Smith's Bible Dictionary - B

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  • A Reubenite (1 Chronicles 5:5)

  • The son of Jehiel, and grandfather of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:30;


the supreme male divinity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish nations, as
Ashtoreth was their supreme female divinity. Some suppose Baal to
correspond to the sun and Ashtoreth to the moon; others that Baal was
Jupiter and Ashtoreth Venus. There can be no doubt of the very high
antiquity of the worship of Baal. It prevailed in the time of Moses among
the Moabites and Midianites, (Numbers 22:41) and through them spread to
the Israelites. (Numbers 25:3-18; 4:3) In the times of the kings it became
the religion of the court and people of the ten tribes, (1 Kings 16:31-33;
18:19,22) and appears never to have been permanently abolished among them.
(2 Kings 17:16) Temples were erected to Baal in Judah, (1 Kings 16:32) and
he was worshipped with much ceremony. (1 Kings 18:19,26-28; 2 Kings 10:22)
The attractiveness of this worship to the Jews undoubtedly grew out of its
licentious character. We find this worship also in Phoenician colonies.
The religion of the ancient British islands much resembled this ancient
worship of Baal, and may have been derived from it. Nor need we hesitate
to regard the Babylonian Bel, (Isaiah 46:1) or Beaus, as essentially
identical with Baal, though perhaps under some modified form. The plural,
BAALIM, is found frequently, showing that he was probably worshipped under
different compounds, among which appear --

  • BAAL-BERITH (the covenant Baal), (Judges 8:33; 9:4) the god who
    comes into covenant with the worshippers.

  • BAAL-ZEBUB (lord of the fly), and worshipped at Ekron. (2 Kings

  • BAAL-HANAN. a. The name of one of the early kings of Edom. (Genesis
    36:38,39; 1 Chronicles 1:49,50) b. The name of one of David's officers,
    who had the superintendence of his olive and sycamore plantations. (1
    Chronicles 27:28)

  • BAAL-PEOR (lord of the opening, i.e. for others to join in the
    worship). We have already referred to the worship of this god. The
    narrative (Numb 25) seems clearly to show that this form of Baal-worship
    was connected with licentious rites.


geographical. This word occurs as the prefix or suffix to the names of
several places in Palestine, some of which are as follows:

  • BAAL a town of Simeon, named only in (1 Chronicles 4:33) which from
    the parallel list in (Joshua 19:8) seems to have been identical with

  • BAALAH (mistress). A. Another name for KIRJATH-JEARIM, or
    KIRJATH BAAL, the well-known town now Kuriet el Enab. (Joshua
    15:9,10; 1 Chronicles 13:6) b. A town in the south of Judah, (Joshua
    15:29) which in Josh 19:3 Is called BALAH, and in the parallel list, (1
    Chronicles 4:29) BILHAH.

  • BAALATH (mistress), a town of Dan named with Gibbethon,
    Gath-rim-mon and other Philistine places. (Joshua 19:44)

  • BAALATH-BEER (lord of the well). BAAL 1, a town among those in
    the south part of Judah, given to Simeon, which also bore the name of
    RAMATH-NEGEB, or "the height of the south." (Joshua 19:8)

  • BAAL-GAD (lord of fortune), used to denote the most northern,
    (Joshua 11:17; 12:7) or perhaps northwestern, (Joshua 13:5) point to which
    Joshua's victories extended. It was in all probability a Phoenician or
    Canaanite sanctuary of Baal under the aspect of Gad or Fortune.

  • BAAL-HAMON (lord of a multitude), a place at which Solomon had
    a vineyard, evidently of great extent. (Solomon 8:11)

  • BAAL-HAZOR (village of Baal), a place where Absalom appears to
    have had a sheep-farm, and where Amnon was murdered. (2 Samuel 13:23)

  • MOUNT, MOUNT, MOUNTAIN BAAL-HERMON (Lord of Hermon), (Judges
    3:3) and simply Baal-hermon. (1 Chronicles 5:23) This is usually
    considered as a distinct place from Mount Hermon; but we know that this
    mountain had at least three names (3:9) and Baal-hermon may have been a
    fourth in use among the Phoenician worshippers.

  • BAAL-MEON (lord of the house), one of the towns which were
    built by the Reubenites. (Numbers 32:38) It also occurs in (1 Chronicles
    5:8) and on each occasion with Nebo. In the time of Ezekiel it was
    Moabite, one of the cities which were the "glory of the country." (Ezekiel

  • BAAL-PERAZIM (lord of divisions), the scene of a victory of
    David over the Philistines, and of a great destruction of their images. (2
    Samuel 5:20; 1 Chronicles 14:11) See (Isaiah 28:21) where it is called

  • BAAL-SHALISHA (lord of Shalisha), a place named only in (2
    Kings 4:42) apparently not far from Gilgal; comp. (2 Kings 4:38)

  • BAAL-TAMAR (lord of the palm tree), a place named only in
    (Judges 20:33) as near Gibeah of Benjamin. The palm tree (tamar) of
    Deborah, (Judges 4:5) was situated somewhere in the locality, and is
    possibly alluded to.

  • BAAL-ZEPHON (lord of the north), a place in Egypt near where
    the Israelites crossed the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:7; Ezekiel 14:2,9) We
    place Baal-zephon on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez, a little below
    its head, which at that time was about 30 or 40 miles northward of the
    Present head.


[BAAL, NO. 2]


[BAAL, Nos. 3,4]


[BAAL, NO. 2, a]


(Hosea 2:16) [BAAL]




king of the Ammonites at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by
Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 40:14) (B.C. 588.)


  • The son of Ahilud, Solmon's commissariat officer in Jezreel and the
    north of the Jordan valley. (1 Kings 4:12) (B.C.1000.)

  • Father of Zadok, who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem
    under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:4) (B.C. 446.)


  • Son of Rimmon, a Benjamite, who with his brother Rechab murdered
    Ishbosheth For this they were killed by David; and their mutilated bodies
    hung up over the pool at Hebron. (2 Samuel 4:2,5,6,9) (B.C. 1046.)

  • A Netophathite, father of Heleb or Heled, one of David's mighty men.
    (2 Samuel 23:29; 1 Chronicles 11:30) (B.C. before 1066.)

  • Accurately Baana, son of Hushai, Solomon's commissariat officer in
    Asher. (1 Kings 4:16) (B.C. 1012.)

  • Aman who accompanied Zerubbabel on his return from the captivity.
    (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7) Possibly the same person is intended in (Nehemiah
    10:27) (B.C. 536.)


(brutish) one of the wives of Shaharaim, a descendant of Benjamin.
(1 Chronicles 8:8)


(work of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, one of the forefathers of
Asaph the singer. (1 Chronicles 6:40), [ 1Chr 6:25 ]. (B.C. 1310.)


(wicked), B.C. 953-931, third sovereign of the separate kingdom of
Israel, and the founder of its second dynasty. He was son of Ahijah of the
tribe of Issachar and conspired against King Nadab, (1 Kings 15:27) and
killed him with his whole family. He appears to have been of humble
origin. (1 Kings 16:2) It was probably in the 13th year of his reign that
he made war on Asa, and began to fortify Ramah. He was defeated by the
unexpected alliance of Asa with Ben-hadad I. of Damascus. Baasha died in
the 24th year of his reign, and was buried in Tirzah, (Solomon 6:4) which
he had made his capital. (1 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 16:1-6)


(confusion), Bab’ylon (Greek form of Babel), is
properly the capital city of the country which is called in Genesis
Shinar, and in the later books Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans. The
first rise of the Chaldean power was in the region close upon the Persian
Gulf; thence the nation spread northward up the course of the rivers, and
the seat of government moved in the same direction, being finally fixed at
Babylon, perhaps not earlier than B.C, 1700. I. Topography of Babylon
-- Ancient description of the city.
-- All the ancient writers appear
to agree in the fact of a district of vast size, more or less inhabited
having been enclosed within lofty walls and included under the name of
Babylon. With respect to the exact extent of the circuit they differ. The
estimate of Herodotus and of Pliny is 480 stades (60 Roman miles, 53 of
our miles) of Strabo 385, of Q. Curtius 368, of Clitarchus 365 and of
Ctesias 360 stades (40 miles). (George Smith, in his "Assyrian
Discoveries," differs entirely from all these estimates, making the
circuit of the city but eight miles.) Perhaps Herodotus spoke of
the outer wall, which could be traced in his time. Taking the lowest
estimate of the extent of the circuit, we shall have for the space within
the rampart an area of above 100 square miles -- nearly five times the
size of London! It is evident that this vast space cannot have been
entirely covered with houses. The city was situated on both sides of the
river Euphrates, and the two parts were connected together by a stone
bridge five stades (above 1000 yards) long and 30 feet broad. At either
extremity of the bridge was a royal palace, that in the eastern city being
the more magnificent of the two. The two palaces were joined not only by
the bridge, but by a tunnel under the river. The houses, which were
frequently three or four stories high, were laid out in straight streets
crossing each other at right angles. II. Present state of the
-- A portion of the ruins is occupied by the modern town of
Hillah. About five miles above Hillah, on the opposite or left
bank of the Euphrates occurs a series of artificial mounds of enormous
size. They consist chiefly of three great masses of building, -- the high
pile of unbaked brickwork which is known to the Arabs as Babel, 600 feet
square and 140 feet high; the building denominated the Kasr or
palace, nearly 2000 feet square and 70 feet high, and a lofty mound upon
which stands the modern tomb of Amram-ibn-’Alb. Scattered
over the country on both sides of the Euphrates are a number of remarkable
mounds, usually standing single, which are plainly of the same date with
the great mass of ruins upon the river bank. Of these by far the most
striking is the vast ruin called the Birs-Nimrud, which many
regard as the tower of Babel, situated about six miles to the southwest of
Hillah. [BABEL, TOWER OF] III. Identification of sites. -- The
great mound of Babel is probably the ancient temple of Beaus. The mound of
the Kasr marks the site of the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. The
mound of Amram is thought to represent the "hanging gardens" of
Nebuchadnezzar; but most probably it represents the ancient palace, coeval
with Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks in his inscriptions as
adjoining his own more magnificent residence. IV. History of
-- Scripture represents the "beginning of the kingdom" as
belonging to the time of Nimrod. (Genesis 10:6-10) The early annals of
Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties:
one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings,
who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held
dominion for 526 years. The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known
to us from B.C. 747. The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of
Babylonian monarchs from B.C. 747 to B.C. 331, when the last Persian king
was dethroned by Alexander. On the fall of Nineveh, B.C. 625, Babylon
became not only an independent kingdom, but an empire. The city was taken
by surprise B.C. 539, as Jeremiah had prophesied, (Jeremiah 51:31) by
Cyrus, under Darius, Dan. 5, as intimated 170 years earlier by Isaiah,
(Isaiah 21:1-9) and, as Jeremiah had also foreshown, (Jeremiah 51:39)
during a festival. With the conquest of Cyrus commenced the decay of
Babylon, which has since been a quarry from which all the tribes in the
vicinity have derived the bricks with which they have built their cities.
The "great city" has thus emphatically "become heaps." (Jeremiah 51:37)
Ba’bel, Tower of. The "tower of Babel" is only mentioned once
in Scripture, (Genesis 11:4,5) and then as incomplete. It was built of
bricks, and the "slime" used for mortar was probably bitumen. Such
authorities as we possess represent the building as destroyed soon after
its erection. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia,
they thought they recognized it in the famous temple of Beaus, the modern
Birs Nimrod. But the Birs-Nimrrud though it cannot be the
tower of Babel itself; may well be taken to show the probable shape and
character of the edifice. This building appears to have been a sort of
oblique pyramid built in seven receding stages, each successive one being
nearer to the southwestern end which constituted the back of the building.
The first, second and third stories were each 26 feet high the remaining
four being 15 feet high. On the seventh stage there was probably placed
the ark or tabernacle, which seems to have been again 15 feet high, and
must have nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the seventh story
The entire original height, allowing three feet for the platform, would
thus have been 156 feet, or, without the plat-form, 163 feet.


in the Apocalypse, is the symbolical name by which Rome is denoted.
(Revelation 14:8; 17:18) The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews
as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. Comp. (Jeremiah 51:7) with
Reve 14:8 The occurrence of this name in (1 Peter 5:13) has given rise to
a variety of conjectures, many giving it the same meaning as in the
Apocalypse; others refer it to Babylon in Asia, and others still to
Babylon in Egypt. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon
is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by
Jews at the time in question.


the inhabitants of Babylon, a race of Shemitic origin, who were among the
colonists planted in the cities of Samaria by the conquering Assyrian.
(Ezra 4:9)


literally "robe of Shinar," (Joshua 7:21) an ample robe, probably made of
the skin or fur of an animal, comp. (Genesis 25:25) and ornamented with
embroidery or perhaps a variegated garment with figures inwoven in the
fashion for which the Babylonians were celebrated.


(weeping), The Valley of, A valley in Palestine, through
which the exiled Psalmist sees in vision the pilgrims passing in their
march towards the sanctuary of Jehovah at Zion. (Psalms 84:6) That it was
a real locality is most probable from the use of the definite article
before the name. The rendering of the Targum is Gehenna, i.e. the
Ge-Hinnom or ravine below Mount Zion. This locality agrees well with the
mention of became (Authorized Version "mulberry") trees in (2 Samuel


the family of BECHER, son of Ephraim. (Numbers 26:35)


There is much obscurity as to the meaning of the word tachash,
rendered "badger" in the Authorized Version, (Exodus 25:5; 35:7) etc. The
ancient versions seem nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal but
a color, either black or sky-blue. The badger is not found in the Bible
lands. The Arab duchash or tufchash denotes a dolphin,
including seals and cetaceans. The skins referred to are probably those of
these marine animals, some of which are found in the Red Sea. The skin of
the Halicore, one of these, from its hardness would be well suited
for making soles for shoes. (Ezekiel 16:10)


is the rendering of several words in the Old and New Testaments.

  • Charitim, the "bags" in which Naaman bound up the two talents
    of silver for Gehazi. (2 Kings 5:23) They were long cone-like bags of the
    size to hold a precise amount of money, and tied or sealed for that
    amount, as we stamp the value on a coin.

  • Cis, a bag for carrying weights, (25:13) also used as a purse
    (Proverbs 1:14)

  • Celi, in (Genesis 42:25) is the "sack" in which Jacob's sons
    carried the corn which they brought from Egypt.

  • The shepherd's "bag" used by David was for the purpose of carrying the
    lambs unable to walk. (Zechariah 11:15; 16:5)

  • Tschar, properly a "bundle," (Genesis 42:35) appears to have
    been used by travellers for carrying money during a long journey.
    (Proverbs 7:20)

  • The "bag" which Judas carried was probably a small box or chest. (John
    12:6; 13:29)




(low ground), a village, (2 Samuel 16:6) apparently on or close to
the road leading up from the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, and near the
south boundary of Benjamin.


(the horse), referring to the "temple" of the false gods of Moab,
as opposed to the "high places" in the same sentence. (Isaiah 15:2) and
comp. (Isaiah 16:12)


(admirable), a Levite, apparently a descendant of Asaph. (1
Chronicles 9:15) (B.C.588.)


(bottle). "Children of Bakkuk" were among the Nethinim who returned
from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:51; Nehemiah 7:53) (B.C. before


(wasting of Jehovah), a Levite in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah
11:17; 12:9) (B.C. before 536.)


Reference to baking is found in (Leviticus 26:26; 1 Samuel 8:13; 2 Samuel
13:8; Jeremiah 7:18; 37:21; Hosea 7:4-7)


(B.C. 1451), the son of beor, a man endowed with the gift of prophecy.
(Numbers 22:5) He is mentioned in conjunction with the five kings of
Midian, apparently as a person of the same rank. (Numbers 31:8) cf. Numb
31:16 He seems to have lived at Pethor, (23:4; Numbers 22:5) on the river
Euphrates, in Mesopotamia. Such was his reputation that when the
Israelites were encamped in the plains of Moab, Balak, the king of Moab,
sent for Balaam to curse them. Balaam at first was prohibited by God from
going. He was again sent for by the king and again refused, but was at
length allowed to go. He yielded to the temptations of riches and honor
which Balak set before him; but God's anger was kindled at this
manifestation of determined self-will, and the angel of the Lord stood in
the way for an adversary against him. See (2 Peter 2:16) Balaam predicted
a magnificent career for the people whom he was called to curse, but he
nevertheless suggested to the Moabites the expedient of seducing them to
commit fornication. The effect of this is recorded in (Numbers 25:1) ... A
battle was afterwards fought against the Midianites, in which Balaam sided
with them, and was slain by the sword of the people whom he had endeavored
to curse. (Numbers 31:8)


(Revelation 2:14) [BALAK]




(Joshua 19:3) [BAAL, Geogr. No. 2, b]


(spoiler), son of Zippor, king of the Moabites, who hired Balaam to
curse the Israelites; but his designs were frustrated int he manner
recorded in (Numbers 22:24) (B.C. 1451.)


Reference to balances is found in (Leviticus 19:36) They were in common
use, gold and silver being paid out and received by weight. Reference is
also made in (Micah 6:11; Hosea 12:7) to the dishonest practice of buying
by heavier and selling by lighter weights.


[BAAL, Geogr. No. 6]


Natural baldness seems to have been uncommon, since it exposed people to
public derision. (Leviticus 13:29; 2 Kings 2:23; Isaiah 3:24; 15:2;
Jeremiah 47:5; Ezekiel 7:18) Artificial baldness marked the conclusion of
a Nazarite's vow, (Numbers 6:9; Acts 18:18) and was a sign of


(from balsam, Heb. tzori, tezri) occurs in (Genesis 37:25;
43:11; Jeremiah 8:22; 46:11; 51:8; Ezekiel 27:17) (It is an aromatic
plant, or the resinous odoriferous sap or gum which exudes from such
plants.) It is impossible to identify it with any certainty. It is
impossible to identify it with any certainty. It may represent the gum of
the Pistacia lentiscus, or more probably that of the
Balsamodendron opobalsamum, allied to the balm of Gilead,
which abounded in Gilead east of the Jordan. The trees resembled fig trees
(or grape vines), but were lower, being but 12 to 15 feet high. It is now
called the BALM OF GILEAD, or Meccabalsam, the tree or shrub being
indigenous in the mountains around Mecca. [INCENSE; SPICE, SPICES]
Hasselquist says that the exudation from the plant "is of a yellow color,
and pellucid. It has a most fragrant smell, which is resinous, balsamic
and very agreeable. It is very tenacious or glutinous, sticking to the
fingers, and may be drawn into long threads." It was supposed to have
healing as well as aromatic qualities.


(high place). Found only in (Ezekiel 20:29) applied to places of
idolatrous worship.


(heights of Baal), a sanctuary of Baal in the country of Moab
(Joshua 13:17) which is probably mentioned in (Numbers 21:19) under the
shorter form of Bamoth, or Bamoth-in-the-ravine (20), and again in (Isaiah


The "band of Roman soldiers" referred to in (Matthew 27:27) and elsewhere
was the tenth part of a legion. It was called a "cohort," and numbered 400
to 600 men. [See ARMY]



  • A Gadite, one of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:36) (B.C.

  • A Levite of the line of Merari, and forefather to Ethan. (1 Chronicles

  • A man of Judah of the line of Pharez. (1 Chronicles 9:4)

  • "Children of Bani" returned from captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra
    2:10; 10:29,34; Nehemiah 10:14) 1 Esd. 5:12. [BINNUI; MANI]

  • An Israelite "of the sons of Bani." (Ezra 10:38)

  • A Levite. (Nehemiah 3:17)

  • A Levite. (Nehemiah 8:7; 9:4,5; 10:13)

  • Another Levite, of the sons of Asaph. (Nehemiah 11:22)




among the Hebrews, were not only a means of social enjoyment, but were a
part of the observance of religious festivity. At the three solemn
festivals the family also had its domestic feast. (16:11) Sacrifices, both
ordinary and extraordinary, (Exodus 34:15; Judges 16:23) includes a
banquet. Birthday banquets are only mentioned (Genesis 40:20; Matthew
14:6) The usual time of the banquet was the evening, and to begin early
was a mark of excess. (Ecclesiastes 10:16; Isaiah 5:11) The most essential
materials of the banqueting room, next to the viands and wine, which last
was often drugged with spices, (Proverbs 9:2) were perfumed unguents,
garlands or loose flowers, white or brilliant robes; after these,
exhibitions of music singers and dancers, riddles, jesting and merriment.
(Judges 14:12; 2 Samuel 19:35; Nehemiah 8:10; Ecclesiastes 10:19; Isaiah
5:12; 25:6; 28:1; Matthew 22:11; Luke 15:25) The posture at table in early
times was sitting, (1 Samuel 16:11; 20:5,18) and the guests were ranged in
order of dignity. (Genesis 43:33; 1Sam 9:22 Words which imply the
recumbent posture belong to the New Testament.


It is well known that ablution or bathing was common in most ancient
nations as a preparation for prayers and sacrifice or as expiatory of sin.
In warm countries this connection is probably even closer than in colder
climates; and hence the frequency of ablution in the religious rites
throughout the East. Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
is the rite or ordinance by which persons are admitted into the Church of
Christ. It is the public profession of faith and discipleship. Baptism
signifies --

  • A confession of faith in Christ;

  • A cleansing or washing of the soul from sin;

  • A death to sin and a new life in righteousness. The mode and subjects
    of baptism being much-controverted subjects, each one can best study them
    in the works devoted to those questions. The command to baptize was
    co-extensive with the command to preach the gospel. All nations were to be
    evangelized; and they were to be made disciples, admitted into the
    fellowship of Christ's religion, by baptism. (Matthew 28:19) It appears to
    have been a kind of transition from the Jewish baptism to the Christian.
    The distinction between John's baptism and Christian baptism appears in
    the case of Apollos, (Acts 18:26,27) and of the disciples at Ephesus
    mentioned (Acts 19:1-6) We cannot but draw from this history the inference
    that in Christian baptism there was a deeper spiritual significance.


(son of Abba), a robber, (John 18:40) who had committed murder in
an insurrection, (Mark 15:7; Luke 28:18) in Jerusalem and was lying in
prison the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate.p


(God has blessed), father of Elihu. (Job 32:2,6) [BUZ]


(Matthew 23:35) [ZACHARIAS]


(lightning), son of Abinoam of Kedesh, a refuge city in Mount
Naphtali, was incited by Deborah, a prophetess of Ephraim, to deliver
Israel from the yolk of Jabin. Judges 4. He utterly routed the Canaanites
int eh plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon). (B.C. 1291-1251.)


"every one not a Greek is a barbarian" is the common Greek definition, and
in this strict sense the word is sued in (Romans 1:14) It often retains
this primitive meaning, as in (1 Corinthians 14:11; Acts 28:24)




(fugitive), a descendant of the royal family of Judah. (1
Chronicles 3:22) (B.C. before 410.)


(son of Jesus). [ELYMAS]


(son of Jonah). [PETER]


(painted). "Children of Barkos" were among the Nethinim who
returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:53; Nehemiah 7:55)
(B.C. 536.)


is one of the most important of the cereal grains, and the most hardy of
them all. It was grown by the Hebrews, (Leviticus 27:16; 8:8; Ruth 2:17)
etc., who used it for baking into bread chiefly among the poor, (Judges
7:13; 2 Kings 4:42; John 6:9,13) and as fodder for horses. (1 Kings 4:28)
The barley harvest, (Ruth 1:22; 2:23; 2 Samuel 21:9;10) takes place in
Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly district as late as May. It
always precedes the wheat harvest, in some places by a week, in others by
fully three weeks. In Egypt the barley is about a month earlier than the
wheat; whence its total destruction by the hail storm. (Exodus 9:31)


(son of consolation or comfort) a name given by the apostles, (Acts
4:36) to Joseph (or Jose), a Levite of the island of Cyprus, who was early
a disciple of Christ. In (Acts 9:27) we find him introducing the
newly-converted Saul to the apostles at Jerusalem. Barnabas was sent to
Jerusalem, (Acts 11:19-26) and went to Tarsus to seek Saul, as one
specially raised up to preach to the Gentiles. (Acts 26:17) He brought him
to Antioch, and was sent with him to Jerusalem. (Acts 11:30) On their
return, they were ordained by the church for the missionary work, (Acts
13:2) and sent forth (A.D. 45). From this time Barnabas and Paul enjoy the
title and dignity of apostles. Their first missionary journey is related
in (Acts 13:14) Returning to Antioch (A.D. 47 or 48), they were sent (A.D.
50), with some others, to Jerusalem. (Acts 15:1,36) Afterwards they parted
and Barnabas took Mark and sailed to Cyprus, his native island. Here the
Scripture notices of him cease. The epistle attributed to Barnabas is
believed to have been written early in the second century.


(son of Sabas or rest). [JOSEPH BARSABAS; JUDAS


Revised Version of (Acts 1:23) for BAR’SABAS.


(son of Tolmai), one of the twelve apostles of Christ. (Matthew
10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13) It has been not improperly
conjectured that he is identical with Nathanael. (John 1:45) ff. He is
said to have preached the gospel in India, that is, probably, Arabia
Felix, and according to some in Armenia.


(son of Timeus), a blind beggar of Jericho who, (Mark 10:46) ff.,
sat by the wayside begging as our Lord passed out of Jericho on his last
journey to Jerusalem.



  • Son of Neriah, the friend, (Jeremiah 32:12) amanuensis, (Jeremiah
    26:4-32) and faithful attendant of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 36:10) ff. (B.C.
    603.) He was of a noble family, comp. (Jeremiah 51:59) Bar. 1:1, and of
    distinguished acquirements. His enemies accused him of influencing
    Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldaeans, (Jeremiah 43:3) cf. Jere 27:13 And he
    was imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem, B.C. 586. By the permission
    of Nebuchadnezzar he remained with Jeremiah at Mizpeh, Jos. Ant. x.9, 1,
    but was afterwards forced to go down to Egypt. (Jeremiah 43:6) Nothing is
    known certainly of the close of his life.

  • The son of Zabbai, who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the walls of
    Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:20) (B.C. 446.)

  • A priest, or family of priests, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
    (Nehemiah 10:6) (B.C. 410.).

  • The son of Col-hozeh, a descendant of Perez or Pharez, the son of
    Judah. (Nehemiah 11:5) (B.C. 536.)


One of the apocryphal books of the Old Testament. The book was held in
little esteem by the Jews, and both its date and authorship are very


(iron, i.e., strong).

  • A wealthy Gileadite who showed hospitality to David when he fled form
    Absalom. (2 Samuel 17:27) (B.C. 1023.) He declined the king's offer of
    ending his days at court. (2 Samuel 19:32-39)

  • A Meholathite, whose son Adriel married Michal, Saul's daughter. (2
    Samuel 21:8) (B.C. before 1062.)

  • Son-in-law to Barzillai the Gileadite. (Ezra 2:61; Nehemiah 7:63,64)
    (B.C. before 536.)


(fruitful), a district on the east of Jordan. It is sometimes
spoken of as the "land of Bashan," (1 Chronicles 5:11) and comp. Numb
21:33; 32:33 And sometimes as "all Bashan." (3:10,13; Joshua 12:5;
13:12,30) It was taken by the children of Israel after their conquest of
the land of Sihon from Arnon to Jabbok. The limits of Bashan are very
strictly defined. It extended from the "border of Gilead" on the south to
Mount Hermon on the north, (Deuteronomy 3:3,10,14; Joshua 12:5; 1
Chronicles 5:23) and from the Arabah or Jordan valley on the west to
Salchah (Sulkhad) and the border of the Geshurites and the
Maachathites on the east. (Joshua 12:3-5; 3:10) This important district
was bestowed on the half-tribe of Manasseh, (Joshua 13:29-31) together
with "half Gilead." This country is now full of interesting ruins, which
have lately been explored and from which much light has been thrown upon
Bible times. See Porter's "Giant Cities of Bashan."


(Bashan of the villages of Jair), a name given to Argob after its
conquest by Jair. (3:14)


(fragrant, pleasing), daughter of Ishmael, the last married of the
three wives of Esau. (Genesis 26:34; 36:3,4,13) (B.C. after 1797.) In
(Genesis 28:9) she is called Mahalath.


Among the smaller vessels for the tabernacle or temple service, many must
have been required to receive from the sacrificial victims the blood to be
sprinkled for purification. The "basin" from which our Lord washed the
disciples’ feet was probably deeper and larger than the hand-basin
for sprinkling.


The Hebrew terms used in the description of this article are as follows:
(1) Sal, so called from the twigs of which it was
originally made, specially used for holding bread. (Genesis 40:16) ff.
(Exodus 29:3,23; Leviticus 8:2,26,31; Numbers 6:15,17,19) (2)
Salsilloth, a word of kindred origin, applied to the basket used
in gathering grapes. (Jeremiah 6:9) (3) Tene, in which the
first-fruits of the harvest were presented. (26:2,4) (4) Celub, so
called from its similarity to a bird-cage. (5) Dud, used for
carrying fruit, (Jeremiah 24:1,2) as well as on a larger scale for
carrying clay to the brick-yard, (Psalms 81:6) (pots, Authorized
Version), or for holding bulky articles. (2 Kings 10:7) In the New
Testament baskets are described under three different terms.


(fragrant, pleasing), a daughter of Solomon, married to Ahimaaz,
one of his commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:15) (B.C. after 1014.)


Among those who were excluded from entering the congregation, even to the
tenth generation, was the bastard. (23:2) The term is not, however,
applied to any illegitimate offspring, born out of wedlock, but is
restricted by the rabbins to the issue of any connection within the
degrees prohibited by the law.


(Leviticus 11:19; 14:18) Many travellers have noticed the immense numbers
of bats that are found in caverns in the East, and Mr. Layard said that on
the occasion of a visit to a cavern these noisome beasts compelled him to


This was a prescribed part of the Jewish ritual of purification in cases
of accident, or of leprous or ordinary uncleanness, (Leviticus 15; 16:28;
22:6; Numbers 19:7; 19; 2 Samuel 11:2,4; 2 Kings 5:10) as also after
mourning, which always implied defilement. (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20) The
eastern climate made bathing essential alike to health and pleasure, to
which luxury added the use of perfumes. (Esther 2:12) Judith 10:3; Susan
17. The "pools," such as that of Siloam and Hezekiah, (2 Kings 20:20;
Nehemiah 3:15,16; Isaiah 22:11; John 9:7) often sheltered by porticos,
(John 5:2) are the first indications we have of public bathing




(daughter of many), The gate of, One of the gates of the
ancient city of heshbon. (Solomon 7:4,5)


(daughter of the oath), (2 Samuel 11:3) etc., also called Bath-shua
in (1 Chronicles 3:5) the daughter of Eliam, (2 Samuel 11:3) or Ammiel, (1
Chronicles 3:5) the son of Ahithophel, (2 Samuel 23:34) and wife of Uriah
the Hittite. (B.C. 1035.) The child which was the fruit of her adulterous
intercourse with David died; but after marriage she became the mother of
four sons, Solomon, (Matthew 1:6) Shimea, Shobab and Nathan. When Adonijah
attempted to set aside the succession promised to Solomon, Bath-sheba
informed the king of the conspiracy. (1 Kings 1:11,15,23) After the
accession of Solomon, she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her
son for Adonijah to take in marriage Abishag the Shunammite. (1 Kings




(Ezekiel 4:2; 21:22) a large beam with a head of iron which was sometimes
made to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by ropes to a beam
supported by posts, and balanced so as to swing backward and forward, and
was impelled by men against the wall. In attacking the walls of a fort or
city, the first step appears to have been to form an inclined plane or
bank of earth, comp. (Ezekiel 4:2) "cast a mount against it," by which the
besiegers could bring their battering-rams and other engines to the foot
of the walls. "The battering-rams," says Mr. Layard "were of several
kinds. Some were joined to movable towers which held warriors and armed
men. The whole then formed one great temporary building, the top of which
is represented in sculptures as on a level with the walls, and even
turrets, of the besieged city. In some bas-reliefs the battering-ram is
without wheels: it was then perhaps constructed upon the spot and was not
intended to be moved."


(Jeremiah 51:20) [MAUL]


Among the Jews a battlement was required by law to be built upon every
house. It consisted of a low wall built around the roofs of the houses to
prevent persons from falling off, and sometimes serving as a partition
from another building. (22:8; Jeremiah 5:10)


son of Henadad, ruler of the district of Keilah in the time of Nehemiah.
(Nehemiah 3:18) (B.C. 446.)


A species of laurel. Laurus nobilis. An evergreen, with leaves
like our mountain laurel. (Psalms 37:35)


(asking). "Children of Bazlith" were among the Nethinim who
returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:54) In (Ezra 2:52) the name is given
as BAZLUTH. (B.C. 536.)




(bedolach). (Genesis 2:12; Numbers 11:7) It is quite impossible to
say whether bedolach denotes a mineral or an animal production or a
vegetable exudation. Bdellium is an odoriferous exudation from a tree
which is perhaps the Borassus flabelliformis, Lin., of Arabia


A signal or conspicuous mark erected on an eminence for direction. (Isaiah


(Jehovah is lord), a Benjamite who went over to David at Ziklag. (1
Chronicles 12:5) (B.C. 1062.)


(ladies) a town in the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 15:24)


(2 Samuel 17:28; Ezekiel 4:9) Beans are cultivated in Palestine, which
produces many of the leguminous order of plants, such, as lentils,
kidney-beans, vetches, etc.


(1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Samuel 17:8) The Syrian bear, Ursus syriacus,
which is without doubt the animal mentioned in the Bible, is still found
on the higher mountains of Palestine. During the summer months these bears
keep to the snowy parts of Lebanon, but descend in winter to the villages
and Gardens. It is probable also that at this period in former days they
extended their visits to other parts of Palestine.


Western Asiatics have always cherished the beard as the badge of the
dignity of manhood, and attached to it the importance of a feature. The
Egyptians, on the contrary for the most part shaved the hair of the face
and head, though we find some instances to the contrary. The beard is the
object of an oath, and that on which blessing or shame is spoken of as
resting. The custom was and is to shave or pluck it and the hair out in
mourning, (Ezra 9:3; Isaiah 15:2; 50:6; Jeremiah 41:5; 48:37) Bar. 6:31;
to neglect it in seasons of permanent affliction, (2 Samuel 19:24) and to
regard any insult to it as the last outrage which enmity can inflict. (2
Samuel 10:4) The beard was the object of salutation. (2 Samuel 20:9) The
dressing, trimming, anointing, etc., of the beard was performed with much
ceremony by persons of wealth and rank (Psalms 133:2) The removal of the
beard was a part of the ceremonial treatment proper to a leper. (Leviticus



  • "Sons of Bebai," 623 (Nehe 6:28) in number, returned from Babylon with
    Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:11; Nehemiah 7:16) (B.C. 536), and at a later period
    twenty-eight more under Zechariah, son of Bebai, returned with Ezra. (Ezra
    8:11) Four of this family had taken foreign wives. (Ezra 10:28) The name
    occurs also among those who sealed the covenant. (Nehemiah 10:15)

  • Father of Zechariah, who was the leader of the twenty-eight men of his
    tribe mentioned above.


(young or firstborn)

  • The second son of Benjamin, according to the list in both (Genesis
    46:21) and 1Chr 7:6 But omitted in (1 Chronicles 8:1) (B.C. about

  • Son of Ephraim, (Numbers 26:35) called BERED in (1 Chronicles 7:20)
    Same as the preceding.


(first-born), son of Aphiah or Abiah, and grandson of Becher
according to (1 Samuel 9:1; 1 Chronicles 7:8) (B.C. before 1093.)


The Jewish bed consisted of the mattress, a mere mat, or one or more
quilts; the covering, a finer quilt, or sometimes the outer garment worn
by day, (1 Samuel 19:13) which the law provided should not be kept in
pledge after sunset, that the poor man might not lack his needful
covering, (24:13) the pillow, (1 Samuel 19:13) probably formed of sheep's
fleece or goat's skin with a stuffing of cotton, etc.; the bedstead, a
divan or bench along the side or end of the room, sufficing at a support
for the bedding. Besides we have bedsteads made of ivory, wood, etc.
referred to in (3:11; Amos 6:4) The ornamental portions were pillars and a
canopy, Judith 13:9, ivory carvings, gold and silver, and probably mosaic
work, purple and fine linen. (Esther 1:6; Solomon 3:9,10) The ordinary
furniture of a bedchamber in private life is given in (2 Kings 4:10)


(solitary), the father of Hadad king of Edom. (Genesis 36:35; 1
Chronicles 1:46) (B.C. before 1093.)


(son of judgement).

  • Mentioned in (1 Samuel 12:11) as a judge of Israel between Jerubbaal
    (Gideon) and Jephthah. The Chaldee Paraphrase reads Samson for Bedan; the
    LXX., Syriac and Arabic all have Barak. Ewald suggests that it may be a
    false reading for Abdon. (B.C. about 1150.)

  • The son of Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:17)


one of the sons of Bani, in the time of Ezra, who had taken a foreign
wife. (Ezra 10:35) (B.C. 458.)


(deborah). (1:44; Judges 14:8; Psalms 118:12; Isaiah 7:18) Bees
abounded in Palestine, honey being a common article of food (Psalms 81:16)
and was often found in the clefts of rocks and in hollow trees. (1 Samuel
14:25,27) English naturalists know little of the species of bees that are
found in Palestine, but are inclined tn believe that the honey-bee of
Palestine is distinct from the honey-bee (Apis mellifica) of this
country. The passage in (Isaiah 7:18) refers "to the custom of the people
in the East of calling attention to any one by a significant hiss
or rather hist." We read, (Judges 14:8) that "after a time,"
probably many days, Samson returned to the carcass of the lion he had
slain, and saw bees and honey therein. "If any one here represents to
himself a corrupt and putrid carcass, the occurrence ceases to have any
true similitude, for it is well known that in these countries, at certain
seasons of the year, the heat will in the course of twenty-four hours
completely dry up the moisture of dead camels, and that, without their
undergoing decomposition their bodies long remain like mummies, unaltered
and entirely free from offensive odor." -- Edmann.


(the Lord knows); one of David's 9 sons, born in Jerusalem. (1
Chronicles 14:7) In the lists in Samuel the name is ELIADA. (B.C. after




(lord of the house), the title of a heathen deity, to whom the Jews
ascribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits; Satan, the prince of the
devils. (Matthew 10:25; 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15) ff. The correct
reading is without doubt Beelzebul, and not Beelzebub.


(a well).

  • One of the latest halting-places of the Israelites, lying beyond the
    Arnon. (Numbers 21:16-18) This is possibly the BEER-ELIM of (Isaiah

  • A place to which Jotham, the son of Gideon, fled for fear of his
    brother Abimelech. (Judges 9:21)


(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:37)
(B.C. after 1450.)


prince of the Reubenites, carried away by Tiglath-pileser. (1 Chronicles
5:6) (B.C. 738).


(well of heroes), a spot named in (Isaiah 15:8) as on the "border
of Moab." (Numbers 21:16) comp. Numb 21:13


  • The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau. (Genesis 26:34) [ANAH]
    (B.C. 1797.)

  • Father of the prophet Hosea. (Hosea 1:1) (B.C. before 725.)


(a well of the living), a living spring, Authorized Version,
fountain, comp. (Jeremiah 6:7) between Kadesh and Bered, in the
wilderness. (Genesis 24:62)


(wells), one of the four cities of the Hivites who deluded Joshua
into a treaty of peace with them. (Joshua 9:17) It is now el-Bireh
, which stands about 10 miles north of Jerusalem.


the wells of the tribe of Bene-Jaakan, which formed one of the
halting-places of the Israelites in the desert. (10:6) In (Numbers 33:31)
the name is given as BENE-JAAKAN only.


(well of the oath), the name of one of the old places in Palestine
which formed the southern limit of the country. There are two accounts of
the origin of the name. According to the first, the well was dug by
Abraham, and the name given to Judah, (Joshua 15:28) and then to Simeon,
(Joshua 19:2; 1 Chronicles 4:28) In the often-quoted "from Dan even unto
Beersheba," (Judges 20:1) it represents the southern boundary of Canaan,
as Dan the northern. In the time of Jerome it was still a considerable
place, and still retains its ancient name -- Bir es-Seba. There
are at present on the spot two principal wells and five smaller ones. The
two principal wells are on or close to the northern bank of the Wady
. The larger of the two, which lies to the east, is, according
to Dr. Robinson, 12 1/2 feet in diameter, and at the time of his visit
(April 12) was 44 1/2 feet to the surface of the water. The masonry which
encloses the well extends downward 28 1/2 feet. The other well is 5 feet
in diameter, and was 42 feet to the water. The curb-stones around the
mouth of both wells are worn into deep grooves by the action of the ropes
of so many centures. These wells are in constant use today. The five
lesser wells are in a group in the bed of the wady. On some low hills
north of the large wells are scattered the foundations and ruins of a town
of moderate size.


(house of Ashterah), one of the two cities allotted to the sons of
Gershon out of the tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan. (Joshua 21:27)
Probably identical with Ashtaroth. (1 Chronicles 6:71)




Same as cattle. (Leviticus 22:19) [See BULL, BULLOCK]


The poor among the Hebrews were much favored. They were allowed to glean
in the fields, and to gather whatever the land produced in the year in
which it was not tilled (Leviticus 19:10; 25:5,6; 24:19) They were also
invited to feasts. (14:29) and Deuteronomy 26:12 The Israelite could not
be an absolute pauper. His land was in alienable, except for a certain
term, when it reverted to him or his posterity. And if this resource were
insufficient, he could pledge the services of himself and family or a
valuable sum. Those who were indigent through bodily infirmities were
usually taken care of by their kindred. A beggar was sometimes seen,
however, and was regarded and abhorred as a vagabond. (Psalms 109:10) In
later times beggars were accustomed, it would seem, to have a fixed place
at the corners of the streets, (Mark 10:46) or at the gates of the temple,
(Acts 3:2) or of private houses, (Luke 16:20)


(great beasts). There can be little or no doubt that by this word,
(Job 40:15-24) the hippopotamus is intended since all the details
descriptive of the behemoth accord entirely with the ascertained habits of
that animal. The hippopotamus is an immense creature having a thick and
square head, a large mouth often two feet broad, small eyes and ears,
thick and heavy body, short legs terminated by four toes, a short tail,
skin without hair except at the extremity of the tail. It inhabits nearly
the whole of Africa, and has been found of the length of 17 feet. It
delights in the water, but feeds on herbage on land. It is not found in
Palestine, but may at one time have been a native of western Asia.







  • One of the five cities of the plain which was spared at the
    intercession of Lot, and received the name of Zoar, (Genesis 14:2; 19:22)

  • Son of Beor, who reigned over Edom in the city of Dinhabah, eight
    generations before Saul. (Genesis 36:31-33; 1 Chronicles 1:43,44)

  • Eldest son of Benjamin, according to (Genesis 46:21) (Authorized
    Version "Belah"); (Numbers 26:38,40; 1 Chronicles 7:6; 8:1) and head of
    the family of the Belaites.

  • Son of Ahaz, a Reubenite. (1 Chronicles 5:8)


[BELA, 3]


(Numbers 26:38) [BELA, 3]


The meaning of this word as found in the Scriptures is
worthlessness, and hence reckless, lawlessness. The
expression son or man of Belial must be understood as
meaning simply a worthless, lawless fellow. The term as used in (2
Corinthians 6:15) is generally understood as an appellative of Satan, as
the personification of all that was bad.


The word occurs only in (Jeremiah 6:29) where it denotes an instrument to
heat a smelting furnace. Wilkinson in "Ancient Egypt," iii. 338, says,
"They consisted of a leather, secured and fitted into a frame, from which
a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked
by the feet, the operator standing upon them, with one under each foot,
and pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin with
a string he held in his hand."


In (Exodus 28:33) the bells alluded to were the golden ones 72 in number,
round the hem of the his priest's ephod. The object of them was so that
his sound might be heard." (Exodus 28:34) Ecclus. 45:9. To this day bells
are frequently attached, for the sake of their pleasant sound, to the
anklets of women. The little girls of Cairo wear strings of them around
their feet. In (Zechariah 14:20) "bells of the horses" were concave or
flat pieces of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake
of ornament.


(prince of Bel), the last king of Babylon. In (Daniel 5:2)
Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar. This, of course, need
only mean grandfather or ancestor. According to the well-known narrative
Belshazzar gave a splendid feast in his palace during the siege of Babylon
(B.C. 538), using the sacred vessels of the temple, which Nebuchadnezzer
had brought from Jerusalem. The miraculous appearance of the handwriting
on the wall, the calling in of Daniel to interpret its meaning the
prophecy of the overthrow of the kingdom, and Belshazsar's death, accorded
in Dan. 5.


(favored by Bel.) [DANIEL, DANIEL, THE BOOK OF]


(son), a Levite, one of the porters appointed by David for the ark.
(1 Chronicles 15:18)


(made by the Lord).

  • The son of Jehoiada the chief priest, (1 Chronicles 27:5) of the tribe
    of Levi, though a native of Kabzeel, (2 Samuel 23:20) set by David, (1
    Chronicles 11:25) over his body-guard. (2 Samuel 8:18; 20:23; 1 Kings
    1:38; 1 Chronicles 18:17) One of the mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:22,23; 1
    Chronicles 11:25; 27:6) The exploits which gave him this rank are narrated
    in (2 Samuel 23:20,21; 1 Chronicles 11:22) He was captain of the host for
    the third month. (1 Chronicles 27:5) Benaiah remained faithful to Solomon
    during Adonijah's attempt on the crown, (1 Kings 1:8,10,32,38,44) and was
    raised unto the place of Joab as commander-in-chief of the whole army. (1
    Kings 2:35; 4:4) (B.C. 1005.)

  • Benaiah the Pirathonite, an Ephraimite, one of David's thirty mighty
    men, (2 Samuel 23:30; 1 Chronicles 11:31) and the captain of the eleventh
    monthly course. (1 Chronicles 27:14)

  • A Levite in the time of David, who "played with a psaltry on Alamoth."
    (1 Chronicles 15:18,20; 16:5)

  • A priest in the time of David, appointed to blow the trumpet before
    the ark. (1 Chronicles 15:24; 16:6)

  • A Levite of the sons of Asaph. (2 Chronicles 20:14)

  • A Levite in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:13)

  • One of the "princes" of the families of Simeon. (1 Chronicles

  • Four laymen in the time of Ezra who had taken strange wives. (Ezra

  • The father of Pelatiah. (Ezekiel 11:1,13)


(son of my people), the son of the younger daughter of Lot, and
progenitor of the Ammonites. (Genesis 19:38) (B.C. 1897.)


(son of lightning), one of the cities of the tribe of Dan,
mentioned only in (Joshua 19:45)


(sons of Jaakan), a tribe who gave their name to certain wells in
the desert which formed one of the halting-places of the Israelites on
Also given in (Genesis 36:27) as AKAN.


(the children of the East), an appellation given to a people or to
peoples dwelling to the east of Palestine. It occurs in (Genesis 29:1;
Judges 6:3,33; 7:12; 8:10; Job 1:3)


(son of Hadad), the name of three kings of Damascus. BENHADAD I.,
King of Damascus, which in his time was supreme in Syria. He made an
alliance with Asa, and conquered a great part of the north of Israel. (1
Kings 15:18) His date is B.C. 950. BEN-HADAD II., son of the preceding,
and also king of Damascus. Long wars with Israel characterized his reign.
Some time after the death of Ahab, Benhadad renewed the war with Israel,
attacked Samaria a second time, and pressed the siege so closely that
there was a terrible famine in the city. But the Syrians broke up in the
night in consequence of a sudden panic. Soon after Ben-hadad fell sick,
and sent Hazael to consult Elisha as to the issue of his malady. On the
day after Hazael's return Ben-hadad was murdered, probably by some of his
own servants. (2 Kings 8:7-15) Ben-hadad's death was about B.C. 890, and
he must have reigned some 30 years. BEN-HADAD III., son of Hazael, and his
successor on the throne of Syria. When he succeeded to the throne, Jehoash
recovered the cities which Jehoahaz had lost to the Syrians, and beat him
in Aphek. (2 Kings 13:17,25) The date of Ben-hadad III is B.C. 840.


(son of the host, strong), one of the princes whom King Jehoshaphat
sent to teach in the cities of Judah. (2 Chronicles 17:7)


(son of the gracious), son of Shimon, in the line of Judah. (1
Chronicles 4:20)


(our son), a Levite; one of those who sealed the covenant with
Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:13,14)


(son of the right hand, fortunate).

  • The youngest of the children of Jacob. His birth took place on the
    road between Bethel and Bethlehem, near the latter, B.C. 1729. His mother,
    Rachel, died in the act of giving him birth, naming him with her last
    breath Ben-oni (son of my sorrow). This was by Jacob changed into
    Benjamin. (Genesis 35:16,18) Until the journeys of Jacob's sons and Jacob
    himself into Egypt we hear nothing of Benjamin. Nothing personal is known
    of him. Henceforward the history of Benjamin is the history of the

  • A man of the tribe of Benjamin, son of bilhan, and the head of a
    family of warriors. (1 Chronicles 7:10)

  • One of the "sons of Harim," an Israelite in the time of Ezra who had
    married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:32)


The contrast between the warlike character of the tribe and the peaceful
image of its progenitor comes out in many scattered notices. Benjamin was
the only tribe which seems to have pursued archery to any purpose, and
their skill in the bow, (1 Samuel 20:20,36; 2 Samuel 1:232; 1 Chronicles
8:40; 12:2; 2 Chronicles 17:17) and the sling, (Judges 20:16) is
celebrated. The dreadful deed recorded in Judges 19 was defended by
Benjamin. Later the tribe seems, however, to assume another position, as
Ramah, (1 Samuel 9:12) etc., Mizpeh, (1 Samuel 7:5) Bethel and Gibeon, (1
Kings 3:4) were all in the land of Benjamin. After the struggles and
contests which followed the death of Saul, the history of Benjamin becomes
merged in that of the southern kingdom.


The proximity of Benjamin to Ephraim during the march to the promised land
was maintained in the territory allotted to each. That given to Benjamin
formed almost a parallelogram, of about 26 miles in length by 12 in
breadth, lying between Ephraim, the Jordan, Judah and Dan. The general
level of this part of Palestine is not less than 2000 feet above the
Mediterranean or than 3000 feet above the valley of the Jordan, the
surrounding country including a large number of eminences -- almost every
one of which has borne some part in the history of the tribe -- and many
torrent beds and deep ravines.


(Jeremiah 20:2; 37:13; 38:7; Zechariah 14:10) [JERUSALEM]


(his son), a Levite of the sons of Merari. (1 Chronicles


(son of my sorrow). (Genesis 35:18) [BENJAMIN, BENJAMIN, THE TRIBE


(son of Zoheth), a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:20)


(Numbers 32:3) [BETH-BAALMEON] Comp. ver. 38.


(burning or torch).

  • The father of Bela, one of the early Edomite kings. (Genesis 36:32; 1
    Chronicles 1:43)

  • Father of Balaam. (Numbers 22:5; 24:3,15; 31:8; Deuteronomy 23:4;
    Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5) He is called BOSOR in the New Testament.
    (B.C. before 1450.)


(son of evil) king of Sodom. (Genesis 14:2) also (Genesis


(blessing), a Benjamite who attached himself to David at Ziklag. (1
Chronicles 12:3) (B.C. 1054.)


a valley in which Jehoshaphat and his people assembled to "bless" Jehovah
after the overthrow of the hosts of Moabites. (2 Chronicles 20:26) It is
now called Bereikut, and lies between Tekua and the main road from
Bethlehem to Hebron.


(blessed of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, father of Asaph. (1
Chronicles 6:39) [BERECHIAH]


(created by Jehovah), son of Shimhi, a chief man of Benjamin. (1
Chronicles 8:21)


(well watered).

  • A city of Macedonia, mentioned in (Acts 17:10,13) It is now called
    Verria or Kara-Verria, and is situated on the eastern slope
    of the Olympian mountain range, and has 15,000 or 20,000 inhabitants.

  • The modern Aleppo, mentioned in 2 Macc. 13:4.

  • A place in Judea, apparently not very far from Jerusalem. 1 Macc.


(blessed of Jehovah).

  • A descendant of the royal family of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:20)

  • A man mentioned as the father of Meshullam, who assisted in rebuilding
    the walls of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:4,30; 6:18)

  • A Levite. (1 Chronicles 9:16)

  • A doorkeeper for the ark. (1 Chronicles 15:23)

  • One of the tribe of Ephraim in the time of Ahaz. (2 Chronicles

  • Father of Asaph the singer. (1 Chronicles 15:17) [BERACHIAH]

  • Father of Zechariah. (Zechariah 1:1,7)



  • A place in the south of Palestine, near the well Lahairoi. (Genesis

  • A son or descendant of Ephraim, (1 Chronicles 7:20) possibly identical
    with Becher in (Numbers 26:35)




(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles


(in evil, or a gift).

  • A son of Asher. (Genesis 46:17; Numbers 26:44,45)

  • A son of Ephraim. (1 Chronicles 7:20-23)

  • A Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:13,16)

  • A Levite. (1 Chronicles 23:10,11)


A tribe of people who are named with Abel and Beth-maachah, and who were
therefore doubtless situated in the north of Palestine. (2 Samuel


(Judges 9:46) [BAAL-BERITH]


(bringing victory), the eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts
12:1) etc. She was first married to her uncle Herod, king of Chaleis, and
after his death (A.D. 48) she lived under circumstances of great suspicion
with her own brother, Agrippa II., in connection with whom she is
mentioned, (Acts 25:13,23; 26:30) as having visited Festus on his
appointment as procurator of Judea.


(2 Kings 20:12) [MERODACH-BALADAN]


(toward the wells), Bero’-tha-i (my wells). The
first of these two names is given by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 47:16) in
connection with Hahlath and Damascus as forming part of the northern
boundary of the promised land. The second is mentioned, (2 Samuel 8:8) in
the same connection. The well-known city Beirut (Berytus) naturally
suggests itself as identical with one at least of the names; but in each
instance the circumstances of the case seem to require a position farther
east. They were probably in the vicinity of the springs near the present




(tarshish) occurs in (Exodus 28:20) It is generally supposed that
the tarshish derives its name from the place so called, in Spain. Beryl is
a mineral of great hardness, and, when transparent, of much beauty. By
tarshish the modern yellow topaz is probably intended, while in
(Revelation 21:20) a different stone is perhaps referred to, probably the
mineral now called beryl, which is identical with the emerald except in
color, being a light green or bluish-green.


(sword). "Children of Besai" were among the Nethinim who returned
to Judea with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:49; Nehemiah 7:52)


(n the secret of the Lord) father of one of the repairers of the
wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:6)


a brush or broom of twigs for sweeping (Isaiah 14:23)


(cool), a torrent-bed or wady in the extreme south of Judah. (1
Samuel 30:9,10,21)


(confidence), a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah,
mentioned with Berothai. (2 Samuel 8:8) In the parallel account, (1
Chronicles 18:8) the name is called Tibhath.


(height), one of the cities on the border of the tribe of Asher.
(Joshua 19:25)


the most general word for a house or habitation. It has the special
meaning of a temple or house of worship Beth is more frequently employed
in compound names of places than any other word.


(house of the ford), a place beyond Jordan, in which according to
the Received Text of the New Testament, John was baptizing. (John 1:28) If
this reading be correct, Bethabara is identical with Beth-barah (fords
of Abarah
) the ancient ford of Jordan on the road to Gilead; or, which
seems more likely, with Beth-nimrah, on the east of the river, nearly
opposite Jericho. The Revised Version reads BETHANY, which see below.


(house of echo or reply), one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali,
named with Beth-shemesh, (Joshua 19:38) from neither of them were the
Canaanites expelled. (Judges 1:33)).


(house of echo), a town in the mountainous district of Judah, named
with Halhul, Beth-zur and others in (Joshua 15:58) only.


(house of dates, or house of misery), a village which, scanty as
are the notices of it contained in Scripture, is more intimately
associated in our minds than perhaps any other place with the most
familiar acts and scenes of the last days of the life of Christ. It was
situated "at" the Mount of Olives, (Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29) about fifteen
stadia (furlongs, i.e. 1 1/2 or 2 miles) from Jerusalem (John 11:18) on or
near the usual road From Jericho to the city, (Luke 19:29) comp. Mark 11:1
comp. Mark 10:46 And close by the west(?) of another village called
Bethphage, the two being several times mentioned together. Bethany was the
home of Mary and Martha and Lazarus, and is now known by a name derived
from Lazarus -- el-Azariyeh or Lazarieh. It lies on the
eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, fully a mile beyond the summit, and
not very far from the point at which the road to Jericho begins its more
sudden descent towards the Jordan valley. El-’Azariyeh is a
ruinous and wretched village, a wild mountain hamlet of some twenty
families. Bethany has been commonly explained "house of dates," but it
more probably signifies "house of misery." H. Dixon, "Holy Land," ii. 214,


In the Revised Version for BETHABARA, (John 1:28) where Jesus was baptized
by John. It was probably an obscure village near Bethabara, and in time
its name faded out and was replaced by the larger and more important


(house of the desert), one of the six cities of Judah which were
situated down in the Arabah, the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea,
(Joshua 15:61) on the north border of the tribe. It is also included in
the list of the towns of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:22)


(house of the height), accurately BETH-HARAM, one of the towns of
Gad on the east of Jordan, described as in "the valley," (Joshua 13:27)
and no doubt the same place as that named BETH-HARAN in (Numbers


(house of God's court), named only in (Hosea 10:14) as the scene of
a sack and massacre by Shalman.


(house of nothingness, i.e. of idols), a place on the
mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel, (Joshua 7:2; 18:12) and lying
between that place and Michmash. (1 Samuel 13:5; 14:28) In (Hosea 4:15;
5:8; 10:5) the name is transferred to the neighboring Bethel, -- once the
"house of God" but then the house of idols of "naught."


(house of Azmaveth). Under this name is mentioned, in (Nehemiah
7:28) only, the town of Benjamin which is elsewhere called AZMAVETH and


(house of Baalmeon), a place in the possessions of Reuben, on the
downs (Authorized Version "plain") east of the Jordan. (Joshua 13:17) At
the Israelites’ first approach is name was BAAL-MEON, (Numbers
32:38) or, in its contracted form, BEON (Numbers 32:3) to which the Beth
was possibly a Hebrew addition. Later it would seem to have come into
possession of Moab, and to be known either as Beth-meon, (Jeremiah 48:23)
or Baal-meon. (Ezekiel 25:9) The name is still attached to a ruined place
of considerable size a short distance to the southwest of Hesban,
and bearing the name of "the fortress of Mi’un, " or


(house of the ford), named only in (Judges 7:24) It derived its
chief interest in the possibility that its more modern representative may
have been Beth-abara, where John baptized. It was probably the chief ford
of the district.


(house of my creation), a town of Simeon, (1 Chronicles 4:31) which
by comparison with the parallel list in (Joshua 19:6) appears to have had
also the name Of BETH-LEBAOTH. It lay to the extreme south.


(house of the lamb), a place named as the point to which the
Israelites pursued the Philistines, (1 Samuel 7:11) and therefore west of


(house of Dagon).

  • A city in the low country of Judah, (Joshua 15:41) and therefore not
    far from the Philistine territory.

  • A town apparently near the coast, named as one of the landmarks of the
    boundary of Asher. (Joshua 19:27)


(house of fig-cakes), a town of Moab, (Jeremiah 48:22) apparently
the place elsewhere called ALMON-DIBLATHAIM.


(the house of God) well known city and holy place of central
Palestine, about 12 mlles north of Jerusalem. If we are to accept the
precise definition of (Genesis 12:8) the name of Bethel would appear to
have existed at this spot even before the arrival of Abram in Canaan.
(Genesis 12:8; 13:3,4) Bethel was the scene of Jacob's vision. (Genesis
28:11-19; 31:13) Jacob lived there. (Genesis 35:1-8) The original name was
Luz. (Judges 1:22,23) After the conquest Bethel is frequently heard of. In
the troubled times when there was no king in Israel, it was to Bethel that
the people went up in their distress to ask counsel of God. (Judges
20:18,26,31; 21:2) Authorized Version, "house of God." Here was the ark of
the covenant. (Judges 20:26-28; 21:4) Later it is named as one of the holy
cities to which Samuel went on circuit. (1 Samuel 7:16) Here Jeroboab
placed one of the two calves of gold. Toward the end of Jeroboam's life
Bethel fell into the hands of Judah. (2 Chronicles 13:19) Elijah visited
Bethel, and we hear of "sons of the prophets" as resident there. (2 Kings
2:2,3) But after the destruction of Baal worship by Jehu Bethel comes once
more into view. (2 Kings 10:29) After the desolation of the northern
kingdom by the king of Assyria, Bethel still remained an abode of priests.
(2 Kings 17:27,28) In later times Bethel is named only once under the
scarcely-altered name of Beitin. Its ruins still lie on the
righthand side of the road from Jerusalem to Nablus.

  • A town in the south part of Judah, named in (Joshua 12:16) and 1Sam
    30:27 In (Joshua 15:30; 19:4; 1 Chronicles 4:29,30) the place appears
    under the name of CHESIL, BETHUL and BETHUEL. Hiel the Bethelite is
    recorded as the rebuilder of Jericho. (1 Kings 16:34)

  • In (Joshua 16:1) and 1Sam 13:2 Mount Bethel, a hilly section near
    Beth-el, is referred to.


(house of the valley), a place on or near the border of Asher, on
the north side of which was the ravine of Jiphthah-el (Joshua 19:27)


(depth), The mountains of. (Solomon 2:17) There is no clue
to guide us as to what mountains are intended here.


(house of mercy, or the flowing water), the Hebrew name of a
reservoir or tank, with five "porches," close upon the sheep-gate or
"market" in Jerusalem. (John 5:2) The largest reservoir - Birket
- 360 feet long, 120 feet wide and 80 feet deep, within the
walls of the city, close by St. Stephen's Gate, and under the northeast
wall of the Haram area, is generally considered to be the modern
representative of Bethesda. Robinson, however, suggests that the ancient
Bethesda is identical with what is now called the Pool of the
an intermittent pool, south of Birket Israil and north
of the pool of Siloam.


(neighbor's house), a place named only in (Micah 1:11) From the
context it was doubtless situated in the plain of Philistia.


(house of the wall), doubtless a place, though it occurs in the
genealogies of Judah as if a person. (1 Chronicles 2:51)


(camel-house), a town of Moab, in the downs east of Jordan.
(Jeremiah 48:23) comp. Jere 48:21


Same as Gilgal. (Nehemiah 12:29)


(house of the vine). (Nehemiah 3:14; Jeremiah 6:1) A beacon station
near Tekoa, supposed to be the Frank Mountain, a few miles
southeast of Bethlehem.


(Numbers 32:36) It is no doubt the same place as BETH-ARAM. (Joshua


(partridge-house), and Holg’lah a place on the border
of Judah, (Joshua 15:6) and of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:19,21) A magnificent
spring and a ruin between Jericho and the Jordan still bear the names of


(house of caverns), the name of two towns or villages, an "upper"
and a "nether," (Joshua 16:3,5; 1 Chronicles 7:24) on the road from Gibeon
to Azekah, (Joshua 10:10,11) and the Philistine plain. 1 Macc. 3:24.
Beth-horon lay on the boundary line between Benjamin and Ephraim, (Joshua
16:3,5) and Josh 18:13,14 Was counted to Ephraim, (Joshua 21:22; 1
Chronicles 7:24) and given to the Kohathites. (Joshua 21:22; 1 Chronicles
6:68) (1Chr 6:53) The two Beth-horons still survive in the modern villages
of Beit-ur, et-tahta and el-foka.


(house of deserts) or Jes’imoth, a town or place east
of Jordan, on the lower level at the south end of the Jordan valley,
(Numbers 33:49) and named with Ashdod-pisgah and Beth-peor. It was one of
the limits of the encampment of Israel before crossing the Jordan. Later
it was allotted to Reuben, (Joshua 12:3; 13:20) but came at last into the
hands of Moab, and formed one of the cities which were "the glory of the
country." (Ezekiel 25:9)


(house of lionesses), a town in the lot of Simeon, (Joshua 19:6) in
the extreme south of Judah. [ (Joshua 15:32) LEBAOTH] In (1 Chronicles
4:31) the name is given BETH-BIREI.


(house of bread).

  • One of the oldest towns in Palestine, already in existence at the time
    of Jacob's return to the country. Its earliest name was EPHRATAH, OR
    EPHRATH or EPHRATAH. See (Genesis 35:16,19; 48:7) After the conquest
    Bethlehem appears under its own name, BETHLEHEM-JUDAH. (Judges 17:7; 1
    Samuel 17:12; Ruth 1:1,2) The book of Ruth is a page from the domestic
    history of Bethlehem. It was the home of Ruth, (Ruth 1:19) and of David.
    (1 Samuel 17:12) It was fortified by Rehoboam. (2 Chronicles 11:6) It was
    here that our Lord was born, (Matthew 2:1) and here that he was visited by
    the shepherds, (Luke 2:15-17) and the Magi. Matt 2. The modern town of
    Beit-lahm lies to the east of the main road from Jerusalem to
    Hebron, six miles from the former. It covers the east and northeast parts
    of the ridge of a long gray hill of Jura limestone, which stands nearly
    due east and west, and is about a mile in length. The hill has a deep
    valley on the north and another on the south. On the top lies the village
    in a kind of irregular triangle. The population is about 3000 souls,
    entirely Christians. The Church of the Nativity, built by the empress
    Helena A.D. 330, is the oldest Christian church in existence. It is built
    over the grotto where Christ is supposed to have been born.

  • A town in the portion of Zebulun, named nowhere but in (Joshua 19:15)
    Now known as Beit-lahm.


1 Esd. 5:17. [BETHLEHEM, 1]


(house of oppression), a place named only in (2 Samuel 20:14,15) In
the absence of more information we can only conclude that it is identical
with Maachah or Aram-maachah, one of the petty Syrian kingdoms in the
north of Palestine. (Comp. (2 Kings 15:29)


(house of the chariots), one of the towns of Simeon, situated to
the extreme south of Judah. (Joshua 19:5; 1 Chronicles 4:31) In the
parallel list, (Joshua 15:31) MADMANNAH occurs in place of


(Jeremiah 48:23) A contracted form of Beth-baal-meon.


(house of leopards) one of the fenced cities on the east of Jordan
taken and built by the tribe of Gad (Numbers 32:36) and described as being
in the valley beside Beth-haran. (Joshua 13:27) In (Numbers 32:3) it is
called simply NIMRAH. The name still survives in the modern Nahr
above Jericho on the Jordan.


(house of flight), a town among those in the extreme south of
Judah, named in (Joshua 15:27)


(house of the dispersion), a town of Issachar named with En-haddah
(Joshua 19:21) and of which nothing is known.


(house of Peor), a place on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho
and six miles above Libias or Beth-haran. (Joshua 13:20; 3:29; 4:46)


(g hard) (house of figs) the name of a place on the Mount of Olives
on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem. It was apparently close to
Bethany. (Matthew 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29)


(Nehemiah 11:26) [BETHPALET]


a name which occurs in the genealogy of Judah as the son of Eshton. (1
Chronicles 4:12)


(house of Rehob), place mentioned as having near it the valley in
which lay the town of Laish or Dan. (Judges 18:28) It was one of the
little kingdoms of Aram or Syria. (2 Samuel 10:6) Robinson conjectures
that this ancient place is represented by the modern Hunin.


(house of fish) of Galilee, (John 12:21) a city which was
the native place of Andrew, Peter and Philip, (John 1:44; 12:21) in the
land of Gennesareth, (Mark 6:46) comp. Mark 6:53 And therefore on the west
side of the lake. By comparing the narratives in (Mark 6:31-53) and Luke
9:10-17 It appears certain that the Bethsaida at which the five thousand
were fed must have been a second place of the same name on the east of the
lake. (But in reality "there is but one Bethsaida, that known on our maps
at Bethsaida Julias." L. Abbot in Biblical and Oriental Journal.
The fact is that Bethsaida was a village on both sides of the Jordan as it
enters the sea of Galilee on the north, so that the western part of the
village was in Galilee and the eastern portion in Gaulonitis, part of the
tetrarchy of Philip. This eastern portion was built up into a beautiful
city by Herod Philip, and named by him Bethsaida Julias, after
Julia the daughter of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar. On the plain of
Butaiha, a mile or two to the east, the five thousand were fed. The
western part of the town remained a small village. -- ED.)


(house of rest), or in Samuel, BETHSHAN, a city which belonged to
Manasseh, (1 Chronicles 7:29) though within the limits of Issachar (Joshua
17:11) and therefore on the west of Jordan. Comp. 1 Macc. 5:62. In later
times it was called Scythopolis. 2 Macc. 12:29. The place is still known
as Beisan. It lies in the Ghor or Jordan valley, about twelve
miles south of the Sea of Galilee and four miles west of the Jordan.


(house of the sun).

  • One of the towns which marked the north boundary of Judah. (Joshua
    15:10) It is now ’Ainshems, about two miles from the great
    Philistine plain, and seven from Ekron.

  • A city on the border of Issachar. (Joshua 19:22)

  • One of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:38; Judges

  • An idolatrous temple, or place in Egypt. (Jeremiah 43:13) In the
    middle ages Heliopolis was still called by the Arabs Ain Shems


(home of the acacia), one of the spots to which the flight of the
host of the Midianites extended after their discomfiture by Gideon.
(Judges 7:22)


(house of apples), one of the towns of Judah in the mountainous
district, and near Hebron. (Joshua 15:53) comp. 1Chr 2:43 Here it has
actually been discovered by Robinson under the modern name of
Teffuh, five miles west of Hebron, on a ridge of high


(dweller in God), the son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham,
and father of Rebekah, (Genesis 22:22,23; 24:15,24,47; 28:2) In (Genesis
25:20) and (Genesis 28:5) he is called "Bethuel the Syrian."


(dweller in God) a town of Simeon in the south named with Eltolad
and Hormah, (Joshua 19:4) called also Chesil and Bethuel. (Joshua 15:30; 1
Chronicles 4:30)


(house of rock) a town in the mountains of Judah, built by
Jeroboam, (Joshua 15:58; 2 Chronicles 11:7) now Beit-zur. It
commands the road from Beersheba and Hebron, which has always been the
main approach to Jerusalem from the south.


a town of Gad, apparently on the northern boundary. (Joshua 13:26)




(married), the name which the land of Israel is to bear when "the
land shall be married." (Isaiah 62:4)


(conqueror). "Children of Bezai," to the number of 328, returned
from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:17; Nehemiah 7:23; 10:18)


(in the shadow of God).

  • The son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah and one of the
    architects of the tabernacle. (Exodus 31:1-6) His charge was chiefly in
    all works of metal, wood and stone. (B.C. 1490.)

  • One of the sons of Pahath-moab who had taken a foreign wife. (Ezra
    10:30) (B.C. 458.)



  • The residence of Adonibezek, (Judges 1:6) in the lot of Judah. ver.
    (Judges 1:3)

  • Where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah before going to the
    relief of Jabesh-gilead. (1 Samuel 11:8) This was doubtless somewhere in
    the centre of the country, near the Jordan valley. No identification of
    either place has been made in modern times.


(gold ore), son of Zophah, one of the heads of the houses of Asher.
(1 Chronicles 7:37)


a city of refuge in the downs on the east of the Jordan. (4:43; Joshua
20:8; 21:36; 1 Chronicles 6:78)


The Bible is the name given to the revelation of God to man contained in
sixty-six books or pamphlets, bound together and forming one book and only
one, for it has in reality one author and one purpose and plan, and is the
development of one scheme of the redemption of man. I. ITS NAMES. -- (1)
The Bible, i.e. The Book, from the Greek "ta biblia," the
books. The word is derived from a root designating the inner bark of the
linden tree, on which the ancients wrote their books. It is the book as
being superior to all other books. But the application of the word BIBLE
to the collected books of the Old and New Testaments is not to be traced
farther back than the fifth century of our era. (2) The Scriptures
, i.e. the writings, as recording what was spoken by God. (3) The
, i.e. the things spoken, because the Bible is what God spoke
to man, and hence also called (4) The Word. (5) The Testaments or
Covenants, because it is the testimony of God to man, the truths
to which God bears witness; and is also the covenant or agreement of God
with man for his salvation. (6) The Law, to express that it
contains God's commands to men. II. COMPOSITION. -- The Bible consists of
two great parts, called the Old and New Testaments, separated by an
interval of nearly four hundred years. These Testaments are further
divided into sixty-six books, thirty-nine in the Old Testament and
twenty-seven in the New. These books are a library in themselves being
written in every known form old literature. Twenty-two of them are
historical, five are poetical, eighteen are prophetical, twenty-one are
epistolary. They contain logical arguments, poetry, songs and hymns,
history, biography, stories, parables, fables, eloquence, law, letters and
philosophy. There are at least thirty-six different authors, who wrote in
three continents, in many countries, in three languages, and from every
possible human standpoint. Among these authors were kings, farmers,
mechanics, scientific men, lawyers, generals, fishermen, ministers and
priests, a tax-collector, a doctor, some rich, some poor, some city bred,
some country born -- thus touching all the experiences of men extending
over 1500 years. III. UNITY. -- And yet the Bible is but one book, because
God was its real author, and therefore, though he added new revelations as
men could receive them, he never had to change what was once revealed. The
Bible is a unit, because (1) It has but one purpose, the salvation of men.
(2) The character of God is the same. (3) The moral law is the same. (4)
It contains the development of one great scheme of salvation. IV. ORIGINAL
LANGUAGES. -- The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a Shemitic
language, except that parts of the books of Ezra (Ezra 5:8; 6:12; 7:12-26)
and of Daniel (Daniel 2:4-7,28) and one verse in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 10:11)
were written in the Chaldee language. The New Testament is written wholly
in Greek. V. ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS OF THE ORIGINAL. -- There are no ancient
Hebrew manuscripts older than the tenth century, but we know that these
are in the main correct, because we have a translation of the Hebrew into
Greek, called the Septuagint, made nearly three hundred years before
Christ. Our Hebrew Bibles are a reprint from what is called the Masoretic
text. The ancient Hebrew had only the consonant printed, and the vowels
were vocalized in pronunciation, but were not written. Some Jewish
scholars living at Tiberias, and at Sora by the Euphrates, from the sixth
to the twelfth century, punctuated the Hebrew text, and wrote is the vowel
points and other tone-marks to aid in the reading of the Hebrew; and
these, together with notes of various kinds, they called Masora
(tradition), hence the name Masoretic text. 0F the Greek of the New
Testament there are a number of ancient manuscripts They are divided into
two kinds, the Uncials, written wholly in capitals, and
the Cursives, written in a running hand. The chief of
these are -- (1) the Alexandrian (codex Alexandrinus, marked A),
so named because it was found in Aiexandria in Egypt, in 1628. It date
back to A.D. 350, and is now in the British Museum. (2) The Vatican
(codex Vaticanus
, B), named from the Vatican library at Rome, where
it is kept. Its date is A.D. 300 to 325. (3) The Sinaitic (codex
) so called from the convent of St. Catherine on Mount
Sinai, there it was discovered by or Tichendorf in 1844. It is now at St.
Petersburg Russia. This is one of the earliest best of all the
manuscripts. VI. TRANSLATIONS. -- The Old Testament was translated into
Greek by a company of learned Jews at Alexandria, who began their labor
about the year B.C. 286. It is called the Septuagint, i.e. the
seventy, from the tradition that it was translated by seventy (more
exactly seventy-two) translators. The Vulgate, or translation of the Bible
into Latin by Jerome, A.D. 385-405, is the authorized version of the Roman
Catholic Church. The first English translation of the whole Bible was by
John Deuteronomy Wickliffe (1324-1384). Then followed that of William
Tyndale (1525) and several others. As the sum and fruit of all these
appeared our present Authorized Version, or King James
, in 1611. It was made by forty-seven learned men, in two
years and nine months, with a second revision which took nine months
longer. These forty-seven formed themselves into six companies, two of
whom met at Westminster, two at Oxford and two at Cambridge. The present
English edition is an improvement, in typographical and grammatical
correctness, upon this revision, and in these respects is nearly perfect.
[See VERSIONS, AUTHORIZED] A REVISED VERSION of this authorized edition
was made by a group of American and English scholars, and in 1881 the
Revised New Testament was published simultaneously in the United States
and England. Then followed the Revised Old Testament in 1885, and the
Apocrypha in 1894. The American revision committee was permitted to
publish its own revision, which appeared in 1901 as the American Standard
Version. Modern-speech translations have been made from time to time
between 1898-1945. Among these were Moulton's Modern Reader's Bible, the
Twentieth century New Testament, Weymouth's, Moffatt's, and the American
translation. As a result of the modern-speech translations that have
appeared and been widely received, the American Revision Committee set to
work again, and in 1946 the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament
was published. VII. DIVISIONS INTO CHAPTERS AND VERSES. -- The present
division of the whole Bible into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo
Deuteronomy St. Gher about 1250. The present division into verses was
introduced by Robert Stephens in his Greek Testament, published in 1551,
in his edition of the Vulgate, in 1555. The first English Bible printed
with these chapters and verses was the Geneva Bible, in 1560. VIII.
CIRCULATION OF THE BIBLE. -- The first book ever printed was the Bible;
and more Bibles have been printed than any other book. It has been
translated, in its entirety or in part, into more than a thousand
languages and dialects and various systems for the blind. The American
Bible Society (founded in 1816) alone has published over 356 million
volumes of Scripture.


(first-born), (2 Samuel 20:1) an ancestor of Sheba.


(son of stabbing, i.e, one who stabs), Jehu's "captain,"
originally his fellow officer, (2 Kings 9:25) who completed the sentence
on Jehoram, son of Ahab.




(gift of God), one of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs of the
harem of King Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.)


(gift of God), a eunuch (chamberlain, Authorized Version) in the
court of Ahasuerus, one of those "who kept the door," and conspired with
Teresh against the king's life. (Esther 2:21) (B.C. 479.)



  • "Children of Bigvai," 2056 (Neh. 2067) in number, returned from the
    captivity with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:14; Nehemiah 7:19) and 72 of them at a
    later date with Ezra. (Ezra 8:14) (B.C. 536.)

  • Apparently one of the chiefs of Zerubbabel's expedition, (Ezra 2:2;
    Nehemiah 7:7) whose family afterwards signed the covenant. (Nehemiah
    10:16) (B.C. 410.)


(son of contention), the second of Job's three friends. He is
called "the Shuhite," which implies both his family and nation. (Job 2:11)
(B.C. about 2000.)


(foreigners), a town in the western half of the tribe of Manasseh,
named only in (1 Chronicles 6:70) same as Ibleam and Gath-rimmon. (Joshua
17:11) and Josh 21:24



  • A priest in the time of David; the head of the fifteenth course for
    the temple service. (1 Chronicles 24:14) (B.C. 1015.)

  • A priest or priestly family who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
    and Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:5,18) (B.C. 536.)


(Nehemiah 10:8) [BILGAH, 2]


(timid, bashful), handmaid of Rachel, (Genesis 29:29) and concubine
of Jacob, to whom she bore Dan and Naphtali. (Genesis 30:3-8; 35:25;
46:25; 1 Chronicles 7:13) (B.C 53.)



  • A Horite chief dwelling in Mount Seir. (Genesis 36:27; 1 Chronicles

  • A Benjamite, son of Jediael. (1 Chronicles 7:10)


(eloquent), one of Zerubbabel's companions on his expedition from
Babylon. (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7) (B.C. 536).


(circumcised), one of the sons of Japhlet in the line of Asher. (1
Chronicles 7:33)


(fountain), one of the descendants of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:37;
7:43) (B.C. 850.)



  • A Levite, father of Noadiah. (Ezra 8:33)

  • One who had taken a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:30)

  • Another Israelite who had also taken a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:38)

  • Altered from BANI in the corresponding list in Ezra. (Nehemiah

  • A Levite, son of Henadad, who assisted at the reparation of the wall
    of Jerusalem, under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:24; 10:9)




(son of godlessness), a king of Gomorrah. (Genesis 14:2)


The custom of observing birthdays is very ancient, (Genesis 40:20;
Jeremiah 20:15) and in (Job 1:4) etc., we read that Job's sons "feasted
every one his day." In Persia birthdays were celebrated with peculiar
honors and banquets, and in Egypt those of the king were kept with great
pomp. It is very probable that in (Matthew 14:6) the feast to commemorate
Herod's accession is intended, for we know that such feasts were common,
and were called "the day of the king." (Hosea 7:5)


the advantages accruing to the eldest son. These were not definitely fixed
in patriarchal times. Great respect was paid to him in the household, and,
as the family widened into a tribe, this grew into a sustained authority,
undefined save by custom, in all matters of common interest. Thus the
"princes" of the congregation had probably rights of primogeniture.
(Numbers 7:2; 21:18; 25:14) (Gradually the rights of the eldest son came
to be more definite: (1) The functions of the priesthood in the family
with the paternal blessing. (2) A "double portion" of the paternal
property was allotted by the Mosaic law. (21:16-17) (3) The eldest son
succeeded to the official authority of the father. The first-born of the
king was his successor by law. (2 Chronicles 21:3) In all these Jesus was
the first-born of the father.


a name occurring in the genealogies of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:31)


The word originally signified an "overseer" or spiritual superintendent.
The titles bishop and elder, or presbyter, were essentially equivalent.
Bishop is from the Greek, and denotes one who exercises the function of
overseeing. Presbyter was derived from the office in the synagogue. Of the
order in which the first elders or bishops were appointed, as of the
occasion which led to the institution of the office, we have no record.
The duties of the bishop-elders appear to have been as follows:

  • General superintendence over the spiritual well-being of the flock. (1
    Peter 5:2)

  • The work of teaching, both publicly and privately. (1 Thessalonians
    5:12; Titus 1:9; 1 Timothy 5:17)

  • The work of visiting the sick, (James 5:14)

  • Among other acts of charity, that of receiving strangers occupied a
    conspicuous place. (1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:8) Peter calls Christ "the
    shepherd and bishop of your souls." (1 Peter 2:25)


the district over which the jurisdiction of a bishop extended. (Acts 1:20;
1 Timothy 3:1)


(daughter of the Lord), daughter of a Pharaoh, and wife of Mered.
(1 Chronicles 4:18) (B.C. about 1491.)


more accurately the Bithron (a craggy gorge or
ravine), a place, doubtless a district, in the Jordan valley on the
east side of the river. (2 Samuel 2:29)


a Roman province of Asia Minor. Mentioned only in (Acts 16:7) and in 1Pet
1:1 The chief town of Bithynia was Nicaea, celebrated for the general
Council of the Church held there in A.D. 325 against the Arian heresy.


The Israelites were commanded to eat the Paschal lamb "with unleavened
bread and with bitter herbs." (Exodus 12:8) These "bitter herbs" consisted
of such plants as chicory, bitter cresses, hawkweeds, sow-thistles and
wild lettuces, which grow abundantly in the peninsula of Sinai, in
Palestine and in Egypt. The purpose of this observance was to recall to
the minds of the Israelites their deliverance from the bitter bondage of
the Egyptians.


The word occurs in (Isaiah 14:23; 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14) and we are
inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct. The bittern
(Botaurus stellaris) belongs to the Ardeidae, the heron
family of birds, and is famous for the peculiar nocturnal booming sound
which it emits.


(contempt of Jehovah), a town in the south of Judah. (Joshua


(eunuch), the second of the seven eunuchs of King Ahasuerus’
harem. (Esther 1:10) (B.C. 483.)


violent ulcerous inflammations, the sixth plague of Egypt, (Exodus 9:9,10)
and hence called in (28:27,35) "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been
the black leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis.


in its technical English sense, signifies the speaking evil of God and in
this sense it is found (Psalms 74:18; Isaiah 52:5; Romans 2:24) etc. But
according to its derivation it may mean any species of calumny and abuse:
see (1 Kings 21:10; Acts 18:6; Jude 1:9) etc. Blasphemy was punished by
stoning, which was inflicted on the son of Shelomith. (Leviticus 24:11) On
this charge both our Lord and St. Stephen were condemned to death by the
Jews. The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, (Matthew 12:32; Mark 3:28)
consisted in attributing to the power of Satan those unquestionable
miracles which Jesus performed by "the finger of God" and the power of the
Holy Spirit. It is plainly such a state of wilful, determined opposition
to God and the Holy Spirit that no efforts will avail to lead to
repentance. Among the Jews it was a sin against God answering to treason
in our times.


(sprout), the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20)


is extremely common in the East from many causes. Blind beggars figure
repeatedly in the New Testament (Matthew 12:22) and "opening the eyes of
the blind" is mentioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of the
Messiah. (Isaiah 29:18; 42:7) etc. The Jews were specially charged to
treat the blind with compassion and care. (Leviticus 19:14; 27:18)
Blindness willfully inflicted for political or other purposes is alluded
to in Scripture. (1 Samuel 11:2; Jeremiah 39:7)


To blood is ascribed in Scripture the mysterious sacredness which belongs
to life, and God reserved it to himself when allowing man the dominion
over and the use of the lower animals for food. Thus reserved, it acquires
a double power: (1) that of sacrificial atonement; and (2) that of
becoming a curse when wantonly shed, unless duly expiated. (Genesis 9:4;
Leviticus 7:26; 17:11-13)


He who avenged the blood of one who had been killed. The nearest relative
of the deceased became the authorized avenger of blood. (Numbers 35:19)
The law of retaliation was not to extend beyond the immediate offender.
(24:16; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chronicles 25:4; Jeremiah 31:29,30; Ezekiel


a name signifying sons of thunder, given by our Lord to the two
sons of Zebedee, James and John, probably on account of their fiery
earnestly. (Mark 3:17) See (Luke 9:54; Mark 9:38) comp. Matt 20:20





  • A wealthy Bethlehemite kinsman to Elimelech the husband of Naomi. He
    married Ruth, and redeemed the estates of her deceased husband Mahlon.
    (Ruth 4:1) Boaz is mentioned in the genealogy of Christ, (Matthew 1:5)
    (B.C. 1250, but there is great difficulty in assigning his date.)

  • The name of one of Solomon's brazen pillars erected in the temple
    porch. [JACHIN] It stood on the left, and was eighteen cubits high. (1
    Kings 7:15; 21; 2 Chronicles 3:15; Jeremiah 52:21)


(youth), son of Azel, according to the present Hebrew text of (1
Chronicles 8:38)


(the weepers) a place on the west of Jordan, above Gilgal; so named
from the weeping of Israel. (Judges 2:1,6)


(thumb), a Reubenite. (Joshua 15:6; 18:17)


a stone erected in honor of Bohan on the boundary between Judah and
Benjamin, in the valley of Achor, along the eastern side of the present
Wady Dahr, running into the Dead Sea.










consisted of captives of both sexes, cattle, and whatever a captured city
might contain, especially metallic treasures. Within the limits of Canaan
no captives were to be made, (20:14,16) beyond these limits, in case of
warlike resistance, all the women and children were to be made captives,
and the men put to death. The law of booty is given in (Numbers 31:26-47)
As regarded the army, David added a regulation that the baggage guard
should share equally with the troops engaged. (1 Samuel 30:24; 25)


(Matthew 1:5; Luke 3:32) [BOAZ]


(2 Kings 22:1) [BOZKATH]


same as BEOR. (2 Peter 2:15)


The Arabs keep their water, milk and other liquids in leathern bottles.
These are made of goatskins. When the animal is killed they cut off its
feet and its head, and draw it in this manner out of the skin without
opening its belly. The great leathern bottles are made of the skin of a
he-goat, and the small ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water on
the road, are made of a kid's skin. The effect of external heat upon a
skin bottle is indicated in (Psalms 119:83) "a bottle in the smoke," and
of expansion produced by fermentation in (Matthew 9:17) "new wine in old
bottles." Vessels of metal, earthen or glassware for liquids were in use
among the Greeks, Egyptians, Etruscans and Assyrians, and also no doubt
among the Jews, especially in later times. Thus (Jeremiah 19:1) "a
potter's earthen bottle." (Bottles were made by the ancient Egyptians of
alabaster, gold, ivory and stone. They were of most exquisite workmanship
and elegant forms. Tear-bottles were small urns of glass or pottery, made
to contain the tears of mourners at funerals, and placed in the sepulchres
at Rome and in Palestine. In some ancient tombs they are found in great
numbers. (Psalms 56:8) refers to this custom. -- ED.)


(Genesis 37:10) The eastern mode of salutation, by kneeling upon one knee
and bending the head forward till it touched the ground.


(Isaiah 41:19; 60:13) A beautiful evergreen growing in many parts of
Europe and Asia. Its hard wood is much prized by engravers. The reference
in (Isaiah 60:13) is supposed by some to mean a species of cedar.


(the height), one of the two sharp rocks between the passages which
Jonathan entered the Philistine garrison. It seems to have been that on
the north. (1 Samuel 14:4,5)


(rocky height), a city of Judah in the lowlands (Joshua 15:39; 2
Kings 22:1)



  • In Edom, the city of Jobab the son of Zerah, one of the early king of
    that nation. (Genesis 36:33; 1 Chronicles 1:44) Mentioned by Isaiah,
    (Isaiah 34:6; 63:1) in connection with Edom, and by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah
    49:13,22; Amos 1:12) and (Micah 2:12) Its modern representative is
    el-Busaireh, which lies on the mountain district to the southeast
    of the Dead Sea.

  • In his catalogue of the cities of the land of Moab, Jeremiah,
    (Jeremiah 48:24) mentions a Bozrah as in "the plain country" (ver 21),
    i.e. the high level downs on the east of the Dead Sea.


[See ARMLET] Bracelets of fine twisted Venetian gold are still common in
Egypt. In (Genesis 38:18,25) the word rendered "bracelet" means probably a
string by which a seal-ring was suspended. Men as well as women wore
bracelets, as we see from (Solomon 5:14) Layard says of the Assyrian
kings, "The arms were encircled by armlets, and the wrists by




The word nechosheth is improperly translated by "brass." In most
places of the Old Testament the correct translation would be copper,
although it may sometimes possibly mean bronze a compound of copper and
tin. Indeed a simple metal was obviously intended, as we see from (8:9;
33:25; Job 28) Copper was known at a very early period. (Genesis 4:22)




The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early
period. (Genesis 18:6) The corn or grain employed was of various sorts.
The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used.
(John 6:9,13; Isaiah 28:25) The process of making bread was as follows:
the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the
hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or
"kneading-trough" until it became dough. (Exodus 12:34,39; 2 Samuel 13:3;
Jeremiah 7:18) When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added
[LEAVEN]; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and
unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent
custom among the Bedouins. ((Genesis 18:6; 19:3; Exodus 12:39; Judges
6:19; 1 Samuel 28:24) The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some
time, (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21) the dough was then divided into round
cakes, (Exodus 29:23; Judges 7:13; 8:5; 1 Samuel 10:3; Proverbs 6:26) not
unlike flat stones in shape and appearance, (Matthew 7:9) comp. Matt 4:8
About a span in diameter and a finger's breadth in thickness. In the towns
where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in
shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually
each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar,
about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood, (1 Kings 17:12;
Isaiah 44:15; Jeremiah 7:18) or dried grass and flower-stalks. (Matthew






(Genesis 11:3) The brick in use among the Jews were much larger than with
us, being usually from 12 to 13 inches square and 3 1/2 inches thick; they
thus possess more of the character of tiles. (Ezekiel 4:1) The Israelites,
in common with other captives, were employed by the Egyptian monarchs in
making bricks and in building. (Exodus 1:14; 5:7) Egyptian bricks were not
generally dried in kilns, but in the sun. That brick-kilns were known is
evident from (2 Samuel 12:31; Jeremiah 43:9) When made of the Nile mud
they required straw to prevent cracking. [See STRAW]




(Jeremiah 46:4) elsewhere "habergeon," or "coat of mail."


Brimstone, or sulphur, is found in considerable quantities on the shores
of the Dead Sea. (Genesis 19:24) It is a well-known simple mineral
substance, crystalline, easily melted, very inflammable, and when burning
emits a peculiar suffocating odor. It is found in great abundance near
volcanoes. The soil around Sodom and Gomorrah abounded in sulphur and


The Hebrew word is used in various senses in the Old Testament, as,

  • Any kinsman, and not a mere brother; e.g. nephew, (Genesis 13:8;
    14:16) husband, (Solomon 4:9)

  • One of the same tribe. (2 Samuel 19:13)

  • Of the same people, (Exodus 2:11) or even of a cognate people.
    (Numbers 20:14)

  • An ally. (Amos 1:9)

  • Any friend, (Job 5:15)

  • One of the same office. (1 Kings 9:13)

  • A fellow man. (Leviticus 19:17)

  • Metaphorically of any similarity, as in (Job 30:19) The word adelphos
    has a similar range of meanings in the New Testament.



  • Son of Abishua and father of Uzzi fifth from Aaron in the line of the
    high priests in (1 Chronicles 6:5; 6:5,51) (Authorized Version), and in
    the genealogy of Ezra. (Ezra 7:4)

  • Son of Jogli, prince of the tribe of Dan, one of the ten men chosen to
    apportion the land of Canaan between the tribes. (Numbers 34:22)


(wasting from Jehovah), a Kohathite Levite, of the sons of Heman,
one of the musicians in the temple. (1 Chronicles 25:4,13)


(rain). [MONTH]


terms used synonymously with ox, oxen, and properly a generic name for
horned cattle when a full age and fit for the plough. It is variously
rendered "bullock," (Isaiah 65:25) "cow," (Ezekiel 4:15) "oxen," (Genesis
12:16) Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In (Isaiah
51:20) the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in (14:5)) was possibly one of the
larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness. Dr.
Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as
still existing in Palestine, and these may be the animal indicated.


(or papyrus), a red growing in the shallow water on the banks of the Nile.
It grows to the height of 12 or 15 feet, with a stalk two or three inches
in diameter. The stalks are very pliable and can be very closely
interwoven, as is evident from their having been used in the construction
of arks. (Exodus 2:3,5) Paper was made from this plant, from which it
derives its name.


(understanding), a son of Jerahmeel, of the family of Pharez in
Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:25)


(my understanding).

  • One of the Levites in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 9:4)

  • Another Levite, but of earlier date than the preceding. (Nehemiah


[TOMBS] On this subject we have to notice --

  • The place of burial, its site and shape;

  • The mode of burial;

  • The prevalent notions regarding this duty.

  • A natural cave enlarged and adapted by excavation, or an artificial
    imitation of one was the standard type of sepulchre. Sepulchres, when the
    owner's means permitted it, were commonly prepared beforehand, and stood
    often in gardens, by roadsides, or even adjoining houses. Kings and
    prophets alone were probably buried within towns. (1 Kings 2:10; 16:6,28)
    Cities soon became populous and demanded cemeteries, (Ezekiel 39:15) which
    were placed without the walls. Sepulchres were marked sometimes by pillars
    or by pyramids. Such as were not otherwise noticeable were scrupulously
    "whited," (Matthew 23:27) once a year, after the rains before the
    passover, to warn passers-by of defilement.

  • "The manner of the Jews" included the use of spices, where they could
    command the means. (2 Chronicles 16:10) A portion of these was burnt in
    honor of the deceased, and to this use was probably destined part of the
    one hundred pounds weight of "myrrh and aloes" in our Lord's case. In no
    instance, save that of Saul and his sons, were the bodies burned; and even
    then the bones were interred, and re-exhumed for solemn entombment. It was
    the office of the next of kin to perform and preside over the whole
    funeral office; though public buriers were not unknown in New Testament
    times. (Acts 5:6,10) The body was borne by the nearest relatives. The
    grave-clothes were probably of the fashion worn in life, but swathed and
    fastened with bandages, and the head covered separately.

  • The precedent of Jacob's and Joseph's remains being returned to the
    land of Canaan was followed, in wish at least, by every pious Jew.


The word is applied to the offering which was wholly consumed by fire on
the altar, and the whole of which, except the refuse ashes "ascended" in
the smoke to God. The meaning of the whole burnt offering was that which
is the original idea of all sacrifice, the offering by the sacrificer of
himself, soul and body, to God -- the submission of his will to the will
of the Lord. The ceremonies of the burnt offering are given in detail in
the book of Leviticus. [SACRIFICE]


The Hebrew word seneh occurs only in those passages which refer to
Jehovah's appearance to Moses "in the flame of fire in the bush." (Exodus
3:2,3,4; 33:16) It is quite impossible to say what kind of thorn bush is
intended; but it was probably the acacia a small variety of the shittim
tree found in the Sinai region.




One of the officers of the king's household, (Nehemiah 1:11) who had
charge of the wine and poured it out for the king. The chief butler, as
the title signifies, was in charge of the butlers. (Genesis 40:1-13)


Curdled milk. (Genesis 18:8; 32:14; Judges 5:25; Job 20:17) Milk is
generally offered to travellers in Palestine in a curdled or sour state,
leben, thick, almost like butter. Hasselquist describes the method
of making butter employed by the Arab women: "they made butter in a
leather bag, hung on three poles erected for the purpose, in the form of a
cone, and drawn to and fro by two women."



  • The second son of Milcah and Nahor. (Genesis 22:21) Elihu "the Buzite"
    was probably a descendant of Buz.

  • A name occurring in the genealogies of the tribe of Gad. (1 Chronicles


(contempt), father of Ezekiel the prophet. (Ezekiel 1:3)

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