Smith's Bible Dictionary - G

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(contempt), son of Ebed, aided the Shechemites in their rebellion
against Abimelech. (Judges 9:1) ... (B.C. 1206.)


(earthquake), a hill of Ephraim, where Joshua was buried. The
brooks or valley of Gaash, (2 Samuel 23:30; 1 Chronicles 11:32) were
probably at the foot of the hill.


The same name as GEBA, which see.


(Esther 12:1) [BIGTHAN, OR BIGTHANA]


(tax gatherer), apparently the head of an important family of
Benjamin resident at Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 11:8) (B.C. before 536.)


(elevated; a platform) the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a
place, also called "Pavement," where the judgment-seat or bema was
planted, from his place on which Pilate delivered our Lord to death. (John
19:13) It was a tessellated platform outside the praetorium, on the
western hill of Jerusalem, for Pilate brought Jesus forth from thence to


(man of God), an angel sent by God to announce to Zacharias the
birth of John the Baptist, and to Mary the birth of Christ. He was also
sent to Daniel to explain his visions. (Daniel 8:16; 9:21)


(a troop).

  • Jacob's seventh son, the first-born of Zilpah, Leah's maid, and
    whole-brother to Asher. (Genesis 30:11-13; 46:16,18) (B.C.

  • "The seer," or "the king's seer," i.e. David's (1 Chronicles 29:29; 2
    Chronicles 29:25) was a "prophet" who appears to have joined David when in
    the old. (1 Samuel 22:5) (B.C. 1061.) He reappears in connection with the
    punishment inflicted for the numbering of the people. (2 Samuel 24:11-19;
    1 Chronicles 21:9-19) He wrote a book of the Acts of David, (1 Chronicles
    29:29) and also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of
    the "house of God." (2 Chronicles 29:25)


The country allotted to the tribe of Gad appears, speaking roughly, to
have lain chiefly about the centre of the land east of Jordan. The sought
of that district -- from the Arnon (Wady Mojeb), about halfway down
the Dead Sea, to Heshbon, nearly due east of Jerusalem -- was occupied by
Reuben, and at or about Heshbon the possessions of Gad commenced. They
embraced half Gilead, (3:12) or half the land of the children of Ammon,
(Joshua 13:25) probably the mountainous district which is intersected by
the torrent Jabbok, including, as its most northern town, the ancient
sanctuary of Mahanaim. On the east the furthest landmark given is "Aroer
that is before Rabbah," the present Amman. (Joshua 13:25) West was
the Jordan. ver. (Joshua 13:27) The character of the tribe is throughout
strongly marked -- fierce and warlike.


the descendants of Gad, and members of his tribe.


a strong city situated near the river Hieromax, six miles southeast of the
Sea of Galilee, over against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 16 Roman miles
distant from each of those places. Josephus calls it the capital of
Peraea. The ruins of this city, now called Um Keis, are about two
miles in circumference. The most interesting remains of Gadara are its
tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance around the city.
Godet says there is still a population of 200 souls in these tombs. Gadara
was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews,
all its inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the
surrounding villages, was reduced to ashes.


(These three names are used indiscriminately to designate the place where
Jesus healed two demoniacs. The first two are in the Authorized Version.
(Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26) In Gerasenes in place of Gadarenes.
The miracle referred to took place, without doubt, near the town of
Gergesa, the modern Kersa, close by the eastern shore of the Sea
of Galilee, and hence in the country of Gergesenes. But as Gergesa was a
small village, and little known, the evangelists, who wrote for more
distant readers, spoke of the event as taking place in the country of the
Gadarenes, so named from its largest city, Gadara; and this country
included the country of the Gergesenes as a state includes a county. The
Gerasenes were the people of the district of which Gerasa was the capital.
This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age
no city of Palestine was better known. "It became one of the proudest
cities of Syria." It was situated some 30 miles southeast of Gadara, on
the borders of Peraea and a little north of the river Jabbok. It is now
called Jerash and is a deserted ruin. The district of the Gerasenes
probably included that of the Gadarenes; so that the demoniac of Gergesa
belonged to the country of the Gadarenes and also to that of the
Gerasenes, as the same person may, with equal truth, be said to live in
the city or the state, or in the United States. For those near by the
local name would be used; but in writing to a distant people, as the
Greeks and Romans, the more comprehensive and general name would be given.
-- ED.)


(fortunate), son of Susi; the Manassite spy sent by Moses to
explore Canaan. (Numbers 13:11) (B.C. 1490.)


(fortune of God) a Zebulunite, one of the twelve spies. (Numbers
13:10) (B.C. 1490.)


A Gadite, father of Menahem a king of Israel. (2 Kings 15:14,17)


(sunburnt), son of Nahor Abraham's brother, by his concubine
Reumah. (Genesis 22:24) (B.C. about 1900.)


(hiding-place) The Bene-Gahar were among the families of Nethinim
who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:47; Nehemiah
7:49) (B.C. before 536.)


or Cai’us (lord) --

  • A Macedonian who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was
    in danger from the mob at Ephesus. (Acts 19:29) (A.D. 54.)

  • Of Derbe. He went with Paul from Corinth in his last journey to
    Jerusalem. (Acts 20:4) (A.D. 54.)

  • Of Corinth, whom Paul baptized and who was his host in his second
    journey in that city. (1 Corinthians 1:14; Romans 16:23) (These are
    supposed by some to be only one person.)

  • John's third epistle is addressed to Christian of this name. We may
    possibly identify him with No. 2.


the Greek form of the word Gilead.



  • A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph. (1 Chronicles 9:15) (B.C.

  • Another Levite, of the family of Elkanah. (1 Chronicles 9:16)

  • A third Levite, son of Jeduthun. (Nehemiah 11:17) (B.C. 536.)


(land of the Galli, Gauls). The Roman province of Galatia may be
roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor,
bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus;
on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia. -- Encyc.
Brit. It derived its name from the Gallic or Celtic tribes who, about 280
B.C., made an irruption into Macedonia and Thrace. It finally became a
Roman province. The Galatia of the New Testament has really the "Gaul" of
the East. The people have always been described as "susceptible of quick
impressions and sudden changes, with a fickleness equal to their courage
and enthusiasm, and a constant liability to that disunion which is the
fruit of excessive vanity. -- The Galatian churches were founded by Paul
at his first visit, when he was detained among, them by sickness,
(Galatians 4:13) during his second missionary journey, about A.D 51. He
visited them again on his third missionary tour.


was written by the apostle St. Paul not long after his journey through
Galatia and Phrygia, (Acts 18:23) and probably in the early portion of his
two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which terminated with the Pentecost
of A.D. 57 or 58. The epistle appears to have been called forth by the
machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its
composition, had endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a
recognition of circumcision, (Galatians 5:2,11,12; 6:12) seq., and had
openly sought to depreciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul. Comp.
(Galatians 1:1,11) "Since the days of Luther the Epistle to the Galatians
has always been held in high esteem as the gospel's banner of freedom. To
it and the Epistle to the Romans we owe most directly the springing up and
development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation." -- Meyer.


one of the perfumes employed in the preparation of the sacred incense.
(Exodus 10:34) The galbanum of commerce is brought chiefly from India and
the Levant. It is a resinous gum of a brownish-yellow color and strong
disagreeable smell, usually met with in masses, but sometimes found in
yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the
plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.


(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he
and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes
found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well
known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.


(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he
and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the covenant then entered
into between them. (Genesis 31:47,48) comp. Genesis31:23,25


the inhabitants of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine. The
apostles were all Galileans by either birth or residence. (Acts 1:11) It
appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who resided in Galilee
had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile
neighbors. (Matthew 26:73)


(circuit). This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large
province, seems to have been originally confined to a little "circuit" of
country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty towns
given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in
conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem. (Joshua 20:7; 1 Kings 9:11) In
the time of our Lord all Palestine was divided into three provinces,
Judea, Samaria and Galilee. (Luke 17:11; Acts 9:31) Joseph. B.J. iii. 3.
The latter included the whole northern section of the country, including
the ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali. On the
west it was bounded by the territory of Ptolemais, which probably included
the whole plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The southern border ran
along the base of Carmel and of the hills of Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and
then descended the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis to the Jordan. The
river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain at
Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from Dan westward
across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the
Phoenicians. Galilee was divided into two sections, "Lower" and "Upper."
Lower Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon with its offshoots,
which ran down to the Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias, and the whole of
the hill country adjoining it on the north to the foot of the mountain
range. It was thus one of the richest and most beautiful sections of
Pales-tine. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying between
the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. To this region the name "Galilee of the
Gentiles" is given in the Old and New Testaments. (Isaiah 9:1; Matthew
4:16) Galilee was the scene of the greater part of our Lord's private life
and public acts. It is a remarkable fact that the first three Gospels are
chiefly taken up with our Lord's ministrations in this province, while the
Gospel of John dwells more upon those in Judea. (Galilee in the time of
. -- From Rev. Selah Merrill's late book (1881) with this
title, we glean the following facts: Size. -- It is estimated that
of the 1000 square miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly
one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee. Population
-- The population is between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000. Dr. Merrill argues
for the general correctness of Josephus’ estimates, who says there
were 204 cities and villages in Galilee, the smallest of which numbered
15,000 inhabitants. Character of the country. Galilee was a region
of great natural fertility. Such is the fertility of the soil that it
rejects no plant, for the air is so genial that it suits every variety.
The walnut, which delights above other trees in a wintry climate, grows
here luxuriantly together with the palm tree, which is flourished by heat.
It not only possesses the extraordinary virtue of nourishing fruits of
opposite climes, but also maintains a continual supply of them. Here were
found all the productions which made Italy rich and beautiful. Forests
covered its mountains and hills, while its uplands, gentle slopes and
broader valleys were rich in pasture, meadows, cultivated fields,
vineyards, olive groves and fruit trees of every kind. Character of the
. -- They were thoroughly a Jewish people. With few
exceptions they were wealthy and in general an influential class. If one
should say the Jews were bigoted in religion, he should remember at the
same time that in regard to social, commercial and political relations
none were more cosmopolitan in either sentiment or practice than they. The
Galileans had many manufactures, fisheries, some commerce, but were
chiefly an agricultural people. They were eminent for patriotism and
courage, as were their ancestors, with great respect for law and order. --


So called from the province of Galilee, which bordered on the western
side. (Matthew 4:18) It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the
celebrated city of that name. (John 6:1) At its northwestern angle was a
beautiful and fertile plain called "Gennesaret," and from that it derived
the name of "Lake of Gennesaret." (Luke 5:1) It was called in the Old
Testament "the Sea of Chinnereth" or "Cinneroth," (Numbers 34:11; Joshua
12:3) from a town of that name which stood on or near its shore. (Joshua
19:35) Its modern name is Bahr Tubariyeh. Most of our Lord's
public life was spent in the environs of this sea. The surrounding region
was then the most densely peopled in all Palestine. no less than
nine very populous cities stood on the very shores of the lake. The
Sea of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It is 60 miles northeast
of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea. The river Jordan enters
it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end. In fact the bed
of the lake is just a lower section of the Great Jordan valley. Its more
remarkable feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet
below the level of the ocean. The scenery is bleak and monotonous, being
surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account of
which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great
depression makes the climate of the shores almost tropical. This is very
sensibly felt by the traveller in going down from the plains of Galilee.
In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has
something of an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool
and transparent; and as the beach is everywhere pebbly is has a beautiful
sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times. There were
large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it.


  • Mereerah, denoting "that which is bitter;" hence the term is
    applied to the "bile" or "gall" (the fluid secreted by the liver), from
    its intense bitterness, (Job 16:13; 20:25) it is also used of the "poison"
    of serpents, (Job 20:14) which the ancients erroneously believed was their

  • Rosh, generally translated "gall" in the English Bible, is in
    (Hosea 10:4) rendered "hemlock:" in (32:33) and Job 20:16 rosh
    denotes the "poison" or "venom" of serpents. From (29:18) and Lame 3:19
    compared with Hose 10:4 It is evident that the Hebrew term denotes some
    bitter and perhaps poisonous plant. Other writers have supposed, and with
    some reason, from (32:32) that some berry-bearing plant must be intended.
    Gesenius understands poppies; in which case the gall mingled with the wine
    offered to our Lord at his crucifixion, and refused by him, would be an
    anaesthetic, and tend to diminish the sense of suffering. Dr. Richardson,
    "Ten Lectures on Alcohol," p. 23, thinks these drinks were given to the
    crucified to diminish the suffering through their intoxicating


an architectural term describing the porticos or verandas which are not
uncommon in eastern houses. It is doubtful, however, whether the Hebrew
words so translated have any reference to such an object. (According to
the latest researches, the colonnade or else wainscoting is meant.
(Solomon 1:17; Ezekiel 41:15) -- Schaff.)




(fountains). This is given as the native place of the man to whom
Michal, David's wife, was given. (1 Samuel 25:44) There is no clue to the
situation of the place. The name occurs again in the catalogue of places
terrified at the approach of Sennacherib. (Isaiah 10:30)


(one who lives on milk), Junius Annaeus Gallio, the Roman proconsul
of Achaia when St. Paul was at Corinth, A.D. 53, under the emperor
Claudius. (Acts 18:12) He was brother to Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the
philosopher. Jerome in the Chronicle of Eusebius says that he committed
suicide in 65 A.D. Winer thinks he was put to death by Nero.




(recompense of God).

  • Son of Pedahzur; prince or captain of the tribe of Manasseh at the
    census at Sinai, (Numbers 1:10; 20:20; 7:54,59) and at starting on the
    march through the wilderness. ch. (Numbers 10:23) (B.C. 1490.)

  • A pharisee and celebrated doctor of the law, who gave prudent worldly
    advice in the Sanhedrin respecting the treatment of the followers of Jesus
    of Nazareth. (Acts 5:34) ff. (A.D. 29.) We learn from (Acts 22:3) that he
    was the preceptor of St. Paul. He is generally identified with the very
    celebrated Jewish doctor Gamaliel, grandson of Hillel, and who is referred
    to as authority in the Jewish Mishna.


Among the Greeks the rage for theatrical exhibitions was such that every
city of any size possessed its theatre and stadium. At Ephesus an annual
contest was held in honor of Diana. It is probable that St. Paul was
present when these games were proceeding. A direct reference to the
exhibitions that I took place on such occasions is made in (1 Corinthians
15:32) St. Paul's epistles abound with allusions to the Greek contests,
borrowed probably from the Isthmian games, at which he may well have been
present during his first visit to Corinth. These contests, (1 Timothy
6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7) were divided into two classes, the pancratium
, consisting of boxing and wrestling, and the pentathlon,
consisting of leaping, running, quoiting, hurling the spear and wrestling.
The competitors, (1 Corinthians 9:25; 2 Timothy 2:5) required a long and
severe course of previous training, (1 Timothy 4:8) during which a
particular diet was enforced. (1 Corinthians 9:25,27) In the Olympic
contests these preparatory exercises extended over a period of ten months,
during the last of which they were conducted under the supervision of
appointed officers. The contests took place in the presence of a vast
multitude of spectators, (Hebrews 12:1) the competitors being the
spectacle. (1 Corinthians 4:9; Hebrews 10:33) The games were opened by the
proclamation of a herald, (1 Corinthians 9:27) whose office it was to give
out the name and country of each candidate, and especially to announce the
name of the victor before the assembled multitude. The judge was selected
for his spotless integrity; (2 Timothy 4:8) his office was to decide any
disputes, (Colossians 3:15) and to give the prize, (1 Corinthians 9:24;
Philemon 3:14) consisting of a crown, (2 Timothy 2:6; 4:8) of leaves of
wild olive at the Olympic games, and of pine, or at one period ivy, at the
Isthmian games. St. Paul alludes to two only out of the five contests,
boxing and running, more frequently to the latter. The Jews had no public
games, the great feasts of religion supplying them with anniversary
occasions of national gatherings.


This word occurs only in (Ezekiel 27:11) A variety of explanations of the
term have been offered.

  • One class renders it "pygmies."

  • A second treats it as a geographical or local term.

  • A third gives a more general sense to the word "brave warriors."
    Hitzig suggests "deserters." After all, the rendering in the LXX. --
    "guards" -- furnishes the simplest explanation.


(weaned), a priest, the leader of the twenty-second course in the
service at the sanctuary. (1 Chronicles 24:17) (B.C. 535.)


Gardens in the East, as the Hebrew word indicates, are enclosures on the
outskirts of towns, planted with various trees and shrubs. From the
allusions in the Bible we learn that they were surrounded by hedges of
thorn, (Isaiah 5:5) or walls of stone. (Proverbs 24:31) For further
protection lodges, (Isaiah 1:8; Lamentations 2:6) or watchtowers, (Mark
12:1) were built in them, in which sat the keeper, (Job 27:18) to drive
away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day. The gardens
of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, (Solomon
6:2; 4:16) besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, (Solomon 6:12)
pomegranates, and others for domestic use. (Exodus 23:11; Jeremiah 29:5;
Amos 9:14) Gardens of herbs, or kitchen gardens, are mentioned in (11:10)
and 1Kin 21:2 The rose garden in Jerusalem, said to have been situated
westward of the temple mount, it is remarkable as having been one of the
few gardens which, from the time of the prophets, existed within the city
walls. The retirement of gardens rendered them favorite places for


(scabby), one of the heroes of David's army. (2 Samuel 23:38)


in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, named only in (Jeremiah 31:39)


(Numbers 11:5) is the Allium sativum of Linnaeus, which abounds in




Keilah the Garmite, i.e. the descendant of Gerem, is mentioned in the
obscure genealogical lists of the families of Judah. (1 Chronicles


a variation of the name GESHEM. (Nehemiah 6:6) (B.C. 446.)


(a burnt valley), the fourth son of Eliphaz the son of Esau,
(Genesis 36:11; 1 Chronicles 1:36) and one of the "dukes" of Eliphaz.
(Genesis 36:16) (B.C. after 1760.)


The Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version are derivatives
from the root natsab, to "place, erect," which may be applied to a
variety of objects.

  • Mattsab and mattsabah undoubtedly mean a "garrison" or
    fortified post. (1 Samuel 13:23; 14:14; 1 Samuel 15; 2 Samuel 23:14)

  • Netsib is also used for a "garrison" in (1 Chronicles 11:16)
    but elsewhere for a "column" erected in an enemy's country as a token of
    conquest. (1 Samuel 13:3)

  • The same word elsewhere means "officers" placed over a vanquished
    people. (2 Samuel 8:6,14; 1 Chronicles 18:13; 2 Chronicles 17:2)

  • Mattsebah in (Ezekiel 26:11) means a "pillar."


The gate and gateways of eastern cities anciently held and still hold an
important part, not only in the defence but in the public economy of the
place. They are thus sometimes taken as representing the city itself.
(Genesis 22:17; 24:60; 12:12; Judges 5:8; Ruth 4:10; Psalms 87:2; 122:2)
Among the special purposes for which they were used may be mentioned.

  • As places of public resort. (Genesis 19:1; 23:10; 34:20; 24; 1 Samuel
    4:18) etc.

  • Places for public deliberation, administration of Justice, or of
    audience for kings and rulers or ambassadors. (16:18; 21:19; 25:7; Joshua
    20:4; Judges 9:35) etc.

  • Public markets. (2 Kings 7:1) In heathen towns the open spaces near
    the gates appear to have been sometimes used as places for sacrifice.
    (Acts 14:13) comp 2Kin 23:8 Regarded therefore as positions of great
    importance, the gates of cities were carefully guarded, and closed at
    nightfall. (3:5; Joshua 2:5,7; Judges 9:40,44) They contained chambers
    over the gateway. (2 Samuel 18:24) The doors themselves of the larger
    gates mentioned in Scripture were two leaved, plated with metal, closed
    with locks and fastened with metal bars. (3:6; Psalms 107:16; Isaiah
    46:1,2) Gates not defended by iron were of course liable to be set on fire
    by an enemy. (Judges 9:52) The gateways of royal palaces and even of
    private houses were often richly ornamented. Sentences from the law were
    inscribed on and above the gates. (6:9; Isaiah 64:12; Revelation 21:21)
    The gates of Solomon's temple were very massive and costly, being overlaid
    with gold and carving. (1 Kings 6:34,35; 2 Kings 18:16) Those of the holy
    place were of olive wood, two-leaved and overlaid with gold; those of the
    temple of fir. (1 Kings 6:31,32,34; Ezekiel 41:23,24)


(a wine press), one of the five royal cities of the Philistines;
(Joshua 13:3; 1 Samuel 6:17) and the native place of the giant Goliath. (1
Samuel 17:4,23) It probably stood upon the conspicuous hill now called
Tell-es-Safieh, upon the side of the plain of Philistia, at the
foot of the mountains of Judah; 10 miles east of Ashdod, and about the
same distance south by east of Ekron. It is irregular in form, and about
200 feet high. Gath occupied a strong position, (2 Chronicles 11:8) on the
border of Judah and Philistia, (1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Chronicles 18:1) and
from its strength and resources forming the key of both countries, it was
the scene of frequent struggles, and was often captured and recaptured. (2
Kings 12:17; 2 Chronicles 11:8; 26:6; Amos 6:2) The ravages of war to
which Gath was exposed appear to have destroyed it at a comparatively
early period, as it is not mentioned among the other royal cities by the
later prophets. (Zephaniah 2:4; Zechariah 9:5,6) It is familiar to the
Bible student as the scene of one of the most romantic incidents in the
life of King David. (1 Samuel 21:10-15)


(wine-press on the hill), a town on the border of the territory of
Zebulun, not far from Japhia, now ’Yafa, (Joshua 19:12,13)
celebrated as the native place of the prophet Jonah. (2 Kings 14:25)
El-Meshhad, a village two-miles east of Sefurieh, is the
ancient Gath-hepher.


(press of the pomegranate)

  • A city given out of the tribe of Dan to the Levites. (Joshua 21:24; 1
    Chronicles 6:69) situated on the plain of Philistia, apparently not far
    from Joppa. (Joshua 19:45)

  • A town of the half tribe of Manasseh west of the Jordan, assigned to
    the Levites. (Joshua 21:25) The reading Gath-rimmon is probably an error
    of the transcribers.


(the fortified; the strong) (properly Azzah), one of the
five chief cities of the Philistines. It is remarkable for its continuous
existence and importance from the very earliest times. The secret of this
unbroken history is to be found in the situation of Gaza. It is the last
town in the southwest of Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt. The
same peculiarity of situation has made Gaza important in a military sense.
Its name means "the strong;" and this was well elucidated in its siege by
Alexander the Great, which lasted five months. In the conquest of Joshua
the territory of Gaza is mentioned as one which he was not able to subdue.
(Joshua 10:41; 11:22; 13:3) It was assigned to the tribe of Judah, (Joshua
15:47) and that tribe did obtain possession of it, (Judges 1:18) but did
not hold it long, (Judges 3:3; 13:1) and apparently it continued through
the time of Samuel, Saul and David to be a Philistine city. 1Sam 6:17;
14:52; 31:1; 2Sam 21:15 Solomon became master of "Azzah," (1 Kings 4:24)
but in after times the same trouble with the Philistines recurred. (2
Chronicles 21:16; 26:6; 28:18) The passage where Gaza is mentioned in the
New Testament (Acts 8:26) is full of interest. It is the account of the
baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return from Jerusalem to Egypt.
Gaza is the modern Ghuzzeh, a Mohammedan town of about 16,000
inhabitants, situated partly on an oblong hill of moderate height and
partly on the lower ground. The climate of the place is almost tropical,
but it has deep wells of excellent water. There are a few palm trees in
the town, and its fruit orchards are very productive; but the chief
feature of the neighborhood is the wide-spread olive grove to the north
and northeast


(Joshua 13:3) the inhabitants of Gaza.


(2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 14:16) [GEZER]


(shearer), a name which occurs twice in (1 Chronicles 2:46) --
first as son of Caleb by Ephah his concubine, and second as son of Haran,
the son of the same woman. The second is possibly only a repetition of the
first (B.C. after 1688.)


Inhabitants of Gaza. (Judges 16:2)


(devouring). The Bene-Gazzam were among the familiar of the
Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:48;
Nehemiah 7:51) (B.C. 536.)


(a hill), a city of Benjamin, with "suburbs," allotted to the
priests. (Joshua 21:17; 1 Chronicles 6:60) It is named amongst the first
group of the Benjamite towns -- apparently those lying near to and along
the north boundary. (Joshua 18:24) Here the name is given as GABA. During
the wars of the earlier part of the reign of Saul, Geba was held as a
garrison by the Philistines, (1 Samuel 13:3) but they were ejected by
Jonathan. It is now the modern village of Jeba, which stands
picturesquely on the top of its steep terraced hill, six miles north of
Jerusalem, on the very edge of the great Wady Suweinit, looking
northward to the opposite village of ancient Michmash, which also retains
its old name of Mukhmas.


(mountain), a maritime town of Phoenicia, near Tyre, (Ezekiel 27:9)
known by the Greeks as Byblus. It is called Jebail by the Arabs,
thus reviving the old biblical name.



  • The son of Geber resided in the fortress of Ramoth-gilead, and had
    charge of Havoth-jair and the district of Argob. (1 Kings 4:13) (B.C.

  • Geber the son of Uri had a district south of the former -- the "land
    of Gilead." (1 Kings 4:19)


(grasshoppers), a village north of Jerusalem, (Isaiah 10:31)
apparently between Anathoth (the modern Anata) and the ridge on
which Nob was situated.


(God is my greatness), son of Ahikam (Jeremiah's protector,
(Jeremiah 26:24) and grandson of Shaphan the secretary of King Josiah.
After the destruction of the temple, B.C. 588, Nebuchadnezzar departed
from Judea, leaving Gedaliah with a Chaldean guard, (Jeremiah 40:5) at
Mizpah to govern the vinedressers and husbandmen, (Jeremiah 52:16) who
were exempted from captivity. Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became
the resort of Jews from various quarters. (Jeremiah 40:6,11) He was
murdered by Ishmael two months after his appointment.


The Greek form of the Hebrew name GIDEON. (Hebrews 11:32)


(a wall). The king of Geder was one of the thirty-one kings who
were overcome by Joshua on the west of the Jordan. (Joshua 12:13) (B.C.
1445.) It is possible that it may be the same place as the Geder named in
(1 Chronicles 4:39)


(a sheepfold), a town of Judah in the lowland country, (Joshua
15:36) apparently in its eastern part. No town bearing this name has,
however, been yet discovered in this hitherto little-explored


the native of a place called Gederah, apparently in Benjamin. (1
Chronicles 12:4)


the native of some place named Geder or Gederah. (1 Chronicles 27:28)


(sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:41; 2
Chronicles 28:18)


(two sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah, (Joshua
15:36) named next in order to Gederah.


(a wall), a town int he mountainous part of Judah, (Joshua 15:58) a
few miles north of Hebron. Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway
between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of the road.


(valley of vision), the servant or boy of Elisha. He was sent as
the prophet's messenger on two occasions to the good Shunammite, (2 Kings
4:1) ... (B.C. 889-887); obtained fraudulently money and garments from
Naaman, was miraculously smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dismissed
from the prophet's service. (2 Kings 5:1) ... Later in the history he is
mentioned as being engaged in relating to King Joram all the great things
which Elisha had done. (2 Kings 8:4,5)




(circuit), a place named among the marks of the south boundary line
of the tribe of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:17) The name Geliloth never occurs
again in this locality, and it therefore seems probable that Gilgal is the
right reading.


(camel-driver), the father of Ammiel, the Danite spy. (Numbers
13:12) (B.C. 1490.)


(perfected by Jehovah).

  • Son of Shaphan the scribe, and father of Michaiah. He was one of the
    nobles of Judah, and had a chamber int he house of the Lord, from which
    Baruch read Jeremiah's alarming prophecy in the ears of all the people,
    B.C. 606. (Jeremiah 36:1) ...

  • Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of Jeremiah's letter to the
    captive Jews. (Jeremiah 29:3) (B.C. 594.)




In Hebrew the term for genealogy or pedigree is "the book of the
generations;" and because the oldest histories were usually drawn up on a
genealogical basis, the expression often extended to the whole history, as
is the case with the Gospel of St. Matthew, where "the book of the
generation of Jesus Christ" includes the whole history contained in that
Gospel. The promise of the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites from the
Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of
Judah; the exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and
emoluments; the long succession of kings in the line of David; and the
whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical principles by
the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the
tribes, families and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the
science of genealogy among the Jews than perhaps any other nation. When
Zerubbabel brought back the captivity from Babylon, one of his first cares
seems to have been to take a census of those that returned, and to settle
them according to their genealogies. Passing on to the time of the birth
of Christ, we have a striking incidental proof of the continuance of the
Jewish genealogical economy in the fact that when Augustus ordered the
census of the empire to be taken, the Jews in the province of Syria
immediately went each one to his own city. The Jewish genealogical records
continued to be kept till near the destruction of Jerusalem. But there can
be little doubt that the registers of the Jewish tribes and families
perished at the destruction of Jerusalem, and not before. It remains to be
said that just notions of the nature of the Jewish genealogical records
are of great importance with a view to the right interpretation of
Scripture. Let it only be remembered that these records have respect to
political and territorial divisions as much as to strictly genealogical
descent, and it will at once be seen how erroneous a conclusion it may be
that all who are called "sons" of such or such a patriarch or chief father
must necessarily be his very children. Of any one family or house became
extinct, some other would succeed to its place, called after its own chief
father. Hence of course a census of any tribe drawn up at a later period
would exhibit different divisions from one drawn up at an earlier. The
same principle must be borne in mind in interpreting any particular
genealogy Again, when a pedigree was abbreviated, it would naturally
specify such generations as would indicates from what chief houses the
person descended. Females are named in genealogies when there is anything
remarkable about them, or when any right or property is transmitted
through them. See (Genesis 11:29; 22:23; 25:1-4; 35:22-26; Exodus 6:23;
Numbers 26:33)


The New Testament gives us the genealogy of but one person, that of our
Saviour. This is given because it was important to prove that Jesus
fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. Only as the son and heir of David
should he be the Messiah. The following propositions will explain the true
construction of these genealogies: --

  • They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. of Jesus Christ as the
    reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary.

  • The genealogy of St. Matthew is Joseph's genealogy as legal successor
    to the throne of David. St. Luke's is Joseph's private Genealogy,
    exhibiting his real birth as David's son, and thus showing why he was heir
    to Solomon's crown. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that
    genealogy which contained the successive heir to David's and Solomon's
    throne, while the other exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the
    heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees, their agreements as
    well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at

  • Mary, the mother of Jesus, was in all probability the daughter of
    Jacob, and first cousin to Joseph her husband. Thus: Matthan or Matthat
    Father of Jacob, Heli Jacob Father of Mary = Jacob’e heir was
    (Joseph) Heli Father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. (Godet, Lange and
    many others take the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary,
    rendering (Luke 3:23) thus: Jesus "being (as was suppposed) the son
    of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli." In this case Mary, as
    declared in the Targums, was the daughter of Heli, and Heli was the
    grandfather of Jesus. Mary's name was omitted because "ancient sentiment
    did not comport with the mention of the mother as the genealogical link."
    So we often find in the Old Testament the grandson called the son. This
    view has this greatly in its favor, that it shows that Jesus was not
    merely the legal but the actual descendant of David; and it would be very
    strange that in the gospel accounts, where so much is made of Jesus being
    the son and heir of David and of his kingdom his real descent from
    David should not be given. -- ED.)


In the long-lived patriarchal age a generation seems to have been computed
at 100 years, (Genesis 15:16) comp. Genesis15:13 and Eccl 12:40 But
subsequently the reckoning was the same which has been adopted by modern
civilized nations, viz. from thirty to forty years (Job 42:16) (Generation
is also used to signify the men of an age or time, as contemporaries,
(Genesis 6:9; Isaiah 53:8) posterity, especially in legal
formulae, (Leviticus 3:17) etc.; fathers, or ancestors. (Psalms 49:19)


(origin), the first book of the law or Pentateuch, so called from
its title ia the Septuagint, that is, Creation. Its author
was Moses. The date of writing was probably during the forty-years
wanderings in the wilderness, B.C. 1491-1451. Time. -- The book of
Genesis covered 2369 years, -- from the creation of Adam, A.M 1, to the
death of Joseph, A.M. 2369, or B.C. 1635. Character and purpose.
-- The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the
steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. It is a part of the
writer's plan to tell us what the divine preparation of the world was in
order to show, first, the significance of the call of Abraham, and next,
the true nature of the Jewish theocracy. He begins with the creation of
the world, because the God who created the world and the God who revealed
himself to the fathers is the same God. The book of Genesis has thus a
character at once special and universal. Construction. -- It is
clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he
records in Genesis either from immediate divine revelation or from oral
tradition or written documents. The nature of many of the facts related,
and the minuteness of the narration, render it extremely improbable that
immediate revelation was the source from whence they were drawn. That his
knowledge should have been derived from oral tradition appears morally
impossible when we consider the great number of names, ages, dates and
minute events which are recorded. The conclusion then, seems fair that he
must have obtained his information from written documents coeval, or
nearly so, with the events which they recorded, and composed by persons
intimately acquainted with the subjects to which they relate. He may have
collected these, with additions from authentic tradition or existing
monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book.
Certain it is that several of the first chapters of Genesis have the air
of being made up of selections from very ancient documents, written by
different authors at different periods. The variety which is observable in
the names and titles of the Supreme Being is appealed to among the most
striking proofs of this fact. This is obvious in the English translation,
but still more so in the Hebrew original. In Gen 1 to 2:3, which is really
one piece of composition, as the title, v. 4, "These are the generations,"
shows, the name of the Most High is uniformly Elohim, God. In ch.
(Genesis 2:4) to ch. 3, which may be considered the second document, the
title is uniformly Yehovah Elohim, Lord God ; and in the third,
including ch. 4, it is Yehovah, Lord, only; while in ch. 5 it is
Elohim, God only, except in v. 29, where a quotation is made, and
Yehovah used. It is hardly conceivable that all this should be the
result of mere accident. The changes of the name correspond exactly to the
changes in the narratives and the titles of the several pieces." Now, do
all these accurate quotations," says Professor Stowe, "impair the credit
of the Mosaic books, or increase it? Is Marshall's Life of Washington to
be regarded as unworthy of credit because it contains copious extracts
from Washington's correspondence and literal quotations from important
public documents? Is not its value greatly enhanced by this circumstance?
The objection is altogether futile. In the common editions of the Bible
the Pentateuch occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, of which
perhaps ten may be taken up with quotations. This surely is no very large
proportion for an historical work extending through so long a period." --
Bush. On the supposition that writing was known to Adam, Gen. 1-4,
containing the first two of these documents, formed the Bible of Adam's
descendants, or the antediluvians. Gen 1 to 11:9, being the sum of these
two and the following three, constitutes the Bible of the descendants of
Noah. The whole of Genesis may be called the Bible of the posterity of
Jacob; and the five Books of the Law were the first Bible of Israel as a
nation. -- Canon Cook.


(garden of the prince), Land of. It is generally believed
that this term was applied to the fertile crescent-shaped plain on the
western shore of the lake, extending from Khan Minyeh (two or three miles
south of Capernaum (Tel-Hum) on the north to the steep hill behind
Mejdel (Magdala) on the south, and called by the Arabs
el-Ghuweir, "the little Ghor." Mr. Porter gives the length as
three miles, and the greatest breadth as about one mile. Additional
interest is given to the land of Gennesaret, or el-Ghuweir, by the
probability that its scenery suggested the parable of the sower. It is
mentioned only twice in Scripture - (Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53) Compare
Luke 5:1




Inaccurately written for [GENNESARET]


(nations). All the people who were not Jews were so called by them,
being aliens from the worship, rites and privileges of Israel. The word
was used contemptuously by them. In the New Testament it is used as
equivalent to Greek. This use of the word seems to have arisen from the
almost universal adaption of the Greek language.


the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess,
the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the
latter part of the reign of David. (1 Kings 11:20) comp. 1Kin 11:16 (B.C.


(a grain), one of the "sons," i.e. descendants, of Benjamin.
(Genesis 46:21) Gera, who is named, (Judges 3:15) as the ancestor of Ehud,
and in (2 Samuel 16:5) as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed David, is
probably also the same person (though some consider them different




(a lodging-place), a very ancient city south of Gaza. It occurs
chiefly in Genesis, (Genesis 10:19; 20:1; 26:17) also incidentally in (2
Chronicles 14:13,14) It must have trenched on the "south" or "south
country" of later Palestine. From a comparison of (Genesis 21:32) with
Genesis26:23,26 Beersheba would seem to be just on the verge of this
territory, and perhaps to be its limit towards the northeast.


(Luke 8:26) Revised Version; [See GADARENES, GIRGESENES, GERASENES]




(cutters), a limestone mountain, 2855 feet high (800 feet above the
valley at its foot), in Ephraim, near Shechem (Sychar), from which the
blessings were read to the Israelites on entering Canaan. [See EBAL,
MOUNT] According to the traditions of the Samaritans it was here that
Abraham sacrificed Isaac, that Melchizedek met the patriarch, that Jacob
built an altar, and at its base dug a well, the ruins of which are still
seen. Some scholars think there is ground for the first belief (so Smith);
but careful observers of the locality discredit it and believe Moriah to
be the spot. [See MORIAH] Gerizim was the site of the Samaritan temple,
which was built there after the captivity, in rivalry with the temple at
Jerusalem. [See SAMARITANS] Gerizim is still to the Samaritans what
Jerusalem is to the Jews and Mecca to the Mohammedans.


(1 Samuel 27:8) [GERZITES]


(a stranger or exile).

  • The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah. (Exodus 2:22; 18:3) (B.C.

  • The form under which the name GERSHON -- the eldest son of Levi -- is
    given in several passages of Chronicles, viz., (1 Chronicles
    6:16,17,20,43,62,71; 15:7)

  • The representative of the priestly family of Phinehas, among those who
    accompanied Ezra from Babylon. (Ezra 8:2) (B.C. 536.)


(exile). The eldest of the three sons of Levi, born before the
descent of Jacob's family into Egypt. (Genesis 46:11; Exodus 6:16) (B.C.
before 1706.) But, though the eldest born, the families of Gershon were
outstripped in fame by their younger brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang
Moses and the priestly line of Aaron.


the family descended from Gershon or Gershom, the son of Levi. "THE
GERSH0NITE," as applied to individuals, occurs in (1 Chronicles 26:21) The
sons of Gershon (the Gershonites) had charge of the fabrics of the
tabernacle -- the coverings, curtains, hangings and cords. (Numbers
3:25,26; 4:25,26)


(dwellers in the desert), The, a tribe who with the
Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the land between the south of
Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul. (1 Samuel 27:8) In the name of
Mount Gerizim we have the only remaining trace of the presence of this old
tribe of Bedouins in central Palestine.


(filthy) (sometimes written GESHAN), one of the sons of Judah, in
the genealogy of Judah and family of Caleb. (1 Chronicles 2:47)


and Gash’mu (rain), an Arabian, mentioned in (Nehemiah
2:19) and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B.C. 446.) We may conclude that he was an
inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably the
chief of a tribe." Gashum said it" made him a type of those who create a
common report.


(a bridge), a little principality of Syria, northeast of Bashan.
(3:14; 2 Samuel 15:8) It ia highly probable that Geshur was a section of
the wild and rugged region now called el-Lejah, still a refuge for
criminals and outlaws. [ARGOB]


  • The inhabitants of Geshur. (3:14; Joshua 12:5; 13:11)

  • An ancient tribe which dwelt in the desert between Arabia and
    Philistia. (Joshua 13:2; 1 Samuel 27:8)


(fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram. (Genesis 10:23) No
satisfactory trace of the people sprung from this stock has been


(an oil-press), a small "farm," (Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32)
situated across the brook Kedron (John 18:1) probably at the foot of Mount
Olivet, (Luke 22:39) to the northwest and about one-half or three quarters
of a mile English from the walls of Jerusalem, and 100 yards east of the
bridge over the Kedron. There was a "garden," or rather orchard, attached
to it, to which the olive, fig and pomegranate doubtless invited resort by
their hospitable shade. And we know from the evangelists (Luke 22:39) And
(John 18:2) that our Lord ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.
But Gethsemane has not come down to us as a scene of mirth; its
inexhaustible associations are the offspring of a single event -- the
agony of the Son of God on the evening preceding his passion. A garden,
with eight venerable olive trees, and a grotto to the north detached from
it, and in closer connection with the church of the sepulchre of the
Virgin, are pointed out as the Gethsemane. Against the contemporary
antiquity of the olive trees it has been urged that Titus cut down all the
trees about Jerusalem. The probability would seem to be that they were
planted by Christian hands to mark the spot unless, like the sacred olive
of the Acropolis, they may have reproduced themselves.


(majesty of God), son of Machi the Gadite spy. (Numbers 13:15) (B.C


(a precipice), an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, Hiram or
Elam, coming to the assistance of Lachish, was killed with all his people
by Joshua. (Joshua 10:33; 12:12) It formed one of the landmarks on the
north boundary of Ephraim, between the lower Beth-horon and the
Mediterranean, (Joshua 16:3) the western limit of the tribe (1 Chronicles
7:28) It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites, (Joshua
21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67) but the original inhabitants were not
dispossessed, (Judges 1:29) and even down to the reign of Solomon the
Canaanites were still dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel (1
Kings 9:16) It was burned by Pharaoh in Solomon's time, (1 Kings 9:15-17)
and given to Solomon's Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him.


The word which the Jewish critics have substituted in the margin of the
Bible for the ancient reading, "the Gerizite." (1 Samuel 27:8) [GERIZITES,


(a waterfall), a place named only in (2 Samuel 2:24) to designate
the position of the hill Ammah.


men of extraordinary size or height.

  • They are first spoken of in (Genesis 6:4) under the name Nephilim. We
    are told in (Genesis 6:1-4) that "there were Nephilim in the earth," and
    that afterwards the "sons of God" mingling with the beautiful "daughters
    of mens produced a race of violent and insolent Gibborim
    (Authorized Version "mighty men").

  • The Rephalim, a name which frequently occurs. The earliest mention of
    them is the record of their defeat by Chedorlaomer and some allied kings
    at Ashteroth Karnaim. The "valley of Rephaim," (2 Samuel 5:18; 1
    Chronicles 11:15; Isaiah 17:5) a rich valley southwest of Jerusalem,
    derived its name from them. They were probably an aboriginal people of
    which the EMIM, ANAKIM and ZUZIM, THE [which see] were branches. [See also


(gigantic), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel from
Babylon. (Ezra 2:20)


(a hill), a town allotted to the tribe of Dan, (Joshua 19:44) and
afterwards given with its "suburbs" to the Kohathite Levites. ch. (Joshua


(a hill). Sheva "the father of Macbenah" and "father of Gibea" is
mentioned with other names, unmistakably those of places and not persons,
among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:49) comp. 1Chr 2:42 This
would seem to point out Gibea.


a word employed in the Bible to denote a hill. Like most words of this
kind it gave its name to several towns and places in Palestine, which
would doubtless be generally on or near a hill. They are --

  • Gibeah, a city in the mountain district of Judah, named with Maon and
    the southern Carmel, (Joshua 15:57) and comp. 1Chr 2:49 etc.

  • Gibeah of Benjamin first appears in the tragical story of the Levite
    and his concubine. (Judges 19:20) It was then a "city," with the usual
    open street or square, (Judges 19:15,17,20) and containing 700 "chosen
    men," ch. (Judges 20:15) probably the same whose skill as slingers is
    preserved in the next verse. In many particulars Gibeah agrees very
    closely with Tuleil-el-Ful, a conspicuous eminence just four mlles
    north of Jerusalem, to the right of the road. We next meet with Glbeah of
    Benjamin during the Philistine wars of Saul and Jonathan. (1 Samuel
    13:15,16) It now bears its full title. As "Gibeah of Benjamin" this place
    is referred to in (2 Samuel 23:29) (comp. 1Chr 11:31), and as "Gibeah" it
    is mentioned by Hosea, (Hosea 5:8; 9:9; 10:9) but it does not again appear
    in the history. It is, however, almost without doubt identical with

  • Gibeah of Saul. This is not mentioned as Saul's city till after his
    anointing, (1 Samuel 10:26) when is said to have gone "home" to Gibeah. In
    the subsequent narrative the town bears its full name. ch (1 Samuel

  • Gibeah in Kirjath-jearim was no doubt a hill in that city, and the
    place in which the ark remained from the time of its return by the
    Philistines till its removal by David. (2 Samuel 6:3,4) comp. 1Sam

  • Gibeah in the field, named only in (Judges 20:31) as the place to
    which one of the "highways" led from Gibeah of Benjamin. It is probably
    the same as Geba. The "meadows of Gaba" (Authorized Version Gibeah),
    (Judges 20:33) have no connection with the "field," the Hebrew word being
    entirely different.


probably the same as, GIBEAH OF BENJAMIN, THE LAND OF. (Joshua 18:28)


(hill city), one of the four , cities of the Hivites, the
inhabitants of which made a league with Joshua, (Joshua 9:3-15) and thus
escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai. Comp. ch. (Joshua 11:19) Gibeon lay
within the territory of Benjamin, ch. (Joshua 18:25) and with its
"suburbs" was allotted to the priests, ch. (Joshua 21:17) of whom it
became afterwards a principal station. It retains its ancient name almost
intact, el-Jib. Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road is
about 6 1/2 miles; but there is a more direct road reducing it to five


the people of Gibeon, and perhaps also of the three cities associated with
Gibeon, (Joshua 9:17) -- Hivites; and who, on the discover of the
stratagem by which they had obtained the protection of the Israelites,
were condemned to be perpetual bondmen, hewers of wood and drawers of
water for the congregation and for the house of God and altar of Jehovah.
(Joshua 9:23,27) Saul appears to have broken this covenant, and in a fit
of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some and devised a general
massacre of the rest. (2 Samuel 21:1,2,5) This was expiated many years
after by giving up seven men of Saul's descendants to the Gibeonites, who
hung them or crucified them "before Jehovah" -- as a kind of sacrifice --
in Gibeah, Saul's own town. ch. (2 Samuel 21:4,6,9)




(I have trained up), one of the sons of Heman, the king's seer. (1
Chronicles 25:4)


(very great).

  • Children of Giddel were among the Nethinim who returned from the
    captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:47; Nehemiah 7:49)

  • Bene-Giddel were also among the "servants of Solomon" who returned to
    Judea in the name caravan. (Ezra 2:56; Nehemiah 7:58) (B.C. 536.)


(he that cuts down), youngest son of Joash of the Abiezrites, an
undistinguished family who lived at Ophrah, a town probably on the west of
Jordan, (Judges 6:15) in the territory of Manasseh, near Shechem. He was
the fifth recorded judge of Israel, and for many reasons the greatest of
them all. When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons, (Judges
6:11; 8:20) and from the apostrophe of the angel, ch. (Judges 6:12) we may
conclude that he had already distinguished himself in war against the
roving bands of nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel for seven years.
When the angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the
wine-press, to conceal it from the predatory tyrants. His call to be a
deliverer, and his destruction of Baal's altar, are related in Judges 6.
After this begins the second act of Gideon's life. Clothed by the Spirit
of God, (Judges 6:34) comp. 1Chr 12:18; Luke 24:49 He blew a trumpet, and
was joined by Zebulun, Naphtali and even the reluctant Asher. Strengthened
by a double sign from God, he reduced his army of 32,000 by the usual
proclamation. (20:8) comp. 1 Macc. 3:56. By a second test at "the spring
of trembling the further reduced the number of his followers to 300.
(Judges 7:5) seq. The midnight attack upon the Midianites, their panic,
and the rout and slaughter that followed are told in (Judges 7:1) ... The
memory of this splendid deliverance took deep root in the national
traditions. (1 Samuel 12:11; Psalms 83:11; Isaiah 9:4; 10:26; Hebrews
11:32) After this there was a peace of forty years, and we see Gideon in
peaceful possession of his well-earned honors, and surrounded by the
dignity of a numerous household. (Judges 8:29-31) It is not improbable
that, like Saul, he owed a part of his popularity to his princely
appearance. (Judges 8:18) In this third stage of his life occur alike his
most noble and his most questionable acts viz., the refusal of the
monarchy on theocratic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a
jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils of Midian, which proved to
the Israelites a temptation to idolatry although it was doubtless intended
for use in the worship of Jehovah.


(a cutting down), a Benjamite, father of Abidan. (Numbers 1:11;
7:60,65; 10:24)


(desolation), a place named only in (Judges 20:45) It would appear
to have been situated between Gibeah (Tuliel-el-Ful) and the cliff


an unclean bird mentioned in (Leviticus 11:18) and Deuteronomy 14:17
Identical in reality as in name with the racham, of the Arabs,
viz., the Egyptian vulture.


The giving and receiving of presents has in all ages been not only a more
frequent but also a more formal and significant proceeding in the East
than among ourselves. We cannot adduce a more remarkable proof of the
important part which presents play in the social life of the East than the
fact that the Hebrew language possesses no less than fifteen different
expressions for the one idea. The mode of presentation was with as much
parade as possible. The refusal of a present was regarded us a high
indignity. No less an insult was it not to bring a present when the
position of the parties demanded it. (1 Samuel 10:27)


(a stream).

  • The second river of Paradise. (Genesis 2:13) [EDEN]

  • A place near Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the anointing and
    proclamation of Solomon as king. (1 Kings 1:33,38,45)


(weighty), one of the priests’ sons at the consecration of
the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:36) (B.C. 446.)


(a bubbling spring) a mountain range on the eastern side of the
plain of Esdraelon, rising over the city of Jezreel. Comp. (1 Samuel 28:4)
with 1Sam 29:1 It is mentioned in Scripture only in connection with one
event in Israelitish history, the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan by
the Philistines. (1 Samuel 31:11; 2 Samuel 1:6; 21:12; 1 Chronicles
10:1,8) Of the identity of Gilboa with the ridge which stretches eastward
from the ruins of Jezreel no doubt can be entertained. The village is now
called Jelbou.


(rocky region).

  • A mountainous region bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the north
    by Bashan, on the east by the Arabian plateau, and on the south by Moab
    and Ammon. (Genesis 31:21; 3:12-17) It is sometimes called "Mount Gilead,"
    (Genesis 31:25) sometimes "the land of Gilead," (Numbers 32:1) and
    sometimes simply "Gilead." (Psalms 60:7; Genesis 37:25) The name Gilead,
    as is usual in Palestine, describes the physical aspect of the country: it
    signifies "a hard rocky region." The mountains of Gilead, including
    Pisgah, Abarim and Peor, have a real elevation of from 2000 to 3000 feet;
    but their apparent elevation on the western side is much greater, owing to
    the depression of the Jordan valley, which averages about 3000 feet. Their
    outline is singularly uniform, resembling a massive wall running along the
    horizon. Gilead was specially noted for its balm collected from "balm of
    Gilead" trees, and worth twice its weight in silver.

  • Possibly the name of a mountain west of the Jordan, near Jezreel.
    (Judges 7:3) We are inclined, however, to think that the true reading in
    this place should be GILBOA.

  • Son of Machir, grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 26:29,30)

  • The father of Jephthah. (Judges 11:1,2)


(Numbers 26:29; Judges 10:3; 12:4,5), a branch of the tribe of Manasseh,
descended from Gilead.


(a wheel; rolling).

  • The site of the first camp of the Israelites on the west of the
    Jordan, the place at which they passed the first night after crossing the
    river, and where the twelve stones were set up which had been taken from
    the bed of the stream, (Joshua 4:19,20) comp. Josh 4:3 Where also they
    kept the first passover in the land of Canaan ch. (Joshua 5:10) It was "in
    the east border of Jericho," apparently on a hillock or rising ground,
    (Joshua 5:3) comp. Josh 5:9 In the Arboth-Jericho (Authorized Version "the
    plains"), that is, the hot depressed district of the Ghor which lay
    between the town and the Jordan. ch. (Joshua 5:10) Here Samuel was judge,
    and Saul was made king. We again have a glimpse of it, some sixty years
    later, in the history of David's return to Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 19:40) A
    Gilgal is spoken of in (Joshua 15:7) in describing the north border of
    Judah. In (Joshua 18:17) it is given as Geliloth. Gilgal near Jericho is
    doubtless intended.

  • In (2 Kings 2:1,2; 4:38) is named a Gilgal visited by Elijah and
    Elisha. This could not be the Gilgal of the low plain of the Jordan, for
    the prophets are said to have gone down to Bethel, which is 3000
    feet above the plain. It haa been identified with Jiljilia, about
    four miles from Bethel and Shiloh respectively.

  • The "king of the nations of Gilgal" or rather perhaps the "king of
    Goim at Gilgal," is mentioned in the catalogue of the chiefs overthrown bv
    Joshua. (Joshua 12:23) Possibly the site of this place is marked by the
    modern village Jiljulieh, about four miles south of Antipatris,
    which lies 16 miles northeast of Joppa. But another Gilgal, under the
    slightly-different form of Kilkilieh, lies about two miles east of


(exile), a town in the mountainous part of Judah, named in the
first group with Debir and Eshtemoh, (Joshua 16:51) it was the native
place of the famous Ahithophel. (2 Samuel 15:12)


native of Giloh. (2 Samuel 15:12; 23:34)


(fertile in sycamores), a town which with its dependent villages
was taken possession of by the Philistines in the reign of Ahaz. (2
Chronicles 28:18) The name (Jimzu) still remains attached to a
large village between two and three miles southwest of Lydda, south of the
road between Jerusalem and Jaffa.


a trap for birds or beasts; it consisted of a net, (Isaiah 8:14) and a
stick to act as a spring. (Amos 3:5)


(protection), father of Tibni. (1 Kings 16:21,22)


(gardner), one of the chief of the priests and Levites who returned
to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:4) He is doubtless the same person


(gardener), a priest who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah
(Nehemiah 10:6) (B.C. 410.)


an essential article of dress in the East, and worn by both men and women.
The common girdle was made of leather, (2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4) like
that worn by the Bedouins of the present day. A finer girdle was made of
linen, (Jeremiah 13:1; Ezekiel 16:10) embroidered with silk, and sometimes
with gold and silver thread, (Daniel 10:5; Revelation 1:13; 15:6) and
frequently studded with gold and precious stones or pearls. The military
girdle was worn about the waist; the sword or dagger was suspended from
it. (Judges 3:16; 2 Samuel 20:8; Psalms 45:3) Hence girding up the loins
denotes preparation for battle or for active exertion. Girdles were used
as pockets, as they still are among the Arabs, and as purses, one end of
the girdle being folded back for the purpose. (Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8)


(Genesis 10:16) or NEXT ENTRY...


(dwelling on a clayey soil), The, one of the nations who
were in possession of Canaan east of the Sea of Galilee before the
entrance thither of the children of Israel. (Genesis 10:16; 15:21;


(caress), one of the overseers of the Nethinim, in "the Ophel,"
after the return from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:21)


(Joshua 19:13) [GATH-HEPHER]




(belonging to Gath), the 600 men who followed David from Gath,
under Ittai the Gittite, (2 Samuel 15:18,19) and who probably acted as a
kind of body-guard. Obed-edom "the Gittite" may have been so named from
the town of Gittaim in Benjamin, (2 Samuel 4:3; Nehemiah 11:33) or from


a musical instrument, by some supposed to have been used by the people of
Gath, and by others to have been employed at the festivities of the
vintage. Psal 8,81,84.


(inhabitant of Gizoh). "The sons of Hashem the Gizonite "are named
amongst the warriors of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:34) Kennicott
concludes that the name should be Gouni.


The Hebrew word occurs only in (Job 28:17) where in the Authorized Version
it is rendered "crystal." In spite of the absence of specific allusion to
glass in the sacred writings, the Hebrews must have been aware of the
invention from paintings representing the process of glass-blowing, which
have been discovered at Beni-hassan, and in tombs at other places, we know
that the invention vas known at least 3500 years ago. Fragments too of
wine-vases as old as the exodus have been discovered in Egypt. The art was
also known to the ancient Assyrians. In the New Testament glass is alluded
to as an emblem of brightness. (Revelation 4:6; 15:2; 21:18)


The gleaning of fruit trees, as well as of corn-fields, was reserved for
the poor. [CORNER]


the old name for the common kite (Milvus ater), occurs only in
(14:13) among the unclean birds of prey.


a species of mosquito mentioned only in the proverbial expression used by
our Saviour in (Matthew 23:21)


(Judges 3:31; 1 Samuel 13:21) The Hebrew word in the latter passage
probably means the point of the plough-share. The former word does
probably refer to the goad, the long handle of which might be used as a
formidable weapon. The instrument, as still used in countries of southern
Europe and western Asia, consists of a rod about eight feet long, brought
to a sharp point and sometimes cased with iron at the head.


There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus
, at present bred in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are
identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not
possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra
Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis,
Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the "wild goats," (1 Samuel 24:2; Job
39:1; Psalms 104:18) it is not at all improbable that some species of
ibex is denoted.




(lowing), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and
named, in connection with the hill Gareb, only in (Jeremiah 31:39)


(cistern), a place mentioned only in (2 Samuel 21:18,19) as the
scene of two encounters between David's warriors and the Philistines. In
the parallel account in (1 Chronicles 20:4) the name is given as


a circular vessel for wine or other liquid.


(good). Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures two chief names are used
for the one true divine Being -- ELOHIM, commonly translated God in
our version, and JEHOVAH, translated Lord. Elohim is the plural of
Eloah (in Arabic Allah); it is often used in the short form EL (a
word signifying strength, as in EL-SHADDAI, God Almighty, the name
by which God was specially known to the patriarchs. (Genesis 17:1; 28:3;
Exodus 6:3) The etymology is uncertain, but it is generally agreed that
the primary idea is that of strength, power of effect, and that it
properly describes God in that character in which he is exhibited to all
men in his works, as the creator, sustainer and supreme governor of the
world. The plural form of Elohim has given rise to much discussion. The
fanciful idea that it referred to the trinity of persons in the Godhead
hardly finds now a supporter among scholars. It is either what grammarians
call the plural of majesty, or it denotes the fullness of
divine strength, the sum of the powers displayed by God. Jehovah
denotes specifically the one true God, whose people the Jews were, and who
made them the guardians of his truth. The name is never applied to a false
god, nor to any other being except one, the ANGEL-JEHOVAH who is thereby
marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as "God
manifested in the flesh." Thus much is clear; but all else is beset with
difficulties. At a time too early to be traced, the Jews abstained from
pronouncing the name, for fear of its irreverent use. The custom is said
to have been founded on a strained interpretation of (Leviticus 24:16) and
the phrase there used, "THE NAME" (Shema), is substituted by the
rabbis for the unutterable word. In reading the Scriptures they
substituted for it the word ADONAI (Lord), from the translation of
which by Kurios in the LXX., followed by the Vulgate, which uses
Dominus, we have the LORD of our version. The substitution of the
word Lord is most unhappy, for it in no way represents the meaning of the
sacred name. The key to the meaning of the name is unquestionably
given in God's revelation of himself to Moses by the phrase "I AM THAT I
AM," (Exodus 3:14; 6:3) We must connect the name Jehovah with the
Hebrew substantive verb to be, with the inference that it
expresses the essential, eternal, unchangeable being of Jehovah.
But more, it is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an absolute truth:
it is a practical revelation of God, in his essential, unchangeable
relation to this chosen people, the basis of his covenant.



  • A Reubenite, (1 Chronicles 5:4) son of Shemaiah.


(circle), a city of Bashan, (4:43) allotted out of the half tribe
of Manasseh to the Levites, (Joshua 21:27) and one of the three cities of
refuge east of the Jordan. ch (Joshua 20:8) Its very site is now unknown.
It gave its name to the province of Gaulanitis. It lay east of Galilee and
north of Gadaritis [GADARA], and corresponds to the modern province of


Gold was known from the very earliest times. (Genesis 2:11) It was at
first used chiefly for ornaments, etc. (Genesis 24:22) Coined money was
not known to the ancients till a comparatively late period; and on the
Egyptian tombs gold is represented as being weighed in rings for
commercial purposes. Comp. (Genesis 43:21) Gold was extremely abundant in
ancient times, (1 Chronicles 22:14; 2 Chronicles 1:15; 9:9; Daniel 3:1;
Nahum 2:9) but this did not depreciate its value, because of the enormous
quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc. (1 Kings 6:22) 10
passim ; (Esther 1:6; Solomon 3:9,10; Jeremiah 10:9) The chief
countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir. (1
Kings 9:28; 10:1; Job 28:16)


(skull), the Hebrew name of the spot at which our Lord was
crucified. (Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17) By these three
evangelists it is interpreted to mean the "place of a skull." Two
explanations of the name are given: (1) that it was a spot where
executions ordinarily took place, and therefore abounded in skulls; or(2)
it may come from the look or form of the spot itself, bald, round and
skull-like, and therefore a mound or hillock, in accordance with the
common phrase -- for which there is no direct authority -- "Mount
Calvary." Whichever of these is the correct explanation, Golgotha seems to
have been a known spot.


(splendor), a famous giant of Gath, who "morning and evening for
forty days" defied the armies of Israel. (1 Samuel 17:1) ... (B.C. 1063.)
He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim [GIANTS], of whom a
scattered remnant took refuge with the Philistines after their dispersion
by the Ammonites. (2:20,21; 2 Samuel 21:22) His height was "six cubits and
a span," which taking the cubit at 21 inches, would make him 10 1/2 feet
high. The scene of his combat with David, by whom he was slain, was the
"valley of the terebinth," between Shochoh and Arekah, probably among the
western passes of Benjamin. In (2 Samuel 21:19) we find that another
Goliath of Gath was slain by Elhanan, also a Bethlehemite.



  • The eldest son of Japheth, (Genesis 10:2,3) the progenitor of the
    early Cimmerians, of the later Cimbri and the other branches of the Celtic
    family, and of the modern Gael and Cymri.

  • The wife of Hosea. (Hosea 1:3)


(submersion), one of the five "cities of the plain" or "vale of
Siddim" that under the irrespective kings joined battle there with
Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:2-8) and his allies by whom they were discomfited
till Abraham came to the rescue. Four out of the five were afterwards
destroyed by the Lord with fire from heaven. (Genesis 19:23-29) One of
them only, Zoar (or Bela; which was its original name), was spared at the
request of Lot, in order that he might take refuge there. The geographical
position of these cities is discussed under SODOM.


(pitch) wood. Only once mentioned -- (Genesis 6:14) Two principal
conjectures have been proposed --

  • That the "trees of gopher" are any trees of the resinous kind, such as
    pine, fir, etc.

  • That Gopher is cypress.


  • The name of a part of Egypt where the Israelites dwelt during the
    whole period of their sojourn in that country. It was probably situated on
    the eastern border of the Nile, extending from the Mediterranean to the
    Red Sea. It contained the treasure-cities of Rameses and Pittim. It was a
    pasture land, especially suited to a shepherd people, and sufficient for
    the Israelites, who there prospered, and were separate from the main body
    of the Egyptians.

  • A district in southern Palestine conquered by Joshua. (Joshua 10:41)
    It lay between Gaza and Gibeon.

  • A town in the mountains of Judah, probably in a part of the country of


The name Gospel (from god and spell, Ang. Sax. good
or news, which is a translation of the Greek
euaggelion) is applied to the four inspired histories of the life
and teaching of Christ contained in the New Testament, of which separate
accounts are given in their place. They were all composed during the
latter half of the first century: those of St. Matthew and St. Mark some
years before the destruction of Jerusalem; that of St. Luke probably about
A.D. 64; and that of St. John towards the close of the century. Before the
end of the second century, there is abundant evidence that the four
Gospels, as one collection, were generally used and accepted. As a matter
of literary history, nothing can be better established than the
genuineness of the Gospels. On comparing these four books one with
another, a peculiar difficulty claims attention, which has had much to do
with the controversy as to their genuineness. In the fourth Gospel the
narrative coincided with that of the other three in a few passages only.
The received explanation is the only satisfactory one namely, that John,
writing last, at the close of the first century had seen the other
Gospels, and purposely abstained from writing anew what they had
sufficiently recorded. In the other three Gospels there is a great amount
of agreement. If we suppose the history that they contain to be divided
into 89 sections, in 42 of these all the three narratives coincide, 12
more are given by Matthew and Mark only, 5 by Mark and Luke only, and 14
by Matthew and Luke. To these must be added 5 peculiar to Matthew, 2 to
Mark and 9 to Luke, and the enumeration is complete. But this applies only
to general coincidence as to the facts narrated: the amount of verbal
coincidence, that is, the passages either verbally the same or coinciding
in the use of many of the same words, is much smaller. It has been
ascertained by Stroud that "if the total contents of the several Gospels
be represented by 100, the following table is obtained: Matthew has 42
peculiarities and 58 coincidences. Mark has 7 peculiarities and 93
coincidences. Luke has 59 peculiarities and 41 coincidences. John has 92
peculiarities and 8 coincidences. Why four Gospels. --

  • To bring four separate independent witnesses to the truth.

  • It is to give the Lord's life from every point of view, four living
    portraits of one person. There were four Gospels because Jesus was to be
    commended to four races or classes of men, or to four phases of human
    thought, -- the Jewish, Roman, Greek and Christian. Had not these
    exhausted the classes to be reached, there would doubtless have been more
    Gospels. In all ages, the Jewish, Roman and Greek natures reappear among
    men, and, in fact, make up the world of natural men, while the Christian
    nature and wants likewise remain essentially the same. The FIRST GOSPEL
    was prepared by Matthew for the Jew. He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the
    Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus. He places the life
    and character of Jesus, as lived on earth, alongside the life and
    character of the Messiah, as sketched in the prophets, showing
    Christianity as the fulfillment of Judaism. Mark wrote the SECOND GOSPEL.
    It was substantially the preaching of Peter to the Romans. The Gospel for
    him must represent the character and career of Jesus from the Roman point
    of view, as answering to the idea of divine power, work, law, conquest and
    universal sway; must retain its old significance and ever-potent
    inspiration at the battle-call of the almighty Conqueror. Luke wrote the
    THIRD GOSPEL in Greece for the Greek. It has its basis in the gospel which
    Paul and Luke, by long preaching to the Greeks, had already thrown into
    the form best suited to commend to their acceptance Jesus as the perfect
    divine man. It is the gospel of the future, of progressive Christianity,
    of reason and culture seeking the perfection of manhood. John, "the
    beloved disciple," wrote the FOURTH GOSPEL for the Christian, to cherish
    and train those who have entered the new kingdom of Christ, into the
    highest spiritual life. -- Condensed from, Prof. Gregory.


  • Kikayan only in (Jonah 4:6-10) The plant which is intended by
    this word, and which afforded shade to the prophet Jonah before Nineveh,
    is the Ricinus commnunis, or castor-oil plant, which, a native of
    Asia, is now naturalized in America, Africa and the south of Europe. This
    plant varies considerably n size, being in India a tree, but in England
    seldom attaining a greater height than three or four feet. The leaves are
    large and palmate, with serrated lobes, and would form un excellent
    shelter for the sun-stroken prophet. The seeds contain the oil so well
    known under the name of "castor oil," which has for ages been in high
    repute as a medicine. It is now thought by many that the plant meant is a
    vine of the cucumber family, a gemline gourd, which is much used for shade
    in the East.

  • The wild gourd of (2 Kings 4:39) which one of "the sons of the
    prophets" gathered ignorantly, supposing them to be good for food, is a
    poisonous gourd, supposed to be the colocynth, which bears a fruit of the
    color and size of an orange, with a hard, woody shell. As several
    varieties of the same family, such as melons, pumpkins, etc., are favorite
    articles of refreshing food amongst the Orientals, we can easily
    understand the cause of the mistake.


In the Authorized Version this one English word is the representative of
no less than ten Hebrew and four Greek words.

  • The chief of a tribe or family.

  • A ruler in his capacity of lawgiver and dispenser of

  • A ruler consider especially as having power over the property and
    persons of his subjects. (Genesis 24:2; Joshua 12:2; Psalms 100:20) The
    "governors of the people," in (2 Chronicles 23:20) appear to have been the
    king's body-guard; cf. (2 Kings 11:19)

  • A prominent personage, whatever his capacity. It is applied to
    a king as the military and civil chief of his people, (2 Samuel 5:2; 6:21;
    1 Chronicles 29:22) to the general of an army, (2 Chronicles 32:21) and to
    the head of a tribe. (2 Chronicles 19:11) It denotes an officer of high
    rank in the palace, the lord high chamberlain. (2 Chronicles 28:7) It is
    applied in (1 Kings 10:15) to the petty chieftains who were tributary to
    Solomon, (2 Chronicles 9:14) to the military commander of the Syrians, (1
    Kings 20:24) the Assyrians, (2 Kings 18:24; 23:8) the Chaldeans, (Jeremiah
    51:23) and the Medes. (Jeremiah 51:38) Under the Persian viceroys, during
    the Babylonian captivity, the land of the Hebrews appears to have been
    portioned out among "governors" (pachoth) inferior in rank to the
    satraps, (Ezra 8:30) like the other provinces which were under the
    dominion of the Persian king. (Nehemiah 2:7,9) It is impossible to
    determine the precise limits of their authority or the functions which
    they had to perform. It appears from (Ezra 6:8) that these governors were
    intrusted with the collection of the king's taxes; and from (Nehemiah
    5:18; 12:26) that they were supported by a contribution levied upon the
    people, which was technically termed "the bread of the governor" comp.
    (Ezra 4:14) They were probably assisted in discharging their official
    duties by A council. (Ezra 4:7; 6:6) The "governor" beyond the river had a
    judgment-seat beyond Jerusalem, from which probably he administered
    justice when making a progress through his province. (Nehemiah 3:7) At the
    time of Christ Judea was a Roman province, governed by a procurator
    (governor) appointed by Rome.


seems in the Authorized Version of (1 Chronicles 5:26) to be the name of a
river, but in (2 Kings 17:6) and 2Kin 18:11 It is evidently applied not to
a river but a country. Gozan was the tract to which the Israelites were
carried away captive by Pul, Tiglathpileser and Shalmaneser, or possibly
Sargon. It is probably identical with the Gauzanitis of Ptolemy,
and I may be regarded as represented by the Mygdonia of other writers. It
was the tract watered by the Habor, the modern Khabour, the great
Mesopotamian affluent of the Euphrates.








a piece of defensive armor which reached from the foot to the knee and
thus protected the shin of the wearer. It was made of leather or


The histories of Greece and Palestine are little connected with each
other. In (Genesis 10:2-5) Moses mentions the descendants of Javan as
peopling the isles of the Gentiles; and when the Hebrews came into contact
with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and recognized them as the long-lost
islanders of the western migration, it was natural that they should mark
the similarity of sound between Javan and Iones. Accordingly the
Old Testament word which is Grecia, in Authorized Versions
Greece, Greeks, etc., is in Javan (Daniel 8:21; Joel 3:6)
the Hebrew, however, is sometimes regained. (Isaiah 66:19; Ezekiel 27:13)
The Greeks and Hebrews met for the first time in the slave-market. The
medium of communication seems to have been the Tyrian slave-merchants.
About B.C. 800 Joel speaks of the Tyrians as, selling the children of
Judah tot he Grecians, (Joel 3:6) and in Ezek 27:13 The Greeks are
mentioned as bartering their brazen vessels for slaves. Prophetical notice
of Greece occurs in (Daniel 8:21) etc., where the history of Alexander and
his successors is rapidly sketched. Zechariah, (Zechariah 9:13) foretells
the triumphs of the Maccabees against the Greco-Syrian empire, while
Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other
Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries. (Isaiah
66:19) The name of the country, Greece occurs once in the New Testament,
(Acts 20:2) as opposed to Macedonia. [GENTILES]


The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or religion who
spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast
with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew or Aramaean. -- Bible
Dictionary of Tract Society


the translation in the text of the Authorized Version, (Proverbs 30:31) of
the Hebrew word zarzir mothnayin ; i.e. "one girt about the loins."
Various are the opinions as to what animal "comely in going" is here
intended Some think "a leopard," others "an eagle," or "a man girt with
armor," or "a zebra," or "a war-horse girt with trappings." But perhaps
the word means "a wrestler," when girt about the loins for a contest.




  • A word used in the Authorized Version, with two exceptions, to
    translate the mysterious Hebrew term Asherah, which is not a
    grove, but probably an idol or image of some kind. [ASHERAH] It is also
    probable that there was a connection between this symbol or image,
    whatever it was, and the sacred symbolic tree, the representation of which
    occurs so frequently on Assyrian sculptures.

  • The two exceptions noticed above are (Genesis 21:33) and 1Sam 22:6
    (margin). In the religions of the ancient heathen world groves play a
    prominent part. In the old times altars only were erected to the gods. It
    was thought wrong to shut up the gods within walls, and hence trees were
    the first temples; and from the earliest times groves are mentioned in
    connection with religious worship. (Genesis 12:6,7) Authorized Version
    "plain." the groves were generally found connected with temples, and often
    had the right of affording an asylum.


(10:7) [See HORHAGIDGAD]





  • A son of Naphtali, (Genesis 46:24; 1 Chronicles 7:13) the founder of
    the family of the Gunites. (Numbers 26:48)

  • A descendant of Gad. (1 Chronicles 5:15)


the descendants of Guni, son of Naphtali. (Numbers 26:48)


(abode), The going up to, an ascent or rising ground, at
which Ahaziah received his death-blow while flying from jehu after the
slaughter of Joram. (2 Kings 9:27)


(abode of Baal), a place or district in which dwelt Arabians, as
recorded in (2 Chronicles 26:7) It appears from the context to have been
in the country lying between Palestine and the Arabian peninsula; but
this, although probable, cannot be proved.

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