Smith's Bible Dictionary - C

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a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:40)


  • One of the landmarks on the boundary of Asher, (Joshua 19:27) now
    Kabul, 9 or 10 miles east of Accho.

  • Name of the land given to Hiram by Solomon. (1 Kings 9:10-13)


always in the New Testament the Roman emperor, the sovereign of Judea.
(John 19:12,15; Acts 17:7)


(Acts 8:40; 9:30; 10:1,24; 11:11; 12:19; 18:22; 21:8,16; 23:23,33;
25:1,4,6,13) was situated on the coast of Palestine, on the line of the
great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about halfway between Joppa and Dora.
The distance from Jerusalem was about 70 miles; Josephus states it in
round numbers as 600 stadia. In Strabo's time there was on this point of
the coast merely a town called "Strato's Tower," with a landing-place,
whereas in the time of Tacitus Caesarea is spoken of as being the head of
Judea. It was in this interval that the city was built by Herod the Great.
It was the official residence of the Herodian kings, and of Festus, Felix
and the other Roman procurators of Judea. Here also lived Philip the
deacon and his four prophesying daughters. Caesarea continued to be a city
of some importance even in the time of the Crusades, and the name still
lingers on the site (Kaisariyeh), which is a complete desolation,
many of the building-stones having been carried to other towns.


is mentioned only in the first two Gospels, (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27) and
in accounts of the same transactions. It was at the easternmost and most
important of the two recognized sources of the Jordan, the other being at
Tel-el-Kadi. The spring rises from and the city was built on a
limestone terrace in a valley at the base of Mount Hermon 20 miles north
of the Sea of Galilee. It was enlarged by Herod Philip, and named after
Caesar, with his own name added to distinguish it from Caesarea. Its
present name is Banias, a village of some 50 houses, with many
interesting ruins. Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though
it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad. It was
visited by Christ shortly before his transfiguration, (Matthew 16:13-28)
and was the northern limit of his journeys. (Mark 8:27)


The term so rendered in (Jeremiah 5:27) is more properly a trap in which
decoy birds were placed. In (Revelation 18:2) the (Greek term means a


(depression), in full JOSEPH CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews
under Tiberius. (Matthew 26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13,14,24,28; Acts 4:6)
The procurator Valerius Gratus appointed him to the dignity, He was
son-in-law of Annas. [ANNAS]


(possession). Gen. 4. He was the eldest son of Adam and Eve; he
followed the business of agriculture. In a fit of jealousy, roused by the
rejection of his own sacrifice and the acceptance of Abel's, he committed
the crime of murder, for which he was expelled from Eden, and led the life
of an exile. He settled in the land of Nod, and built a city, which he
named after his son Enoch. His descendants are enumerated together with
the inventions for which they were remarkable. (B.C. 4000.)


one of the cities in the low country of Judah, named with Zanoah and
Gibeah. (Joshua 15:57)



  • Son of Enos, aged 70 years when he begat Mahalaleel his son. He lived
    840 years afterwards, and died aged 910. (Genesis 6:9-14)

  • Son of Arphaxad, and father of Sala, according to (Luke 3:36,37) and
    usually called the second Cainan. The is nowhere named in the Hebrew MSS.
    It seems certain that his name was introduced into the genealogies of the
    Greek Old Testament in order to bring them into harmony with the genealogy
    of Christ in St. Luke's Gospel.


(completion, old age), one of the most ancient cities of Assyria.
(Genesis 10:11) The site of Calah is probably market by the Nimrud
ruins. If this be regarded as ascertained, Calah must be considered to
have been at one time (about B.C. 930-720) the capital of the empire.




(sustenance), a man of Judah, son or descendant of Zerah. (1
Chronicles 2:6) Probably identical with CHALCOL.


a vessel for boiling flesh, for either ceremonial or domestic use. (1
Samuel 2:14; 2 Chronicles 35:13; Job 41:20; Micah 3:3)



  • According to (1 Chronicles 2:9,18,19,42,50) the son of Hezron the son
    of Pharez the son of Judah, and the father of Hur, and consequently
    grandfather of Caleb the spy. (B.C. about 1600.)

  • Son of Jephunneh, one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to Canaan.
    (Numbers 13:6) (B.C. 1490.) He and Oshea or Joshua the son of Nun were the
    only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to enter in boldly
    to the land and take possession of it. Fortyfive years afterwards Caleb
    came to Joshua and claimed possession of the land of the Anakim,
    Kirjath-arba or Hebron, and the neighboring hill country. Josh 14. This
    was immediately granted to him, and the following chapter relates how he
    took possession of Hebron, driving out the three sons of Anak; and how he
    offered Achsah his daughter in marriage to whoever would take
    Kirjath-sepher, i.e. Debir; and how when Othniel, his younger brother, had
    performed the feat, he not only gave him his daughter to wife, but with
    her the upper and nether springs of water which she asked for. It is
    probable that Caleb was a foreigner by birth, -- a proselyte, incorporated
    into the tribe of Judah.


The calf was held in high esteem by the Jews as food. (1 Samuel 28:24;
Luke 15:23) The molten calf prepared by Aaron for the people to worship,
(Exodus 32:4) was probably a wooden figure laminated with gold, a process
which is known to have existed in Egypt. [AARON]




The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the
heathen nations of Palestine was the Arabian or one-humped camel,
Camelus arabicus. The dromedary is a swifter animal than the
baggage-camel, and is used chiefly for riding purposes; it is merely a
finer breed than the other. The Arabs call it the heirie. The
speed, of the dromedary has been greatly exaggerated, the Arabs asserting
that it is swifter than the horse. Eight or nine miles an hour is the
utmost it is able to perform; this pace, however, it is able to keep up
for hours together. The Arabian camel carries about 500 pounds. "The hump
on the camel's back is chiefly a store of fat, from which the animal draws
as the wants of his system require; and the Arab is careful to see that
the hump is in good condition before a long journey. Another interesting
adaptation is the thick sole which protects the foot of the camel from the
burning sand. The nostrils may be closed by valves against blasts of sand.
Most interesting is the provision for drought made by providing the second
stomach with great cells in which water is long retained. Sight and smell
is exceedingly acute in the camel." -- Johnson's Encyc. It is clear
from (Genesis 12:16) that camels were early known to the Egyptians. The
importance of the camel is shown by (Genesis 24:64; 37:25; Judges 7:12; 1
Samuel 27:9; 1 Kings 19:2; 2 Chronicles 14:15; Job 1:3; Jeremiah 49:29,32)
and many other texts. John the Baptist wore a garment made of camel hair,
(Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6) the coarser hairs of the camel; and some have
supposed that Elijah was clad in a dress of the same stuff.


(full of grain), the place in which Jair the judge was buried.
(Judges 10:5)




There can be no doubt that "camphire" is the Lawsonia alba of
botanists, the henna of Arabian naturalists. The henna plant grows
in Egypt, Syria, Arabia and northern India. The flowers are white and grow
in clusters, and are very fragrant. The whole shrub is from four to six
feet high, (Solomon 4:13)


(place of reeds) of Galilee, once Cana in Galilee, a
village or town not far from Capernaum, memorable as the scene of Christ's
first miracle, (John 2:1,11; 4:46) as well as of a subsequent one, (John
4:46,54) and also as the native place of the apostle Nathanael. (John
21:2) The traditional site is at Kefr-Kenna, a small village about
4 1/2 miles northwest of Nazareth. The rival site is a village situated
farther north, about five miles north of Seffurieh (Sepphoris) and
nine north of Nazareth.


(Ca’nan) (low, flat).

  • The fourth son of Ham, (Genesis 10:6; 1 Chronicles 1:8) the progenitor
    of the Phoenicians [ZIDON, OR SIDON], and of the various nations who
    before the Israelite conquest people the seacoast of Palestine, and
    generally the while of the country westward of the Jordan. (Genesis 10:13;
    1 Chronicles 1:13) (B.C. 2347.)

  • The name "Canaan" is sometimes employed for the country itself.


(lit. lowland), a name denoting the country west of the Jordan and
the Dead Sea, and between those waters and the Mediterranean; given by God
to Abraham's posterity, the children of Israel. (Exodus 6:4; Leviticus


(Matthew 10:4) Used in the Revised Version in place of "Canaanite." [See


the designation of the apostle Simon, otherwise known as "Simon Zelotes."
It occurs in (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:18) and is derived from a Chaldee or
Syriac word by which the Jewish sect or faction of the "Zealots" was
designated -- a turbulent and seditious sect, especially conspicuous at
the siege of Jerusalem. They taught that all foreign rule over Jews was
unscriptural, and opposed that rule in every way.


a word used in two senses:

  • A tribe which inhabited a particular locality of the land west of the
    Jordan before the conquest; and

  • The people who inhabited generally the whole of that country.

  • In (Genesis 10:18-20) the seats of the Canaanite tribe are given as on
    the seashore and in the Jordan valley; comp. (Joshua 11:3)

  • Applied as a general name to the non-Israelite inhabitants of the
    land, as we have already seen was the case with "Canaan." Instances of
    this are, (Genesis 12:6; Numbers 21:3) The Canaanites were descendants of
    Canaan. Their language was very similar to the Hebrew. The Canaanites were
    probably given to commerce; and thus the name became probably in later
    times an occasional synonym for a merchant.


(prince of servants), a queen of Ethiopia (Meroe), mentioned (Acts
8:27) (A.D. 38.) The name was not a proper name of an individual, but that
of a dynasty of Ethiopian queens.


which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described (Exodus
25:31-37; 37:17-24) It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven
richly-adorned lamps. With its various appurtenances it required a talent
of "pure gold;" and it was not moulded, but "of beaten work," and has been
estimated to have been worth in our money over ,000. From the Arch of
Titus, where the sculptured the spoils taken from Jerusalem, we learn that
it consisted of a central stem, with six branches, three on each side. It
was about five feet high. [See ARCH OF TITUS OF TITUS] The candlestick was
placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle,
opposite the table of shewbread, (Exodus 25:37) and was lighted every
evening and dressed every morning. (Exodus 27:20,21; 30:8) comp. 1Sam 3:2
Each lamp was supplied with cotton and about two wineglasses of the purest
olive oil, which was sufficient to keep it burning during a long night. In
Solomon's temple, instead of or in addition to this candlestick there were
ten golden candlesticks similarly embossed, five in the right and five on
the left. (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7) They were taken to Babylon.
(Jeremiah 52:19) In the temple of Zerubbabel there was again a single
candlestick. 1Macc 1:21: 4:49.


in (Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21) is merely a lamp-stand, made in various
forms, to hold up the simple Oriental hand-lamps.






(Ezekiel 27:23) [SEE CALNEH]


may be generally described as the "collection of books which form the
original and authoritative written rule of the faith and practice of the
Christian Church," i.e. the Old and New Testaments. The word canon
, in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod, "a rule" in the
widest sense, and especially in the phrases "the rule of the Church," "the
rule of faith," "the rule of truth," The first direct application of the
term canon to the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of
Amphilochius (cir. 380 A.D.), where the word indicates the rule by which
the contents of the Bible must be determined, and thus secondarily an
index of the constituent books. The uncanonical books were described
simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized." The canonical books were
also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole
collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily
expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean
persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the
history of its contents. The Old Testament appears from that time as a
whole. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at
present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), and
from that time was accepted throughout the Latin Church. Respecting the
books of which the Canon is composed, see the article BIBLE. (The books of
Scripture were not made canonical by act of any council, but the
council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful
investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and
expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old
Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament
books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and
that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the
Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude. -- ED.)


Judith 10:21; 13:9; 16:19. The canopy of Holofernes is the only one


(Song of Songs), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF
SOLOMON. It was probably written by Solomon about B.C. 1012. It may be
called a drama, as it contains the dramatic evolution of a simple
love-story. Meaning. -- The schools of interpretation may be
divided into three: the mystical or typical, the
and the literal.

  • The mystical interpretation owes its origin to the desire to
    find a literal basis of fact for the allegorical. This basis is either the
    marriage of Solomon with Pharoah's daughter or his marriage with an
    Israelitish woman, the Shulamite.

  • The allegorical. According to the Talmud the beloved is
    taken to be God; the loved one, or bride, is the congregation
    of Israel
    . In the Christian Church the Talmudical interpretation,
    imported by Origen, was all but universally received.

  • The literal interpretation. According to the most
    generally-received interpretation of the modern literalists, the Song is
    intended to display the victory of humble and constant love over the
    temptations of wealth and royalty.
    Canonicity. -- The book has
    been rejected from the Canon by some critics; but in no case has its
    rejection been defended on external grounds. It is found in the
    LXX. and in the translations of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion. It is
    contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of
    Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its canonicity as that
    which is commonly adduced for the canonicity of any book of the Old


(village of Nahum) was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
(Matthew 4:13) comp. John 6:24 It was in the "land of Gennesaret," [
(Matthew 14:34) comp. John 6:17,21,24 ] It was of sufficient size to be
always called a "city," (Matthew 9:1; Mark 1:33) had its own synagogue, in
which our Lord frequently taught, (Mark 1:21; Luke 4:33,38; John 6:59) and
there was also a customs station, where the dues were gathered both by
stationary and by itinerant officers. (Matthew 9:9; 17:24; Mark 2:14; Luke
5:27) The only interest attaching to Capernaum is as the residence of our
Lord and his apostles, the scene of so many miracles and "gracious words."
It was when he returned thither that he is said to have been "in the
house." (Mark 2:1) The spots which lay claim to its site are,

  • Kahn Minyeh, a mound of ruins which takes its name from an old
    khan hard by. This mound is situated close upon the seashore at the
    northwestern extremity of the plain (now El Ghuweir).

  • Three miles north of Khan Minyeh is the other claimant, Tell
    , -- ruins of walls and foundations covering a space of half a
    mile long by a quarter wide, on a point of the shore projecting into the
    lake and backed by a very gently-rising ground. It is impossible to locate
    it with certainty, but the probability is in favor of Tell Hum


one of the numerous words employed in the Bible to denote a village or
collection of dwellings smaller than a city (Ir). Mr Stanley
proposes to render it by "hamlet." In names of places it occurs in
Chephar-he-Ammonai, Chephirah, Caphar-salama. To us its chief interest
arises from its forming a part of the name of Capernaum, i.e.


(a crown), thrice mentioned as the primitive seat of the
Philistines, (2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7) who are once called
Caphtorim. (2:23) Supposed to be in Egypt, or near to it in


(province of good horses), (Acts 2:3; 1 Peter 1:1) the largest
province in ancient Asia Minor. Cappadocia is an elevated table-land
intersected by mountain chains. It seems always to have been deficient in
wood, but it was a good grain country, and particularly famous for
grazing. Its Roman metropolis was Caesarea. The native Cappadocians seem
to have originally belonged to the Syrian stock.


  • As a purely military title, "captain" answers to sar in the
    Hebrew army and tribune in the Roman. The captain of the guard in
    (Acts 28:16) was probably the prefectus pratorio.

  • Katsin, occasionally rendered captain, applies Sometimes to a
    military, (Joshua 10:24; Judges 11:6,11; Isaiah 22:3; Daniel 11:18)
    sometimes to a civil command, e.g. (Isaiah 1:10; 3:6)

  • The captain of the temple, mentioned (Luke 22:4; Acts 4:1; 5:24)
    superintended the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch by night in
    the temple.


A prisoner of war. Such were usually treated with great cruelty by the
heathen nations. They were kept for slaves, and often sold; but this was a
modification of the ancient cruelty, and a substitute for putting them to
death Although the treatment of captives by the Jews seems sometimes to be
cruel, it was very much milder than that of the heathen, and was
mitigated, as far as possible in the circumstances, by their civil


The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew;
from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian
or Babylonian kings. Captives of Israel. -- The kingdom of Israel
was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria. Pul or
Surdanapalus, according to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute (B.C. 771 or 712),
Rawl.) upon Menahem. (2 Kings 15:19) and 1Chr 5:26 Tiglath-pileser carried
away (B.C. 740) the trans-Jordanic tribes, (1 Chronicles 5:26) and the
inhabitants of Galilee, (2 Kings 15:29) comp. Isai 9:1 To Assyria.
Shalmaneser twice invaded, (2 Kings 17:3,5) the kingdom which remained to
Hoshea, took Samaria (B.C. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried
Israel away into Assyria. This was the end of the kingdom of the ten
tribes of Israel. Captivities of Judah. -- Sennacherib (B.C. 713)
is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish
cities which he took. (2 Kings 18:13) Nebuchadnezzar, in the first half of
his reign (B.C. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem,
carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple. The 70
years of captivity predicted by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 25:12) are dated by
Prideaux from B.C. 606. The captivity of Ezekiel dates from B.C. 598, when
that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther (Esther 2:6) accompanied
Jehoiachin. The captives were treated not as slaves but as colonists. The
Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree, (Ezra 1:2) of
Cyrus (B.C. 536), and the return of a portion of the nation under
Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel (B.C. 535), Ezra (B.C. 458) and Nehemiah (B.C.
445). Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11) and kept up their
national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion. (John 7:35; 1 Peter
1:1; James 1:1) The lost tribes. -- Many attempts have been made to
discover the ten tribes existing as a distinct community; but though
history bears no witness of the present distinct existence, it enables us
to track the footsteps of the departing race in four directions after the
time of the Captivity.

  • Some returned and mixed with the Jews. (Luke 2:36; Philemon 3:5)

  • Some were left in Samaria, mingled with the Samaritans, (Ezra 6:21;
    John 4:12) and became bitter enemies of the Jews.

  • Many remained in Assyria, and were recognized as an integral part of
    the Dispersion; see (Acts 2:1; 26:7)

  • Most, probably, apostatized in Assyria, adopted the usages and
    idolatry of the nations among whom they were planted, and became wholly
    swallowed up in them.


This word represents two Hebrew words. The first may he a general term to
denote any bright,sparkling gem, (Isaiah 54:12) the second,
(Exodus 28:17; 39:10; Ezekiel 28:13) is supposed to be and smaragdus or


(severe), the seventh of the seven "chamberlains," i.e. eunuchs, of
King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.).


(fortress of Chemosh) occupied nearly the site of the later
Mabug or Hierapolis. It seems to have commanded the ordinary
passage of the Euphrates at Bir or Birekjik. Carchemish
appears to have been taken by Pharoah Necho shortly after the battle of
Megiddo (cir. B.C. 608), and retaken by Nebuchadnezzar after a battle
three years later, B.C. 605. (Jeremiah 46:2)


(bald head), father of Johanan, (2 Kings 25:23) elsewhere spelt


the southern part of the region which int he New Testament is called ASIA,
and the southwestern part of the peninsula of Asia Minor. (Acts 20:15;


(fruitful place or park).

  • A mountain which forms one of the most striking and characteristic
    features of the country of Palestine. It is a noble ridge, the only
    headland of lower and central Palestine, and forms its southern boundary,
    running out with a bold bluff promontory, nearly 600 feet high, almost
    into the very waves of the Mediterranean, then extending southeast for a
    little more than twelve miles, when it terminates suddenly in a bluff
    somewhat corresponding to its western end. In form Carmel is a tolerably
    continuous ridge, its highest point,a bout four miles from the eastern
    end, being 1740 feet above the sea. That which has made the name of Carmel
    most familiar to the modern world is its intimate connection with the
    history of the two great prophets of Israel, Elijah and Elisha. (2 Kings
    2:25; 4:25; 1 Kings 18:20-42) It is now commonly called Mar Elyas;
    being occasionally, but only seldom, hear.

  • A town in the mountainous country of Judah, (Joshua 15:55) familiar to
    us as the residence of Nabal. (1 Samuel 25:2,5,7,40)


(vine dresser).

  • The fourth son of Reuben, the progenitor of the family of the
    Carmites. (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14; Numbers 26:6; 1 Chronicles 5:3)

  • A man of the tribe of Judah, father of Achan, the "troubler of
    Israel." (Joshua 7:1,18; 1 Chronicles 2:7; 4:1)




a Christian at Troas. (2 Timothy 4:13)


This word signifies what we now call "baggage." In the margin of (1 Samuel
17:20) and 1Sam 26:5-7 And there only, "carriage" is employed int he sense
of a wagon or cart.


(illustrious), one of the seven princes of Persia and Media.
(Esther 1:14)


(Genesis 45:19,27; Numbers 7:3,7,8) a vehicle drawn by cattle, (2 Samuel
6:6) to be distinguished from the chariot drawn by horses. Carts and
wagons were either open or covered, (Numbers 7:3) and were used for
conveyance of person, (Genesis 45:19) burdens, (1 Samuel 6:7,8) or
produce. (Amos 2:13) The only cart used in western Asia has two wheels of
solid wood.


The arts of carving and engraving were much in request in the construction
of both the tabernacle and the temple. (Exodus 31:5; 35:33; 1 Kings
6:18,35; Psalms 74:6) as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly
dresses. (Exodus 28:9-36; 2 Chronicles 2:7,14; Zechariah 3:9)


(silvery, white), a place of uncertain site on the road between
Babylon and Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:17)


(fortified), a Mizraite people or tribe. (Genesis 10:14; 1
Chronicles 1:12)


(Exodus 30:24; Ezekiel 27:19) The cassia bark of commerce is yielded by
various kinds of Cinnamomum, which grow in different parts of
India. The Hebrew word in (Psalms 45:8) is generally supposed to be
another term for cassia.




(Acts 28:11) the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, were regarded as the
tutelary divinities of sailors; hence their image was often used as a
figure-head for ships. They appeared in heaven as the constellation
Gemini. In art they were sometimes represented simply as stars
hovering over a ship.


The representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word
chasil and yelek.

  • Chasil occurs in (1 Kings 8:37; 2 Chronicles 6:28; Psalms
    78:46; Isaiah 33:4; Joel 1:4) and seems to be applied to a locust, perhaps
    in its larva state.

  • Yelek. [LOCUST].




(Acts 27:16) The form given in the Revised Version to Clauda, an
island south of Crete. It bears a closer relation to the modern name
Gaudonesi of the Greek, the Gauda of P. Mela. (Clauda
. -- ED.)


a sort of ornamental head-dress, (Isaiah 3:18) with a net for its base.
The name is derived from the caul, the membranous bag which encloses the
heart -- the pericardium. -- ED.


The most remarkable caves noticed in Scripture are, that in which Lot
dwelt after the destruction of Sodom, (Genesis 19:30) the cave of
Machpelah, (Genesis 23:17) cave of Makkedah, (Joshua 10:10) cave of
Adullam, (1 Samuel 22:1) cave od Engedi, (1 Samuel 24:3) Obadiah's cave,
(1 Kings 18:4) Elijah's cave in Horeb, (1 Kings 19:9) the rock sepulchres
of Lazarus and of our Lord. (Matthew 27:60; John 11:38) Caves were used
for temporary dwelling-places and for tombs.


The Hebrew word erez, invariably rendered "cedar" by the
Authorized Version, stands for that tree in most of the passages where the
word occurs. While the word is sometimes used in a wider sense, (Leviticus
14:6) for evergreen cone-bearing trees, generally the cedar of Lebanon
(Cedrus libani) is intended. (1 Kings 7:2; 10:27; Psalms 92:12;
Solomon 5:15; Isaiah 2:13; Ezekiel 31:3-6) The wood is of a reddish color,
of bitter taste and aromatic odor, offensive to insects, and very durable.
The cedar is a type of the Christian, being evergreen, beautiful,
aromatic, wide spreading, slow growing, long lived, and having many uses.
As far as is at present known, the cedar of Lebanon is confined in Syria
to one valley of the Lebanon range, viz., that of the Kedisha river, which
flows from near the highest point of the range westward to the
Mediterranean, and enters the sea at the port of Tripoli. The grove is at
the very upper part of the valley, about 15 miles from the sea, 6500 feet
above that level, and its position is moreover above that of all other
arboreous vegetation. ("Of the celebrated cedars on Mount Lebanon, eleven
groves still remain. The famous B’Sherreh grove is three-quarters of
a mile in circumference, and contains about 400 trees, young and old.
Perhaps a dozen of these are very old; the largest, 63 feet in girth and
70 feet high, is thought by some to have attained the age of 2000 years."
-- Johnson's Encycl.)




The descriptions of Scripture, (1 Kings 6:9,15; 7:3; 2 Chronicles 3:5,9;
Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4) and of Josephus, show that the ceilings of the
temple and the palaces of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar planks
applied to the beams or joists crossing from wall to wall. "Oriental
houses seem to have been the reverse of ours, the ceiling being of wood,
richly ornamented, and the floor of plaster or tiles."




(accurately Cenchre’ae) (millet), the eastern harbor
of Corinth (i.e. its harbor on the Saronic Gulf) and the emporium of its
trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean, as Lechaeum on the
Crointhian Gulf connected it with Italy and the west. St. Paul sailed from
Cenchrae, (Acts 18:18) on his return to Syria from his second missionary
journey. An organized church seems to have been formed here. (Romans


A small portable vessel of metal fitted to receive burning coals from the
altar, and on which the incense for burning was sprinkled. (2 Chronicles
26:19; Luke 1:9) The only distinct precepts regarding the use of the
censer are found in (Leviticus 16:12) and in (Numbers 4:14) Solomon
prepared "censers of pure gold" as part of the temple furniture. (1 Kings
7:50; 2 Chronicles 4:22) The word rendered "censer" in (Hebrews 9:4)
probably means the "altar of incense."








the husk of corn or wheat which was separated from the grain by being
thrown into the air, the wind blowing away the chaff, while the grain was
saved. The carrying away of chaff by the wind is an ordinary scriptural
image of the destruction of the wicked and of their powerlessness to
resist God's judgments. (Psalms 1:4; Isaiah 17:13; Hosea 13:3; Zephaniah


Chains were used,

  • As badges of office;

  • For ornament;

  • For confining prisoners.

  • the gold chain placed about Joseph's neck, (Genesis 41:42) and that
    promised to Daniel, (Daniel 5:7) are instances of the first use. In
    (Ezekiel 16:11) the chain is mentioned as the symbol of sovereignty.

  • Chains for ornamental purposes were worn by men as well as women.
    (Proverbs 1:9) Judith 10:4. The Midianites adorned the necks of their
    camels with chains. (Judges 8:21,26) Step-chains were attached to the
    ankle-rings. (Isaiah 3:16,18)

  • The means adopted for confining prisoners among the Jews were fetters
    similar to our handcuffs. (Judges 16:21; 2 Samuel 3:34; 2 Kings 25:7;
    Jeremiah 39:7) Among the Romans the prisoner was handcuffed to his guard,
    and occasionally to two guards. (Acts 12:6,7; 21:33)


only in (Revelation 21:19) The name is applied in modern mineralogy to one
of the varieties of agate. It is generally translucent and exhibits a
great variety of colors. So named because it was found near the ancient
Chalcedon, near Constantinople.


(1 Kings 4:31) [CALCOL]


more correctly Chaldae’a, the ancient name of a country of
Asia bordering on the Persian Gulf. Chaldea proper was the southern part
of Babylonia, and is used in Scripture to signify that vast alluvial plain
which has been formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris.
This extraordinary flat, unbroken except by the works of man, extends a
distance of 400 miles along the course of the rivers, and is on an average
about 100 miles in width. In addition to natural advantages these plains
were nourished by a complicated system of canals, and vegetation
flourished bountifully. It is said to be the only country in the world
where wheat grows wild. Herodotus declared (i. 193) that grain commonly
returned two hundred fold to the sower, and occasionally three hundred
fold. Cities. -- Babylonia has long been celebrated for the number
and antiquity of its cities. The most important of those which have been
identified are Borsippa (Birs-Nimrun), Sippara or Sepharvaim
(Mosaib), Cutha (Ibrahim), Calneh (Niffer), Erech
(Warka), Ur (Mugheir), Chilmad (Kalwadha), Larancha
(Senkereh), Is (Hit), Durabe (Akkerkuf); but besides
these there were a multitude of others, the sites of which have not been
determined. Present condition -- This land, once so rich in corn
and wine, is to-day but a mass of mounds, "an arid waste; the dense
population of former times is vanished, and no man dwells there." The
Hebrew prophets applied the term "land of the Chaldeans" to all Babylonia
and "Chaldeans" to all the subjects of the Babylonian empire.


It appears that the Chaldeans (Kaldai or Kaldi) were in the
earliest times merely one out of many Cushite tribes inhabiting the great
alluvial plain known afterwards as Chaldea or Babylonia. Their special
seat was probably that southern portion of the country which is found to
have so late retained the name of Chaldea. In process of time, as the
Kaldi grew in power, their name gradually prevailed over those of
the other tribes inhabiting the country; and by the era of the Jewish
captivity it had begun to be used generally for all the inhabitants of
Babylonia. It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia,
the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient
Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and
religious literature. This is no doubt the "learning" and the "tongue" to
which reference it made in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 1:4) The Chaldeans
were really the learned class; they were priests, magicians or
astronomers, and in the last of the three capacities they probably
effected discoveries of great importance. In later times they seem to have
degenerated into mere fortune-tellers.






(Genesis 43:30; 2 Samuel 18:33; Psalms 19:5; Daniel 6:10) The word chamber
in these passages has much the same significance as with us, meaning the
private rooms of the house -- the guest chamber, as with us, meaning a
room set apart for the accommodation of the visiting friend. (Mark
14:14,15; Luke 22:12) The upper chamber was used more particularly for the
lodgment of strangers. (Acts 9:37)


an officer attached to the court of a king, who formerly had charge of the
private apartments or chambers of the palace. He kept the accounts of the
public revenues. The office held by Blastus, "the king's chamberlain," was
entirely different from this. (Acts 12:20) It was a post of honor which
involved great intimacy and influence with the king. For chamberlain as
used in the Old Testament, see [EUNUCH]


a species of lizard. The reference in (Leviticus 11:30) is to some kind of
an unclean animal, supposed to be the lizard, known by the name of the
"monitor of the Nile," a large, strong reptile common in Egypt and other
parts of Africa.


(pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in
(14:5) But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the
chamois have ever been seen in Palestine or the Lebanon. It is probable
that some mountain sheep is intended.




the capital of a pillar; i.e. the upper part, as the term is used in
modern architecture.


(i.e. cheap man), merchant.


(ravine of craftsmen), a place near Lydda, a few miles east of
Joppa. (1 Chronicles 4:14)


(2 Chronicles 35:20) [CARCHEMISH]


a shallow vessel for receiving water or blood, also for presenting
offerings of fine flour with oil. (Numbers 7:79) The daughter of Herodias
brought the head of St. John the Baptist in a charger, (Matthew 14:8)
probably a trencher or platter. [BASIN]


a vehicle used either for warlike or peaceful purposes, but most commonly
the former. The Jewish chariots were patterned after the Egyptian, and
consisted of a single pair of wheels on an axle, upon which was a car with
high front and sides, but open at the back. The earliest mention of
chariots in Scripture is in Egypt, where Joseph, as a mark of distinction,
was placed in Pharaoh's second chariot. (Genesis 41:43) Later on we find
mention of Egyptian chariots for a warlike purpose. (Exodus 14:7) In this
point of view chariots among some nations of antiquity, as elephants among
others, may be regarded as filling the place of heavy artillery in modern
times, so that the military power of a nation might be estimated by the
number of its chariots. Thus Pharaoh in pursuing Israel took with him 600
chariots. The Philistines in Saul's time had 30,000. (1 Samuel 13:5) David
took from Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 1000 chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4) and from
the Syrians a little later 700, (2 Samuel 10:18) who in order to recover
their ground, collected 32,000 chariots. (1 Chronicles 19:7) Up to this
time the Israelites possessed few or no chariots. They were first
introduced by David, (2 Samuel 8:4) who raised and maintained a force of
1400 chariots, (1 Kings 10:25) by taxation on certain cities agreeably to
eastern custom in such matters. (1 Kings 9:19; 10:25) From this time
chariots were regarded as among the most important arms of war. (1 Kings
22:34; 2 Kings 9:16,21; 13:7,14; 18:24; 23:30; Isaiah 31:1) Most commonly
two persons, and sometimes three, rode in the chariot, of whom the third
was employed to carry the state umbrella. (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Kings 9:20,24;
Acts 8:38) The prophets allude frequently to chariots as typical of power.
(Psalms 20:7; 104:3; Jeremiah 51:21; Zechariah 6:1)


(Acts 7:2,4) [HARAN]




(length), a river in the "land of the Chaldeans." (Ezekiel 1:3;
3:15,23) etc. It is commonly regarded as identical with the Habor, (2
Kings 17:6) and perhaps the Royal Canal of Nebuchadnezzar, -- the greatest
of all the cuttings in Mesopotamia.


(cord), one of the singular topographical terms in which the
ancient Hebrew language abounded. We find it always attached to the region
of Argob. (Deuteronomy 3:4,13,14; 1 Kings 4:13)


(handful of sheaves), a king of Elam, in the time of Abraham, who
with three other chiefs made war upon the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah,
Zeboim and Zoar, and reduced them to servitude. (Genesis 14:17)


is mentioned only three times in the Bible, and on each occasion under a
different name in the Hebrew. (1 Samuel 17:18; 2 Samuel 17:29; Job 10:10)
It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion
of cheese, for they simply express various degrees of coagulation. Cheese
is not at the present day common among the Bedouin Arabs, butter being
decidedly preferred; but there is a substance closely corresponding to
those mentioned in 1Sam 17, 2Sam 17, consisting of coagulated buttermilk,
which is dried until it become quite hard, and is then ground; the Arabs
eat it mixed with butter.


(perfection), (Ezra 10:30) one who had a strange wife.


(completed), (Ezra 10:35) another like the above.


  • A man among the descendants of Judah.

  • Ezri the son of Chelub, one of David's officers. (1 Chronicles


(capable), the son of Hezron. Same as Caleb. (1 Chronicles


(those who go about in black, i.e. ascetics). In the Hebrew
applied to the priests of the worship of false gods. (2 Kings 23:5; Hosea
10:5) in margin; (Zephaniah 1:4)


(subduer), the national deity of the Moabites. (Numbers 21:29;
Jeremiah 48:7,13,46) In (Judges 11:24) he also appears as the god of the
Ammonites. Solomon introduced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of
Chemosh at Jerusalem. (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13) Also identified with
Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Mars and Saturn.



  • Son of Bilhan, son of Jediael, son of Benjamin, head of a Benjamite
    house, (1 Chronicles 7:10) probably of the family of the Belaites.

  • Father or ancestor of Zedekiah the false prophet. (1 Kings 22:11,24; 2
    Chronicles 18:10,23)


(a contraction of Chenaniah), one of the Levites who assisted at the
solemn purification of the people under Ezra. (Nehemiah 9:4)


(established by the Lord), chief of the Levites when David carried
the ark to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 15:22; 26:29)


(hamlet of the Ammonites), a place mentioned among the town of
Benjamin. (Joshua 18:24)


(the hamlet), one of the four cities of the Gibeonites, (Joshua
9:17) named afterwards among the towns of Benjamin. (Ezra 2:25; Nehemiah


(lyre), one of the sons of Dishon the Horite "duke." (Genesis
36:26; 1 Chronicles 1:41)


(axe-men), (Ezekiel 25:16) same as CHERETHITES.


(executioners) and of King David. (2 Samuel 8:18; 15:18; 20:7,23; 1
Kings 1:38,44; 1 Chronicles 18:17) It is plain that these royal guards
were employed as executioners., (2 Kings 11:4) and as couriers, (1 Kings
14:27) But it has been conjectured that they may have been foreign
mercenaries, and therefore probably Philistines, of which name Pelethites
may be only another form.


(cutting, ravine), the torrent-bed or wady in which Elijah
hid himself during the early part of the three-years drought. (1 Kings
17:3,5) The position of the Cherith has been much disputed. The argument
from probability is in favor of the Cherith being on the east of Jordan,
and the name may possibly be discovered there.


apparently a place in Babylonia from which some persons of doubtful
extraction returned to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:59; Nehemiah


The symbolical figure so called was a composite creature-form which finds
a parallel in the religious insignia of Assyria, Egypt and Persia, e.g.
the sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, etc. A cherub guarded
paradise. (Genesis 3:24) Figures of Cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat
of the ark. (Exodus 25:18) A pair of colossal size overshadowed it in
Solomon's temple with the canopy of their contiguously extended wings. (1
Kings 6:27) Those on the ark were to be placed with wings stretched forth,
one at each end of the mercy-seat." Their wings were to be stretched
upwards, and their faces "towards each other and towards the mercy-seat."
It is remarkable that with such precise directions as to their position,
attitude and material, nothing, save that they were winged, is said
concerning their shape. On the whole it seems likely that the word
"cherub" meant not only the composite creature-form, of which the man,
lion, ox and eagle were the elements, but, further, some peculiar and
mystical form. (Some suppose that the cherubim represented God's
among men, the four faces expressing the characters of that
providence: its wisdom and intelligence (man), its strength (ox), its
kingly authority (lion), its swiftness, far-sighted (eagle). Others,
combining all the other references with the description of the living
creatures in Revelation, make the cherubim to represent God's redeemed
The qualities of the four faces are those which belong to
God's people. Their facing four ways, towards all quarters of the globe,
represents their duty of extending the truth. The wings show swiftness of
obedience; and only the redeemed can sing the song put in their mouths in
(Revelation 5:8-14) -- ED).


(hopes), a place named as one of the landmarks on the west part of
the north boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:10) probably Kesla, about
six miles to the northeast of Ainshems, on the western mountains
of Judah.


(increase), fourth son of Nahor. (Genesis 22:22)


(idolatrous), a town in the extreme south of Palestine, (Joshua
15:30) 15 Miles southwest of Beersheba. In (Joshua 19:4) the name is


By this word are translated in the Authorized Version two distinct Hebrew

  • Aron ; this is invariably used for the ark of the covenant,
    and, with two exceptions, for that only. The two exceptions alluded to are
    (a) the "coffin" in which the bones of Joseph were carried from Egypt,
    (Genesis 50:26) and (b) the "chest" in which Jehoiada the priest collected
    the alms for the repairs of the temple. (2 Kings 12:9,10; 2 Chronicles

  • Genazim, "chests." (Ezekiel 27:24) only.


(Heb. ’armon.) (Genesis 30:37; Ezekiel 31:8) Probably the
"palm tree" (Platanus orientalis) is intended. This tree thrives
best in low and rather moist situations in the north of Palestine, and
resembles our sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis).


(the loins), one of the towns of Issachar. (Joshua 19:18) From its
position int he lists it appears to be between Jezreel and Shunem


(lying), a name which occurs but once, (Genesis 38:5) probably the
same as ACHZIB.


(a javelin), the name which in (1 Chronicles 13:9) is given to the
threshing-floor at which the accident to the ark took place. In the
parallel account in 2Sam 6 the name is given as NACHON.


The blessing of offspring, but especially of the male sex, is highly
valued among all eastern nations, while a the absence is regarded as one
of the severest punishments. (Genesis 16:2; 7:14; 1 Samuel 1:6; 2 Samuel
6:23; 2 Kings 4:14; Isaiah 47:9; Jeremiah 20:15; Psalms 127:3,5) As soon
as the child was born it was washed in a bath, rubbed with salt and
wrapped in swaddling clothes. (Ezekiel 16:4; Job 38:9; Luke 2:7) On the
8th day the rite of circumcision, in the case of a boy, was performed and
a name given. At the end of a certain time (forty days if a son and twice
as long if a daughter) the mother offered sacrifice for her cleansing.
(Leviticus 12:1-8; Luke 2:22) The period of nursing appears to have been
sometimes prolonged to three years. (Isaiah 49:15) 2 Macc. 7:27. The time
of weaning was an occasion of rejoicing. (Genesis 21:8) Both boys and
girls in their early years were under the care of the women. (Proverbs
31:1) Afterwards the boys were taken by the father under his charge.
Daughters usually remained in the women's apartments till marriage.
(Leviticus 21:9; Numbers 12:14; 1 Samuel 9:11) The authority of parents,
especially of the father, over children was very great, as was also the
reverence enjoined by the law to be paid to parents. The inheritance was
divided equally between all the sons except the eldest, who received a
double portion. (Genesis 25:31; 49:3; 21:17; Judges 11:2,7; 1 Chronicles
5:1,2) Daughters had by right no portion in the inheritance; but if a man
had no son, his inheritance passed to his daughters, who were forbidden to
marry out of the father's tribe. (Numbers 27:1,8; 36:2,8)


(like his father), a son of David by Abigail. [ABIGAIL]


(pining, sickly), the son of Naomi and husband of Ruth. (Ruth
1:2-5; 4:9) (B.C. 1250.)


(enclosure), a place or country mentioned in conjunction with Sheba
and Asshur. (Ezekiel 27:23)


(longing), a follower and probably a son, of Barzillai the
Gileadite, who returned from beyond Jordan with David. (2 Samuel
19:37,38,40) (B C 1023.) David appears to have bestowed on him a
possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan
was standing. (Jeremiah 41:17)




(circuit), accurately Cinnareth, a fortified city in the tribe of
Naphtali, (Joshua 19:35) only, of which no trace is found in later
writers, and no remains by travellers.


(Numbers 34:11; Joshua 13:27) the inland sea, which is most similarly
known to us as the "Lake of Gennesareth" or "Sea of Galilee."




(snowy), an island of the Aegean Sea, 12 miles from Smyrna. It is
separated from the mainland by a strait of only 5 miles. Its length is
about 12 miles, and in breadth it varies from 8 to 18. Paul passed it on
his return voyage from Troas to Caesarea. Acts 20:15 it is now called




(confidence), father of Elidad, the prince of the tribe of Benjamin
chosen to assist in the division of the land of Canaan among the tribes.
(Numbers 34:21) (B.C. 1450.)


(loins of Tabor) a place to the border of which reached the border
of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:12) It may be the village Iksal, which is
now standing about 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor.


(bruisers), a family or race descended from Javan. (Genesis 10:4; 1
Chronicles 1:7) Authorized Version KITTIM. Chittim is frequently noticed
in Scripture. (Numbers 24:24; Isaiah 23::1,12; Jeremiah 2:10; Ezekiel
27:6; Daniel 11:30) In the above passages, the "isles of Chittim," the
"ships of Chittim, the "coasts of Chittim," are supposed to refer to the
island of Cyprus. Josephus considered Cyprus the original seat of the
Chittim. The name Chittim, which in the first instance had implied to
Phoenicians only, passed over to the islands which they had occupied, and
thence to the people who succeeded the Phoenicians in the occupation of


(a statue, perhaps of Saturn), an idol made by the Israelites in
the wilderness. [REMPHAN]


(green herb), a woman mentioned in (1 Corinthians 1:11)


(1 Samuel 30:30) It may perhaps, be identified with ASHAN of Simeon.


one of the cities in which our Lord's mighty works were done, but named
only in his denunciation. Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13 St. Jerome describes it
as on the shore of the lake, two miles from Capernaum, but its modern site
is uncertain.


(1 Chronicles 4:22) Perhaps the same as ACHZIB.




The disciples, we are told, (Acts 11:26) were first called Christians at
Antioch on the Orontes, somewhere about A.D. 43. They were known to each
other as, and were among themselves called, brethren, (Acts
15:1,23; 1 Corinthians 7:12) disciples, (Acts 9:26; 11:29)
believers, (Acts 5:14) saints, (Romans 8:27; 15:25) The
name "Christian," which, in the only other cases where it appears in the
New Testament, (Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16) is used contemptuously, could
not have been applied by the early disciples to themselves, but was
imposed upon them by the Gentile world. There is no reason to suppose that
the name "Christian" of itself was intended as a term of scurrility or
abuse, though it would naturally be used with contempt.


the name originally given to the record made by the appointed
historiographers in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. In the LXX. these
books are called Paralipomena (i.e. things omitted), which is
understood as meaning that they are supplementary to the books of Kings.
The constant tradition of the Jews is that these books were for the most
part compiled by Ezra. One of the greatest difficulties connected with the
captivity and return must have been the maintenance of that genealogical
distribution of the land which yet was a vital point of the Jewish
economy. To supply this want and that each tribe might secure the
inheritance of its fathers on its return was one object of the author of
these books. Another difficulty intimately connected with the former was
the maintenance of the temple services at Jerusalem. Zerubbabel, and after
him Ezra and Nehemiah, labored most earnestly to restore the worship of
God among the people, and to reinfuse something of national life and
spirit into their hearts. Nothing could more effectually aid these designs
than setting before the people a compendious history of the kingdom of
David, its prosperity under God; the sins that led to its overthrow; the
captivity and return. These considerations explain the plan and scope of
that historical work which consists of the two books of Chronicles. The
first book contains the sacred history by genealogies from the Creation to
David, including an account of David's reign. In the second book he
continues the story, giving the history of the kings of Judah, without
those of Israel, down to the return from the captivity. As regards the
materials used by Ezra, they are not difficult to discover. The
genealogies are obviously transcribed from some register in which were
preserved the genealogies of the tribes and families drawn up at different
times; while the history is mainly drawn from the same document as those
used in the books of King. [KINGS, FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF


By this term we understand the technical and historical chronology of the
Jews and their ancestors from the earliest time to the close of the New
Testament Canon.

  • TECHNICAL CHRONOLOGY. -- The technical part of Hebrew chronology
    presents great difficulties.

  • HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY. -- The historical part of Hebrew chronology is
    not less difficult than the technical. The information in the Bible is
    indeed direct rather than inferential although there is very important
    evidence of the latter kind, but the present state of the numbers make
    absolute certainty in many cases impossible. Three principal systems of
    biblical chronology have been founded, which may be termed (the Long
    System, the short, and the Rabbinical. There is a fourth, which although
    an off shoot in part of the last, can scarcely be termed biblical, in as
    much as it depends for the most part upon theories, not only independent
    of but repugnant to the Bible: this last is at present peculiar to Baron
    Bunsen. The principal advocates of the Long chronology are Jackson. Hales
    and Des-Vignoles. Of the Short chronology Ussher may be considered as the
    most able advocate The Rabbinical chronology accept the biblical numbers,
    but makes the most arbitrary corrections. For the date of the Exodus it
    has been virtually accepted by Bunsen, Lepsius and Lord A. Hervey. The
    numbers given by the LXX. for the antediluvian patriarchs would place the
    creation of Adam 2262 years before the end of the flood or B.C. cir. 5361
    or 5421.


one of the precious stones in the foundation of the heavenly Jerusalem.
(Revelation 21:20) It has been already stated [BERYL] that the chrysolite
of the ancients is identical with the modern oriental topaz the
tarhish of the Hebrew Bible.


occurs only in (Revelation 21:20) The true chrysoprase is sometimes found
in antique Egyptian jewelry set alternately with bits of lapis-lazuli. It
is problem therefore, that this is the stone named as the tenth in the
walls of the heavenly Jerusalem.


Latin form of CHRYSOPRAS.


the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar,
(Ezekiel 30:5) and probably of northern Africa.


(1 Chronicles 18:8) called Berothai in (2 Samuel 8:8)


  • The derivation of the word is generally said to be from the Greek
    kuriakon (kuriakon) "belonging to the Lord." But the derivation has been
    too hastily assumed. It is probably connected with kirk, the Latin
    circus, circulus, the Greek kuklos (kuklos) because the
    congregations were gathered in circles.

  • Ecclesia (ekklesia) the Greek word for church, originally meant
    an assembly called out by the magistrate, or by legitimate authority. It
    was in this last sense that the word was adapted and applied by the
    writers of the New Testament to the Christian congregation. In the one
    Gospel of St. Matthew the church is spoken of no less than thirty-six
    times as "the kingdom." Other descriptions or titles are hardly found in
    the evangelists. It is Christ's household, (Matthew 10:25) the salt and
    light of the world, (Matthew 5:13,15) Christ's flock, (Matthew 26:31; John
    10:15) its members are the branches growing on Christ the Vine, John 15;
    but the general description of it, not metaphorical but direct, is that it
    is a kingdom, (Matthew 16:19) From the Gospel then we learn that Christ
    was about to establish his heavenly kingdom on earth, which was to be the
    substitute for the Jewish Church and kingdom, now doomed to destruction
    (Matthew 21:43) The day of Pentecost is the birthday of the Christian
    church. Before they had been individual followers Jesus; now they became
    his mystical body, animated by his spirit. On the evening of the day of
    Pentecost, the 3140 members of which the Church consisted were -- (1)
    Apostles; (2) previous Disciples; (3) Converts. In (Acts 2:41) we have
    indirectly exhibited the essential conditions of church communion. They
    are (1) Baptism, baptism implying on the part of the recipient repentance
    and faith; (2) Apostolic Doctrine; (3) Fellowship with the Apostles; (4)
    The Lord's Supper; (5) Public Worship. The real Church consists of
    all who belong to the Lord Jesus Christ as his disciples, and are one in
    love, in character, in hope, in Christ as the head of all, though as the
    body of Christ it consists of many parts.


(chief of two governments), the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed
Israel during eight years in the generation immediately following Joshua.
(Judges 3:8) (B.C. after 1420.) His yoke was broken from the neck of the
people of Israel by Othniel, Caleb's nephew. (Judges 3:10)


properly Chu’zas (the seer), the house-steward of
Herod Antipas. (Luke 8:3)




(the land of Celix), a maritime province int he southeast of Asia
Minor, bordering on Pamphylia in the west, Lycaonia and Cappadocia in the
north, and Syria in the east. (Acts 6:9) Cilicia was from its geographical
position the high road between Syria and the west; it was also the native
country of St. Paul, hence it was visited by him, firstly, soon after his
conversion, (Acts 9:30; Galatians 1:21) and again in his second
apostolical journey. (Acts 15:41)


a well-known aromatic substance, the rind of the Laurus cinnamomum
, called Korunda-gauhah in Ceylon. It is mentioned in (Exodus
30:23) as one of the component parts of the holy anointing oil. In
(Revelation 18:13) it is enumerated among the merchandise of the great


(1 Kings 15:20) This was possibly the small enclosed district north of
Tiberias, and by the side of the lake, afterwards known as "the plain of


was peculiarly, though not exclusively, a Jewish rite. It was
enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the
institution and as the token of the covenant, which assured to him and his
descendants the promise of the Messiah. Gen. 17. It was thus made a
necessary condition of Jewish nationality. Every male child was to be
circumcised when eight days old, (Leviticus 12:3) on pain of death. The
biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that
in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are
frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. The rite has
been found to prevail extensively in both ancient and modern times. Though
Mohammed did not enjoin circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised
himself, according to the custom of his country; and circumcision is now
as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews. The process of
restoring a circumcised person to his natural condition by a surgical
operation was sometimes undergone. Some of the Jews in the time of
Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen
around them, "made themselves uncircumcised." Against having recourse to
this practice, from an excessive anti-Judaistic tendency, St. Paul
cautions the Corinthians. (1 Corinthians 7:18)


the father of Saul, (Acts 13:21) usually called KISH.


a receptacle for water, either conducted from an external spring or
proceeding from rain-fall. The dryness of the summer months and the
scarcity of springs in Judea made cisterns a necessity, and they are
frequent throughout the whole of Syria and Palestine. On the
long-forgotten way from Jericho to Bethel, "broken cisterns" of high
antiquity are found at regular intervals. Jerusalem depends mainly for
water upon its cisterns, of which almost every private house possesses one
or more, excavated in the rock on which the city is built. The cisterns
have usually a round opening at the top, sometimes built up with stonework
above and furnished with a curb and a wheel for a bucket. (Ecclesiastes
12:6) Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons and places of
confinement. Joseph was cast into a "pit," (Genesis 37:22) as was
Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 38:6)


The earliest notice in Scripture of city-building is of Enoch by Cain, in
the land of his exile. (Genesis 4:17) After the confusion of tongues the
descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land
of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh,
Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city." The
earliest description of a city, properly so called, is that of Sodom,
(Genesis 19:1-22) Even before the time of Abraham there were cities in
Egypt, (Genesis 12:14,15; Numbers 13:22) and the Israelites, during their
sojourn there, were employed in building or fortifying the "treasure
cities" of Pithom and Raamses. (Exodus 1:11) Fenced cities,
fortified with high walls, (3:5) were occupied and perhaps partly rebuilt
after the conquest, by the settled inhabitants of Syria on both sides of
the Jordan.


six Levitical cities specially chosen for refuge to the involuntary
homicide until released from banishment by the death of the high priest.
(Numbers 35:6,13,15; Joshua 20:2,7,9) There were three on each side of

  • KEDESH, in Naphtali. (1 Chronicles 6:76)

  • SHECHEM, in Mount Ephraim. (Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67; 2
    Chronicles 10:1)

  • HEBRON, in Judah. (Joshua 21:13; 2 Samuel 5:5; 1 Chronicles 6:55;
    29:27; 2 Chronicles 11:10)

  • On the east side of Jordan - BEZER IN THE WILDERNESS, in the tribe of
    Reuben, in the plains of Moab. (4:43; Joshua 20:8; 21:36) 1Macc.

  • RAMOTH-GILEAD, in the tribe of Gad. (4:43; Joshua 21:38; 1 Kings

  • GOLAN, in Bashan, in the half-tribe of Manasseh. (4:43; Joshua 21:27;
    1 Chronicles 6:71)


1 Macc. 8:5. [CHITTIM, KITTIM]


The use of this term in Scripture has exclusive reference to the usages of
the Roman empire. The privilege of Roman citizenship was originally
acquired in various ways, as by purchase, (Acts 22:28) by military
services, by favor or by manumission. The right once obtained descended to
a man's children. (Acts 22:28) Among the privileges attached to
citizenship we may note that a man could not be bound or imprisoned
without a formal trial, (Acts 22:29) still less be scourged. (Acts 16:37)
Cic. in Verr. v. 63,66. Another privilege attaching to citizenship
was the appeal from a provincial tribunal to the emperor at Rome. (Acts




(lame), (Acts 27:16) a small island nearly due west of Cape Matala
on the south coast of Crete, and nearly due south of Phoenice; now


(lame), a Christian woman mentioned in (2 Timothy 4:21) as saluting


(lame), fourth Roman emperor, reigned from 41 to 54 A.D. He was
nominated to the supreme power mainly through the influence of Herod
Agrippa the First. In the reign of Claudius there were several famines,
arising from unfavorable harvests, and one such occurred in Palestine and
Syria. (Acts 11:28-30) Claudius was induced by a tumult of the Jews in
Rome to expel them from the city. cf. (Acts 18:2) The date of this event
is uncertain. After a weak and foolish reign he was poisoned by his fourth
wife, Agrippina, the mother of Nero, October 13, A.D. 54.




As the sediment of water remaining in pits or in streets, the word is used
frequently in the Old Testament. (Psalms 18:42; Isaiah 57:20; Jeremiah
38:6) and in the New Testament, (John 9:6) a mixture of sand or dust with
spittle. It is also found in the sense of potter's clay. (Isaiah 41:25)
The great seat of the pottery of the present day in Palestine is Gaza,
where are made the vessels in dark-blue clay so frequently met with.
Another use of clay was for sealing. (Job 38:14) Our Lord's tomb may have
been thus sealed, (Matthew 27:66) as also the earthen vessel containing
the evidences of Jeremiah's purchase. (Jeremiah 32:14) The seal used for
public documents was rolled on the moist clay, and the tablet was then
placed in the fire and baked.


(mild, merciful), (Philemon 4:3) a fellow laborer of St. Paul when
he was at Philippi. (A.D. 57.) It was generally believed in the ancient
Church that this Clement was identical with the bishop of Rome who
afterwards became so celebrated.


(of a renowned father), one of the two disciples who were going to
Emmaus on the day of the resurrection. (Luke 24:18) Some think the same as
Cleophas in (John 19:25) But they are probably two different persons.
Cleopas is a Greek name, contracted from Cleopater, while Cleophas, or
Clopas as in the Revised Version, is an Aramaic name, the same as


Revised Version Clo’pas, the husband of Mary the sister of
Virgin Mary. (John 19:25) He was probably dead before Jesus’
ministry began, for his wife and children constantly appear with Joseph's
family in the time of our Lord's ministry. -- Englishman's Cyc.




The shelter given, and refreshment of rain promised, by clouds give them
their peculiar prominence in Oriental imagery. When a cloud appears rain
is ordinarily apprehended, and thus the "cloud without rain" becomes a
proverb for the man of promise without performance. (Proverbs 16:15;
Isaiah 18:4; 25:5; Jude 1:12) comp. Prov 25:14 The cloud is a figure of
transitoriness, (Job 30:15; Hosea 6:4) and of whatever intercepts divine
favor or human supplication. (Lamentations 2:1; 3:44) A bright cloud at
times visited and rested on the mercy-seat. (Exodus 29:42,43; 1 Kings
8:10,11; 2 Chronicles 5:14; Ezekiel 43:4) and was by later writers named


The pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night that God caused to pass
before the camp of the children of Israel when in the wilderness. The
cloud, which became a pillar when the host moved, seems to have rested at
other times on the tabernacle, whence god is said to have "come down
in the pillar." (Numbers 12:5; Exodus 33:9,10) It preceded the
host, apparently resting on the ark which led the way. (Exodus 13:21;
40:36) etc.; Numb 9:15-23; 10:34


patched. (Joshua 9:5)


(nidus), a city of great consequence, situated at the extreme south west
of the peninsula of Asia Minor, on a promontory now called Cape
, which projects between the islands of Cos and Rhodes. See (Acts
21:1) It is now in ruins.


The first and most frequent use of the word rendered coal is a live ember,
burning fuel. (Proverbs 26:21) In (2 Samuel 22:9,13) "coals of fire" are
put metaphorically for the lightnings proceeding from God. (Psalms
18:8,12,13; 140:10) In (Proverbs 26:21) fuel not yet lighted is clearly
signified. The fuel meant in the above passage is probably charcoal, and
not coal in our sense of the word.


border, with no more reference to lands bordering on the sea than to any
other bordering lands.




(Matthew 26:34; Mark 13:35; 14:30) etc. The domestic cock and hen were
early known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and as no mention is made in
the Old Testament of these birds, and no figures of them occur on the
Egyptian monuments, they probably came into Judea with the Romans, who, as
is well known, prized these birds both as articles of food and for




probably signifies bad weeds or fruit. (Job 31:40)


(hollow Syria), the remarkable valley or hollow which intervenes
between Libanus and Anti-Libanus, stretching a distance of nearly a
hundred miles. The only mention of the region as a separate tract of
country which the Jewish Scriptures contain is probably that in (Amos 1:5)
where "the inhabitants of the plain of Aven" are threatened in conjunction
with those of Damascus. The word is given in the Authorized Version as


(argaz), a movable box hanging from the side of a cart. (1 Samuel
6:8,11,15) The word is found nowhere else.




(all-seeing), a man of the tribe of Judah in the time of Nehemiah.
(Nehemiah 3:15; 11:5) (B.C. 536.)


For the proper sense of this term, as it occurs in (Judges 8:26) see


In (2 Kings 22:14) it is probable that the word translated "college"
represents here not an institution of learning, but that part of Jerusalem
known as the "lower city" or suburb, built on the hill Akra, including the
Bezetha or new city.


a designation of Philippi, in (Acts 16:12) After the battle of Actium,
Augustus assigned to his veterans those parts of Italy which had espoused
the cause of Antony, and transported many of the expelled inhabitants to
Philippi, Dyrrhachium and other cities. In this way Philippi was made a
Roman colony with the "Jus Italicum." At first the colonists were all
Roman citizens, and entitled to vote at Rome.


The terms relative to color, occurring in the Bible, may be arranged in
two classes, the first including those applied to the description of
natural objects, the second those artificial mixtures which were employed
in dyeing or painting. The purple and the blue were derived
from a small shellfish found in the Mediterranean, and were very costly,
and hence they were the royal colors. Red, both scarlet and
crimson, was derived from an insect resembling the cochineal. The natural
colors noticed in the Bible are white, black, red, yellow and green. The
only fundamental color of which the Hebrews appear to have had a clear
conception was red ; and even this is not very often noticed.


more properly Colos'sae, was a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, in
the upper part of the basin of the Maeander, on the Lycus. Hierapolis and
Laodicea were in its immediate neighborhood. (Colossians 1:2; 4:13,15,16)
see Reve 1:11; 3:14 St. Paul is supposed by some to have visited Colosse
and founded or confirmed the Colossian church on his third missionary
journey. (Acts 18:23; 19:1)


was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome.
(Acts 28:16) (A.D. 62.) The epistle was addressed to Christians of the
city of Colosse, and was delivered to them by Tychicus, whom the apostle
had sent both to them, (Colossians 4:7,8) and to the church of Ephesus,
(Ephesians 6:21) to inquire into their state and to administer exhortation
and comfort. The main object of the epistle is to warn the Colossians
against the spirit of semi-Judaistic and semi-Oriental philosophy which
was corrupting the simplicity of their belief, and was noticeably tending
to obscure the eternal glory and dignity of Christ. The similarity between
this epistle and that to the Ephesians is striking. The latter was
probably written at a later date.


(John 14:16) The name given by Christ to the Holy Spirit. The original
word is Paraclete, and means first Advocate, a defender,
helper, strengthener, as well as comforter.


From the time that men began to live in cities, trade, in some shape, must
have been carried on to supply the town-dwellers with necessaries from
foreign as well as native sources, for we find that Abraham was rich, not
only in cattle, but in silver, gold and gold and silver plate and
ornaments. (Genesis 13:2; 24:22,53) Among trading nations mentioned in
Scripture, Egypt holds in very early times a prominent position. The
internal trade of the Jews, as well as the external, was much promoted by
the festivals, which brought large numbers of persons to Jerusalem. (1
Kings 8:63) The places of public market were chiefly the open spaces near
the gates, to which goods were brought for sale by those who came from the
outside. (Nehemiah 13:15,16; Zephaniah 1:10) The traders in later times
were allowed to intrude into the temple, in the outer courts of which
victims were publicly sold for the sacrifice. (Zechariah 14:21; Matthew
21:12; John 2:14)


(made by Jehovah), one of the chiefs of the Levites in the time of
Josiah. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B.C. 628).


The difference between wife and concubine was less marked among the
Hebrews than among us, owing to the absence of moral stigma. The
difference probably lay in the absence of the right of the bill of
divorce, without which the wife could not be repudiated. With regard to
the children of wife and of concubine, there was no such difference as our
illegitimacy implies. The latter were a supplementary family to the
former; their names occur in the patriarchal genealogies, (Genesis 22:24;
1 Chronicles 1:22) and their position and provision would depend on the
father's will. (Genesis 25:6) The state of concubinage is assumed and
provided for by the law of Moses. A concubine would generally be either
(1) a Hebrew girl bought of her father; (2) a Gentile captive taken in
war; (3) a foreign slave bought; or (4) a Canaanitish woman, bond or free.
The rights of the first two were protected by the law, (Exodus 21:7;
21:10-14) but the third was unrecognized and the fourth prohibited. Free
Hebrew women also might become concubines. To seize on royal concubines
for his use was probably the intent of Abner's act, (2 Samuel 3:7) and
similarly the request on behalf of Adonijah was construed. (1 Kings


meaning an aqueduct or trench through which water was carried. Tradition,
both oral and as represented by Talmudical writers, ascribes to Solomon
the formation of the original aqueduct by which water was brought to


(shaphan), a gregarious animal of the class Pachydermata, which is
found in Palestine, living in the caves and clefts of the rocks, and has
been erroneously identified with the rabbit or coney. Its scientific name
as Hyrax syriacus. The hyrax satisfies exactly the expressions in
(Psalms 104:18; Proverbs 30:26) Its color is gray or brown on the back,
white on the belly; it is like the alpine marmot, scarcely of the size of
the domestic cat, having long hair, a very short tail and round ears. It
is found on Lebanon and in the Jordan and Dead Sea valleys.


This describes the Hebrew people in its collective capacity under its
peculiar aspect as a holy community, held together by religious rather
than political bonds. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense as inclusive
of foreign settlers, (Exodus 12:19) but more properly as exclusively
appropriate to the Hebrew element of the population. (Numbers 15:15) The
congregation was governed by the father or head of each family and tribe.
The number of these representatives being inconveniently large for
ordinary business, a further selection was made by Moses of 70, who formed
a species of standing committee. (Numbers 11:16) Occasionally indeed the
whole body of people was assembled at the door of the tabernacle, hence
usually called the tabernacle of the congregation. (Numbers 10:3) The
people were strictly bound by the acts of their representatives, even in
cases where they disapproved of them. (Joshua 9:18)




(appointed by the Lord), a Levite, ruler of the offerings and
tithes in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:12,13) (B.C. 726.)




This term (with one exception) -- (Isaiah 1:13) is applied invariably to
meetings of a religious character, in contradistinction to


As meet did not form an article of ordinary diet among the Jews, the art
of cooking was not carried to any perfection. Few animals were slaughtered
except for purposes of hospitality or festivity. The proceedings on such
occasions appear to have been as follows: -- On the arrival of a guest,
the animal, either a kid, lamb or calf, was killed, (Genesis 18:7; Luke
15:23) its throat being cut so that the blood might be poured out,
(Leviticus 7:26) it was then flayed, and was ready for either roasting or
boiling. In the former case the animal was preserved entire, (Exodus
12:46) and roasted either over a fire, (Exodus 12:8) of wood, (Isaiah
44:16) or perhaps in an oven, consisting simply of a hole dug in the
earth, well heated, and covered up. Boiling, however, was the more usual
method of cooking.


(Acts 21:1) [COS, OR COOS]


Heb. nechosheth, in the Authorized Version always rendered
"brass," except in (Ezra 8:27) and Jere 15:12 It was almost exclusively
used by the ancients for common purposes, and for every kind of
instrument, as chains, pillars, lavers and the other temple vessels. We
read also of copper mirrors, (Exodus 38:8) and even of copper arms, as
helmets, spears, etc. (1 Samuel 17:5,6,38; 2 Samuel 21:16)


(Ezekiel 27:16) A production of the sea, formed by minute animals called
zoophytes. It is their shell or house. It takes various forms, as of
trees, shrubs, hemispheres. The principal colors are red and white. It was
used for beads and ornaments. With regard to the estimation in which coral
was held by the Jews and other Orientals, it must be remembered that coral
varies in price with us. Pliny says that the Indians valued coral as the
Romans valued pearls. (Job 28:18)


an offering to God of any sort, bloody or bloodless, but particularly in
fulfillment of a vow. The law laid down rules for vows, (1) affirmative;
(2) negative. (Leviticus 27:1; Numbers 30:1) ... Upon these rules the
traditionists enlarged, and laid down that a man might interdict himself
by vow, not only from using for himself, bur from giving to another or
receiving from him, some particular object, whether of food or any other
kind whatsoever. The thing thus interdicted was considered as
corban. A person might thus exempt himself from any inconvenient
obligation under plea of corban. It was practices of this sort that our
Lord reprehended, (Matthew 15:5; Mark 7:11) as annulling the spirit of the


The materials of which cord was made varied according to the strength
required; the strongest rope was probably made of strips of camel hide, as
still used by the Bedouins. The finer sorts were made of flax, (Isaiah
19:9) and probably of reeds and rushes. In the New Testament the term is
applied to the whip which our Saviour made, (John 2:15) and to the ropes
of a ship. (Acts 27:32)


(Jude 1:11) [KORAH, 1]


The plant called Coriandrum sativum is found in Egypt, Persia and
India, and has a round tall stalk; it bears umbelliferous white or reddish
flowers, from which arise globular, grayish, spicy seed-corns, marked with
fine striae. It is mentioned twice in the Bible. (Exodus 16:31; Numbers


an ancient and celebrated city of Greece, on the Isthmus of Corinth, and
about 40 miles west of Athens. In consequence of its geographical position
it formed the most direct communication between the Ionian and AEgean
seas. A remarkable feature was the Acrocorinthus, a vast citadel of
rock, which rises abruptly to the height of 2000 feet above the level of
the sea, and the summit of which is so extensive that it once contained a
whole town. The situation of Corinth, and the possession of its eastern
and western harbors, Cenchreae and Lechaeum, are the secrets of its
history. Corinth was a place of great mental activity, as well as of
commercial and manufacturing enterprise. Its wealth was so celebrated as
to be proverbial; so were the vice and profligacy of its inhabitants. The
worship of Venus where was attended with shameful licentiousness. Corinth
is still an episcopal see. The city has now shrunk to a wretched village,
ont he old site and bearing the old name, which, however, is corrupted
into Gortho. St. Paul preached here, (Acts 18:11) and founded a
church, to which his Epistles to the Corinthians are addressed. [EPISTLES


was written by the apostle St. Paul toward the close of his nearly
three-years stay at Ephesus, (Acts 19:10; 20:31) which, we learn from (1
Corinthians 16:8) probably terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58.
The bearers were probably (according to the common subscription)
Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus. It appears to have been called forth
by the information the apostles had received of dissension in the
Corinthian church, which may be thus explained: -- The Corinthian church
was planted by the apostle himself, (1 Corinthians 3:6) in his second
missionary journey. (Acts 18:1) seq. He abode in the city a year and a
half. (Acts 18:11) A short time after the apostle had left the city the
eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to Corinth, (Acts 19:1) and
gained many followers, dividing the church into two parties, the followers
of Paul and the followers of Apollos. Later on Judaizing teachers from
Jerusalem preached the gospel in a spirit of direct antagonism to St. Paul
personally. To this third party we may perhaps add a fourth, that,
under the name of "the followers of Christ," (1 Corinthians 2:12) sought
at first to separate themselves from the factious adherence to particular
teachers, but eventually were driven by antagonism into positions equally
sectarian and inimical to the unity of the church. At this momentous
period, before parties had become consolidated and that distinctly
withdrawn from communion with one another, the apostle writes; and in the
outset of the epistle, 1Cor 1-4:21, we have this noble and impassioned
protest against this fourfold rending of the robe of Christ.


was written a few months subsequent to the first, in the same year --
about the autumn of A.D. 57 or 58 -- at Macedonia. The epistle was
occasioned by the information which the apostle had received form Titus,
and also, as it would certainly seem probable, from Timothy, of the
reception of the first epistle. This information, as it would seem from
our present epistle, was mainly favorable; the better part of the church
were returning to their spiritual allegiance to the founder, (2
Corinthians 1:13,14; 7:9,15,16) but there was still a faction who
strenuously denied Paul's claim to apostleship. The contents of this
epistle comprise, (1) the apostle's account of the character of his
spiritual labors, chs. 1-7; (2) directions about the collections, chs.
8,9; (3) defence of his own apostolical character, chs. 10-13:10. The
words in (1 Corinthians 5:9) seem to point to further epistles to the
church by Paul, but we have no positive evidence of any.


the representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew words
kaath and shalac. As to the former, see PELICAN.
Shalac occurs only as the name of an unclean bird in (Leviticus
11:17; 14:17) The word has been variously rendered. The etymology points
to some plunging bird. The common cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo),
which some writers have identified with the shalac, is unknown in
the eastern Mediterranean; another species is found south of the Red Sea,
but none on the west coast of Palestine.


The most common kinds were wheat, barley, spelt, Authorized Version,
(Exodus 9:32) and Isai 28:25 "Rye;" (Ezekiel 4:9) "fitches" and millet;
oats are mentioned only by rabbinical writers. Our Indian corn was unknown
in Bible times. Corn-crops are still reckoned at twentyfold what was sown,
and were anciently much more. (Genesis 41:22) The Jewish law permitted any
one in passing through a filed of standing corn to pluck and eat. (23:25)
see also Matt 12:1 From Solomon's time, (2 Chronicles 2:10,15) as
agriculture became developed under a settled government, Palestine was a
corn-exporting country, and her grain was largely taken by her commercial
neighbor Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:17) comp. Amos 8:5


(of a horn), a Roman centurion of the Italian cohort stationed in
Caesarea, (Acts 10:1) etc., a man full of good works and alms-deeds. With
his household he was baptized by St. Peter, and thus Cornelius became the
firstfruits of the Gentile world to Christ.


The "corner" of the field was not allowed, (Leviticus 19:9) to be wholly
reaped. It formed a right of the poor to carry off what was so left, and
this was a part of the maintenance from the soil to which that class were
entitled. Under the scribes, minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the
portion of a field which was to be left for the legal "corner." The
proportion being thus fixed, all the grain might be reaped, and enough to
satisfy the regulation subsequently separated from the whole crop. This
"corner" was, like the gleaning, tithe-free.


a quoin or cornerstone, of great importance in binding together the sides
of a building. The phrase "corner-stone" is sometimes used to denote any
principal person, as the princes of Egypt, (Isaiah 19:13) and is thus
applied to our Lord. (Isaiah 28:16; Matthew 21:42; 1 Peter 2:6,7)


(Heb. shophar), a loud-sounding instrument, made of the horn of a
ram or a chamois (sometimes of an ox), and used by the ancient Hebrews for
signals, (Leviticus 25:9) and much used by the priests. (1 Chronicles


(now Stanchio or Stanko). This small island of the Grecian
Archipelago has several interesting points of connection with the Jews.
Herod the Great conferred many favors on the island. St. Paul, on the
return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here, after
sailing from Miletus. Probably referred to in (Acts 21:1)


(a diviner), son of Elmodam, in the line of Joseph the husband of
Mary. (Luke 3:28)


Cotton is now both grown and manufactured in various parts of Syria and
Palestine; but there is no proof that, till they came in contact with
Persia, the Hebrews generally knew of it as a distinct fabric from linen.




  • The great council of the Sanhedrin, which sat at Jerusalem.

  • The lesser courts, (Matthew 10:17; Mark 13:9) of which there were two
    at Jerusalem and one in each town of Palestine. The constitution of these
    courts is a doubtful point. The existence of local courts, however
    constituted, is clearly implied in the passages quoted from the New
    Testament; and perhaps the "judgment," (Matthew 5:21) applies to

  • A kind of jury or privy council, (Acts 25:12) consisting of a certain
    number of assessors, who assisted Roman governors in the administration of
    justice and in other public matters.


(Heb. chatser), an open enclosure surrounded by buildings, applied
in the Authorized Version most commonly to the enclosures of the
tabernacle and the temple. (Exodus 27:9; 40:33; Leviticus 6:16; 1 Kings
6:36; 7:8; 2 Kings 23:12; 2 Chronicles 33:5) etc.


The Heb. berith means primarily "a cutting," with reference to the
custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts
in ratifying a covenant. (Genesis 15; Jeremiah 34:18,19) In the New
Testament the corresponding word is diathece (diatheke), which is
frequently translated testament in the Authorized Version. In its
biblical meaning two parties the word is used --

  • Of a covenant between God and man; e.g. God covenanted with Noah,
    after the flood, that a like judgment should not be repeated. It is not
    precisely like a covenant between men, but was a promise or agreement by
    God. The principal covenants are the covenant of works -- God
    promising to save and bless men on condition of perfect obedience -- and
    the covenant of grace, or God's promise to save men on condition
    of their believing in Christ and receiving him as their Master and
    Saviour. The first is called the Old Covenant, from which we name the
    first part of the bible the Old Testament, the Latin rendering of the word
    covenant. The second is called the New Covenant, or New Testament.

  • Covenant between man and man, i.e. a solemn compact or agreement,
    either between tribes or nations, (Joshua 9:6,15; 1 Samuel 11:1) or
    between individuals, (Genesis 31:44) by which each party bound himself to
    fulfill certain conditions and was assured of receiving certain
    advantages. In making such a covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness,
    (Genesis 31:50) and an oath was sworn. (Genesis 21:31) A sign or witness
    of the covenant was sometimes framed, such a gift, (Genesis 21:30) or a
    pillar or heap of stones erected. (Genesis 31:52)




(thorn), a man among the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles


(deceitful), daughter of Zur, a chief of the Midianites. (Numbers


The crane (Grus cinerea) is a native of Europe and Asia. It stand
about four feet high. Its color is ashen gray, with face and neck nearly
black. It feeds on seeds, roots, insects and small quadrupeds. It retires
in winter to the warmer climates. (Jeremiah 8:7)


To create is to cause something to exist which did not exist before, as
distinguished from make, to re-form something already in


(The creation of all things is ascribed in the Bible to God, and is the
only reasonable account of the origin of the world. The method of
creation is not stated in Genesis, and as far as the account there is
concerned, each part of it may be, after the first acts of creation, by
evolution, or by direct act of God's will. The word create (bara)
is used but three times in the first chapter of Genesis -- (1) as to the
origin of matter; (2) as to the origin of life; (3) as to the origin of
man's soul; and science has always failed to do any of these acts thus
ascribed to God. All other things are said to be made. The
order of creation as given in Genesis is in close harmony with the
order as revealed by geology, and the account there given, so long before
the records of the rocks were read or the truth discoverable by man, is
one of the strongest proofs that the Bible was inspired by God. --




(growing), (2 Timothy 4:10) an assistant of St. Paul, said to have
been one of the seventy disciples.


the modern Candia. This large island, which closes int he Greek
Archipelago on the south, extends through a distance of 140 miles between
its extreme points. Though exceedingly bold and mountainous, this island
has very fruitful valleys, and in early times it was celebrated for its
hundred cities. It seems likely that a very early acquaintances existed
between the Cretans and the Jews. Cretans, (Acts 2:11) were among those
who were at Jerusalem at the great Pentecost. In [Acts 27:7-12 We have an
account of Paul's shipwreck near this island; and it is evident from
(Titus 1:5) that the apostle himself was here at no long interval of time
before he wrote the letter. The Cretans were proverbial liars. (Titus


(Acts 2:11) Cretans, inhabitants of Crete.


(Isaiah 3:22) The original word means some kind of female ornament,
probably a reticule or richly ornamented purse, often made of silk
inwrought with gold or silver.


(curled), ruler of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth, (Acts 18:8)
baptized with his family by St. Paul. (1 Corinthians 1:14) (A.D. 50.)


As the emblem of a slave's death and a murderer's punishment, the cross
was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the
celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross
of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned
the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon
the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer.
Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by
the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great
and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was
int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on
which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central
stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the
weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a
support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription
was generally placed above the criminal's head, briefly expressing his
guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white
gypsum, and the letter were black.


This ornament, which is both ancient and universal, probably originated
from the fillets used to prevent the hair from being dishevelled by the
wind. Such fillets are still common; they gradually developed into
turbans, which by the addition of ornamental or precious materials assumed
the dignity of mitres or crowns. Both the ordinary priests and the high
priest wore them. The crown was a symbol of royalty, and was worn by
kings, (2 Chronicles 23:11) and also by queens. (Esther 2:17) The
head-dress of bridegrooms, (Ezekiel 24:17; Isaiah 61:10) Bar. 5:2, and of
women, (Isaiah 3:20) a head-dress of great splendor, (Isaiah 28:5) a
wreath of flowers, (Proverbs 1:9; 4:9) denote crowns. In general we must
attach to it the notion of a costly turban irradiated with pearls
and gems of priceless value, which often form aigrettes for feathers, as
in the crowns of modern Asiatics sovereigns. Such was probably the crown
which weighed (or rather "was worth") a talent, mentioned in (2 Samuel
12:30) taken by David from the king of Ammon at Rabbah, and used as the
state crown of Judah. (2 Samuel 12:30) In (Revelation 12:3; 19:12)
allusion is made to "many crowns" worn in token of extended
dominion. The laurel, pine or parsley crowns given to victors int he great
games of Greece are finely alluded to by St. Paul. (1 Corinthians 9:25; 2
Timothy 2:5) etc.


(Matthew 27:29) Our Lord was crowned with thorns in mockery by the Roman
soldiers. Obviously some small flexile thorny shrub is meant perhaps
Capparis spinosa. "Hasselquist, a Swedish naturalist, supposes a
very common plant naba or nubka of the Arabs, with many
small and sharp sines; soft, round and pliant branches; leaves much
resembling ivy, of a very deep green, as if in designed mockery of a
victor's wreath." -- Alford.


was in used among the Egyptians, (Genesis 40:19) the Carthaginians, the
Persians, (Esther 7:10) the Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and
from the earliest times among the Greeks and Romans. Whether this mode of
execution was known to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. Probably
the Jews borrowed it from the Romans. It was unanimously considered the
most horrible form of death. Among the Romans the degradation was also a
part of the infliction, and the punishment if applied to freemen was only
used in the case of the vilest criminals. The one to be crucified was
stripped naked of all his clothes, and then followed the most awful moment
of all. He was laid down upon the implement of torture. His arms were
stretched along the cross-beams, and at the centre of the open palms the
point of a huge iron nail was placed, which, by the blow of a mallet, was
driven home into the wood. Then through either foot separately, or
possibly through both together, as they were placed one over the other,
another huge nail tore its way through the quivering flesh. Whether the
sufferer was also bound to the cross we do not know; but, to prevent the
hands and feet being torn away by the weight of the body, which could not
"rest upon nothing but four great wounds," there was, about the centre of
the cross, a wooden projection strong enough to support, at least in part,
a human body, which soon became a weight of agony. Then the "accursed
tree" with its living human burden was slowly heaved up and the end fixed
firmly in a hole in the ground. The feet were but a little raised above
the earth. The victim was in full reach of every hand that might choose to
strike. A death by crucifixion seems to include all that pain and death
can have of the horrible and ghastly, -- dizziness, cramp, thirst,
starvation, sleeplessness, traumatic fever, tetanus, publicity of shame,
long continuance of torment, horror of anticipation, mortification of
untended wounds, all intensified just up to the point at which they can be
endured at all, but all stopping just short of the point which would give
to the sufferer the relief of unconsciousness. The unnatural position made
every movement painful; the lacerated veins and crushed tendons throbbed
with incessant anguish; the wounds, inflamed by exposure, gradually
gangrened; the arteries, especially of the head and stomach, became
swollen and oppressed with surcharged blood; and, while each variety of
misery went on gradually increasing, there was added to them the
intolerable pang of a burning and raging thirst. Such was the death to
which Christ was doomed. -- Farrar's "Life of Christ. " The
crucified was watched, according to custom, by a party of four soldiers,
(John 19:23) with their centurion, (Matthew 27:66) whose express office
was to prevent the stealing of the body. This was necessary from the
lingering character of the death, which sometimes did not supervene even
for three days, and was at last the result of gradual benumbing and
starvation. But for this guard, the persons might have been taken down and
recovered, as was actually done in the case of a friend of Josephus.
Fracture of the legs was especially adopted by the Jews to hasten death.
(John 19:31) In most cases the body was suffered to rot on the cross by
the action of sun and rain, or to be devoured by birds and beasts.
Sepulture was generally therefore forbidden; but in consequence of
(21:22,23) an express national exception was made in favor of the Jews.
(Matthew 27:58) This accursed and awful mode of punishment was happily
abolished by Constantine.


a small vessel for holding water, such as was carried by Saul when on his
night expedition after David, (1 Samuel 26:11,12,16) and by Elijah. (1
Kings 19:6)


the representative in the Authorized Version of two Hebrew words.

  • Zecucith occurs only in (Job 28:17) where "glass" probably is

  • kerach occurs in numerous passages in the Old Testament to
    denote "ice," "frost," etc.; but once only (Ezekiel 1:22) as is generally
    understood, to signify "crystal." The ancients supposed rock-crystal to be
    merely ice congealed by intense cold. The similarity of appearance between
    ice and crystal caused no doubt the identity of the terms to express these
    substances. The Greek word occurs in (Revelation 4:6; 21:1) It may mean
    either "ice" or "crystal."




(Leviticus 11:16; 14:15) the name of some of the larger petrels which
abound in the east of the Mediterranean.


(Heb. kishshuim). This word occurs in (Numbers 11:5) as one of the
good things of Egypt produces excellent cucumbers, melons, etc., the
Cucumis chate being the best of its tribe yet known. Besides the
Cucumis chate, the common cucumber (C. sativus), of which
the Arabs distinguish a number of varieties, is common in Egypt. "Both
Cucumis chate and C. sativus," says Mr. Tristram, "are now
grown in great quantities in Palestine. On visiting the Arab school in
Jerusalem (1858) I observed that the dinner which the children brought
with them to school consisted, without exception, of a piece of barley
cake and a raw cucumber, which they ate rind and all." The "lodge in a
garden of cucumbers," (Isaiah 1:8) is a rude temporary shelter erected int
eh open grounds where vines, cucumbers, gourds, etc., are grown, in which
some lonely man or boy is set to watch, either to guard the plants from
robbers or to scare away the foxes and jackals from the vines.


one of the cultivated plants of Palestine. (Isaiah 28:25,27; Matthew
23:23) It is an umbelliferous plant something like fennel. The seeds have
a bitterish warm taste and an aromatic flavor. The Maltese are said to
grow it at the present day, and to thresh it in the manner described by


The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly
borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the
Phoenicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship. Egyptian
cups were of various shapes, either with handles or without them. In
Solomon's time all his drinking vessels were of gold, none of silver. (1
Kings 10:21) Babylon is compared to a golden cup. (Jeremiah 51:7) The
great laver, or "sea," was made with a rim like the rim of a cup
(cos), with flowers of lilies," (1 Kings 7:26) a form which the
Persepolitan cups resemble. The cups of the New Testament were often no
doubt formed on Greek and Roman models. They were sometimes of gold.
(Revelation 17:4)


an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian as well as
Jewish monarchs. (1 Kings 10:5) It was his duty to fill the king's cup and
present it to him personally. (Nehemiah 1:11) The chief cupbearer, or
butler, to the king of Egypt was the means of raising Joseph to his high
position. (Genesis 40:1,21; 41:9)


(black), a Benjamite mentioned only in the title to (Psalms 7:1) He
was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe. (B.C. 1061).


the name of a son of Ham, apparently the eldest, and of a territory or
territories occupied by his descendants. The Cushites appear to have
spread along tracts extending from the higher Nile to the Euphrates and
Tigris. History affords many traces of this relation of Babylonia, Arabia
and Ethiopia.


(blackness), (Habakkuk 3:7) possibly the same as Cushan-rishathaim
(Authorized Version Chushan-) king of Mesopotamia. (Judges 3:8,10)


Properly "the Cushite," "the Ethiopian," a man apparently attached to
Joab's person. (2 Samuel 18:21-25,31,32)


one of the countries whence Shalmaneser introduced colonists into Samaria.
(2 Kings 17:24,30) Its position is undecided.


Cuttings in the flesh, or the laceration of one's body for the
"propitiation of their gods," (1 Kings 18:28) constituted a prominent
feature of idolatrous worship, especially among the Syrians. The
Israelites were prohibited from indulging in such practices. (Leviticus
19:28; 21:5; 14:1; Jeremiah 16:6)


a pecussive musical instrument. Two kinds of cymbals are mentioned in
(Psalms 150:5) "loud cymbals" or castagnettes, and "high-sounding
cymbals." The former consisted of our small plates of brass or of some
other hard metal; two plates were attached to each hand of the performer,
and were struck together to produce a great noise. The latter consisted of
two larger plates, on held in each hand and struck together as an
accompaniment to other instruments. Cymbals were used not only in the
temple but for military purposes, and also by Hebrew women as a musical
accompaniment to their national dances. Both kinds of cymbals are still
common in the East.


(Heb. tirzah). The Hebrew word is found only in (Isaiah 44:14) We
are quite unable to assign any definite rendering to it. The true cypress
is a native of the Taurus. The Hebrew word points to some tree with a hard
grain, and this is all that can be positively said of it.


an island of Asia in the Mediterranean. It is about 140 miles long and 50
miles wide at the widest part. Its two chief cities were Salamis, at the
east end of the island, and Paphos, at the west end. "Cyprus occupies a
distinguished place in both sacred and profane history. It early belonged
to the Phoenicians of the neighboring coast; was afterwards colonized by
Greeks’ passed successively under the power of the Pharaohs,
Persians, Ptolemies and Romans, excepting a short period of independence
in the fourth century B.C. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of
Venus, hence called Cypria. Recently the discoveries in Cyprus by Cesnola
have excited new interest. -- Appleton's Am. Encyc. It was the native
place of Barnabas, (Acts 4:36) and was visited by Paul. (Acts 13:4-13;
15:39; 21:3) See also (Acts 27:4)


the principal city of that part of northern Africa which was sufficiently
called Cyrenaica, lying between Carthage and Egypt, and corresponding with
the modern Tripoli. Though on the African coast, it was a Greek city, and
the Jews were settled there in large numbers. The Greek colonization of
this part of Africa under Battus began of early as B.C. 631. After the
death of Alexander the Great it became a dependency of Egypt, and a Roman
province B.C. 75. Simon, who bore our Saviour's cross, (Matthew 27:32) was
a native of Cyrene. Jewish dwellers in Cyrenaica were in Jerusalem at
Pentecost, (Acts 2:10) and gave their name to one of the synagogues in
Jerusalem. (Acts 6:9) Christian converts from Cyrene were among those who
contributed actively to the formation of the first Gentile church at
Antioch. (Acts 11:20)


(warrior), the Greek form of the Roman name of Quirinus. The full
name is Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. He was consul B.C. 12, and was made
governor of Syria after the banishment of Archelaus in A.D. 6. He probably
was twice governor of Syria; his first governorship extended from B.C. 4
(the year of Christ's birth) to B.C. 1. It was during this time that he
was sent to make the enrollment which caused Joseph and Mary to visit
Bethlehem. (Luke 2:2) The second enrollment is mentioned in (Acts


(the sun), the founder of the Persian empire -- see (2 Chronicles
36:22,23; Daniel 6:28; 10:1,13) -- was, according to the common legend,
the son of Cambyses, a Persian of the royal family of the Achaemenidae.
When he grew up to manhood his courage and genius placed him at the head
of the Persians. His conquests were numerous and brilliant. He defeated
and captured the Median king B.C. 559. In B.C. 546 (?) he defeated
Croesus, and the kingdom of lydia was the prize of his success. Babylon
fell before his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria were added to
his empire B.C. 538. The prophet Daniel's home for a time was at his
court. (Daniel 6:28) The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple,
(2 Chronicles 36:22,23; Ezra 1:1-4; 3:7; 4:3; 5:13,17; 6:3) was in fact
the beginning of Judaism; and the great changes by which the nation was
transformed into a church are clearly marked. His tomb is still shown at
Pasargadae, the scene of his first decisive victory.

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