 2] (B.C. about 1500.)


the common ground or dwarf hemlock, a bitter, poisonous plant. The Hebrew
rosh is rendered "hemlock" in two passages, (Hosea 10:4; Amos 6:12)
but elsewhere "gall." [GALL] (It is possible that the plant is rather the
poppy than an hemlock. -- Cook.)


(rest), probably a son of Zephaniah, and apparently the same who is
called JOSIAH in (Zechariah 6:10)


The hen is nowhere noticed in the Bible except in (Matthew 23:37; Luke
13:34) That a bird so common in Palestine should receive such slight
notice is certainly peculiar.


(troubling), a city the Assyrian kings had reduced shortly before
the time of Sennacherib. (2 Kings 19:13; Isaiah 37:13) At no great
distance from Sippara (now Mosaib) is an ancient town called
And or Anah, which may be the same as Hena. It is 20 miles
from Babylon on the Euphrates.


(grace of Hadad), the head of a family of the Levites who took a
prominent part in the rebuilding of the temple. (Ezra 3:9)


  • Enoch, 2. (1 Chronicles 1:3)

  • Hanoch, 1. (1 Chronicles 1:33)


(a well).

  • The youngest of the sons of Gilead, (Numbers 26:32) and head of the
    family of the Hepherites. (B.C. before 1450.)

  • Son of Ashur, the "father of Tekoa." (1 Chronicles 4:6) (B.C. about

  • The Mecherathite, one of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles
    11:36) (B.C. 1046.)


a place in ancient Canaan which occurs in the lists of conquered kings.
(Joshua 12:17) It was on the west of Jordan. Comp. (Joshua 12:7) and 1Kin


the family of Hepher the son of Gilead. (Numbers 26:32)


  • A name signifying "my delight in her," which is to be borne by
    the restored Jerusalem. (Isaiah 62:4)

  • The queen of King Hezekiah and the mother of Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:1)
    (B.C. 709-696.)


one who makes public proclamation. The only notice of this officer in the
Old Testament occurs in (Daniel 3:4) The term "herald" might be
substituted for "preacher" in (1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11; 2 Peter


(a collection of cattle), Herdsmen. The herd was greatly regarded
in both the patriarchal and the Mosaic period. The ox was the most
precious stock next to horse and mule. The herd yielded the most esteemed
sacrifice, (Numbers 7:3; Psalms 69:31; Isaiah 66:3) also flesh meat, and
milk, chiefly converted probably, into butter and cheese. (32:14; 2 Samuel
17:29) The agricultural and general usefulness of the ox in ploughing,
threshing, and as a beast of burden, (1 Chronicles 12:40; Isaiah 46:1)
made a slaughtering of him seem wasteful. Herdsmen, etc., in Egypt were a
low, perhaps the lowest, caste; but of the abundance of cattle in Egypt,
and of the care there bestowed on them, there is no doubt. (Genesis
47:6,17; Exodus 9:4,20) So the plague of hail was sent to smite especially
the cattle, (Psalms 78:48) the firstborn of which also were smitten.
(Exodus 12:29) The Israelites departing stipulated for, (Exodus 10:26) and
took "much cattle" with them. ch. (Exodus 12:38) Cattle formed thus one of
the traditions of the Israelitish nation in its greatest period, and
became almost a part of that greatness. The occupation of herdsman was
honorable in early times. (Genesis 47:6; 1 Samuel 11:5; 1 Chronicles
27:29; 28:1) Saul himself resumed it in the interval of his cares as king,
also Doeg was certainly high in his confidence (1 Samuel 21:7) Pharaoh
made some of Joseph's brethren "rulers over his cattle." David's
herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The prophet Amos at
first followed this occupation.


(the sun), (Judges 1:35) a city of Dan, in Mount Ephraim, near
Ajalon; possibly identical with Mount Jearim (Ir-shemesh, city of the


(artificer), a Levite attached to the tabernacle (1 Chronicles
9:15) (B.C. 536.)


(Mercury), the name of a Christian resident at Rome to whom St.
Paul sends greetings in his Epistle to the Romans. (Romans 16:14) (A.D.
55.) Irenaeus, Tertullian and Origen agree in attributing to him the work
called The shepherd. It was never received into the canon, but yet
was generally cited with respect only second to that which was paid to the
authoritative books of the New Testament.


(Mercury), a Christian mentioned in (Romans 16:14) According to
tradition he was one of the seventy disciples, and afterward bishop of
Dalmatia. (A.D. 55.)


a person mentioned by St. Paul in the latest of all his epistles, (2
Timothy 1:15) when all in Asia had turned away from him. (A.D. 64.)


(a peak, summit), a mountain on the northeastern border of
Palestine, (3:8; Joshua 12:1) over against Lebanon, (Joshua 11:17)
adjoining the plateau of Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:23) It stands at the
southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it
towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the
Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or
Assyria. At the present day it is called Jebel esh-Sheikh, "the
chief mountain," and Jebel eth-Thelj, "snowy mountain." When the
whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of snow streak
the head of Hermon. This mountain was the great landmark of the
Israelites. It was associated with their northern border almost as
intimately as the sea was with the western. Hermon has three summits,
situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from
each other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called
Baal-hermon, (Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5:23) possibly because Baal
was there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon
was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi,
where we know Christ was just before that event -- ED.) The height of
Hermon has never been measured, though it has often been estimated. It may
safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet.


Properly "the Hermons," with reference to the three summits of Mount
Hermon. (Psalms 42:6) (Psal 42:7).


(hero-like). This family though of Idumean origin and thus alien by
race, was Jewish in faith. I. HEROD THE GREAT was the second son of
Antipater, an Idumean, who was appointed procurator of Judea by Julius
Caesar, B.C. 47. Immediately after his father's elevation when only
fifteen years old, he received the government of Galilee and shortly
afterward that of Coele-Syria. Though Josephus says he was 15 years old at
this time, it is generally conceded that there must be some mistake, as he
lived to be 69 or 70 years old, and died B.C. 4; hence he must have been
25 years old at this time. -- ED.) In B.C. 41 he was appointed by Antony
tetrarch of Judea. Forced to abandon Judea the following year, he fled to
Rome, and received the appointment of king of Judea. In the course of a
few years, by the help of the Romans he took Jerusalem (B.C. 37), and
completely established his authority throughout his dominions. The
terrible acts of bloodshed which Herod perpetrated in his own family were
accompanied by others among his subjects equally terrible, from the number
who fell victims to them. According to the well-known story) he ordered
the nobles whom he had called to him in his last moment to be executed
immediately after his decease, that so at least his death might be
attended by universal mourning. It was at the time of his fatal illness
that he must have caused the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem.
(Matthew 2:16-18) He adorned Jerusalem with many splendid monuments of his
taste and magnificence. The temple, which he built with scrupulous care,
was the greatest of these works. The restoration was begun B.C. 20, and
the temple itself was completed in a year and a half. But fresh additions
were constantly made in succeeding years, so that it was said that the
temple was "built in forty and six years," (John 2:20) the work continued
long after Herod's death. (Herod died of a terrible disease at Jericho, in
April, B.C. 4, at the age of 69, after a long reign of 37 years. -- ED.)
II. HEROD ANTIPAS, ANTIPAS was the son of Herod the Great by Malthake, a
Samaritan. He first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia
Petraea," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod
Philip. Aretas, indignant at the insult offered to his daughter, found a
pretext for invading the territory of Herod, and defeated him with great
loss. This defeat, according to the famous passage in Josephus, was
attributed by many to the murder of John the Baptist, which had been
committed by Antipas shortly before, under the influence of Herodias.
(Matthew 14:4) ff.; Mark 6:17 ff.; Luke 3:19 At a later time the ambition
of Herodias proved the cause of her husband's ruin. She urged him to go to
Rome to gain the title of king, cf. (Mark 6:14) but he was opposed at the
court of Caligula by the emissaries of Agrippa, and condemned to perpetual
banishment at Lugdunum, A.D. 39. Herodias voluntarily shared his
punishment, and he died in exile. Pilate took occasion from our Lord's
residence in Galilee to bend him for examination, (Luke 23:6) ff., to
Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. The
city of Tiberias, which Antipas founded and named in honor of the emperor,
was the most conspicuous monument of his long reign. III. HEROD PHILIP I.
(Philip,) (Mark 6:17) was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne. He
married Herodias the sister of Agrippa I by whom he had a daughter,
Salome. He was excluded from all share in his father's possessions in
consequence of his mother's treachery, and lived afterward in a private
station. IV. HEROD PHILIP II. was the son of Herod the Great and
Cleopatra. He received as his own government Batanea Trachonitis, Auramtis
(Gaulanitis), and some parts about Jamnia, with the title of tetrarch.
Luke 3:1. He built a new city on the site of Paneas, near the sources of
the Jordan, which be called Caesarea Philippi, (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27)
and raised Bethsaida to the rank of a city under the title of Julias and
died there A.D. 34. He married Salome, the daughter of Herod Philip I. and
Herodias. V. HEROD AGRIPPA I. was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and
grandson of Herod the Great. He was brought up at Rome, and was thrown
into prison by Tiberius, where he remained till the accession of Caligula,
who made him king, first of the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias;
afterward the dominions of Antipas were added, and finally Judea and
Samaria. Unlike his predessors, Agrippa was a strict observer of the law,
and he sought with success the favor of the Jews. It is probable that it
was with this view he put to death James the son of Zebedee, and further
imprisoned Peter. (Acts 12:1) ff. But his sudden death interrupted his
ambitious projects. (Acts 12:21,23) VI. HEROD AGRIPPA II -- was the son of
Herod Agrippa I. In A.D. 62 the emperor gave him the tetrarches formerly
held by Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king. (Acts 25:13) The
relation in which he stood to his sister Berenice, (Acts 25:13) was the
cause of grave suspicion. It was before him that Paul was tried. (Acts


(from Herod). (Matthew 22:15) ff.; Mark 12:13 ff. Canon Cook describes
these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the
Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of
national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome
as a province of the empire. Supporters of the family of Herod, who held
their dominions by the grant of the Roman emperor, would be in favor of
paying tribute to the supreme power. (Matthew 22:16)


daughter of Aristobulus, one of the sons of Mariamne and Herod the Great,
and consequently sister of Agrippa I. She first married Herod Philip I.;
then she eloped from him to marry Herod Antipas her step-uncle. The head
of John the Baptist was granted at the request of Herodias. (Matthew
14:8-11; Mark 6:24-28) (A.D. 29.) She accompanied Antipas into exile to


a relative of St. Paul, to whom he sends his salutation amongst the
Christians of the Roman church. (Romans 16:11) (A.D. 55.)


(Leviticus 11:19; 14:18) a common large, wading, unclean bird. Nearly all
of the species known in English ornithology are found in the vicinity of
Palestine. Canon Cook and others think the bird intended is the
plover (Charadrius aedicnemus), a greedy, thick kneed,
high-flying migratory bird, very common in the East, on the banks of
rivers and shores of lakes. -- ED.


(kindness), the son of Hesed or Ben-Chesed, was commissary for
Solomon. (1 Kings 4:10) (B.C. about 995.)


(stronghold), the capital city of Sihon king of the Amorites.
(Numbers 21:26) It stood on the western border of the high plain --
Mishor, (Joshua 13:17) -- and on the boundary line between the tribes of
Reuben and Gad. The ruins of Hesban, 20 miles east of the Jordan,
on the parallel of the northern end of the Dead Sea mark the site, as they
bear the name; of the ancient Heshbon. There are many cisterns among the
ruins. Comp. (Solomon 7:4)


(rich soil), a place named, with others, as lying in the extreme
south of Judah. (Joshua 15:27)


(enclosed), the son of Reuben, (Numbers 26:6) and ancestor of the
Hezronites. (B.C. about 1700.)


(terror), the forefather of the nation of the Hittites. In the
genealogical tables of (Genesis 10:15) and 1Chr 1:13 Heth is a son of
Canaan. (Genesis 24:3,4; 28:1,2)


(hiding-place), the name of a place on the northern border of
Palestine. (Ezekiel 47:15; 48:1) In all probability the "way of Hethlon"
is the pass at the northern end of Lebanon, and is thus identical with
"the entrance of Hamath" in (Numbers 34:8) etc.


(strong), a Benjamite, one of the Bene-Elpaal, a descendant of
Shaaraim. (1 Chronicles 8:17) (B.C. 598.)


(the might of Jehovah).

  • Twelfth king of Judah, son of the apostate Ahaz and Abi or Abijah,
    ascended the throne at the age of 25, B.C. 726. Hezekiah was one of the
    three most perfect kings of Judah. (2 Kings 18:5) Ecclus. 49:4. His first
    act was to purge and repair and reopen with splendid sacrifices and
    perfect ceremonial the temple. He also destroyed a brazen serpent, said to
    have been the one used by Moses in the miraculous healing of the
    Israelites, (Numbers 21:9) which had become an object of adoration. When
    the kingdom of Israel had fallen, Hezekiah invited the scattered
    inhabitants to a peculiar passover, which was continued for the
    unprecedented period of fourteen days. (2 Chronicles 29:30,31) At the head
    of a repentant and united people, Hezekiah ventured to assume the
    aggressive against the Philistines and in a series of victories not only
    rewon the cities which his father had lost, (2 Chronicles 28:18) but even
    dispossessed them of their own cities except Gaza, (2 Kings 18:8) and
    Gath. He refused to acknowledge the supremacy of Assyria. (2 Kings 18:7)
    Instant war was imminent and Hezekiah used every available means to
    strengthen himself. (2 Kings 20:20) It was probably at this dangerous
    crisis in his kingdom that we find him sick and sending for Isaiah, who
    prophesies death as the result. (2 Kings 20:1) Hezekiah's prayer for
    longer life is heard. The prophet had hardly left the palace when he was
    ordered to return and promise the king immediate recovery and fifteen
    years more of life. (2 Kings 20:4) An embassy coming from Babylon
    ostensibly to compliment Hezekiah on his convalescence, but really to form
    an alliance between the two powers, is favorably received by the king, who
    shows them the treasures which he had accumulated. For this Isaiah
    foretells the punishment that shall befall his house. (2 Kings 20:17) The
    two invasions of Sennacherib occupy the greater part of the scripture
    records concerning the reign of Hezekiah. The first of these took place in
    the third year of Sennacherib, B.C. 702, and occupies only three verses.
    (2 Kings 18:13-16) Respecting the commencement of the second invasion we
    have full details in (2 Kings 18:17) seq.; 2Chr 32:9 seq.; Isai 36:1 ...
    Sennacherib sent against Jerusalem an army under two officers and his
    cupbearer, the orator Rabshakeh, with a blasphemous and insulting summons
    to surrender; but Isaiah assures the king he need not fear, promising to
    disperse the enemy. (2 Kings 19:6,7) Accordingly that night "the angel of
    the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred
    fourscore and five thousand." Hezekiah only lived to enjoy for about one
    year more his well-earned peace and glory. He slept with his fathers after
    a reign of twenty-nine years, in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 697.

  • Son of Neariah, one of the descendants of the royal family of Judah.
    (1 Chronicles 3:23)

  • The same name, though rendered in the Authorized Version HIZKIAH, is
    found in (Zephaniah 1:1)

  • Ater of Hezekiah. [ATER]


(vision), a king of Aram (Syria), father of Tabrimon and
grandfather of Ben-hadad I. (1 Kings 15:18) He is probably identical with
REZON, the contemporary of Solomon, in (1 Kings 11:23) (B.C. before



  • A priest in the time of David, leader of the seventeenth monthly
    course in the service. (1 Chronicles 24:15) (B.C. 1014.)

  • One of the heads of the people (lay-men) who sealed the solemn
    covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:20) (B.C. 410.)


(enclosed), one of the thirty heroes of David's guard. (2 Samuel
23:35) (B.C. 1046.) In the parallel list, (1 Chronicles 11:37) the name
appears as HEZRO.


(surrounded by a wall).

  • A son of Reuben. (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14)

  • A son of Pharez. (Genesis 46:12; Ruth 4:18)


(descendants of Hezron), The.

  • Descendants of Hezron the son of Reuben. (Numbers 26:6)

  • A branch of the tribe of Judah, descendants of Hezron the son of
    Pharez. (Numbers 26:21)


(for the rejoicing of Jehovah), one of the thirty-seven heroes of
David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:30) (B.C. 1046.)


(rapid), one of the rivers of Eden, the river which "goeth eastward
to Assyria," (Genesis 2:14) and which Daniel calls "the great river,"
(Daniel 10:4) seems to have been rightly identified by the LXX. with the
Tigris. Dekel is clearly an equivalent of Digla or Dighath, a name borne
by the Tigris in all ages. The name now in use among the inhabitants of
Mesopotamia is Dijleh.


(God liveth), a native of Bethel, who rebuilt Jericho in the reign
of Ahab, (1 Kings 16:34) (B.C. after 915), and in whom was fulfilled the
curse pronounced by Joshua, (Joshua 6:26) five hundred years before.


(holy city), a city of Phrygia, situated above the junction of the
rivers Lycus and Maeander, near Colossae and Laodicea mentioned only in
(Colossians 4:13) as the seat of a church probably founded by


(meditation), a word which occurs three times in the book of Psalms
-- (Psalms 9:16; 19:14; 92:3) (margin). The word has two meanings, one of
a general character, implying thought; reflection, and another, in
(Psalms 9:16) and Psal 92:3 Of a technical nature, the precise meaning of
which cannot at this distance of time be determined. (Canon Cook says that
it probably means an interlude giving musical expression to the
feelings suggested by the preceding words. -- ED.)


The first distinct separation of Aaron to the office of the priesthood,
which previously belonged to the first-born was that recorded (Exodus
28:1) ... We find from the very first the following characteristic
attributes of Aaron and the high priests his successors, as distinguished
from the other priests: Aaron alone was anointed, (Leviticus 8:12) whence
one of the distinctive epithets of the high priest was "the anointed
priest." (Leviticus 4:3,5,16; 21:10) see (Numbers 35:25) The anointing of
the sons of Aaron, i.e. the common priests seems to have been confined to
sprinkling their garments with the anointing oil. (Exodus 29:21; 28:41)
etc. The high priest had a peculiar dress, which passed to his successor
at his death. This dress consisted of eight parts: (a) The
breastplate, or, as it is further named, vs. (Exodus 28:15,29,30)
the breastplate of judgment. The breastplate was originally two spans long
and one span broad, but when doubled it was square, the shape in which it
was worn. On it were the twelve precious stones, set in four rows, three
in a row, thus corresponding to the twelve tribes -- each stone having the
name of one of the children of Israel engraved upon it. (b) The
ephod. This consisted of two parts, of which one covered the back
and the other the front, i.e. the breast and upper part of the body. These
parts were clasped together on the shoulder with two large onyx stones,
each having engraved on it six of the names of the tribes of Israel. They
were further united by a "curious girdle" of gold blue purple, scarlet and
fine twined linen round the waist. [EPHOD; GIRDLE] (C) The robe of the
This was of inferior material to the ephod itself being all of
blue, ver. 31, which implied its being only of "woven work." ch. (Exodus
39:22) It was worn immediately under the ephod, and was longer than it.
The skirt of this robe had a remarkable trimming of pomegranates in blue,
red and crimson, with a bell of gold between each pomegranate alternately.
The bells were to give a sound when the high priest went in and came out
of the holy place. (d) The mitre or upper turbin, with its
gold plate, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a
ribbon of blue. (e) The broidered coat was a tunic or long skirt of linen
with a tessellated or diaper pattern, like the setting of stone. (f) The
girdle, also of linen, was wound round the body several times from
the breast downward, and the ends hung down to the ankles. (g) The
breeches or drawers, of linen, covered the loins and thighs; and (h) The
bonnet was a turban of linen, partially covering the head, but not in the
form of a cone like that of the high priest when the mitre was added to
it. These last four were common to all priests. The high priest alone was
permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did once a year, on the
great day of atonement, when he sprinkled the blood of the sin offering on
the mercy seat, and burnt incense within the veil (Leviticus 16:1) ... The
manslayer might not leave the city of refuge during the lifetime of the
existing high priest. It was also forbidden to the high priest to follow a
funeral, or rend his clothes for the dead. It does not appear by whose
authority the high priests were appointed to their office before there
were kings of Israel. After this the office seems to have been used for
political rather than religious purposes. Though at first chosen for life,
we find that Solomon deposed Abiathar, (1 Kings 2:35) and that Herod
appointed a number of high priests, which may account for there being at
least two living in Christ's time, Annas and Caiaphas. (Luke 3:2) The
usual are for entering upon the functions of the priesthood, according to
(2 Chronicles 31:17) is considered to have been 20 years, though a priest
or high priest was not actually incapacitated if he had attained to
puberty. Again, according to (Leviticus 21:17-21) no one that had a
blemish could officiate at the altar. The theological view of the high
priesthood does not fall within the scope of this work. It must suffice
therefore to indicate that such a view would embrace the consideration of
the office, dress, functions and ministrations of the high priest
considered as typical of the priesthood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and as
setting forth under shadows the truths which are openly taught under the
gospel. This had been done to a great extent in the Epistle to the
Hebrews. It would also embrace all the moral and spiritual teaching
supposed to be intended by such symbols.


Though during the sway of the Romans over Palestine they made a few
substantial roads for their carts and chariots, yet for the most of the
time, as today, the Jews had nothing such as we call roads, but only
footpaths through which animals walk in single file. These are never cared
for, no repairs are made or obstacles removed. This fact brings into
striking prominence the figure of repairing a highway for the return Of
the captives, or the coming of the great King. On special occasions kings
had roads prepared for the progress of their armies, or their own going
from place to place. -- ED.


(place of caves), the name of city of Judah allotted with its
suburbs to the priests. (1 Chronicles 6:58)


(God is my portion)

  • Father of Eliakim. (2 Kings 18:37; Isaiah 22:20; 36:22) [ELIAKIM]

  • High priest in the reign of Josiah. (2 Kings 22:4) seq. 2Chr 34:9
    Seq.; 1 Esd. 1:8. (B.C. 623.) His high priesthood was rendered
    particularly illustrious by the great reformation effected under it by
    King Josiah, by the solemn Passover kept at Jerusalem in the 18th year of
    that king's reign, and above all by the discovery which he made of the
    book of the law of Moses in the temple.

  • A Merarite Levite, son of Amzi (1 Chronicles 6:45) hebr. 30.

  • Another Merarite Levite, second son of Hosah. (1 Chronicles

  • One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law
    to the people; doubtless a Levite, and probably a priest. (Nehemiah 8:4)
    (B.C 410.)

  • A priest of Anathoth, father of the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 1:1)
    (B.C. before 628.)

  • Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiah's envoys to Babylon.
    (Jeremiah 29:3) (B.C. long before 587.)


(praise), a native of Pirathon in Mount Ephraim, father of Abdon,
one of the judges of Israel. (Judges 12:13,15)


From the Hebrew Gibeah, meaning a curved round hill. But our translators
have also employed the same English word for the very different term
har, which has a much more extended sense than gibeah,
meaning a whole district. For instance, in (Exodus 24:4) the "hill" is the
same which is elsewhere in the same chapter, vs. (Exodus 24:12,13,18)
etc., and book consistently and accurately rendered "mount" and
"mountain." The "country of the hills," in (1:7; Joshua 9:1; 10:40; 11:16)
is the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, which is
correctly called "the mountain" in the earliest descriptions of Palestine,
(Numbers 13:29) and in many subsequent passages.




the female of the common stag or Cervus elaphus. It is frequently
noticed in the poetical parts of Scripture as emblematic of activity,
(Genesis 49:21; Psalms 18:33) gentleness, (Proverbs 5:19) feminine
modesty, (Solomon 2:7; 3:5) earnest longing, (Psalms 42:1) and maternal
affection. (Jeremiah 14:5) Its shyness and remoteness from the haunts of
men are also alluded to, (Job 39:1) and its timidity, causing it to cast
its young at the sound of thunder. (Psalms 29:9)


Both ancient Egyptian and modern Oriental doors were and are hung by means
of pivots turning in sockets on both the upper and lower sides. (1 Kings
7:50) In Syria, and especially the Hauran, there are many ancient doors
consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece,
inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the
house. The allusion in (Proverbs 26:14) is thus clearly explained.


(lamentation), Valley of, otherwise called "the valley of
the son" or "children of Hinnom," a deep and narrow ravine, with steep,
rocky sides, to the south and west of Jerusalem, separating Mount Zion to
the north from the "hill of evil counsel," and the sloping rocky plateau
of the "plain of Rephaim" to the south. The earliest mention of the valley
of Hinnom is in (Joshua 15:8; 18:16) where the boundary line between the
tribes of Judah and Benjamin is described as passing along the bed of the
ravine. On the southern brow, overlooking the valley at its eastern
extremity Solomon erected high places for Molech, (1 Kings 11:7) whose
horrid rites were revived from time to time in the same vicinity the later
idolatrous kings. Ahaz and Manasseh made their children "pass through the
fire" in this valley, (2 Kings 16:3; 2 Chronicles 28:3; 33:6) and the
fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire-gods seems to have been
kept up in Tophet, which was another name for this place. To put an end to
these abominations the place was polluted by Josiah, who renders it
ceremonially unclean by spreading over it human bones and other
corruptions, (2 Kings 23:10,13,14; 2 Chronicles 34:4,5) from which time it
appears to have become the common cesspool of the city, into which sewage
was conducted, to be carried off by the waters of the Kidron. From its
ceremonial defilement, and from the detested and abominable fire of
Molech, if not from the supposed ever-burning funeral piles, the later
Jews applied the name of this valley -- Ge Hinnom, Gehenna (land of
Hinnom) -- to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word
is used by our Lord. (Matthew 5:29; 10:28; 23:15; Mark 9:43; Luke




(a noble race), an Adullamite, the friend of Judah. (Genesis
38:1,12) and see Genesis38:20



  • The king of Tyre who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first,
    (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1) to build a palace for David (B.C.
    1064), whom he ever loved, (1 Kings 5:1) and again, 1Kin 5:10; 7:13; 2Chr
    2:16 To build the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace
    and commerce (1 Kings 5:11,12) He admitted Solomon's ships issuing from
    Joppa, to a share in the profitable trade of the Mediterranean, (1 Kings
    10:22) and the Jewish sailors, under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught
    to bring the gold of India, (1 Kings 9:26) to Solomon's two harbors on the
    Red Sea.

  • Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race, (1 Kings 7:13,40) the
    principal architect and engineer sent by King Hiram to Solomon.


(descendans of Heth), The, the nation descended from Cheth
(Authorized Version HETH), the second son of Canaan. Abraham bought from
the "children of Heth" the field and the cave of Machpelah, belonging to
Ephron the Hittite. ’They were then settled at the town which was
afterwards, under its new name of Hebron, to become one of the most famous
cities of Palestine, and which then bore the name of Kir-jath-arba.
(Genesis 23:19; 25:9) When the Israelites entered the promised land, we
find the Hittites taking part against the invader, in equal alliance with
the other Canaanite tribes. (Joshua 9:1; 11:3) etc. Henceforward the
notices of the Hittites are very few and faint. We meet with two
individuals, both attached to the person of David --

  • "Ahimelech the Hittite," (1 Samuel 26:6)

  • Uriah the Hittite," one of "the thirty" of David's body-guard. (2
    Samuel 23:39; 1 Chronicles 11:41)


(villagers), The, descendants -- the six in order -- of
Canaan the son of Ham. (Genesis 10:17; 1 Chronicles 1:15) We first
encounter the actual people of the Hivites at the time of Jacob's return
to Canaan. (Genesis 34:2) We next meet with the Hivites during the
conquest of Canaan. (Joshua 9:7; 11:19) The main body of the Hivites were
at this time living in the northern confines of western Palestine --
"under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh," (Joshua 11:3) -- "in Mount Lebanon,
from Mount Baal Hermon to the entering in of Hamath." (Judges 3:3) comp.
2Sam 24:7


(might of Jehovah), an ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet.
(Zephaniah 1:1) (B.C. before 635.)


(might of Jehovah), one of those. who sealed the covenant with
Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17) (B.C. 410.)


(beloved). This name is found in two places only (Numbers 10:29;
Judges 4:11) Hobab was brother-in-law to Moses. (B.C. 1530.)


(hiding-place), the place to which Abraham pursued the kings who
had pillaged Sodom. (Genesis 14:15) It was situated "to the north of


(splendor), one of the sons of Zophah, among the descendants of
Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37)


(Praise ye Jehovah), son of the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles
3:24) (B.C. about 406.)


(Praise ye Jehovah).

  • A man of Manasseh, one of the heads of the half tribe on the east of
    Jordan (1 Chronicles 5:24) (B.C. 720.)

  • A man of Benjamin, son of Has-senuah. (1 Chronicles 9:7)

  • A Levite, who seems to have given his name to an important family in
    the tribe. (Ezra 2:40) (B.C. before 536.)


(new moon), a woman named in the genealogies of Benjamin, (1
Chronicles 8:9) as the wife of Shaharaim.


(praise ye Jehovah). (Nehemiah 7:43) [HODAVIAH]


(majesty of Jehovah), one of the two wives of Ezra, a man of Judah.
(1 Chronicles 4:19) She is doubtless the same person as Jehudijah in ver.


(majesty of Jehovah).

  • A Levite in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 8:7) and probably
    also (Nehemiah 9:5; 10:10) (B.C. 410.)

  • Another Levite at the same time. (Nehemiah 10:13)

  • A layman; one of the "heads" of the people at the same time. (Nehemiah


(partridge), the third of the five daughters of Zelophehad.
(Numbers 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Joshua 17:3) (B.C. 1450.)


(whom Jehovah impels), king of Hebron at the time of the conquest
of Canaan. (Joshua 10:3) (B.C. 1450.)


or more correctly OLOFERNES, was, according to the book of Judith, a
general of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians., Judith 2:4, who was
slain by the Jewish heroine Judith during the siege of Bethulia. (B.C.



  • A town in the mountains of Judah. One of the first group, of which
    Debir was apparently the most considerable. (Joshua 15:51; 21:15)

  • A city of Moab. (Jeremiah 48:21) only. No identification of it has yet
    taken place.


(destruction), the form under which, in (1 Chronicles 1:39) an
Edomite name appears which in (Genesis 36:22) is given HEMAM.




The Hebrew debash in the first place applied to the product of the
bee, to which exclusively we give the name of honey. All travellers agree
in describing Palestine as a land "flowing with milk and honey," (Exodus
3:8) bees being abundant even in the remote parts of the wilderness, where
they deposit their honey in the crevices of rocks or in hollow trees. In
some parts of northern Arabia the hills are so well stocked with bees that
no sooner are hives placed than they are occupied. In the second place the
term debash applies to a decoction of the juice of the grape, which
is still called dibs, and which forms an article of commerce in
the East, it was this, and not ordinary bee-honey, which Jacob sent to
Joseph, (Genesis 43:11) and which the Tyrians purchased from Palestine.
(Ezekiel 27:17) A third kind has been described by some writers as a
"vegetable" honey, by which is meant the exudations of certain trees and
shrubs, such as the Tamarix mannifera, found in the peninsula of
Sinai, or the stunted oaks of Luristan and Mesopotamia . The honey which
Jonathan ate in the wood, (1 Samuel 14:25) and the "wild honey" which
supported John the Baptist, (Matthew 3:42) have been referred to this
species. But it was probably the honey of wild bees.


Various kinds of hooks are noticed in the Bible, of which the following
are the most important:

  • Fishing hooks. (Job 41:2; Isaiah 19:8); Habb 1:15

  • A ring, such as in our country is placed through the nose of a bull,
    and similarly used in the East for leading about lions -- (Ezekiel 19:4)
    where the Authorized Version has "with chains -- camels and other animals.
    Called "thorn" in (Job 41:2) A similar method was adopted for leading
    prisoners. (2 Chronicles 33:11)

  • The hooks of the pillars of the tabernacle. (Exodus 26:32,37; 27:10)
    ff.; Exod 38:13 ff.

  • A vinedressers pruning-hook. (Isaiah 2:4; 18:5; Micah 4:3; Joel

  • A flesh-hook for getting up the joints of meat out of the boiling-pot.
    (Exodus 27:3; 1 Samuel 2:13,14)

  • Probably "hooks" used for the purpose of hanging up animals to flay
    them. (Ezekiel 40:43)


(pugilist) and PHINEHAS (brazen mouth), the two sons of Eli,
who fulfilled their hereditary sacerdotal duties at Shiloh. Their brutal
rapacity and lust, (1 Samuel 2:12-17,22) filled the people with disgust
and indignation, and provoked the curse which was denounced against their
father's house, first by an unknown prophet, (1 Samuel 2:27-36) and then
by Samuel. ch. (1 Samuel 3:11-14) They were both cut off in one day in the
flower of their age, and the ark which they had accompanied to battle
against the Philistines was lost on the same occasion. (1 Samuel 4:10,11)
(B.C. 1130.)


(mountain), Mount.

  • The mountain on which Aaron died. (Numbers 20:25,27) It was "on the
    boundary line," (Numbers 20:23) or "at the edge," ch. (Numbers 33:37) of
    the land of Edom. It was the halting-place of the people next after
    Kadesh, ch. (Numbers 20:22; 33:37) and they quitted it for Zalmonah, ch.
    (Numbers 33:41) in the road to the Red Sea. ch. (Numbers 21:4) It was
    during the encampment at Kadesh that Aaron was gathered to his fathers.
    Mount Hor is situated on the eastern side of the great valley of the
    Arabah, the highest and most conspicuous of the whole range of the
    sandstone mountains of Edom, having close beneath it on its: eastern side
    the mysterious; city of Petra. It is now the Jebel Nebi-Harim "the
    mountain of the prophet Aaron." Its height is 4800 feet above the
    Mediterranean; that is to say, about 1700 feet above the town of Petra,
    4800 above the level of the Arabah, and more than 6000 above the Dead Sea.
    The mountain is marked far and near by its double top, which rises like a
    huge castellated building from a lower base, and is surmounted by a
    circular dome of the tomb of Aaron, a distinct white spot on the dark red
    surface of the mountain. The chief interest of Mount Hor consists in the
    prospect from its summit, the last view of Aaron -- that view which was to
    him what Pisgah was to his brother.

  • A mountain, entirely distinct from the preceding, named in (Numbers
    34:7,8) only, as one of the marks of the northern boundary of the land
    which the children of Israel were about to conquer. This Mount Hor is the
    great chain of Lebanon itself.


(mountainous), king of Gezer at the time of the conquest of the
southwestern part of Palestine. (Joshua 10:33)


(desert). [SINAI]


(sacred), one of the fortified places in the territory of Naphtali;
named with Iron and Migdalel. (Joshua 19:38) Van Deuteronomy Velde
suggests Hurah as the site of Horem.


(conspicous mountain), the name of the desert station where the
Israelites encamped, (Numbers 33:32) probably the same as Gudgodah.



  • A Horite, son of Lotan the son of Seir. (Genesis 36:22; 1 Chronicles
    1:39; Genesis 36:30)

  • A man of Simeon, father of Shaphat. (Numbers 13:5)


and Ho’rites (descendants of Hori), the aboriginal
inhabitants of Mount Seir, (Genesis 14:6) and probably allied to the Emim
and Raphaim. The name Horite appears to have been derived from
their habits as "cave-dwellers" Their excavated dwellings are still found
in hundreds in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom, and especially
in Petra.


(a place laid waste), or ZEPHATH, (Judges 1:17) was the chief town
of a king of a Canaanitish tribe on the south of Palestine, which was
reduced by Joshua, and became a city of the territory of Judah, (Joshua
15:30; 1 Samuel 30:30) but apparently belonged to Simeon. (1 Chronicles


The word "horn" is often used metaphorically to signify strength and
honor, because horns are the chief weapons and ornaments of the animals
which possess them; hence they are also used as a type of victory. Of
strength the horn of the unicorn was the most frequent
representative, (33:17) etc., but not always; comp. (1 Kings 22:11) where
probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are
intended. Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear
silver horns on their heads. In the sense of honor, the word horn stands
for the abstract "my horn," (Job 16:16) "all the horn of Israel,"
(1 Samuel 2:3) and so for the supreme authority. It also stands for the
concrete, whence it comes to mean king, kingdom. (Daniel 8:2)
etc.; Zech 1:18 Out of either or both of these last two metaphors sprang
the idea of representing gods with horns.


The hornet bears a general resemblance to the common wasp, only it is
larger. It is exceedingly fierce and voracious, especially in hot climates
and its sting is frequently dangerous. In Scripture the hornet is referred
to only by the means which Jehovah employed for the extirpation of the
Canaanites. (Exodus 23:28; 7:20; Joshua 24:12) Wisd. 12:8. (It is said
that the Phaselitae, a Phoenician people, were driven from their locality
by hornets; and other examples are given in Paxton's "Illustrations of
Scripture," 1:303. -- ED.)


(two caverns), a town of Moab, possibly a sanctuary, named with
Zoar and Luhith. (Isaiah 15:5; Jeremiah 48:3,5,34)


(native of Horonaim), The, the designation of Sanballat.
(Nehemiah 2:10,19; 13:28) It is derived by Gesenius from Horonaim.


The most striking feature in the biblical notices of the horse is the
exclusive application of it to warlike operations; in no instance is that
useful animal employed for the purposes of ordinary locomotion or
agriculture, if we except (Isaiah 28:28) The animated description of the
horse in (Job 39:19-25) applies solely to the war-horse. The Hebrews in
the patriarchal age, as a pastoral race, did not stand in need of the
services Of the horse, and for a long period after their settlement in
Canaan they dispensed with it, partly in consequence of the hilly nature
of the country, which only admitted of the use of chariots in certain
localities, (Judges 1:19) and partly in consequence to the prohibition in
(17:16) which would be held to apply at all periods. David first
established a force of cavalry and chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4) but the great
supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his
connection with Egypt. (1 Kings 4:26) Solomon also established a very
active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and
resold, at a profit, to the Hittites. With regard to the trappings and
management of the horse we have little information. The bridle was placed
over the horse's nose, (Isaiah 30:28) and a bit or curb is also mentioned.
(2 Kings 19:28; Psalms 32:9; Proverbs 26:3; Isaiah 37:29) In the
Authorized Version it is incorrectly given "bridle," with the exception of
(Psalms 32:1) ... Saddles were not used until a late period. The horses
were not shod, and therefore hoofs are hard "as flint," (Isaiah 5:28) were
regarded as a great merit. The chariot-horses were covered with
embroidered trappings (Ezekiel 27:20) Horses and chariots were used also
in idolatrous processions, as noticed in regard to the sun. (2 Kings


Heb. ’alukah, occurs once only, viz. (Proverbs 30:16) There
is little doubt that ’alukah denotes some species of leech,
or rather is the generic term for any blood-sucking annelid.


(refuge), a city of Asher, (Joshua 19:29) The next landmark on the
boundary to Tyre.


a Merarite Levite, chosen by David to be one of the first doorkeepers to
the ark after its arrival in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 16:38) (B.C.


(save now). "Save, we pray!" the cry of the multitudes as they
thronged in our Lord's triumphal procession into Jerusalem. (Matthew
21:9,15; Mark 11:9,10; John 12:13) The Psalm from which it was taken, the
118th, was one with which they were familiar from being accustomed to
recite the 25th and 26th verses at the feast of tabernacles, forming a
part of the great hallel. Ps. 113-118.


(salvation), son of Beeri, and first of the minor prophets.
Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea extended from
B.C. 784 to 723, a period of fifty-nine years. The prophecies of Hosea
were delivered in the kingdom of Israel. Jeroboam II was on the throne,
and Israel was at the height of its earthly splendor. Nothing is known of
the prophet's life excepting what may be gained from his book.


This book consists of fourteen chapters. It is easy to recognize two great
divisions in the book: (1) ch. 1 to 3; (2) ch. 4 to end. The subdivision
of these several parts is a work of greater difficulty --

  • The first division should probably be subdivided into three separate
    poems, each originating in a distinct aim, and each after its own fashion
    attempting to express the idolatry of Israel by imagery borrowed from the
    matrimonial relation.

  • Attempts have been made to subdivide the second part of the book.
    These divisions are made either according to reigns of contemporary kings
    or according to the subject-matter of the poem. The prophecies were
    probably collected by Hosea himself toward the end of his career. Of his
    style Eichhorn says, "His discourse is like a garland woven of a
    multiplicity of flowers; images are woven upon images, metaphor strung
    upon metaphor. Like a bee he flies from one flower-bed to another, that he
    may suck his honey from the most varied pieces....Often he is prone to
    approach to allegory; often he sinks down in obscurity."


(whom Jehovah aids).

  • A man who assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem after it
    had been rebuilt by Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:32) (B.C. 446.).

  • The father of a certain Jezaniah or Azariah, who was a man of note
    after, the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezsar. (Jeremiah 42:1;
    43:2) (B.C. after 588.)


(whom Jehovah hears), one of the sons of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin,
the last king but one of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:18)



  • The nineteenth, last and best king of Israel. He succeeded Pekah, whom
    he slew in a successful conspiracy, thereby fulfilling a prophecy of
    Isaiah. (Isaiah 7:16) In the third year of his reign (B.C. 726)
    Shalmaneser cruelly stormed the strong caves of Beth-arbel, (Hosea 8:14)
    and made cruel tributary, (2 Kings 17:3) for three years. At the end of
    this period Hoshea entered into a secret alliance with So, king, of Egypt,
    to throw off the Assyrian yoke. The alliance did him no good; it was
    revealed, to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and
    Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vasal, shut up in prison,
    and apparently treated with the utmost indignity. (Micah 5:1) Of the
    subsequent fortunes of Hoshea nothing is known.

  • The son of Nun, i.e. Joshua, (32:44) and also in Numb 13:8 Though to
    there the Authorized Version has OSHEA.

  • Shon of Azaziah, (1 Chronicles 27:20) like his great namesake, a man
    of Ephraim, ruler of his tribe in the time of King David. (B.C.

  • One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:23) (B.C. 410.)


Hospitality was regarded by most nations of the ancient world as one of
the chief virtues. The Jewish laws respecting strangers (Leviticus
19:33,34) and the poor, (Leviticus 23:14) seq. Deuteronomy 15:7 And
concerning redemption (Leviticus 25:23) seq., etc. are framed in
accordance with the spirit of hospitality. In the law compassion to
strangers is constantly enforced by the words "for ye were strangers in
the land of Egypt." (Leviticus 19:34) And before the law, Abraham's
entertainment of the angels, (Genesis 18:1) seq., and Lot's, (Genesis
19:1) are in exact agreement with its precepts, and with modern usage.
Comp. (Exodus 2:20; Judges 13:15; 19:17,20,21) In the New Testament
hospitality is yet more markedly enjoined; and in the more civilized state
of society which then prevailed, its exercise became more a social virtue
than a necessity of patriarchal life. The good Samaritan stands for all
ages as an example of Christian hospitality. The neglect of Christ is
symbolized by inhospitality to our neighbors. (Matthew 25:43) The apostles
urged the Church to "follow after hospitality," (Romans 12:13) cf. 1Tim
5:10 To remember Abraham's example, (Hebrews 13:2) to "use hospitality one
to another without grudging," (1 Peter 4:9) while a bishop must be a
"lover of hospitality (Titus 1:8) cf. 1Tim 3:2 The practice of the early
Christians was in accord with these precepts. They had all things in
common, and their hospitality was a characteristic of their belief. In the
patriarchal ages we may take Abraham's example as the most fitting, as we
have of it the fullest account. "The account," says Mr. Lane, "of
Abraham's entertaining the three angels related in the Bible, presents a
perfect picture of the manner in which a modern Bedawee sheikh receives
travellers arriving at his encampment." The Oriental respect for the
covenant of bread and salt, or salt alone, certainly sprang from the high
regard in which hospitality was held.


(signet ring), a man of Asher, son of Heber, of the family Of
Beriah. (1 Chronicles 7:32) (B.C. 1490.)


(signet ring), a man of Aroer, father of Shamu and Jehiel. (1
Chronicles 11:44) (B.C. 1046.)


(fullness),the thirteenth son of Heman, "the king's seer," (1
Chronicles 25:4,28) and therefore a Kohathite Levite. (B.C. 1014.)


The ancient Hebrews were probably unacquainted with the division of the
natural day into twenty-four parts; but they afterwards parcelled out the
period between sunrise and sunset into a series of divisions distinguished
by the sun's course. The early Jews appear to have divided the day into
four parts, (Nehemiah 9:3) and the night into three watches,
(Judges 7:19) and even in the New Testament we find a trace of this
division in (Matthew 20:1-5) At what period the Jews first became
acquainted with the division of the day into twelve hours is unknown, but
it is generally supposed they learned it from the Babylonians during the
captivity. It was known to the Egyptians at a very early period. They had
twelve hours of the day and of the night. There are two kinds of hours,
viz. (1) the astronomical or equinoctial hour, i.e. the 24th part of a
civil day, and (2) the natural hour, i.e. the 12th part of the natural
day, or of the time between sunrise and sunset. These are the hours meant
in the New Testament, (John 11:9) etc., and it must be remembered that
they perpetually vary in length, so as to be very different at different
times of he year. For the purpose of prayer the old division of the day
into four portions was continued in the temple service. as we see from
(Acts 2:15; 3:1; 10:9)


The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria,
Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In
some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts
caves in the rocks are used as dwellings. (Amos 5:11) The houses are
usually of one story only, viz., the ground floor, and often contain only
one apartment. Sometimes a small court for the cattle is attached; and in
some cases the cattle are housed in the same building, or the live in a
raised platform, and, the cattle round them on the ground. (1 Samuel
28:24) The windows are small apertures high up in the walls, sometimes
grated with wood. The roofs are commonly but not always flat, and are
usually formed of plaster of mud and straw laid upon boughs or rafters;
and upon the flat roofs, tents or "booths" of boughs or rushes are often
raised to be used as sleeping-places in summer. The difference between the
poorest houses and those of the class next above them is greater than
between these and the houses of the first rank. The prevailing plan of
eastern houses of this class presents, as was the case in ancient Egypt, a
front of wall, whose blank and mean appearance is usually relieved only by
the door and a few latticed and projecting windows. Within this is a court
or courts with apartments opening into them. Over the door is a projecting
window with a lattice more or less elaborately wrought, which, except in
times of public celebrations is usually closed. (2 Kings 9:30) An awning
is sometimes drawn over the court, and the floor is strewed with carpets
on festive occasions. The stairs to the upper apartments are in Syria
usually in a corner of the court. Around part, if not the whole, of the
court is a veranda, often nine or ten feet deep, over which, when there is
more than one floor, runs a second gallery of like depth, with a
balustrade. When there is no second floor, but more than one court, the
women's apartments -- hareems, harem or haram -- are usually
in the second court; otherwise they form a separate building within the
general enclosure, or are above on the first floor. When there is an upper
story, the ka’ah forms the most important apartment, and thus
probably answers to the "upper room," which was often the guest-chamber.
(Luke 22:12; Acts 1:13; 9:37; 20:8) The windows of the upper rooms often
project one or two feet, and form a kiosk or latticed chamber. Such may
have been "the chamber in the wall." (2 Kings 4:10,11) The "lattice,"
through which Ahasiah fell, perhaps belonged to an upper chamber of this
kind, (2 Kings 1:2) as also the "third loft," from which Eutychus fell.
(Acts 20:9) comp. Jere 22:13 Paul preached in such a room on account of
its superior rise and retired position. The outer circle in an audience in
such a room sat upon a dais, or upon cushions elevated so as to be as high
as the window-sill. From such a position Eutychus could easily fall. There
are usually no special bed-rooms in eastern houses. The outer doors are
closed with a wooden lock, but in some cases the apartments are divided
from each other by curtains only. There are no chimneys, but fire is made
when required with charcoal in a chafing-dish; or a fire of wood might be
made in the open court of the house (Luke 22:65) Some houses in Cairo have
an apartment open in front to the court with two or more arches and a
railing, and a pillar to support the wall above. It was in a chamber of
this size to be found in a palace, that our Lord was being arraigned
before the high priest at the time when the denial of him by St. Peter
took place. He "turned and looked" on Peter as he stood by the fire in the
court, (Luke 22:56,61; John 18:24) whilst he himself was in the "hall of
judgment." In no point do Oriental domestic habits differ more from
European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface is made useful for
various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and
preparing figs and raisins. The roofs are used as places of recreation in
the evening, and often as sleeping-places at night. (1 Samuel 9:25,26; 2
Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9; Daniel 4:29) They were also
used as places for devotion and even idolatrous worship. (2 Kings 23:12;
Jeremiah 19:13; 32:29; Zephaniah 1:6; Acts 10:9) At the time of the feast
of tabernacles booths were erected by the Jews on the top of their houses.
Protection of the roof by parapets was enjoined by the law. (22:8) Special
apartments were devoted in larger houses to winter and summer uses.
(Jeremiah 36:22; Amos 3:15) The ivory house of Ahab was probably a palace
largely ornamented with inlaid ivory. The circumstance of Samson's pulling
down the house by means of the pillars may be explained by the fact of the
company being assembled on tiers of balconies above each other, supported
by central pillars on the basement; when these were pulled down the whole
of the upper floors would fall also. (Judges 16:26)


(incised), a place on the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:34) It
has been recovered in Yakuk, a village in the mountains of
Naphtali west of the upper end of the Sea of Galilee.


a name which in (1 Chronicles 6:75) is erroneously used for HELKATH, which


(circle), the second son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. (Genesis
10:23) The strongest evidence is in favor of the district about the roots
of Lebanon.


(weasel), a prophetess, whose husband, Shallum, was keeper of the
wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. It was to her that Josiah had
recourse, when Hilkiah found a book of the law, to procure an
authoritative opinion on it. (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chronicles 34:22) (B.C.


(place of lizards), a city of Judah one of those in the mountain
districts the next to Hebron. (Joshua 15:54)


Hunting, as a matter of necessity, whether for the exterminatiOn of
dangerous beasts or for procuring sustenance betokens a rude and
semi-civilized state; as an amusement, it betokens an advanced state. The
Hebrews as a pastoral and agricultural people, were not given to the
sports of the field; the density of the population, the earnestness of
their character, and the tendency of their ritual regulations,
particularly those affecting food, all combined to discourage the practice
of hunting. The smaller of catching animals was, first, either by digging
a pitfall; or, secondly, by a trap which was set under ground, (Job 18:10)
in the run of the animal, (Proverbs 22:5) and caught it by the leg, (Job
18:9) or lastly by the use of the net, of which there were various kinds,
as or the gazelle, (Isaiah 51:20) Authorized Version, "wild bull," and
other animals of that class.


(coast-man), a son of Benjamin, founder of the family of the
Huphamites. (Numbers 26:39) (B.C. 1688.)


descendants of Hupham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (Numbers 26:39)


(protected), a priest in the time of David. (1 Chronicles


(protected), head of a Benjamite family (Genesis 46:21; 1
Chronicles 7:12) Hur (hole).

  • A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the
    battle with Amalek at Raphidim, (Exodus 17:10) when with Aaron he stayed
    up the hands of Moses. ver. (Exodus 17:12) (B.C. 1491.) He is mentioned
    again in ch. (Exodus 24:14) as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the
    people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai. The Jewish tradition is that
    he was the husband of Miriam, and that he was identical with

  • The grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the tabernacle.
    (Exodus 31:2; 35:30; 38:22)

  • The fourth of the five kings of Midian who were slain with Balaam
    after the "matter of Peor." (Numbers 31:8) (B.C. 1451.) In a later mention
    of them, (Joshua 13:21) they are called princes of Midian and dukes.

  • Father of Rephaiah, who was ruler of half of the environs of
    Jerusalem, and assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall. (Nehemiah 3:9)
    (B.C. before 446.)

  • The "son of Hur" -- Ben-Hur -- was commissariat officer for Solomon in
    Mount Ephraim. (1 Kings 4:8) (B.C. 995.)


(linon-weaver), one of David's guard -- Hurai of the torrents of
Gaash, according to the list of (1 Chronicles 11:32) [HIDDAI]


(noble born).

  • A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the patriarch. (1
    Chronicles 8:5)

  • The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David
    and Solomon -- and elsewhere given as HIRAM, OR HURAM -- appears in
    Chronicles. (1 Chronicles 14:1; 2 Chronicles 2:3,11,12; 8:2,18;

  • The same Change occurs in Chronicles in the name of Hiram the
    artificer, which is given as HIRAM, OR HURAM in (2 Chronicles 2:13;
    4:11,16) [HIRAM, OR HURAM]


(linen-weaver), a Gadite; father of Abihail- (1 Chronicles




(haste), a name which occurs in the genealogies of the tribe of
Judah (1 Chronicles 4:4)


(hasting) an Archite i.e. possibly an inhabitant of a place called
Erec. (2 Samuel 15:32) ff.; (2 Samuel 16:16) ff. He is called the "friend"
of David. (2 Samuel 15:37) comp. 1Chr 27:33 To him David confided the
delicate and dangerous part of a pretended adherence to the cause of
Absalom. (B.C. about 1023.) He was probably the father of Baana. (1 Kings


(haste), one of the early kings of Edom. Genesis36:34,36; 1Chr


(inhabitant of Hushah), The, the designation of two of the heroes
of David's guard.

  • SIBBECHAI. (2 Samuel 21:18; 1 Chronicles 11:29; 20:4; 27:11) Josephus,
    however, called him a Hittite.

  • MEBUNNAI, (2 Samuel 23:27) a mere corruption of SIBBECHAI.


(who makes haste).

  • In (Genesis 46:23) "the children of Dan" are said to have been Hushim.
    The name is plural, as if of a tribe rather than an individual. In
    (Numbers 26:42) the name is changed to Shuham.

  • A Benjamite, (1 Chronicles 7:12) and here again apparently the plural
    nature of the name is recognized, and Hushim are stated to be "the sons of

  • One of the two wives of Shaharaim. (1 Chronicles 8:8) (B.C.


This word in (Luke 16:16) describes really the fruit of a particular kind
of tree, viz. the carob or Ceratonia siliqua of botanists. It
belongs to the locust family. This tree is very commonly met with in Syria
and Egypt, it produces pods, shaped like a horn, varying in length from
six to ten inches, and about a finger's breadth, or rather more; it is
dark-brown, glossy, filled with seeds and has a sweetish taste. It is used
much for food by the poor, and for the feeding of swine.


(light, sandy soil), the eldest son of Nahor and Milcah. (Genesis
22:21) (B.C. about 1900).


(fixed), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the
queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy. (Nahum
2:7) (B.C. about 700.) The moderns follow the rendering in the margin of
our English Bible -- "that which was established." Still it is not
improbable that after all Huzzab may really be a proper name. It may mean
"the Zab country," or the fertile tract east of the Tigris, watered
by the upper and lower Zab rivers.


used in the Revised Version for jacinth in (Revelation 9:17) It is simply
another English spelling of the same Greek word.


Authorities differ as to whether the term tzabu’a in
(Jeremiah 12:9) means a "hyaena" or a "speckled bird." The only other
instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim, (1 Samuel 13:18)
"the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila; (Nehemiah 11:34) The striped hyaena
(Hyaena striata) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia,
and is more common in Palestine than any other carnivorous animals except
perhaps the jackal. The hyaena is among the mammals what the vulture is
among birds, -- the scavenger of the wilderness, the woods and the shore.
-- It often attacks animals, and Sometimes digs up the dead bodies of men
and beasts. From this last habit the hyaena has been regarded as a
horrible and mysterious creature. Its teeth are so powerful that they can
crack the bones of an ox with ease. -- Appelton's Encyc. The hyaena was
common in ancient as in modern Egypt, and is constantly depicted upon
monuments; it must therefore have been well known to the Jews.


(belonging to marriage), the name of a person occurring twice in
the correspondence between St. Paul and Timothy; the first time classed
with Alexander, (1 Timothy 1:20) and the second time classed with
Philetus. (2 Timothy 2:17,18) (A.D. 66-7.) He denied the true doctrine of
the resurrection.


a religious song or psalm. (Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16) Our Lord and
his apostles sung a hymn after the last supper. In the jail at Philippi,
Paul and Silas "sang hymns" (Authorized Version "praises") unto God, and
so loud was their song that their fellow prisoners heard them.


(Heb. ezob.) The ezob was used for sprinkling in some of the
sacrifices and purifications of the Jews. In consequence of its detergent
qualities, or from its being associated with the purificatory Services,
the psalmist makes use of the expression, "Purge me with ezob."
(Psalms 51:7) It is described in (1 Kings 4:33) as growing on or near
walls. (Besides being thus fit for sprinkling, having cleansing properties
and growing on walls, the true hyssop should be a plant common to Egypt,
Sinai and Palestine, and capable of producing a stick three or four feet
long since on a stalk of hyssop the sponge of vinegar was held up to
Christ on the cross. (John 19:29) it is impossible to precisely identify
the plant because the name was given not to a particular plant but to a
family of plants associated together by Hyssop, qualities easily noticed
rather than by close botanical affinities. Different species of the family
may have been used at different times. The hyssop of the Bible is probably
one (or all) of three plants: --

  • The common hyssop is "a shrub with low, bushy stalks 1 1/2 feet high,
    small pear shaped, close-setting opposite leaves all the stalks and
    branches terminated by erect whorled spikes of flowers of different colors
    in the varieties. It is a hardy plant, with an aromatic smell and a warm,
    pungent taste; a native of the south of Europe and the East." -- ED.)

  • Bochart decides in favor of marjoram, or some plant like it, and to
    this conclusion, it must be admitted, all ancient tradition points. (This
    is the Origanum maru, the z’atar of the Arabs. The
    French consul at Sidon exhibited to Dr. Thomson ("The Land and the Book,"
    i. 161) a specimen of this "having the fragrance of thyme, with a hot,
    pungent taste, and long slender stems." Dr. Post of Beirut, in the
    American edition of Smith's large Dictionary, favors this view. --

  • But Dr.Royle, after a careful investigation of the subject, arrives at
    the conclusion that the hyssop is no other than the caperplant, or
    Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. The Arabic name of this plant,
    asuf, by which it is sometimes though not commonly, described,
    bears considerable resemblance to the Hebrew. "It is a bright-green
    creeper, which climbs from the fissures of the rocks, is supposed to
    possess cleansing properties, and is capable of yielding a stick to which
    a sponge might be attached." -- Stanky, "Sinai and Palestine," 23. -- It
    produces a fruit the size of a walnut, called the mountain pepper.

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