Smith's Bible Dictionary - E

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(Heb. nesher, i.e. a tearer with the beak). At least four
distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Palestine, viz., the golden
eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, the spotted eagle, Aquila naevia
, the imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca, and the very common
Circaetos gallicus. The Hebrew nesher may stand for any of
these different species, though perhaps more particular reference to the
golden and imperial eagles and the griffon vulture may be intended.
The passage in Micah, (Micah 1:16) "enlarge thy baldness as the eagle,"
may refer to the griffon vulture, Vultur fulvus, in which case the
simile is peculiarly appropriate, for the whole head and neck of this bird
are destitute of true feathers. The "eagles" of (Matthew 24:28; Luke
17:37) may include the Vultur fulvus and Neophron
; though, as eagles frequently prey upon dead bodies,
there is no necessity to restrict the Greek word to the Vulturidae
. The figure of an eagle is now and has long been a favorite military
ensign. The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage
in (Isaiah 46:11) The same bird was similarly employed by the Assyrians
and the Romans.


(Genesis 45:6; Exodus 34:21) Derived from the Latin arare, to
plough; hence it means ploughing.


(2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Ephesians 1:14) The Hebrew word was used
generally for pledge, (Genesis 38:17) and in its cognate forms for
surety, (Proverbs 17:18) and hostage. (2 Kings 14:14) The
Greek derivative, however, acquired a more technical sense as signifying
the deposit paid by the purchaser on entering into an agreement for
the purchase of anything. In the New Testament the word is used to signify
the pledge or earnest of the superior blessings of the future life.


The material of which earrings were made was generally gold, (Exodus 32:2)
and their form circular. They were worn by women and by youth of both
sexes. These ornaments appear to have been regarded with superstitious
reverence as an amulet. On this account they were surrendered along with
the idols by Jacob's household. (Genesis 35:4) Chardin describes earrings
with talismanic figures and characters on them as still existing in the
East. Jewels were sometimes attached to the rings. The size of the
earrings still worn in eastern countries far exceeds what is usual among
ourselves; hence they formed a handsome present, (Job 42:11) or offering
to the service of God. (Numbers 31:50)


The term is used in two widely-different senses: (1) for the material of
which the earth's surface is composed; (2) as the name of the planet on
which man dwells. The Hebrew language discriminates between these two by
the use of separate terms, adamah for the former, erets for
the latter.

  • Adamah is the earth in the sense of soil or ground,
    particularly as being susceptible of cultivation. (Genesis 2:7)

  • Erets is applied in a more or less extended sense -- (1) to the
    whole world, (Genesis 1:1) (2) to land as opposed to sea, (Genesis 1:10)
    (3) to a country, (Genesis 21:32) (4) to a plot of ground, (Genesis 23:15)
    and (5) to the ground on which a man stands. (Genesis 33:3) The two former
    senses alone concern us, the fairest involving an inquiry into the
    opinions of the Hebrews on cosmogony, the second on geography.

  • cosmogony. -- (1) The Hebrew cosmogony is based upon the
    leading principle that the universe exists, not independently of God, nor
    yet co-existent with God, nor yet in opposition to him as a hostile
    element, but dependently upon him, subsequently to him and in subjection
    to him. (2) Creation was regarded as a progressive work -- a gradual
    development from the inferior to the superior orders of things.

  • Geography. -- There seems to be traces of the same ideas as
    prevailed among the Greeks, that the world was a disk, (Isaiah 40:22)
    bordered by the ocean, with Jerusalem as its centre, like Delphi as the
    navel, or, according to another view, the highest point of the world. As
    to the size of the earth, the Hebrews had but a very indefinite




Earthquakes, more or less violent, are of frequent occurrence in
Palestine. The most remarkable occurred in the reign of Uzziah. (Zechariah
14:5) From (Zechariah 14:4) we are led to infer that a great convulsion
took place at this time in the Mount of Olives, the mountain being split
so as to leave a valley between its summit. An earthquake occurred at the
time of our Saviour's crucifixion. (Matthew 27:51-54) Earthquakes are not
unfrequently accompanied by fissures of the earth's surface; instances of
this are recorded in connection with the destruction of Korah and his
company, (Numbers 16:32) and at the time of our Lord's death, (Matthew
27:51) the former may be paralleled by a similar occurrence at Oppido in
Calabria A.D. 1783, where the earth opened to the extent of five hundred
and a depth of more than two hundred feet.


The Hebrew term kedem properly means that which is before or
in front of a person, and was applied to the east form the custom
of turning in that direction when describing the points of the compass,
before, behind, the right and the left representing
respectively east, west, south and north. (Job 23:8,9) The term as
generally used refers to the lands lying immediately eastward of
Palestine, viz., Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand
mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite
signification. (Isaiah 42:2,25; 43:5; 46:11)


(Acts 12:4) In the earlier English versions Easter has been frequently
used as the translation of pascha (passover). In the
Authorized Version Passover was substituted in all passages but this; and
in the new Revision Passover is used here. [PASSOVER]


(stone, bare mountain).

  • One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir. (Genesis 36:23; 1
    Chronicles 1:40)

  • Obal the son of Joktan. (1 Chronicles 1:22) comp. Genesis 10:28


a mount in the promised land, on which the Israelites were to "put" the
curse which should fall upon them if they disobeyed the commandments of
Jehovah. The blessing consequent on obedience was to be similarly
localized on Mount Gerizim. (11:26-29) Ebal and Gerizim are the mounts
which form the sides of the fertile valley in which lies Nablus,
the ancient Shechem-Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south. (They are
nearly in the centre of the country of Samaria, about eight hundred feet
above Nablus in the valley; and they are so near that all the vast body of
the people could hear the words read from either mountain. The experiment
has repeatedly been tried in late years. -- Ed.) The modern name of Ebal
is Sitti Salamiyah, from a Mohammedan female saint, whose tomb is
standing on the eastern part of the ridge, a little before the highest
point is reached.


(a servant). (Many MSS. have EBER.)

  • Father of Gaal, who with his brethren assisted the men of Shechem in
    their revolt against Abimelech. (Judges 9:26,28,30,31,35) (B.C.

  • Son of Jonathan; one of the Bene-Adin who returned form Babylon with
    Ezra. (Ezra 8:6)


(a king's servant), an Ethiopian eunuch in the service of King
Zedekiah, through whose interference Jeremiah was released from prison.
(Jeremiah 38:7) ff.; Jere 39:15 ff. (B.C. 1589).


(stone of help), a stone set up by Samuel after a signal defeat of
the Philistines, as a memorial of the "help" received on the occasion from
Jehovah. (1 Samuel 7:12) Its position is carefully defined as between
Mizpeh and Shen.


(the region beyond).

  • Son of Salah, and great-grandson of Shem. (Genesis 10:24; 1 Chronicles
    1:19) (B.C. 2277-1813.) [For confusion between Eber and Heber see

  • Son of Elpaal and descendant of Sharahaim of the tribe of Benjamin. (1
    Chronicles 8:12) (B.C. 1400).

  • A priest in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:20)
    (B.C. 445.)


(1 Chronicles 6:23,37) [See ABIASAPH]


(Ezekiel 27:15) one of the valuable commodities imported into Tyre by the
men of Dedan; a hard, heavy and durable wood, which admits of a fine
polish or gloss. The most usual color is black, but it also occurs red or
green. The black is the heart of a tree called Diospyros ebenum.
It was imported from India or Ceylon by Phoenician traders.


(passage), one of the halting-places of the Israelites in the
desert, immediately preceding Ezion-geber. (Numbers 33:34,35)


Ezra 6:2 margin. In the apocryphal books Ecbatana is frequently mentioned.
Two cities named Ecbatana seem to have existed in ancient times, one the
capital of northern Media -- the Media Atropatene of Strabo -- the other
the metropolis of the larger and more important province known as Media
Magna. The site of the former appears to be marked by the very curious
ruins at Takht-i-Suleiman.


(the preacher). The title of this book is in Hebrew Koheleth
, signifying one who speaks publicly in an assembly.
Koheleth is the name by which Solomon, probably the author, speaks
of himself throughout the book. The book is that which it professes to be,
-- the confession of a man of wide experience looking back upon his past
life and looking out upon the disorders and calamities which surround him.
The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and
sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness
of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a
divine education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to
teach him.


one of the books of the Apocrypha. This title is given in the Latin
version to the book which is called in the Septuagint THE WISDOM OF JESUS
THE SON OF SIRACH. The word designates the character of the writing, as
publicly used in the services of the Church.


No historical notice of an eclipse occurs in the Bible, but there are
passages in the prophets which contain manifest allusion to this
phenomenon. (Joel 2:10,31; 3:15; Amos 8:9; Micah 3:6; Zechariah 14:6) Some
of these notices probably refer to eclipses that occurred about the time
of the respective compositions: thus the date of Amos coincides with a
total eclipse which occurred Feb. 9, B.C. 784, and was visible at
Jerusalem shortly after noon; that of Micah with the eclipse of June 5,
B.C. 716. A passing notice in (Jeremiah 15:9) coincides in date with the
eclipse of Sept. 30, B.C. 610, so well known from Herodotus’ account
(i. 74, 103). The darkness that overspread the world at the crucifixion
cannot with reason be attributed to an eclipse, as the moon was at the
full at the time of the passover.


(witness), a word inserted in the Authorized Version of (Joshua
22:34) apparently on the authority of a few MSS., and also of the Syriac
and Arabic versions, but not existing in the generally-received Hebrew


(accur. EDER, a flock), a place named only in (Genesis 35:21)
According to Jerome it was one thousand paces from Bethlehem.



  • The first residence of man, called in the Septuagint Paradise.
    The latter is a word of Persian origin, and describes an extensive tract
    of pleasure land, somewhat like an English park; and the use of it
    suggests a wider view of man's first abode than a garden. The description
    of Eden is found in (Genesis 2:8-14) In the eastern portion of the region
    of Eden was the garden planted. The Hiddekel, one of its rivers, is the
    modern Tigris; the Euphrates is the same as the modern Euphrates. With
    regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the
    best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at
    the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again,
    making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and
    most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers
    Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes
    (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus (Gihon).

  • One of the marts which supplied the luxury of Tyre with
    richly-embroidered stuffs. In (2 Kings 19:12) and Isai 37:12 "The sons of
    Eden" are mentioned with Gozan, Haran and Rezeph as victims of the
    Assyrian greed of conquest. Probability seems to point to the northwest of
    Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden.

  • BETH-EDEN, "house of pleasure:" probably the name of a country
    residence of the kings of Damascus. (Amos 1:5)


  • A Gershonite Levite, son of Joah, in the days of Hezekiah. (2
    Chronicles 29:12) (B.C. 727.)

  • Also a Levite, probably identical with the preceding. (2 Chronicles


(a flock).

  • One of the towns of Judah, in the extreme south, and on the borders of
    Edom. (Joshua 15:21) No trace of it has been discovered in modern

  • A Levite of the family of Merari, in the time of David. (1 Chronicles
    23:23; 24:30)


(red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac
and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a
meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to
Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," (Genesis 32:3) and his
descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and
Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow
mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the
eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to
near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was
Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal
stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). (2 Kings 14:7) Elath and
Ezion-geber were the seaports. (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26)
History. -- Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for
fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his
latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the
Israelites to pass through their land. (Numbers 20:18-21) For a period of
400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and
defeated by Saul, (1 Samuel 14:47) and some forty years later by David. (2
Samuel 8:13,14) In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites
attempted to invade Israel, but failed. (2 Chronicles 20:22) They joined
Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at
this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. (Isaiah
34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jeremiah 49:17) After this they settled in southern
Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But
during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely
subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit
to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated
with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. (2 Chronicles 25:14,15,20)
Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir,
were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves;
and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their
country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft
sandstone strata.





  • One of the two capital cities of Bashan, in the territory of Manasseh
    east of the Jordan. (Numbers 21:33; 1:4; 3:10; Joshua 12:4) In Scripture
    it is only mentioned in connection with the victory gained by the
    Israelites over the Amorites under Og their king, and the territory thus
    acquired. The ruins of this ancient city, still bearing the name
    Edr’a, stand on a rocky promontory which projects from the
    southwest corner of the Lejah. The ruins are nearly three miles in
    circumference, and have a strange, wild, look, rising up in dark,
    shattered masses from the midst of a wilderness of black rocks.

  • A town of northern Palestine, allotted to the tribe of Naphtali, and
    situated near Kedesh. (Joshua 19:37) About two miles south of Kedesh is a
    conical rocky hill called Tell Khuraibeh, the "tell of the ruin,"
    which may be the site of Edrei.


There is little trace among the Hebrews in earlier times of education in
any other subjects than the law. The wisdom therefore and instruction, of
which so much is said in the book of Proverbs, are to be understood
chiefly of moral and religious discipline, imparted, according to the
direction of the law, by the teaching and under the example of parents.
(But Solomon himself wrote treatises on several scientific subjects, which
must have been studied in those days.) In later times the prophecies and
comments on them, as well as on the earlier Scriptures, together with
other subjects, were studied. Parents were required to teach their
children some trade. (Girls also went to schools, and women generally
among the Jews were treated with greater equality to men than in any other
ancient nation.) Previous to the captivity, the chief depositaries of
learning were the schools or colleges, from which in most cases proceeded
that succession of public teachers who at various times endeavored to
reform the moral and religious conduct of both rulers and people. Besides
the prophetical schools instruction was given by the priests in the temple
and elsewhere. [See SCHOOLS]


(a heifer), one of David's wives during his reign in Hebron. (2
Samuel 3:5; 1 Chronicles 3:3) (B.C. 1055.)


(two ponds), a place named only in (Isaiah 15:8) probably the same



  • A king of the Moabites, (Judges 3:12) ff., who, aided by the Ammonites
    and the Amelekites, crossed the Joran and took "the city of palm trees."
    (B.C. 1359.) here, according to Josephus, he built himself a palace, and
    continued for eighteen years to oppress the children of Israel, who paid
    him tribute. He was slain by Ehud. [EHUD]

  • A town of Judah in the low country. (Joshua 15:39) The name survives
    in the modern Ajlan, a shapeless mass of ruins, about 10 miles
    from Eleutheropolis and 14 from Gaza, on the south of the great maritime


(land of the Copts), a country occupying the northeast angle of
Africa. Its limits appear always to have been very nearly the same. It is
bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine,
Arabia and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the
Great Desert. It is divided into upper Egypt -- the valley of the Nile --
and lower Egypt, the plain of the Delta, from the Greek letter; it is
formed by the branching mouths of the Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea. The
portions made fertile by the Nile comprise about 9582 square geographical
miles, of which only about 5600 is under cultivation. -- Encyc. Brit. The
Delta extends about 200 miles along the Mediterranean, and Egypt is 520
miles long from north to south from the sea to the First Cataract. NAMES.
-- The common name of Egypt in the Bible is "Mizraim." It is in the dual
number, which indicates the two natural divisions of the country into an
upper and a lower region. The Arabic name of Egypt -- Mizr --
signifies "red mud." Egypt is also called in the Bible "the land of Ham,"
(Psalms 105:23,27) comp. Psalms 78:51 -- a name most probably referring to
Ham the son of Noah -- and "Rahab," the proud or insolent: these appear to
be poetical appellations. The common ancient Egyptian name of the country
is written in hieroglyphics Kem, which was perhaps pronounced Chem. This
name signifies, in the ancient language and in Coptic, "black," on account
of the blackness of its alluvial soil. We may reasonably conjecture that
Kem is the Egyptian equivalent of Ham. GENERAL APPEARANCE, CLIMATE, ETC.
-- The general appearance of the country cannot have greatly changed since
the days of Moses. The whole country is remarkable for its extreme
fertility, which especially strikes the beholder when the rich green of
the fields is contrasted with the utterly bare, yellow mountains or the
sand-strewn rocky desert on either side. The climate is equable and
healthy. Rain is not very unfrequent on the northern coast, but inland is
very rare. Cultivation nowhere depends upon it. The inundation of the Nile
fertilizes and sustains the country, and makes the river its chief
blessing. The Nile was on this account anciently worshipped. The rise
begins in Egypt about the summer solstice, and the inundation commences
about two months later. The greatest height is attained about or somewhat
after the autumnal equinox. The inundation lasts about three months. The
atmosphere, except on the seacoast, is remarkably dry and clear, which
accounts for the so perfect preservation of the monuments, with their
pictures and inscriptions. The heat is extreme during a large part of the
year. The winters are mild, -- from 50


the native or natives of Egypt.


(my brother), head of one of the Benjamite houses according to the
list in (Genesis 46:21) He seems to be the same as Ahiram in the list in
(Numbers 26:38) In (1 Chronicles 8:1) he is called Aharah, and perhaps
also Ahoah in ver. 4, Ahiah, ver. 7, and Aher, (1 Chronicles 7:12)



  • Ehud son of Bilhah, and great-grandson of Benjamin the patriarch. (1
    Chronicles 7:10; 8:6)

  • Ehud son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin, (Judges 3:15) the second
    judge of the Israelites. (B.C. about 1370.) In the Bible he is not called
    a judge, but a deliverer (l.c.): so Othniel, (Judges 3:9) and all the
    Judges. (Nehemiah 9:27) As a Benjamite he was specially chosen to destroy
    Eglon, who had established himself in Jericho, which was included in the
    boundaries of that tribe. He was very strong, and left-handed.


(a rooting up), a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:27)


(torn up by the roots; emigration), one of the five towns belonging
to the lords of the Philistines, and the most northerly of the five.
(Joshua 13:3) Like the other Philistine cities its situation was in the
lowlands. It fell to the lot of Judah. (Joshua 15:45,46; Judges 1:18)
Afterwards we find it mentioned among the cities of Dan. (Joshua 19:43)
Before the monarchy it was again in full possession of the Philistines. (1
Samuel 5:10) Akir, the modern representative of Ekron, lies about
five miles southwest of Ramleh. In the Apocrypha it appears as
ACCARON. 1Macc 10:89 only.


(whom God has put on), a descendant of Ephraim through Shuthelah.
(1 Chronicles 7:20)


(an oak, strength).

  • The son and successor of Baasha king of Israel. (1 Kings 16:8-10) His
    reign laster for little more than a year; comp. ver. 8 with 10. (B.C.
    928-7.) He was killed while drunk, by Zimri, in the house of his steward
    Azra, who was probably a confederate in the plot.

  • Father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel. (2 Kings 15:30; 17:1) (B.C.
    729 or before.).


  • One of the dukes of Edom. (Genesis 36:41; 1 Chronicles 1:52)

  • Shimei ben-Elah was Solomon's commissariat officer in Benjamin. (1
    Kings 4:18) (B.C. 1013.)

  • A son of Caleb the son of Jephuneh. (1 Chronicles 4:15) (B.C.

  • Son of Uzzi, a Benjamite, (1 Chronicles 9:8) s, and one of the chiefs
    of the tribe at the settlement of the country. (B.C. 536.)


(valley of the terebinth), the valley in which David killed
Goliath. (1 Samuel 17:2,19) It lay somewhere near Socoh of Judah and
Azekah, and was nearer Ekron than any other Philistine town. 1Sam. 17.



  • This seems to have been originally the name of a man, the son of Shem.
    (Genesis 10:22; 1 Chronicles 1:17) Commonly, however, it is used as the
    appellation of a country. (Genesis 14:1,9; Isaiah 11:11; 21:2) The Elam of
    Scripture appears to be the province lying south of Assyria and east of
    Persia proper, to which Herodotus gives the name of Cissia (iii. 91, v.
    49, etc.), and which is termed Susis or Susiana by the geographers. Its
    capital was Susa. This country was originally people by descendants of
    Shem. By the time of Abraham a very important power had been built up in
    the same region. It is plain that at this early time the predominant power
    in lower Mesopotamia was Elam, which for a while held the place possessed
    earlier by Babylon, (Genesis 10:10) and later by either Babylon or

  • A Korhite Levite in the time of King David. (1 Chronicles 26:3) (B.C.

  • A chief man of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:24)

  • "Children of Elam," to the number of 1254, returned with Zerubbabel
    from Babylon. (Ezra 2:7; Nehemiah 7:12) 1Esd. 5:12. (B.C. 536 or before.)
    Elam occurs amongst the names of the chief of the people who signed the
    covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:14)

  • In the same lists is a second Elam, whose sons, to the same number as
    in the former case, returned with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:31; Nehemiah 7:34)
    and which for the sake of distinction is called "the other Elam."

  • One of the priests who accompanied Nehemiah at the dedication of the
    new wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:42)


This word is found only in (Ezra 4:9) The Elamites were the original
inhabitants of the country called Elam; they were descendants of Shem, and
perhaps drew their name from an actual man Elam. (Genesis 10:22)


(whom God made).

  • A priest in the time of Ezra who had married a Gentile wife. (Ezra
    10:22) (B.C. 458).

  • Son of Shaphan, one of the two men who were sent on a mission by King
    Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon. (Jeremiah 29:3) (B.C. 594.)


(a grove), the name of a town of the land of Edom, commonly
mentioned with Ezion-geber, and situated at the head of the Arabian Gulf,
which was thence called the Elanitic Gulf. It first occurs in the account
of the wanderings, (2:8) and in later times must have come under the rule
of David. (2 Samuel 8:14) We find the place named again in connection with
Solomon's navy. (1 Kings 9:26) comp. 2Chr 8:17 In the Roman period it
became a frontier town of the south and the residence of a Christian
bishop. The Arabic name is Eyleh, and palm groves still exist
there, after which it was named.


(the God of Bethel), the name which Jacob is said to have bestowed
on the place at which God appeared to him when he was flying from Esau.
(Genesis 35:7)


(Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:3) the last in order of the sons of


(favored of God) and Me’dad (love), two of the
seventy elders to whom was communicated the prophetic power of Moses.
(Numbers 11:16,26) (B.C. 1490.) Although their names were upon the last
which Moses had drawn up, (Numbers 11:26) they did not repair with the
rest of their brethren to the tabernacle, but continued to prophesy in the
camp. moses, being requested by Joshua to forbid this, refused to do so,
and expressed a wish that the gift of prophecy might be diffused
throughout the people.


The term elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports,
was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the
surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people
who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation.
It had reference to various offices. (Genesis 24:2; 50:7; 2 Samuel 12:17;
Ezekiel 27:9) As betokening a political office, it applied not only to the
Hebrews, but also to the Egyptians, (Genesis 50:7) the Moabites and the
Midianites. (Numbers 22:7) The earliest notice of the elders acting in
concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the
representatives of the people, so much so that elders and
people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp. (Joshua
24:1) with (Joshua 24:2,19,21) and (1 Samuel 8:4) with (1 Samuel
8:7,10,19) Their authority was undefined, and extended to all matters
concerning the public weal. Their number and influence may be inferred
from (1 Samuel 30:26)ff. They retained their position under all the
political changes which the Jews underwent. The seventy elders mentioned
in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the
origin of the tribunal of seventy elders called the Sanhedrin or Council.
In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the
bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of elders or
rulers of the synagogues. [BISHOP]


(praised by God), a descendant of Ephraim. (1 Chronicles 7:21)


(the ascending of God), a place on the east of Jordan, taken
possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben. (Numbers 32:3,37) By
Isaiah and Jeremiah it is mentioned as a Moabite town. (Isaiah 15:4; 16:9;
Jeremiah 48:34)


(whom God made).

  • Son of Helez, one of the descendants of Judah, of the family of
    Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:39) (B.C. after 1046.)

  • Son of Rapha or Rephaiah; a descendant of Saul through Jonathan and
    Merib-baal or Mephibosheth. (1 Chronicles 8:37; 9:43) (B.C. before


(help of God).

  • Third son of Aaron. After the death of Nadab and Abihu without
    children, (Leviticus 10:6; Numbers 3:4) Eleazar was appointed chief over
    the principal Levites. (Numbers 3:32) With his brother Ithamar he
    ministered as a priest during their father's lifetime, and immediately
    before his death was invested on Mount Hor with the sacred garments, as
    the successor of Aaron in the office of high priest. (Numbers 20:28) (B.C.
    1452.) One of his first duties was in conjunction with Moses to
    superintend the census of the people. (Numbers 26:3) After the conquest of
    Canaan by Joshua he took part in the distribution of the land. (Joshua
    14:1) The time of his death is not mentioned in Scripture.

  • The son of Abinadab, of the hill of Kirjath-jearim. (1 Samuel 7:1)
    (B.C. 1134.)

  • One of the three principal mighty men of David's army. (2 Samuel 23:9;
    1 Chronicles 11:12) (B.C. 1046.)

  • A Merarite Levite, son of Mahli and grandson of Merari. (1 Chronicles
    23:21,22; 24:28)

  • A priest who took part in the feast of dedication under Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 12:42) (B.C. 446.)

  • One of the sons of Parosh, an Israelite (i.e. a layman) who had
    married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:25)

  • Son of Phinehas, a Levite. (Ezra 8:33)

  • The son of Eliud, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Matthew


(God, the God of Israel), the name bestowed by Jacob on the altar
which he erected facing the city of Shechem. (Genesis 33:19,20)


(the ox), one of the towns allotted to Benjamin, and named next to
Jerusalem. (Joshua 18:28)


(the grace of God).

  • A distinguished warrior in the time of King David, who performed a
    memorable exploit against the Philistines. (2 Samuel 21:19; 1 Chronicles
    20:5) (B.C. about 1020.)

  • One of "the thirty" of David's guard, and named first on the list. (2
    Samuel 23:24; 1 Chronicles 11:26)


(ascension), a descendant of Aaron through Ithamar, the youngest of
his two surviving sons. (Leviticus 10:1,2,12) comp. 1Kin 2:27 with 2Sam
8:17; 1Chr 24:3 (B.C. 1214-1116.) he was the first of the line of Ithamar
who held the office of high priest. The office remained in his family till
Abiathar was thrust out by Solomon, (1 Kings 1:7; 2:26,27) when it passed
back again to the family of Eleazar int he person of Zadok. (1 Kings 2:35)
Its return to the elder branch was one part of the punishment which had
been denounced against Eli during his lifetime, for his culpable
negligence. (1 Samuel 2:22-25) when his sons profaned the priesthood;
comp. (1 Samuel 2:27-36) with 1Kin 2:27 Notwithstanding this one great
blemish, the character of Eli is marked by eminent piety, as shown by his
meek submission to the divine judgment, (1 Samuel 3:18) and his supreme
regard for the ark of God. (1 Samuel 4:18) In addition to the office of
high priest he held that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98
years, (1 Samuel 4:18) In addition to the office of high priest he held
that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98 years, (1 Samuel 4:18)
overcome by the disastrous intelligence that the ark of God had been taken
in battle by the Philistines, who had also slain his sons Hophni and


The Hebrew form, as Eloi, Eloi, etc., is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common
language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of
the twenty-second Psalm; they mean "My God, my God, why hast thou
forsaken me?"


(God is my father).

  • Son of Helon and leader of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the
    census in the wilderness of Sinai. (Numbers 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16)
    (B.C. 1490.)

  • A Reubenite, father of Dathan and Abiram. (Numbers 16:1,12; 26:8,9;

  • One of David's brothers, the eldest of the family. (1 Samuel 16:6;
    17:13,28; 1 Chronicles 2:13) (B.C. 1063.)

  • A Levite in the time of David, who was both a "porter" and a musician
    on the "psaltery." (1 Chronicles 15:18,20; 16:5)

  • One of the warlike Gadite leaders who came over to David when he was
    in the wilderness taking refuge from Saul. (1 Chronicles 12:9) (B.C.

  • An ancestor of Samuel the prophet; a Kohathite Levite, son of Nahath.
    (1 Chronicles 6:27) (B.C. 1250).

  • Son of Nathanael, one of the fore-fathers of Judith, and therefore
    belonging to the tribe of Simeon. Judith 8:1.


(known by God).

  • One of David's sons; according to the lists, the youngest but one of
    the family born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel
    5:16; 1 Chronicles 3:8) (B.C. after 1033.)

  • A mighty man of war, a Benjamite, who led 200,000 of his tribe to the
    army of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:17) (B.C. 945.)


father of Rezon, the captain of a marauding band that annoyed Solomon. (1
Kings 11:23)


(my God is Jehovah).

  • A Benjamite, a chief man of the tribe. (1 Chronicles 8:27)

  • One of the Bene-Elam, an Israelite (i.e. a layman) who had married a
    foreign wife. (Ezra 10:26)


(whom God hides), on of the thirty of David's guard. (2 Samuel
23:32; 1 Chronicles 11:33) (B.C. 1046.)


(raised up by God.).

  • Son of Hilkiah, master of Hezekiah's household ("over the house," as)
    (Isaiah 36:3) (2 Kings 18:18,26,37) (B.C. 713.) Eliakim was a good man, as
    appears by the title emphatically applied to him by God, "my servant
    Eliakim," (Isaiah 22:20) and also in the discharge of the duties of his
    high station, in which he acted as a "father to the inhabitants of
    Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah." (Isaiah 22:21)

  • The original name of Jehoiakim king of Judah. (2 Kings 23:34; 2
    Chronicles 36:4)

  • A priest in the days of Nehemiah, who assisted at the dedication of
    the new wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:41) (B.C. 446.)

  • Eldest son of Abiud or Judah; brother of Joseph, and father of Azor.
    (Matthew 1:13)

  • son of Melea, and father of Jonan. (Luke 3:30,31)


(God's people.).

  • Father of Bath-sheba, the wife of David. (11:3)

  • One of David's "thirty" warriors. (2 Samuel 23:34)


the Greek form of Elijah.


  • Head of the tribe of Dan at the time of the census in the wilderness
    of Sinai. (Numbers 1:14; 2:14; 7:42,47; 10:20) (B.C. 1490.)

  • A levite, and "chief of the Gershonites" at the same time. (Numbers


(whom God restores).

  • A priest in the time of King David eleventh in the order of the
    "governors" of the sanctuary. (1 Chronicles 24:12)

  • One of the latest descendants of the royal family of Judah. (1
    Chronicles 3:24)

  • High priest at Jerusalem at the time of the rebuilding of the walls
    under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:1,20,21) (B.C. 446.)

  • A singer in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra

  • A son of Zattu, (Ezra 10:27) and

  • A son of Bani, (Ezra 10:36) both of whom had transgressed in the same
    manner. (B.C. 458.)


(to whom God comes), a musician in the temple in the time of King
David. (1 Chronicles 25:4,27)


(whom God loves), the man chosen to represent the tribe of Benjamin
in the division of the land of Canaan. (Numbers 34:21) (B.C. 1452.)


(to whom God is strength).

  • One of the heads of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan. (1
    Chronicles 5:24)

  • A forefather of Samuel the prophet. (1 Chronicles 6:34)

  • A chief man in the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:20)

  • Also a Benjamite chief. (1 Chronicles 8:22)

  • One of the heroes of David's guard. (1 Chronicles 11:46)

  • Another of the same guard. (1 Chronicles 11:47)

  • One of the Gadite heroes who came across Jordan to David when he was
    in the wilderness of Judah hiding from Saul. (1 Chronicles 12:11)

  • A Kohathite Levite at the time of transportation of the ark from the
    house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 15:9,11) (B.C. 1043.)

  • A Levite in the time of Hezekiah; one of the overseers of the
    offerings made in the temple. (2 Chronicles 31:13) (B.C. 726.)


(my eyes are toward God) a descendant of Benjamin, and a chief man
in the tribe. (1 Chronicles 8:20)


(God is his help).

  • Abraham's chief servant, called by him "Eliezer of Damascus." (Genesis
    15:2) (B.C. 1857.)

  • Second son of Moses and Zipporah (B.c. 1523), to whom his father gave
    this name because "the God of my father was mine help, and delivered me
    from the sword of Pharaoh." (Exodus 18:4; 1 Chronicles 23:15,17;

  • One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles

  • A priest in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 15:24)

  • Son of Zichri, ruler of the Reubenites in the reign of David. (1
    Chronicles 27:16)

  • Son of Dodavah, of Mareshah in Judah, (2 Chronicles 20:37) a prophet,
    who rebuked Jehoshaphat for joining himself with Ahaziah king of Israel.
    (B.C. 895.)

  • A chief Israelite whom Ezra sent with others from Ahava to Cesiphia,
    to induce some Levites and Nethinim to accompany him to Jerusalem. (Ezra
    8:16) (B.C. 459.) 8,9,10. A priest, a Levite and an Israelite of the sons
    of Harim, who had married foreign wives. (Ezra 10:18,23,31)

  • Son of Jorim, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:29)


(my eyes are toward Jehovah), son of Zerahiah, who with 200 men
returned from the captivity with Ezra. (Ezra 8:4) (B.C. 459.)


(God is his reward), one of Solomon's scribes. (1 Kings 4:3)


(whose God is he (Jehovah)).

  • One of the interlocutors in the book of Job. [JOB, JOB, BOOK OF] He is
    described as the "son of Baerachel the Buzite."

  • A forefather of Samuel the prophet. (1 Samuel 1:1)

  • In (1 Chronicles 27:18) Elihu "of the brethren of David" is mentioned
    as the chief of the tribe of Judah.

  • One of the captains of the thousands of Manasseh, (1 Chronicles 12:20)
    who followed David to Ziklag after he had left the Philistine army on the
    eve of the battle of Gilboa.

  • A Korhite Levite in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 26:7)


(my God is Jehovah) has been well entitled "the grandest and the
most romantic character that Israel ever produced." "Elijah the
Tishbite,... of the inhabitants of Gilead" is literally all that is given
us to know of his parentage and locality. Of his appearance as he "stood
before" Ahab (B.C. 910) with the suddenness of motion to this day
characteristic of the Bedouins from his native hills, we can perhaps
realize something from the touches, few but strong, of the narrative. His
chief characteristic was his hair, long and thick, and hanging down his
back. His ordinary clothing consisted of a girdle of skin round his loins,
which he tightened when about to move quickly. (1 Kings 18:46) But in
addition to this he occasionally wore the "mantle" or cape of sheepskin
which has supplied us with one of our most familiar figures of speech. His
introduction, in what we may call the first act of his life, is the most
startling description. He suddenly appears before Ahab, prophesies a
three-years drought in Israel, and proclaims the vengeance of Jehovah for
the apostasy of the king. Obliged to flee from the vengeance of king, or
more probably of the queen (comp. (1 Kings 19:2) he was directed to the
brook Cherith. There in the hollow of the torrent bed he remained,
supported in the miraculous manner with which we are all familiar, till
the failing of the brook obliged him to forsake it. His next refuge was at
Zarephath. Here in the house of the widow woman Elijah performed the
miracles of prolonging the oil and the meal, and restored the son of the
widow to life after his apparent death. 1Kin 17. In this or some other
retreat an interval of more than two years must have elapsed. The drought
continued, and at last the full horrors of famine, caused by the failure
of the crops, descended on Samaria. Again Elijah suddenly appears before
Ahab. There are few more sublime stories in history than the account of
the succeeding events -- with the servant of Jehovah and his single
attendant on the one hand, and the 850 prophets of Baal on the other; the
altars, the descending fire of Jehovah consuming both sacrifice and altar;
the rising storm, and the ride across the plain to Jezreel. 1Kin 18.
Jezebel vows vengeance, and again Elijah takes refuge in flight into the
wilderness, where he is again miraculously fed, and goes forward, in the
strength of that food, a journey of forty days to the mount of God, even
to Horeb, where he takes refuge in a cave, and witnesses a remarkable
vision of Jehovah. (1 Kings 19:9-18) He receives the divine communication,
and sets forth in search of Elisha, whom he finds ploughing in the field,
and anoints him prophet in his place. ch. 19. For a time little is heard
of Elijah, and Ahab and Jezebel probably believed they had seen the last
of him. But after the murder of Naboth, Elijah, who had received an
intimation from Jehovah of what was taking place, again suddenly appears
before the king, and then follow Elijah's fearful denunciation of Ahab and
Jezebel, which may possibly be recovered by putting together the words
recalled by Jehu, (2 Kings 9:26,36,37) and those given in (1 Kings
21:19-25) A space of three or four years now elapses (comp. (1 Kings
22:1,51; 2 Kings 1:17) before we again catch a glimpse of Elijah. Ahaziah
is on his death-bed, (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:1,2) and sends to an oracle
or shrine of Baal to ascertain the issue of his illness; but Elijah
suddenly appears on the path of the messengers, without preface or inquiry
utters his message of death, and as rapidly disappears. The wrathful king
sends two bands of soldiers to seize Elijah, and they are consumed with
fire; but finally the prophet goes down and delivers to Ahaziah's face the
message of death. No long after Elijah sent a message to Jehoram
denouncing his evil doings, and predicting his death. (2 Chronicles
21:12-15) It was at Gilgal -- probably on the western edge of the hills of
Ephraim -- that the prophet received the divine intimation that his
departure was at hand. He was at the time with Elisha, who seems now to
have become his constant companion, and who would not consent to leave
him. "And it came to pass as they still went on and talked, that, behold,
a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and
Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." (B.C. 896.) Fifty men of the
sons of the prophets ascended the abrupt heights behind the town, and
witnessed the scene. How deep was the impression which he made on the mind
of the nation may be judged of from the fixed belief which many centuries
after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and
restoration of his country, as Malachi prophesied. (Malachi 4:5) He spoke,
but left no written words, save the letter to Jehoram king of Judah. (2
Chronicles 21:12-15)


(rejected of God), a Harodite, one of David's guard. (2 Samuel


(strong trees), (Exodus 15:27; Numbers 33:9) the second station
where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It is
distinguished as having had "twelve wells (rather ’fountains’)
of waster, and three-score and ten palm trees." It is generally identified
by the best authorities with Wady Garundel, about halfway down the
shore of the Gulf of Suez. A few palm trees still remain, and the water is


(my God is king), a man of the tribe of Judah and of the family of
the Hezronites, who dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges.
(B.C. 1312.) In consequence of a great death in the land he went with his
wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, to dwell in Moab, where
he and his sons died without posterity. (Ruth 1:2,3) etc.


(my eyes are toward the Lord).

  • Elsest son of Neariah, the son of Shemaiah. (1 Chronicles

  • Head of a family of the Simeonites. (1 Chronicles 4:36) (B.C. after

  • Head of one of the families of the sons of Becher, the son of
    Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)

  • A Korhite Levite, and one of the doorkeepers of the "house of
    Jehovah." (1 Chronicles 26:3)

  • A priest in the days of Ezra, one of those who had married foreign
    wives. (Ezra 10:22) (B.C. 446.) Possibly the same as

  • An Israelite of the sons of Zattu, who had also married a foreign
    wife. (Ezra 10:27) (B.C. 458.)


(whom God judges), son of Ur, one of David's guard. (1 Chronicles
11:35) [ELIPHELET, 3]


(the god of deliverance), the last of the thirteen sons born to
David after his establishment in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:16; 1 Chronicles
14:7) [ELIPHELET, 2]


(God is his strength).

  • The son of Esau and Adah, and the father of Teman. (Genesis 36:4; 1
    Chronicles 1:35,36)

  • The chief of the "three friends" of Job. He is called "the Temanite;"
    hence it is naturally inferred that he was a descendant of Teman. On him
    falls the main burden of the argument, that God's retribution in this
    world is perfect and certain, and that consequently suffering must be a
    proof of previous sin. Job 4,5,15,22. The great truth brought out by him
    is the unapproachable majesty and purity of God. (Job 4:12-21; 15:12-16)


(whom God makes distinguished), a Merarite Levite, one of the
gate-keepers appointed by David to play on the harp "on the Sheminith" on
the occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David. (1 Chronicles


(the God of deliverance).

  • The name of a son of David, one of the children born to him after his
    establishment in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 3:6) (B.C. after 1044.)

  • Another son of David, belonging also to the Jerusalem family, and
    apparently the last of his sons. (1 Chronicles 3:8)

  • One of the thirty warriors of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:34)

  • Son of Eshek, a descendant of King Saul through Jonathan. (1
    Chronicles 8:39) (B.C. before 536.)

  • One of the leaders of the Bene-Adonikam who returned from Babylon with
    Ezra. (Ezra 8:13) (B.C. 459.)

  • A man of the Bene-Hushum in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign
    wife. (Ezra 10:33) (B.C. 458).


(the oath of God), the wife of Zacharias and mother of John the
Baptist. She was herself of the priestly family, and a relation, (Luke
1:36) of the mother of our Lord.


the Greek form of the name Elisha.


(God his salvation), son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; the attendant
and disciple of Elijan, and subsequently his successor as prophet of the
kingdom of Israel. The earliest mention of his name is in the command to
Elijah in the cave at Horeb. (1 Kings 19:16,17) (B.C. about 900.) Elijah
sets forth to obey the command, and comes upon his successor engaged in
ploughing. He crosses to him and throws over his shoulders the rough
mantle -- a token at once of investiture with the prophet's office and of
adoption as a son. Elisha delayed merely to give the farewell kiss to his
father and mother and preside at a parting feast with his people, and then
followed the great prophet on his northward road. We hear nothing more of
Elisha for eight years, until the translation of his master, when he
reappears, to become the most prominent figure in the history of his
country during the rest of his long life. In almost every respect Elisha
presents the most complete contrast to Elijah. Elijah was a true Bedouin
child of the desert. If he enters a city it is only to deliver his message
of fire and be gone. Elisha, on the other hand, is a civilized man, an
inhabitant of cities. His dress was the ordinary garment of an Israelite,
the beged, probably similar in form to the long abbeyeh of
the modern Syrians. (2 Kings 2:12) His hair was worn trimmed behind, in
contrast to the disordered locks of Elijah, and he used a walking-staff,
(2 Kings 4:29) of the kind ordinarily carried by grave or aged citizens.
(Zechariah 8:4) After the departure of his master, Elisha returned to
dwell at Jericho, (2 Kings 2:18) where he miraculously purified the
springs. We next meet with Elisha at Bethel, in the heart of the country,
on his way from Jericho to Mount Carmel. (2 Kings 2:23) The mocking
children, Elisha's curse and the catastrophe which followed are familiar
to all. Later he extricates Jehoram king of Israel, and the kings of Judah
and Edom, from their difficulty in the campaign against Moab arising from
want of water. (2 Kings 3:4-27) Then he multiplies the widow's oil. (2
Kings 4:5) The next occurrence is at Shunem, where he is hospitably
entertained by a woman of substance, whose son dies, and is brought to
life again by Elisha. (2 Kings 4:8-37) Then at Gilgal he purifies the
deadly pottage, (2 Kings 4:38-41) and multiplies the loaves. (2 Kings
4:42-44) The simple records of these domestic incidents amongst the sons
of the prophets are now interrupted by an occurrence of a more important
character. (2 Kings 5:1-27) The chief captain of the army of Syria,
Naaman, is attacked with leprosy, and is sent by an Israelite maid to the
prophet Elisha, who directs him to dip seven times in the Jordan, which he
does and is healed, (2 Kings 5:1-14) while Naaman's servant, Gehazi, he
strikes with leprosy for his unfaithfulness. ch. (2 Kings 5:20-27) Again
the scene changes. It is probably at Jericho that Elisha causes the iron
axe to swim. (2 Kings 6:1-7) A band of Syrian marauders are sent to seize
him, but are struck blind, and he misleads them to Samaria, where they
find themselves int he presence of the Israelite king and his troops. (2
Kings 6:8-23) During the famine in Samaria, (2 Kings 6:24-33) he
prophesied incredible plenty, ch. (2 Kings 7:1-2) which was soon
fulfilled. ch. (2 Kings 7:3-20) We next find the prophet at Damascus.
Benhadad the king is sick, and sends to Elisha by Hazael to know the
result. Elisha prophesies the king's death, and announces to Hazael that
he is to succeed to the throne. (2 Kings 8:7,15) Finally this prophet of
God, after having filled the position for sixty years, is found on his
death-bed in his own house. (2 Kings 13:14-19) The power of the prophet,
however, does not terminate with his death. Even in the tomb he restores
the dead to life. ch. (2 Kings 13:21)


(God is salvation), the eldest son of Javan. (Genesis 10:4) The
residence of his descendants is described in (Ezekiel 27:7) as the isles
of Elishah, whence the Phoenicians obtained their purple and blue dyes.
Some connect the race of Elishah with the AEolians, others with Elishah,
and in a more extended sense Peloponnesus, or even Hellas.


(whom God hears).

  • The "prince" or "captain" of the tribe of Ephraim in the wilderness of
    Sinai. (Numbers 1:10; 2:18; 7:48; 10:22) (B.C. 1491.) From (1 Chronicles
    7:26) we find that he was grandfather to the great Joshua.

  • A son of King David. (1 Samuel 5:16; 1 Chronicles 3:8; 14:7)

  • Another son of David, (1 Chronicles 3:6) who in the other lists is
    called ELISHUA. (B.C. after 1044.)

  • A descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:41)

  • The father of Nethaniah and grandfather of Ishmael. (2 Kings 25:25;
    Jeremiah 41:1)

  • Scribe of King Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 36:12,20,21) (B.C. 605.)

  • A priest in the time of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8) (B.C.


(whom God judges), son of Zichri; one of the captains of hundreds
in the time of Jehoiada. (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B.C. 877.)


(God is her oath), the wife of Aaron. (Exodus 6:23) She was the
daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Nahshon the captain of the host of
Judah. (Numbers 2:3) (B.C. 1491.)


(God is my salvation), one of David's sons, born after his
settlement in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:15; 1 Chronicles 14:5) (B.C.


(God his praise), son of Achim in the genealogy of Christ. (Matthew


(whom God protects).

  • A Levite, son of Uzziel, chief of the house of the Kohathites at the
    time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai. (Numbers 3:30) (B.C.

  • Prince of the tribe of Zebulun. (Numbers 34:25)


prince of the tribe and over the host of Reuben. (Numbers 1:5; 2:10;
7:30,35; 10:18)



  • Son, or rather grandson, see (1 Chronicles 6:22,23) (1Chr 6:7,8) of
    Korah, according to (Exodus 6:24)

  • A descendant of the above in the line of Ahimoth, otherwise Mahath,
    (1Chr 6;26,35; Hebr 11:20

  • Another Kohathite Levite, father of Samuel the illustrious judge and
    prophet. (1 Chronicles 6:27,34) (B.C. about 1190.) All that is known of
    him is contained in the above notices and in (1 Samuel 1:1,4,8,19,21,23)
    and 1Sam 2:11,20

  • A Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:16)

  • A Korhite who joined David while he was at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:6)
    (B.C. 1054.)

  • An officer in the household of Ahaz king of Judah, who was slain by
    Zichri the Ephraimite when Pekah invaded Judah. (2 Chronicles 28:7) (B.C.


(God my bow), the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, hence called
"the Elkoshite." (Nahum 1:1) This place is located at the modern
Alkush, a village on the east bank of the Tigris, about two miles
north of Mosul. Some think a small village in Galilee is intended.


(oak), the city of Arioch, (Genesis 14:1) seems to be the Hebrew
representative of the old Chaldean town called in the native dialect
Larsa or Larancha. Larsa was a town of lower
Babylonia or Chaldea, situated nearly halfway between Ur (Mugheir)
and Erech (Warka), on the left bank of the Euphrates. It is now


(Hosea 4:13) [See OAK]


In the Revised Version, (Luke 3:28) Same as ELMODAM.


(measure), son of Er, in the genealogy of Joseph. (Luke 3:28)


(God his delight), the father of Jeribai and Joshaviah, two of
David's guard, according to (1 Chronicles 11:46)


(God hath given).

  • The maternal grandfather of Jehoiachin, (2 Kings 24:8) the same with
    Elnathan the son of Achbor. (Jeremiah 26:22; 36:12,25)

  • The name of three persons, apparently Levites, in the time of Ezra.
    (Ezra 8:16)


(an oak).

  • A Hittite, whose daughter was one of Esau's wives. (Genesis 26:34;
    36:2) (B.C. 1797.)

  • The second of the three sons attributed to Zebulun, (Genesis 46:14;
    Numbers 26:26) and the founder of the family of the Elonites. (B.C.

  • Elon the Zebulonite, who judged Israel for ten years, and was buried
    in Aijalon in Zebulun. (Judges 12:11,12) (B.C. 1174-1164).

  • On of the towns in the border of the tribe of Dan. (Joshua 19:43)


(oak of the house of grace) is named with two Danite towns as
forming one of Solomon's commissariat districts. (1 Kings 4:9)


(Numbers 26:26) [ELON, 2]


(1 Kings 9:26) [ELATH, ELOTH]


(God his wages), a Benjamite, son of Hushim and brother of Abitub.
(1 Chronicles 8:11) He was the founder of numerous family.


(God his deliverance), one of David's sons born in Jerusalem. (1
Chronicles 14:5)


(God his deliverance), literally "the terebinth of Paran." (Genesis


(God its fear), one of the cities in the border of Dan, (Joshua
19:44) which with its suburbs was allotted to the Kohathite Levites.
(Joshua 21:23)


(God its foundation), one of the towns of the tribe of Judah in the
mountains. (Joshua 15:59) It has not yet been identified.


(God's kindred), one of the cities in the south of Judah, (Joshua
15:30) allotted to Simeon, (Joshua 19:4) and in possession of that tribe
until the time of David. (1 Chronicles 4:29)


(vine; gleaning). (Nehemiah 6:15) 1Macc 14:27. [MONTH]


(God is my praise), one of the warriors of Benjamin who joined
David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1054.)


(a wise man), the Arabic name of the Jewish magus or sorcerer
Bar-jesus. (Acts 13:6) ff. (A.D. 44.)


(whom God hath given).

  • One of the Gadite heroes who came across the Jordan to David. (1
    Chronicles 12:12)

  • A Korhite Levite. (1 Chronicles 26:7)


(whom God protects), second son of Uzziel, who was the son of
Kohath son of Levi. (Exodus 6:22)


the process by which dead bodies are preserved from putrefaction and
decay. It was most general among the Egyptians, and it is in connection
with this people that the two instances which we meet with in the Old
Testament are mentioned. (Genesis 50:2,26) The embalmers first removed
part of the brain through the nostrils, by means of a crooked iron, and
destroyed the rest by injecting caustic drugs. An incision was then made
along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and the whole of the
intestines removed. The cavity was rinsed out with palm wine, and
afterwards scoured with pounded perfumes. It was then filled with pure
myrrh pounded, cassia and other aromatics, except frankincense. This done,
the body was sewn up and steeped in natron (salf-petre) for seventy days.
When the seventy days were accomplished, the embalmers washed the corpse
and swathed it in bandages of linen, cut in strips and smeared with gum.
They then gave it up to the relatives of the deceased, who provided for it
a wooden case, made in the shape of a man, in which the dead was placed,a
nd deposited in an erect position against the wall of the sepulchral
chamber. Sometimes no incision was made in the body, nor were the
intestines removed, but cedar-oil was injected into the stomach by the
rectum. At others the oil was prevented from escaping until the end of the
steeping process, when it was withdrawn, and carried off with it the
stomach and intestines in a state of solution, while the flesh was
consumed by the natron, and nothing was left but the skin and bones. The
body in this state was returned to the relatives of the deceased. The
third mode, which was adopted by the poorer classes, and cost but little,
consisted in rinsing out the intestines with syrmaea, an infusion of senna
and cassia, and steeping the body for several days in natron. It does not
appear that embalming was practiced by the Hebrews. The cost of embalming
was sometimes nearly , varying from this amount down to or .


Various explanations have been offered as to the distinction between
"needle-work" and "cunning work." Probably neither term expresses just
what is to-day understood by embroidery, though the latter may come
nearest to it. The art of embroidery by the loom was extensively practiced
among the nations of antiquity. In addition to the Egyptians, the
Babylonians were celebrated for it.


a precious stone of a rich green color, upon which its value chiefly
depends. This gem was the first in the second row on the breastplate of
the high priest. (Exodus 28:18; 39:11) It was imported to Tyre from Syria,
(Ezekiel 27:16) was used as a seal or signet, Ecclus. 32:6, as an ornament
of clothing and bedding, (Ezekiel 28:13; Judges 10:21) and is spoken of as
one of the foundations of Jerusalem. (Revelation 21:19) Tob. 13:16. The
rainbow around the throne is compared to emerald in (Revelation 4:3)


(28:27; 1 Samuel 5:6,9,12; 6:4,5,11) Probably hemorrhiodal tumors,
or bleeding piles, are intended. These are very common in Syria at
present, Oriental habits of want of exercise and improper food, producing
derangement of the liver, constipation, etc., being such as to cause


(terrors), a tribe or family of gigantic stature which originally
inhabited the region along the eastern side of the Dead Sea. They were
related to the Anakim.


(Matthew 1:23) [IMMANUEL]


(warm baths), the village to which the two disciples were going
when our Lord appeared to them on the way, on the day of his resurrection.
(Luke 24:13) Luke makes its distance from Jerusalem sixty stadia
(Authorized Version "threescore furlongs"), or about 7 1/2 miles; and
Josephus mentions "a village called Emmaus" at the same distance. The site
of Emmaus remains yet to be identified.


(an ass), the father of Sychem. (Acts 7:16) [HAMOR]


at the beginning of many Hebrew words, signifies a spring or fountain.


(double spring), one of the cities of Judah int he Shefelah
or lowland. (Joshua 15:34)


(having eyes.). Ahira ben-Enan was "prince" of the tribe of
Naphtali at the time of the numbering of Israel in the wilderness of
Sinai. (Numbers 1:15) (B.C. 1491.)


primarily denoted the resting-place of an army or company of travellers at
night, (Genesis 32:21; Exodus 16:13) and was hence applied to the army or
caravan when on its march. (Genesis 32:7,8; Exodus 14:19; Joshua 10:5;
11:4) The description of the camp of the Israelites, on their march from
Egypt, Numb 2,3, supplies the greatest amount of information on the
subject. The tabernacle, corresponding to the chieftains tent of an
ordinary encampment, was placed in the centre, and around and facing it,
(Numbers 2:1) arranged in four grand divisions, corresponding to the four
points of the compass, lay the host of Israel, according to their
standards. (Numbers 1:52; 2:2) In the centre, round the tabernacle, and
with no standard but the cloudy or fiery pillar which rested over it, were
the tents of the priests and Levites. The former, with Moses and Aaron at
their head, were encamped on the eastern side. The order of encampment was
preserved on the march. (Numbers 2:17)


The words so translated have several signification: the practice of secret
arts, (Exodus 7:11,22; 8:7); "muttered spells," (2 Kings 9:22; Micah 5:12)
the charming of serpents, (Ecclesiastes 10:11) the enchantments sought by
Balaam, (Numbers 24:1) the use of magic, (Isaiah 47:9,12) Any resort to
these methods of imposture was strictly forbidden in Scripture, (Leviticus
19:26; Isaiah 47:9) etc.; but to eradicate the tendency is almost
impossible, (2 Kings 17:17) and we find it still flourishing at the
Christian era. (Acts 13:6,8)


(fountain of Dor), a place in the territory of Issachar, and yet
possessed by Manasseh. (Joshua 17:11) Endor was the scene of the great
victory over Sisera and Jabin. It was here that the witch dwelt whom Saul
consulted. (1 Samuel 28:7) it was known to Eusebius, who describes it was
a large village four miles south of Tabor. Here to the north of Jebel
the name still lingers. The distance from the slopes of Gilboa to
Endor is seven or eight miles, over difficult ground.


(fountain of the two calves), a place named only by Ezekiel,
(Ezekiel 47:10) apparently as on the Dead Sea; but whether near to or far
from Engedi, on the east or the west side of the sea, it is impossible to


(fountain of the garden).

  • A city in the low country of Judah, named between Zanoah and Tappuah.
    (Joshua 15:34)

  • A city on the border of Issachar. (Joshua 19:21) allotted with its
    "suburbs" to the Gershonite Levites, (Joshua 21:29) probably Jenin
    , the first village encountered on the ascent from the great plain of
    Esdraelon into the hills of the central country.


(fount of the kid), a town in the wilderness of Judah, (Joshua
15:62) on the western shore of the Dead Sea. (Ezekiel 47:10) Its original
name was Hazezon-tamar, on account of the palm groves which surrounded it.
(2 Chronicles 20:2) Its site is about the middle of the western shore of
the lake, at the fountain of Ain Jidy, from which the place gets
its name. It was immediately after an assault upon the "Amorites that
dwelt in Hazezon-tamar," that the five Mesopotamian kings were attacked by
the rulers of the plain of Sodom. (Genesis 14:7) comp. 2Chr 20:2 Saul was
told that David was in the "wilderness of Engedi;" and he took "three
thousand men, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the
wild goats. " (1 Samuel 24:1-4) The vineyards of Engedi were
celebrated by Solomon. (Solomon 1:14)


a term applied exclusively to military affairs in the Bible. The engines
to which the term is applied in (2 Chronicles 26:15) were designed to
propel various missiles from the walls of the besieged town. One, with
which the Hebrews were acquainted, was the battering ram, described in
(Ezekiel 26:9) and still more precisely in (Ezekiel 4:2; 21:22)


His chief business was cutting names or devices on rings and seals; the
only notices of engraving are in connection with the high priest's dress
-- the two onyx stones, the twelve jewels and the mitre-plate having
inscriptions on them. (Exodus 28:11,21,36)


(swift fountain), one of the cities on the border of Issachar named
next to Engannim. (Joshua 19:21)


(fount of the caller), the spring which burst out in answer to the
cry of Samson after his exploit with the jawbone. (Judges 15:19)


(fount of Hazor), one of the fenced cities in the inheritance of
Naphtali, distinct from Hazor. (Joshua 19:37) It has not yet been


(fount of judgment). (Genesis 14:7) [KADESH, KADESHBARNEA]



  • The eldest son of Cain, (Genesis 4:17) who called after his name the
    city which he built. (Genesis 4:18) (B.C. 3870.)

  • The son of Jared and father of Methuselah. (Genesis 5:21) ff.; Luke
    3:37 (B.C. 3378-3013.) In the Epistle of Jude (Jude 1:14) he described as
    "the seventh from Adam;" and the number is probably noticed as
    conveying the idea of divine completion and rest, while Enoch was himself
    a type of perfected humanity. After the birth of Methuselah it is said,
    (Genesis 5:22-24) that Enoch "walked with God three hundred years... and
    he was not; for God took him." The phrase "walked with God" is elsewhere
    only used of Noah, (Genesis 6:9) cf. Genesis17:1 etc., and is to be
    explained of a prophetic life spent in immediate converse with the
    spiritual world. Like Elijah, he was translated without seeing death. In
    the Epistle to the Hebrews the spring and issue of Enoch's life are
    clearly marked. Both the Latin and Greek fathers commonly coupled Enoch
    and Elijah as historic witnesses of the possibility of a resurrection of
    the body and of a true human existence in glory. (Revelation 11:3)


The first trance of the existence of this work is found in the Epistle of
(Jude 1:14,15) An apocryphal book called Enoch was known at a very early
date, but was lost sight of until 1773, when Bruce brought with him on his
return from Egypt three MSS. containing the complete Ethiopic translation.
In its present shape the book consists of a series of revelations supposed
to have been given to Enoch and Noah, which extend to the most varied
aspects of nature and life. And are designed to offer a comprehensive
vindication of the action of Providence. Notwithstanding the quotation in
Jude, and the wide circulation of the book itself, the apocalypse of Enoch
was uniformly and distinctly separated from the canonical Scriptures. Its
authorship and date are unknown.


(springs), a place "near to Salim," at which John baptized. (John
3:23) It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp. (John 3:22) with John
3:26 and with John 1:28 And abounded in water. This is indicated by the
name, which is merely a Greek version of a Chaldee word signifying
"springs." AEnon is given in the Onomasticon as eight miles south
of Scythopolis, "near Salem and the Jordan."


(mortal man), the son of Seth, (Genesis 4:26; 5:6,7,9,10,11; Luke
3:38) properly ENOSH, as in (1 Chronicles 1:1)


Same as ENOS. (1 Chronicles 1:1)


(fount of the pomegranate), one of the places which the men of
Judah reinhabited after their return from the captivity. (Nehemiah 11:29)
Perhaps the same as "Ain and Rimmon," (Joshua 15:32) and "Ain, Remmon,"
(Joshua 19:7) and see (1 Chronicles 4:32)


(fount of the fuller), a spring which formed one of the landmarks
on the boundary line between Judah, (Joshua 15:7) and Benjamin. (Joshua
18:16) It may be identified with the present "Fountain of the Virgin,"
’Ain Umm ed-Daraj, the perennial source from which the pool
of Siloam is supplied.


(fountain of the sun), a spring which formed one of the landmarks
on the north boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:7) and the south boundary of
Benjamin, (Joshua 18:17) perhaps Ain Haud or Ain-Chot -- the
"well of apostles" -- about a mile below Bethany.


(nes ; in the Authorized Version generally "ensign," sometimes
"standard;" degel, "standard," with the exception of (Solomon 2:4)
"banner;" oth, "ensign"). This distinction between these three
Hebrew terms is sufficiently marked by their respective uses. Nes
is a signal, and not a military standard. It is an occasional
signal, which was exhibited on the top of a pole from a bare mountain-top,
(Isaiah 13:2; 18:3) degel a military standard for a large
division of an army; and oth the same for a small one. Neither of
them, however, expresses the idea which "standard" conveys to our minds,
viz. a flag. The standards in use among the Hebrews probably resembled
those of the Egyptians and Assyrians -- a figure or device of some kind
elevated on a pole; usually a sacred emblem, such as an animal, a boat, or
the king's name.


(Joshua 17:7) [See TAPPUAH]


(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in (Romans
16:5) and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto


(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in (Romans
16:5) and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto


(lovely), a fellow laborer with the apostle Paul, mentioned
(Colossians 1:7) as having taught the Colossian church the grace of God in
truth, and designated a faithful minister of Christ on their behalf. He
was at that time with St. Paul at Rome. (A.D. 57.) For Paul's estimate of
him see (Colossians 1:7,8; 4:12)


(lovely), the full name of which Epaphras is a contraction.
(Philemon 2:25; 4:18)


(gloomy), the first, in order,of the sons of Midian, (Genesis 25:4;
1 Chronicles 1:33) afterwards mentioned by (Isaiah 60:6)


  • Concubine of Caleb, in the line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:46)

  • Son of Jahdai; also in the line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:47)




(gloomy), a Netophathite, whose sons were among the "captains of
the forces" left in Judah after the deportation to Babylon. (Jeremiah
40:8; 41:3) comp. Jere 40:13 (B.C. 588.)


(a calf), the second, in order, of the sons of Midian. (Genesis
25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:33) (B.C. 1820).


  • A son of Ezra, among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles

  • One of the heads of the families of Manasseh on the east of Jordan. (1
    Chronicles 5:24)


(cessation of blood-shed), a place between Socoh and Arekah, at
which the Philistines were encamped before the affray in which Goliath was
killed. (1 Samuel 17:1) Under the shorter form of PAS-DAMMIM it occurs
once again in a similar connection. (1 Chronicles 11:13)


was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome,
(Acts 28:16) apparently immediately after he had written the Epistle to
the Colossians [COLOSSIANS, THE EPISTLE TO THE, EPISTLE TO], and during
that period (perhaps the early part of A.D. 62) when his imprisonment had
not assumed the severer character which seems to have marked its close.
This epistle was addressed to the Christian church at Ephesus. [EPHESUS]
Its contents may be divided into two portions, the first mainly
doctrinal, ch. 1-3, the second hortatory and


(permitted), the capital of the Roman province of Asia, and an
illustrious city in the district of Ionia, nearly opposite the island of
Samos. Buildings. -- Conspicuous at the head of the harbor of
Ephesus was the great temple of Diana or Artemis, the tutelary
divinity of the city. This building was raised on immense substructions,
in consequence of the swampy nature of the ground. The earlier temple,
which had been begun before the Persian war, was burnt down in the night
when Alexander the Great was born; and another structure, raise by the
enthusiastic co-operation of all the inhabitants of "Asia," had taken its
place. The magnificence of this sanctuary was a proverb throughout the
civilized world. In consequence of this devotion the city of Ephesus was
called neo’koros, (Acts 19:35) or "warden" of Diana. Another
consequence of the celebrity of Diana's worship at Ephesus was that a
large manufactory grew up there of portable shrines, which strangers
purchased, and devotees carried with them on journeys or set up in the
houses. The theatre, into which the mob who had seized on Paul,
(Acts 19:29) rushed, was capable of holding 25,000 or 30,000 persons, and
was the largest ever built by the Greeks. The stadium or circus,
685 feet long by 200 wide, where the Ephesians held their shows, is
probably referred to by Paul as the place where he "fought with beasts at
Ephesus." (1 Corinthians 15:32) Connection with Christianity -- The
Jews were established at Ephesus in considerable numbers. (Acts 2:9; 6:9)
It is here and here only that we find disciples of John the Baptist
explicitly mentioned after the ascension of Christ. (Acts 18:25; 19:3) The
first seeds of Christian truth were possibly sown here immediately after
the great Pentecost. (Acts 2:1) ... St. Paul remained in the place more
than two years, (Acts 19:8,10; 20:31) during which he wrote the First
Epistle to the Corinthians. At a later period Timothy was set over the
disciples, as we learn from the two epistles addressed to him. Among St.
Paul's other companions, two, Trophimus and Tychicus, were natives of
Asia, (Acts 20:4) and the latter was probably, (2 Timothy 4:12) the former
certainly, (Acts 21:29) a native of Ephesus. Present condition --
The whole place is now utterly desolate, with the exception of the small
Turkish village at Ayasaluk. The ruins are of vast extent.


(judgment), a descendant of Judah, of the family of Hezron and of
Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:37)


(image), father of Hanniel of the tribe of Manesseh. (Numbers


(a sacred vestment originally appropriate to the high priest. (Exodus


(double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph by his wife
Asenath. (B.C. 1715-1708.) The first indication we have of that ascendancy
over his elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of
Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by
Jacob. (Genesis 48:1) ...


that portion of Canaan named after Joseph's second son. (Genesis 41:50-52)
The boundaries of the portion of Ephraim are given in (Joshua 16:1-10) The
south boundary was coincident for part of its length with the north
boundary of Benjamin. It extended from the Jordan on the east, at the
reach opposite Jericho, to the Mediterranean on the west, probably about
Joppa. On the north of Ephraim and Manasseh were the tribes of Asher,
Zebulun and Issachar. The territory thus allotted to the "house of Joseph"
may be roughly estimated at 55 miles from east to west by 70 from north to
south. It was one at once of great richness and great security. Its
fertile plains and well-watered valleys could only be reached by a
laborious ascent through steep and narrow ravines, all but impassable for
an army. Under Joshua the tribe must have taken a high position in the
nation, to judge from the tone which the Ephraimites assumed on occasions
shortly subsequent to the conquest. After the revolt of Jeroboam the
history of Ephraim is the history of the kingdom of Israel, since not only
did the tribe become a kingdom, but the kingdom embraced little besides
the tribe.


In "Baal-hazor which is by Ephraim" was Absalom's sheepfarm, at which took
place the murder of Amnon, one of the earliest precursors of the great
revolt. (2 Samuel 13:23) There is no clue to its situation.


a city "in the district near the wilderness" to which our Lord retired
with his disciples when threatened with violence by the priests. (John


one of the gates of the city of Jerusalem, (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chronicles
25:23; Nehemiah 8:16; 12:39) probably at or near the position of the
present "Damascus gate."


is a district which seems to extend as far south as Ramah and Bethel, (1
Samuel 1:1; 7:17; 2 Chronicles 13:4,19) compared with 2Chr 15:8 Places but
a few miles north of Jerusalem, and within the limits of Benjamin.


a wood, or rather a forest, on the east of Jordan, in which the fatal
battle was fought between the armies of David and of Absalom. (2 Samuel


Of the tribe of Ephraim; elsewhere called "Ephrathite." (Judges 12:5)


(hamlet), a city of Israel which Judah captured from Jeroboam. (2
Chronicles 13:19) It has been conjectured that this Ephrain or Ephron is
identical with the Ephraim by which Absalom's sheep-farm of Baal-hazor was
situated; with the city called Ephraim near the wilderness in which our
Lord lived for some time; and with Ophrah, a city of Benjamin, apparently
not far from Bethel. But nothing more than conjecture can be arrived at on
these points.



  • Second wife of Caleb the son of Hezron, mother of Hur and grandmother
    of Caleb the spy, according to (1 Chronicles 2:19,50) and probably 1Chr
    2:24 and 1Chr 4:4 (B.C. 1695.)

  • The ancient name of Bethlehem-judah. (Genesis 35:16,19; 48:7)


  • An inhabitant of Bethlehem. (Ruth 1:2)

  • An Ephraimite. (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Kings 11:26)


(fawn-like), the son of Zochar, a Hittite, from whom Abraham bought
the field and cave of Machpelah. (Genesis 23:8-17; 25:9; 49:29,30; 50:13)
(B.C. 1860.)


The "cities of Mount Ephron" formed one of the landmarks on the northern
boundary of the tribe of Judah. (Joshua 15:9)


derived their name from Epicurus (342-271 B.C.), a philosopher of Attic
descent, whose "Garden" at Athens rivalled in popularity the "Porch" and
the "Academy." The doctrines of Epicurus found wide acceptance in Asia
Minor and Alexandria. (95-50 B.C.) The object of Epicurus was to find in
philosophy a practical guide to happiness. True pleasure and not absolute
truth was the end at which he aimed; experience and not reason the test on
which he relied. It is obvious that a system thus formed would degenerate
by a natural descent into mere materialism; and in this form Epicurism was
the popular philosophy at the beginning of the Christian era. When St.
Paul addressed "Epicureans and Soics," (Acts 17:18) at Athens, the
philosophy of life was practically reduced to the teaching of these two
antagonistic schools. Epistles, letters; personal correspondence by
writing. The twenty-one epistles of the New Testament took the place of
tracts among us. In their outward form they are such as might be expected
from men who were brought into contact with Greek and Roman customs,
themselves belonging to a different race, and so reproducing the imported
style with only partial accuracy. They begin (the Epistle to the Hebrews
and 1John excepted) with the names of the writer and of those to whom the
epistle is addressed. Then follows the formula of salutation. Then the
letter itself commences in the first person, the singular and plural being
used indiscriminately. When the substance of the letter has been
completed, come the individual messages. The conclusion in this case was
probably modified by the fact that the letters were dictated to an
amanuensis. When he had done his work, the apostle took up the pen or
reed, and added in his own large characters, (Galatians 6:11) the
authenticating autograph. In one instance, (Romans 16:22) the amanuensis
in his own name adds his salutation. An allusion in (2 Corinthians 3:1)
brings before us another class of letters which must have been in frequent
use in the early ages of the Christian Church, by which travellers or
teachers were commended by one church to the good offices of others.



  • First-born of Judah. Er "was wicked in the sight of the Lord; and the
    Lord slew him." (Genesis 38:3-7; Numbers 26:19)

  • Descendant of Shelah the son of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:21)

  • Son of Jose and father of Elmodam. (Luke 3:28)


(watchful), the eldest son of Ephraim. (Numbers 26:36)


(Numbers 26:36)


(length), one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom in the land of
Shinar, (Genesis 10:10) doubtless the same as Orchoe, 82 miles south and
43 east of Babylon, the modern designations of the site -- Warka,
and Irak -- bearing a considerable affinity to the
original name.



  • One of the attendants of St. Paul at Ephesus, who with Timothy was
    sent forward into Macedonia. (Acts 19:22) (A.D. 51.) He is probably the
    same with Erastus who is again mentioned in the salutations to Timothy. (2
    Timothy 4:20)

  • Erastus the chamberlain, or rather the public treasurer, of Corinth,
    who was one of the early converts to Christianity. (Romans 16:23)
    According to the traditions of the Greek Church, he was first treasurer to
    the church at Jerusalem, and afterwards bishop of Paneas.


(watchful), son of Gad, (Genesis 46:16) and ancestor of the Erites.
(Numbers 26:16)


the Greek form of Isaiah. [ISAIAH]


(victor), one of the greatest of the kings of Assyria, was the son
of Sennacherib, (2 Kings 19:37) and the grandson of Sargon, who succeeded
Shalmaneser. He appears by his monuments to have been one of the most
powerful, if not the most powerful, of all the Assyrian monarchs.
He is the only one of them whom we find to have actually reigned at
Babylon, where he built himself a palace, bricks from which have been
recently recovered bearing his name. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen
years, from B.C. 680 to B.C. 667; and it was doubtless within this space
of time that Manasseh king of Judah, having been seized by his captains at
Jerusalem on a charge of rebellion, was brought before him at Babylon, (2
Chronicles 33:11) and detained for a time as prisoner there. As a builder
of great works Esar-haddon is particularly distinguished. Besides his
palace at Babylon, he built at least three others in different parts of
his dominions, either for himself or his sons, and thirty temples.


(hairy), the eldest son of Isaac, and twin-brother of Jacob. The
singular appearance of the child at his birth originated the name.
(Genesis 25:25) Esau's robust frame and "rough" aspect were the types of a
wild and daring nature. He was a thorough Bedouin, a "son of the desert."
He was much loved by his father, and was of course his heir, but was
induced to sell his birthright to Jacob. Mention of his unhappy marriages
may be found in (Genesis 26:34) The next episode in the life of Esau is
the loss of his father's covenant blessing, which Jacob secured through
the craft of his mother, and the anger of Esau, who vows vengeance.
(Genesis 27:1) ... Later he marries a daughter of Ishmael, (Genesis
28:8,9) and soon after establishes himself in Mount Seir, where he was
living when Jacob returned from Padan-aram rich and powerful, and the two
brothers were reconciled. (Genesis 33:4) Twenty years thereafter they
united in burying Isaac's body in the cave of Machpelah. Of Esau's
subsequent history nothing is known; for that of his descendants see EDOM,


This name is merely the Greek form of the Hebrew word Jezreel. "The
great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the
Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and
Samaria from those of Galilee. The western section of it is properly the
plain of Accho or ’Akka. The main body of the plain is a
triangle. Its base on the east extends from Jenin (the ancient
Engannim) to the foot of the hills below Nazareth, and is about 15 miles
long; the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is about 12 miles
long; and the south side, formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 miles.
The apex on the west is a narrow pass opening into the plain of
’Akka. From the base of this triangular plain three branches
stretch out eastward, like fingers from a hand, divided by two bleak, gray
ridges -- one bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa, the other called
by Franks Little Hermon, but by natives Jebel ed-Duhy. The central
branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated. This is the "valley
of Jezreel" proper -- the battle-field on which Gideon triumphed, and Saul
and Jonathan were overthrown. (Judges 7:1) seq. ; (1 Samuel 29:1)
... and 1Sam 31:1 ... Two things are worthy of special notice in the plain
of Esdraelon:

  • Its wonderful richness;

  • Its present desolation. If we except the eastern branches, there is
    not a single inhabited village on its whole surface, and not more than
    one-sixth of its soil is cultivated. It is the home of the wild wandering


the form of the name of Ezra the scribe in 1 and 2 Esdras.


(Greek form of Ezra), The First Book of, the first in order
of the apocryphal books in the English Bible. The first chapter is a
transcript of the last two chapters of 2 Chron., for the most part
verbatim, and only in one or two parts slightly abridged and
paraphrased. Chapters 3,4, and 5 to the end of ver. 6, are the
original portions of the book, and the rest is a transcript more or
less exact of the book of Ezra, with the chapters transposed and quite
otherwise arranged, and a portion of Nehemiah. Hence a twofold design in
the compiler is discernible -- one to introduce and give scriptural
sanction to the legend about Zerubbabel; the other to explain the great
obscurities of the book of Ezra, in which, however, he has signally
failed. Its author is unknown, and it was probably written in Egypt. It
has no historical value.


This exists in a Latin translation, the Greek being lost. Chapters 3-14
consist of a series of angelic revelations and visions in which Ezra is
instructed in some of the great mysteries of the moral world, and assured
of the final triumph of the righteous. The date of the book is uncertain.
Like the first book, it was probably written in Egypt.


(contention), a well which the herdsmen of Isaac dug in the valley
of Gerar. (Genesis 26:20)


(Baal's man), (1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:39) the same as


(wise man), a Horite; one of the four sons of Dishon. (Genesis
36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41)


(cluster of grapes), brother of Mamre the Amorite and of Aner, and
one of Abraham's companions in his pursuit of the four kings who had
carried off Lot. (Genesis 14:13,24) (B.C. 1912.).


or The brook of, a wady in the neighborhood of Hebron
(Mamre), explored by the spies who were sent by Moses from Kadesh-barnea.
(Numbers 13:23,24; 1:24) The name is still attached to a spring of fine
water called ’Ain Eshkali, in a valley about two miles north
of Hebron.


(slope), one of the cities of Judah. (Joshua 15:52)


(oppression), one of the late descendants of Saul. (1 Chronicles


(Joshua 13:3) [ASHKELON, ASKELON]


(a pass), a town in the low country -- the Shefelah -- of
Judah, after wards allotted to Dan. (Joshua 15:33; 19:41) Here Samson
spent his boyhood, and hither after his last exploit his body was brought.
(Judges 13:25; 16:31; 18:2,8,11,12)


with the Zareathites, were among the families of Kirjath-jearim. (1
Chronicles 2:53)


and in shorter form Eshtemoh (obedience), a town of Judah in
the mountains, (Joshua 15:50) allotted to the priest. (Joshua 21:14; 1
Chronicles 6:57) It was one of the places frequented by David and his
followers during the long period of their wanderings. (1 Samuel 30:28)
comp. 1Sam 30:31 Its site is at Semu’a, a village seven
miles south of Hebron.


(effeminate), a name which occurs in the genealogies of Judah. (1
Chronicles 4:11,12)


son of Nagge or Naggai, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:25)


1 Esd. 9:34. [AZAREEL, OR SHARAI]


(enclosed). (Matthew 1:3; Luke 3:33) [HESRON, HEZRON, HEZRON]


a Jewish sect, who, according to the description of Josephus, combined the
ascetic virtues of the Pythagoreans and Stoics with a spiritual knowledge
of the divine law. It seems probable that the name signifies seer,
or the silent, the mysterious. As a sect the Essenes were
distinguished by an aspiration after ideal purity rather than by any
special code of doctrines. There were isolated communities of Essenes,
which were regulated by strict rules, analogous to those of the monastic
institutions of a later date. All things were held in common, without
distinction of property; and special provision was made for the relief of
the poor. Self-denial, temperance and labor -- especially agriculture --
were the marks of the outward life of the Essenes; purity and divine
communion the objects of their aspiration. Slavery, war and commmerce were
alike forbidden. Their best-known settlements were on the northwest shore
of the Dead Sea.


(a star), the Persian name of HADASSAH (myrtle), daughter of
Abihail, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite. Esther was a
beautiful Jewish maiden. She was an orphan, and had been brought up by her
cousin Mordecai, who had an office in the household of Ahasuerus king of
Persia -- supposed to be the Xerxes of history -- and dwelt at "Shushan
the palace." When Vashti was dismissed from being queen, the king chose
Esther to the place on account of her beauty, not knowing her race or
parentage; and on the representation of Haman the Agagite that the Jews
scattered through his empire were pernicious race, he gave him full power
and authority to kill them all. The means taken by Esther to avert this
great calamity from her people and her kindred are fully related in the
book of Esther. The Jews still commemorate this deliverance in the yearly
festival Purim, on the 14th and 15th of Adar (February, March). History is
wholly silent about both Vashti and Esther.


one of the latest of the canonical books of Scripture, having been written
late in the reign of Xerxes, or early in that of his son Artaxerxes
Longimanus (B.C. 444, 434). The author is not known. The book of Esther is
placed among the hagiographa by the Jews, and in that first portion of
them which they call "the five rolls." It is written on a single roll, sin
a dramatic style, and is read through by the Jews in their synagogues at
the feast of Purim, when it is said that the names of Haman's sons are
read rapidly all in one breath, to signify that they were all hanged at
the same time; while at every mention of Haman the audience stamp and
shout and hiss, and the children spring rattles. It has often been
remarked as a peculiarity of this book that the name of God does not once
occur in it. Schaff gives as the reason for this that it was to permit the
reading of the book at the hilarious and noisy festival of Purim, without
irreverence. The style of writing is remarkably chaste and simple. It does
not in the least savor of romance. The Hebrew is very like that of Ezra
and parts of the Chronicles; generally pure, but mixed with some words of
Persian origin and some of the Chaldaic affinity. In short it is just what
one would expect to find in a work of the age to which the book of Esther
professes to belong.


(lair of wild beasts).

  • A village of the tribe of Simeon, specified only in the list in (1
    Chronicles 4:32) comp. Josh 19:7

  • A place in Judah, fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam. (2 Chronicles
    11:6) Here, according to the statements of Josephus and the Talmudists,
    were the sources of the water from which Solomon's gardens and the
    pleasure-grounds were fed, and Bethlehem and the temple supplied.


a cliff or lofty rock, into a cleft or chasm of which Samson retired after
his slaughter of the Philistines. (Judges 15:8,11) This natural stronghold
was in the tribe of Judah; and near it, probably at its foot, were Lehi
and Ramath-lehi and Enhakkore. (Judges 15:9,14,17,19) The name Etam was
held by a city in the neighborhood of Bethlehem, (2 Chronicles 11:6) which
is known to have been situated in the extremely uneven and broken country
round the modern Urtas.


(bounded by the sea), one of the early resting-places of the
Israelites when they quitted Egypt; described as "in the edge of the
wilderness." (Exodus 13:20; Numbers 33:6,7) Etham may be placed where the
cultivable land ceases, near the Seba Biar or Seven Wells, about
three miles from the western side of the ancient head of the gulf.



  • Ethan the Ezrahite, one of the four sons of Mahol, whose wisdom was
    excelled by Solomon. (1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chronicles 2:6) His name is in the
    title of (Psalms 89:1)

  • Son of Kishi or Kushaiah; a Merarite Levite, head of that family in
    the time of King David, (1 Chronicles 6:44) and spoken of as a "singer."
    With Heman and Asaph, the heads of the other two families of Levites,
    Ethan was appointed to sound with cymbals. (1 Chronicles 15:17,19)

  • A Gershonite Levite, one of the ancestors of Asaph the singer. (1
    Chronicles 6:42) Hebr 27. (B.C. 1420.)




(with Baal), king of Sidon and father of Jezebel. (1 Kings 16:31)
Josephus represents him as a king of the Tyrians as well as of the
Sidonians. We may thus identify him with Eithobalus, who, after having
assassinated Pheles, usurped the throne of Tyre for thirty-two years. The
date of Ethbaal's reign may be given as about B.C. 940-908.


(abundance), one of the cities of Judah in the low country, the
Shefelah, (Joshua 15:42) allotted to Simeon. (Joshua 19:7)


(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as
"AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and
embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar,
and northern Abyssinia, and in its more definite
sense the kingdom of Meroe. (Ezekiel 29:10) The Hebrews do not appear to
have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the
Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt.
The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. (Genesis 10:6) They were
divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful.
The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two
countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same
sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour's birth a native dynasty of females,
holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in
Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is
the queen noticed in (Acts 8:27)


properly "Cushite," (Jeremiah 13:23) used of Zerah, (2 Chronicles 14:9)
(8), and Ebed-melech. (Jeremiah 38:7,10,12; 39:16)


a Jewish proselyte, (Acts 8:26) etc., who was treasurer of Candace queen
of Ethiopia, but who was converted to Christianity on a visit to
Jerusalem, through philip the evangelist. Nothing is known of him after
his return to Ethiopia.


The wife of Moses is to described in (Numbers 12:1) She is elsewhere said
to have been the daughter of a Midianite, and in consequence of this some
have supposed that the allusion is to another wife whom Moses married
after the death of Zipporah.


(hire), one of the sons of Helah the wife of Ashur. (1 Chronicles


(munificent), a Gershonite Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:41)


(prudent), a Christian at Rome mentioned by St. Paul. (2 Timothy
4:21) (A.D. 64.)


(good victory), mother of Timotheus. (2 Timothy 1:5) (A.D. before


"The English form of the Greek word which means bed-keeper. In the
strict and proper sense they were the persons who had charge of the
bed-chambers in palaces and larger houses. But as the jealous and
dissolute temperament of the East required this charge to be in the hands
of persons who had been deprived of their virility, the word eunuch came
naturally to denote persons in that condition. But as some of these rose
to be confidential advisers of their royal master or mistresses, the word
was occasionally employed to denote persons in such a position, without
indicating anything of their proper manhood." -Abbott.




(fragrant), a Christian woman at Philippi. (Philemon 4:2) (A.D.
57.) The name is correctly EUODIA, as given in the Revised Version.


is probably a word of Aryan origin, signifying "the good and abounding
" It is most frequently denoted in the Bible by the term "the
river." The Euphrates is the largest, the longest and by far the most
important of the rivers of western Asia. It rises from two chief sources
in the Armenian mountains, and flows into the Persian Gulf. The entire
course is 1780 miles, and of this distance more than two-thirds (1200
miles) is navigable for boats. The width of the river is greatest at the
distance of 700 or 800 miles from its mouth -- that is to say, from it
junction with the Khabour to the village of Werai. It there
averages 400 yards. The annual inundation of the Euphrates is caused by
the melting of the snows in the Armenian highlands. It occurs in the month
of May. The great hydraulic works ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar had for their
chief object to control the inundation. The Euphrates is first mentioned
in Scripture as one of the four rivers of Eden. (Genesis 2:14) We next
hear of it in the covenant made with Abraham. (Genesis 15:18) During the
reigns of David and Solomon it formed the boundary of the promised land to
the northeast. (11:24; Joshua 1:4) Prophetical reference to the Euphrates
is found in (Jeremiah 13:4-7; 46:2-10; 51:63; Revelation 9:14; 16:12) "The
Euphrates is linked with the most important events in ancient history. On
its banks stood the city of Babylon; the army of Necho was defeated on its
banks by Nebuchadnezzar; Cyrus the Younger and Crassus perished after
crossing it; Alexander crossed it, and Trajan and Severus descended it."
-- Appleton's Cyc.


the word used in the Revised Version instead of euroclydon in (Acts 27:14)
It is compounded of two words meaning east and north, and
means a northeast gale.


(a violent agitation), a tempestuous wind or hurricane, cyclone, on
the Mediterranean, and very dangerous; now called a "levanter." This wind
seized the ship in which St. Paul was ultimately wrecked on the coast of
Malta. It came down from the island and therefore must have blown more or
less from the northward. (Acts 27:14)


(fortunate), a youth at Troas, (Acts 20:9) who sitting in a window,
and having fallen asleep while St. Paul was discoursing, fell from the
third story, and being taken up dead, was miraculously restored to life by
the apostle.


(publisher of glad tidings). In the New Testament the "evangelists"
appear on the one hand after the "apostles" and "prophets;" on the other
before the "pastors" and "teachers." They probably stood between the two.
(Acts 21:8; Ephesians 4:11) The work of the evangelist is the proclamation
of the glad tidings to those who have not known them, rather than the
instruction and pastoral care of those who have believed and been
baptized. It follows also that the name denotes a work rather than
an order. Its use is nearly like our word missionary. The
evangelist might or might not be a bishop-elder or a deacon. The apostles,
so far as they evangelized, (Acts 8:25; 14:7; 1 Corinthians 1:17) might
claim the title, though there were many evangelists who were not apostles.
If the gospel were a written book, and the office of the evangelists was
to read or distribute it, then the writers of such books were
pre-eminently THE evangelists. In later liturgical language the word was
applied to the reader of the gospel for the day.


(life), the name given in Scripture to the first woman. The account
of Eve's creation is found at (Genesis 2:21,22) Perhaps that which we are
chiefly intended to learn from the narrative is the foundation upon which
the union between man and wife is built, viz., identity of nature and
oneness of origin. Through the subtlety of the serpent Eve was beguiled
into a violation of the one commandment which had been imposed upon her
and Adam. The Scripture account of Eve closes with the birth of Seth.


(desire), one of the five kings or princes of Midian slain by the
Israelites. (Numbers 31:8; Joshua 13:21)


(the fool of Merodach), (2 Kings 25:27) the son and successor of
Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned but a short time, having ascended the throne on
the death of Nebuchadnezzar in B.C. 561, and being himself succeeded by
Neriglissar in B.C. 559. He was murdered by Neriglissar.


(expulsion from communion).

  • Jewish excommunication. -- The Jewish system of excommunication
    was threefold. The twenty-four offences for which it was inflicted are
    various, and range in heinousness from the offence of keeping a fierce dog
    to that of taking God's name in vain. The offender was first cited to
    appear in court; and if he refused to appear or to make amends, his
    sentence was pronounced. The term of this punishment was thirty days; and
    it was extended to a second and to a third thirty days when necessary. If
    at the end of that time the offended was still contumacious, he was
    subjected to the second excommunication. Severer penalties were now
    attached. The sentence was delivered by a court of ten, and was
    accompanied by a solemn malediction. The third excommunication was an
    entire cutting off from the congregation. The punishment of
    excommunication is not appointed by the law of Moses; it is founded on the
    natural right of self-protection which all societies enjoy. In the New
    Testament, Jewish excommunication is brought prominently before us in the
    case of the man that was born blind. (John 9:1) ... In (Luke 6:22) it has
    been thought that our Lord referred specifically to the three forms of
    Jewish excommunication: "Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when
    they shall separate you from their company, and shall
    reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of
    man's sake."

  • Christian excommunication. -- Excommunication, as exercised by
    the Christian Church, was instituted by our Lord, (Matthew 18:15,18) and
    it was practiced and commanded by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Timothy
    1:20; Titus 3:10) Int he epistles we find St. Paul frequently claiming the
    right to exercise discipline over his converts; comp. (2 Corinthians 1:23;
    13:10) We find, (1) that it is a spiritual penalty, involving no temporal
    punishment, except accidentally; (2) that it consists in separation from
    the communion of the Church; (3) that its object is the good of the
    sufferer, (1 Corinthians 5:5) and the protection of the sound members of
    the Church, (2 Timothy 3:17) (4) that its subjects are those who are
    guilty of heresy, (1 Timothy 1:20) or gross immorality, (1 Corinthians
    5:1) (5) that it is inflicted by the authority of the Church at large,
    (Matthew 18:18) wielded by the highest ecclesiastical officer, (1
    Corinthians 5:3; Titus 3:10) (6) that this officer's sentence is
    promulgated by the congregation to which the offender belongs, (1
    Corinthians 5:4) in defence to his superior judgment and command, (2
    Corinthians 2:9) and in spite of any opposition on the part of a minority,
    (2 Corinthians 2:6) (7) that the exclusion may be of indefinite duration,
    or for a period; (8) that its duration may be abridged at the discretion
    and by the indulgence of the person who has imposed the penalty, (2
    Corinthians 2:8) (9) that penitence is the condition on which restoration
    to communion is granted, (2 Corinthians 2:8) (10) that the sentence is to
    be publicly reversed as it was publicly promulgated. (2 Corinthians


The post of executioner was one of high dignity. Potiphar was "captain of
the executioners." (Genesis 37:36) see margin. That the "captain of the
guard" himself occasionally performed the duty of an executioner appears
from (1 Kings 2:25,34)


(that is, going out [of Egypt]), the second book of the law
or Pentateuch. Its author was Moses. It was written probably during the
forty-years wanderings int he wilderness, between B.C. 1491 and 1451. It
may be divided into two principal parts:

  • Historical, chs. (Exodus 1:1-18; 27:1) ... and

  • Legislative, chs. (Exodus 19:40; 38:1)

  • The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the
    great increase of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and their
    oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death
    of Joseph; the birth, education, flight and return of Moses; the
    ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the
    successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by
    means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at
    length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the
    departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount

  • This part gives a sketch of the early history of Israel as a nation;
    and the history has three clearly-marked stages. First we see a nation
    enslaved; next a nation redeemed; lastly a nation set apart, and through
    the blending of its religious and political life consecrated to the
    service of God.


of the Israelites from Egypt. the common chronology places the date of
this event at B.C. 1491, deriving it in this way: -- In (1 Kings 6:1) it
is stated that the building of the temple, in the forth year of Solomon,
was in the 480th year after the exodus. The fourth year of Solomon was
bout B.C. 1012. Add the 480 years (leaving off one years because neither
the fourth nor the 480th was a full year), and we have B.C. 1491 as the
date of the exodus. This is probably very nearly correct; but many
Egyptologists place it at 215 years later, -- about B.C. 1300. Which date
is right depends chiefly on the interpretation of the Scripture period of
430 years, as denoting the duration of the bondage of the Israelites. The
period of bondage given in (Genesis 15:13,14; Exodus 12:40,41) and Gala
3:17 As 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The
common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus,
one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Others make it to
cover only the period of bondage spend in Egypt. St. Paul says in
(Galatians 3:17) that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham the
giving of the law (less than a year after the exodus) was 430 years. But
in (Genesis 15:13,14) it is said that they should be strangers in a
strange land,a nd be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in
(Exodus 12:40) But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers
in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the
promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the exodus
they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in (Exodus 12:40) it is said that
the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years.
But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people
who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. (a) This is the
simplest way of making the various statements harmonize. (b) The chief
difficulty is the great increase of the children of Israel from 70 to
2,000,000 in so short a period as 215 years, while it is very easy in 430
years. But under the circumstances it is perfectly possible in the shorter
period. See on ver. 7 (C) If we make the 430 years to include only the
bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the
immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the exodus
200 years later, or B.C. 1300. in either case special difficulty is
brought into the reckoning. (d) Therefore, on the whole, it is well to
retain the common chronology, though the later dates may yet prove to be
correct. The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that
of the ten plagues. [PLAGUES, THE TEN, THE TEN COMMANDMENTS] In the night
in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29) Pharaoh
urged the departure of the Israelites. vs. (Exodus 12:31,32) They at once
set forth from Rameses, vs. (Exodus 12:37,39) apparently during the night
v. (Exodus 12:42) but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month.
(Numbers 33:3) They made three journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here
Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were
saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed. [RED SEA SEA,


one who pretends to expel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers and
ceremonies. Exorcism was frequently practiced among the Jews. (Matthew
12:27; Acts 19:13) David, by playing skillfully on a harp, procured the
temporary departure of the evil spirit which troubled Saul. (1 Samuel
16:23) The power of casting out devils was bestowed by Christ while on
earth upon the apostles, (Matthew 10:8) and the seventy disciples (Luke
10:17-19) and was, according to his promise, (Mark 16:17) exercised by
believers after his ascension. (Acts 16:18)




(The practice of painting the eyelids to make the eyes look large,
lustrous and languishing is often alluded to in the Old Testament, and
still extensively prevails among the women of the East, and especially
among the Mohammedans. Jezebel, in (2 Kings 9:30) is said to have prepared
for her meeting with Jehu by painting her face, or, as it reads in the
margin, "put her eyes in paint." See also (Ezekiel 23:40) A small probe of
wood, ivory or silver is wet with rose-water and dipped in an impalpable
black powder, and is then drawn between the lids of the eye nearly closed,
and leaves a narrow black border, which is though a great ornament. --


(shining), father of Naarai, who was one of David's thirty mighty
men. (1 Chronicles 11:37) (B.C. 1046.)



  • Son of Gad, and founder of one of the Gadite families. (Genesis 46:16;
    Numbers 26:16)

  • Son of Bela, the son of Benjamin according to (1 Chronicles 7:7)


(Matthew 1:9,10) [HEZEKIAH]


(the strength of God), one of the four greater prophets, was the
son of a priest named Buzi, and was taken captive in the captivity of
Jehoiachin, eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem. He was a
member of a community of Jewish exiles who settled on the banks of the
Chebar, a "river’ or stream of Babylonia. He began prophesying B.C.
595, and continued until B.C. 573, a period of more than twenty-two years.
We learn from an incidental allusion, (Ezekiel 24:18) that he was married,
and had a house, (Ezekiel 8:1) in his place of exile, and lost his wife by
a sudden and unforeseen stroke. He lived in the highest consideration
among his companions in exile, and their elders consulted him on all
occasions. He is said to have been buried on the banks of the Euphrates.
The tomb, said to have been built by Jehoiachin, is shown, a few days
journey from Bagdad. Ezekiel was distinguished by his stern and inflexible
energy of will and character and his devoted adherence to the rites and
ceremonies of his national religion. The depth of his matter and
the marvellous nature of his visions make him occasionally obscure.
Prophecy of Ezekiel. -- The book is divided into two great parts,
of which the destruction of Jerusalem is the turning-point. Chapters 1-24
contain predictions delivered before that event, and chs. 25-48 after it,
as we see from ch. (Ezekiel 26:2) Again, chs. 1-32 are mainly occupied
with correction, denunciation and reproof, while the remainder deal
chiefly in consolation and promise. A parenthetical section in the middle
of the book, chs. 25-32, contains a group of prophecies against
seven foreign nations, the septenary arrangement being apparently
intentional. There are no direct quotations from Ezekiel in the New
Testament, but in the Apocalypse there are many parallels and obvious
allusions to the later chapters 40-48.


(departure), The stone, a well-known stone in the
neighborhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of David and
Jonathan. (1 Samuel 20:19)


(bone), one of the towns of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:29)



  • A son of Ephraim, who was slain by the aboriginal inhabitants of Gath
    while engaged in a foray on their cattle. (1 Chronicles 7:21) (B.C. before

  • A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem
    under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:42) (B.C. 446.)

  • Father of Hushah of the sons of Hur. (1 Chronicles 4:4)

  • One of the Gadite chiefs who fought with David. (1 Chronicles 12:8,9)
    (B.C. 1054.)

  • One who aided in repairing the wall at Jerusalem; a Levite. (Nehemiah


(giant's backbone), (Numbers 33:35; 2:8; 1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2
Chronicles 8:17) the last station named for the encampment of the
Israelites before they came to the wilderness of Zin. It probably stood at
Ain el-Ghudyan, about ten miles up what is now the dry bed of the
Arabah, but which was probably then the northern end of the gulf.


According to the statement of (2 Samuel 23:8) Adino the Eznite was another
name for Jashobeam, a Tachmonite. (1 Chronicles 11:11) (Probably the words
are a corruption for the Hebrew "he lifted up his spear." -- Fausset.)


(help), called ESDRAS in the Apocrypha, the famous scribe and
priest. He was a learned and pious priest residing at Babylon in the time
of Artaxerxes Longimanus. The origin of his influence with the king does
not appear, but in the seventh year of his reign he obtained leave to go
to Jerusalem, and to take with him a company of Israelites. (B.C. 457.)
The journey from Babylon to Jerusalem took just four months; and the
company brought with them a large freewill offering of gold and silver,
and silver vessels. It appears that Ezra's great design was to effect a
religious reformation among the Palestine Jews. His first step was to
enforce separation upon all who had married foreign wives. (Ezra 10:1) ...
This was effected in little more than six months after his arrival at
Jerusalem. With the detailed account of this important transaction Ezra's
autobiography ends abruptly, and we hear nothing more of him till,
thirteen years afterwards, in the twentieth of Artaxerxes, we find him
again at Jerusalem with Nehemiah. It seems probable that after effecting
the above reformations he returned to the king of Persia. The functions he
executed under Nehemiah's government were purely of a priestly and
ecclesiastical character. The date of his death is uncertain. There was a
Jewish tradition that he was buried in Persia. The principal works
ascribed to him by the Jews are --

  • The instruction of the great synagogue;

  • The settling the canon of Scripture, and restoring, correcting and
    editing the whole sacred volume;

  • The introduction of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew or

  • The authorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and, some
    add, Esther; and, many of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel,
    Daniel, and the twelve prophets;

  • The establishment of synagogues.


is a continuation of the books of Chronicles. The period covered by the
book is eighty years, from the first of Cyrus, B.C. 536, to the beginning
of the eighth of Artaxerxes, B.C. 456. It consist of the contemporary
historical journals kept from time to time, containing, chs. 1-12, and
account of the return of the captives under Zerubbabel, and the rebuilding
of the temple in the reign of Cyrus and Cambyses. Most of the book is
written in Hebrew, but from chs. 4:8 to 6:19 it is written in Chaldee. The
last four chapters, beginning with ch. 7, continue the history after a gap
of fifty-eight years -- from the sixth of Darius to the seventh of
Artaxerxes -- narrating his visit to Jerusalem, and giving an account of
the reforms there accomplished, referred to under EZRA. Much of the book
was written by Ezra himself, though the first chapter was probably written
by Daniel; and other hands are evident.


(son of Zerah), a title attached to two persons -- Ethan, (1 Kings
4:31; Psalms 89:1) title, and Heman, Psal 88:1 title.


(help of Jehovah), son of Chelub, superintendent of King David's
farm-laborers. (1 Chronicles 27:26) (B.C. 1014.).

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