Smith's Bible Dictionary - A

Choose A Letter Below To Go To A Different Definitions Section :

A . . . B . . . C . . . D . . . E . . . F . . . G . . . H . . . I . . . J . . . K . . . L . . . M

N . . . O . . . P . . . Q . . . R . . . S . . . T . . . U . . . V . . . W . . . X . . . Y . . . Z

Or Select A Letter Below To Go To Another Phrase List :

A . . . B . . . C . . . D . . . E . . . F . . . G . . . H . . . I . . . J . . . K . . . L . . . M

N . . . O . . . P . . . Q . . . R . . . S . . . T . . . U . . . V . . . W . . . X . . . Y . . . Z




(a teacher, or lofty), the son of Amram and Jochebed, and the older
brother of Moses and Miriam. (Numbers 26:59; 33:39) (B.C. 1573.) He was a
Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14) He was appointed by
Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16) of his brother Moses, who was
"slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of
communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30; 7:2) but
also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus.
(Exodus 7:19) etc. On the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle with
Amalek, Aaron with Hur stayed up the weary hands of Moses when they were
lifted up for the victory of Israel. (Exodus 17:9) He is mentioned as
dependent upon his brother and deriving all his authority from him. Left,
on Moses’ departure into Sinai, to guide the people, Aaron is tried
for a moment on his own responsibility, and he fails from a weak inability
to withstand the demand of the people for visible "gods to go before
them," by making an image of Jehovah, in the well-known form of Egyptian
idolatry (Apis or Mnevis). He repented of his sin, and Moses gained
forgiveness for him. (9:20) Aaron was not consecrated by Moses to the new
office of the high priesthood. (Exodus 29:9) From this time the history of
Aaron is almost entirely that of the priesthood, and its chief feature is
the great rebellion of Korah and the Levites. Leaning, as he seems to have
done, wholly on Moses, it is not strange that he should have shared his
sin at Meribah and its punishment. See MOSES. (Numbers 20:10-12) Aaron's
death seems to have followed very speedily. It took place on Mount Hor,
after the transference of his robes and office to Eleazar. (Numbers 20:28)
This mount is still called the "Mountain of Aaron." See HOR. The wife of
Aaron was Elisheba, (Exodus 6:23) and the two sons who survived him,
Eleazar and Ithamar. The high priesthood descended to the former, and to
his descendants until the time of Eli, who, although of the house of
Ithamar, received the high priesthood and transmitted it to his children;
with them it continued till the accession of Solomon, who took it from
Abiathar and restored it to Zadok (of the house of Eleazar). See


(1 Chronicles 12:27) priests of the family of Aaron.


(father), an element in the composition of many proper names, of
which Abba is a Chaldaic form, having the sense of "endowed with,"
"possessed of."






(God-given), one of the seven eunuchs in the Persian court of
Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10)


(perennial, stony), one of the "rivers of Damascus." (2 Kings 5:12)
The Barada and the Awaj are now the chief streams of Damascus, the former
representing the Abana and the latter the Pharpar of the text. The Barada
(Abana) rises in the Antilibanus, at about 23 miles from the city, after
flowing through which it runs across the plain, of whose fertility it is
the chief source, till it loses itself in the lake or marsh


(regions beyond), a mountain or range of highlands on the east of
the Jordan, in the land of Moab, facing Jericho, and forming the eastern
wall of the Jordan valley at that part. Its most elevated spot was "the
Mount Nebo, ’head’ of ’the’ Pisgah," from which
Moses viewed the Promised Land before his death. These mountains are
mentioned in (Numbers 27:12; 33:47,48) and Deuteronomy 32:49


See AB.


  • Father of Adoniram. (1 Kings 4:6)

  • Son of Shammua, (Nehemiah 11:17) called Obadiah in (1 Chronicles


father of Shelemiah. (Jeremiah 36:26)


(my servant).

  • A Merarite, and ancestor of Ethan the singer. (1 Chronicles 6:44)
    (B.C. before 1015.)

  • The father of Kish, a Merarite, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2
    Chronicles 29:12) (B.C. before 736.)

  • One of the Bene-Elam in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign
    wife. (Ezra 10:26) (B.C. 659.)


(the servant of God), son of Guni and father of Ahi, one of the
Gadites who were settled in the land of Bashan, (1 Chronicles 5:15), in
the days of Jotham king of Judah. (B.C. 758.)



  • A judge of Israel, (Judges 12:13,15) perhaps the same person as Bedan,
    in (1 Samuel 12:11) (B.C. 1233-1225).

  • Son of Shashak. (1 Chronicles 8:23)

  • First-born son of Jehiel, son of Gideon. (1 Chronicles 8:30;

  • Son of Micah, a contemporary of Josiah, (2 Chronicles 34:20) called
    Achbor in (2 Kings 22:12) (B.C. 628.)

  • A city in the tribe if Asher, given to the Gershonites, (Joshua 21:30;
    1 Chronicles 6:74) the modern Abdeh, 10 miles northeast of Accho.


(i.e. servant of Nego, perhaps the same as Nebo), the Chaldean name
given to Azariah, one of the three friends of Daniel, miraculously save
from the fiery furnace. Dan. 3. (B.C. about 600.)


(i.e., breath, vapor, transitoriness, probably so called from the
shortness of his life), the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother
Cain, (Genesis 4:1-16) he was a keeper or feeder of sheep. Our Lord spoke
of Abel as the first martyr, (Matthew 23:35) so did the early Church
subsequently. The traditional site of his murder and his grave are pointed
out near Damascus.


the name of several places in Palestine, probably signifies a


(meadow of the house of oppression), a town of some importance, (2
Samuel 20:15) in the extreme north of Palestine, which fell an early prey
to the invading kings of Syria, (1 Kings 15:20) and Assyria. (2 Kings


(Abel on the waters), also called simply Abel, (2 Samuel 20:14,18)
another name for Abel-bethmaachah. (2 Chronicles 16:4)


(meadow of the dance), in the northern pat of the Jordan valley, (1
Kings 4:12) to which the routed Bedouin host fled from Gideon, (Judges
7:22) Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah returning up the
valley from Horeb. (1 Kings 19:16-19)


(meadow of Egypt), the name given by the Canaanites to the floor of
Atad, at which Joseph, his brothers and the Egyptians made their mourning
for Jacob. (Genesis 50:11) It was beyond (on the east of) Jordan. See
ATAD. (Schaff and others say it was on the west bank, for the
writer was on the east of Jordan. It was near Jericho, or perhaps


(the meadow of the acacias), in the "plains" of Moab, on the low
level of the Jordan valley, opposite Jericho. The last resting-place of
Israel before crossing the Jordan. (Numbers 33:49) The place is most
frequently mentioned by its shorter name of Shittim. See SHITTAH TREE,


(the great abel), the place where the ark rested in the field of
Joshua at Beth-shemesh. (1 Samuel 6:18)


(lofty), a town in the possession of Issachar, named between
Kishion and Remeth in (Joshua 19:20) only.


mother of King Hezekiah, (2 Kings 18:2) written ABIA, ABIAH, OR ABIJAH,
ABIJAH OR ABIJAM in (2 Chronicles 29:1)


  • Son of Becher, the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)

  • Wife of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:24)

  • Second son of Samuel. (1 Samuel 8:2; 1 Chronicles 7:28)

  • The son of Rehoboam. (1 Chronicles 3:10; Matthew 1:7) See ABIJAH OR
    ABIJAM, 1.

  • Mother of King Hezekiah. [ABI]

  • Same as ABIJAH OR ABIJAM, 4.


the eighth of the 24 courses or classes into which the priests were
divided for serving at the altar. (1 Chronicles 24; Luke 1:5) See ABIA,


(father of strength). See ABIEL OR ABIEL.


(father of gathering, i.e. gathered), (Exodus 6:24)
otherwise written Ebi/asaph. (1 Chronicles 6:23,37; 9:19) one of
the descendants of Korah, and head of the Korhites. Among the remarkable
descendants of Abiasaph were Samuel the prophet, (1 Samuel 1:11) and Heman
the singer.


(father of abundance, i.e. liberal), High priest and fourth
in descent from Eli. (B.C. 1060-1012.) Abiathar was the only one of the
all the sons of Ahimelech the high priest who escaped the slaughter
inflicted upon his father's house by Saul, in revenge for his father's
house by Saul, in revenge of his having inquired of the Lord for David and
given him the shew-bread to eat. (1 Samuel 22:1) ... Abiathar having
become high priest fled to David, and was thus enabled to inquire of the
Lord for him. (1 Samuel 23:9; 30:7; 2 Samuel 2:1; 5:19) etc. He adhered to
David in his wanderings while pursued by Saul; he was with him while he
reigned in Hebron, and afterwards in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 2:1-3) He
continued faithful to him in Absalom's rebellion. (2 Samuel
15:24,29,35,36; 17:15-17; 19:11) When, however, Adonijah set himself up
fro David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar
sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. For this Abiathar was
deprived of the high priesthood. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, (1
Chronicles 12:28) so that there was henceforth who high priests in the
reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok
became the sole high priest.


(green fruits). [MONTH]


(father of knowledge), a son of Midian. (Genesis 25:4; 1 Chronicles


(father of the judge), chief of the tribe of Benjamin at the time
of the Exodus. (B.C. 1491.) (Numbers 1:11; 2:22; 7:60,65; 10:24)


(father of strength, i.e. strong).

  • Father of Kish, and consequently grandfather of Saul, (1 Samuel 9:1)
    as well as of Abner, Saul's commander-in-chief. (1 Samuel 14:51) (B.C.

  • One of David's mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:32) In (2 Samuel 23:31) he
    is called ABI-ALBON. (B.C. 1053.)


(father of help, helpful).

  • Eldest son of Gilead, and descendant of Manasseh. (Joshua 17:2; 1
    Chronicles 7:18) (B.C. 1450.) He was the ancestor of the great judge
    Gideon. [GIDEON]

  • One of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:27; 1 Chronicles 11:28; 27:12)
    (B.C. 1014.)


(father, i.e. source, of joy).

  • The beautiful wife of Nabal, a wealthy owner of goats and sheep in
    Carmel. (B.C. 1060.) When David's messengers were slighted by Nabal,
    Abigail supplies David and his followers with provisions, and succeeded in
    appeasing his anger. The days after this Nabal died, and David sent for
    Abigail and made her his wife. (1 Samuel 25:14) etc. By her he had a son,
    called Chileab in (2 Samuel 3:3) but Daniel in (1 Chronicles 3:1)

  • A sister of David, married to Jether the Ishmaelite, and
    mother, by him , of Amasa. (1 Chronicles 2:17) In (2 Samuel 17:25) for
    Israelite read Ishmaelite. (B.C. 1068.)


(father of, i.e. possessing, strength).

  • Father of Zuriel, chief of the Levitical father of Merari, a
    contemporary of Moses. (Numbers 3:35) (B.C. 1490.)

  • Wife of Abishur. (1 Chronicles 2:29)

  • Son of Huri, of the tribe of Gad. (1 Chronicles 5:14)

  • Wife of Rehoboam. She is called the daughter, i.e. descendant, of
    Eliab, the elder brother of David. (2 Chronicles 11:18) (B.C. 972.)

  • Father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai. (Esther 2:15; 9:29)


(he (God) is my father), the second son, (Numbers 3:2) of Aaron by
Elisheba. (Exodus 6:23) Being, together with his elder brother Nadab,
guilty of offering strange fire to the lord, he was consumed by fire from
heaven. (Leviticus 10:1,2)


(father of renown, famous), son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin.
(1 Chronicles 8:3)


(my father is Jehovah).

  • Son and successor of Rehoboam on the throne of Judah. (1 Kings 4:21; 2
    Chronicles 12:16) He is called ABIA, ABIAH, OR ABIJAH in Chronicles,
    ABIJAM in Kings. He began to reign B.C. 959, and reigned three years. He
    endeavored to recover the kingdom of the Ten Tribes, and made war on
    Jeroboam. He was successful in battle, and took several of the cities of
    Israel. We are told that he walked in all the sins of Rehoboam. (1 Kings

  • The second son of Samuel, called ABIA, ABIAH, OR ABIJAH, ABIA, COURSE
    OFH, No. 3]

  • Son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel; died in his childhood. (1 Kings
    14:1) ...

  • A descendant of Eleazar, who gave his name to the eighth of the 24
    courses into which the priests were divided by David. (1 Chronicles 24:10;
    2 Chronicles 8:14; Nehemiah 12:4,17)

  • One of the priests who entered into a covenant with Nehemiah to walk
    in God's law, (Nehemiah 10:7) unless the name is rather that of a family,
    and the same with the preceding.






(land of meadows), (Luke 3:1) a city situated on the eastern slope
of Antilibanus, in a district fertilized by the river Barada (Abana). The
city was 18 miles from Damascus, and stood in a remarkable gorge called
Suk Wady Barada.


(father of Mael), a descendant of Joktan, (Genesis 10:28; 1
Chronicles 1:22) and probably the progenitor of an Arab tribe (Mali).


(father of the king), the name of several Philistine kings, was
probably a common title of these kings, like that of Pharaoh among the
Egyptians and that of Caesar and Augustus among the Romans. Hence in the
title of (Psalms 34:1) ... the name of Abimelech is given to the king, who
is called Achish in (1 Samuel 21:11)

  • A Philistine, king of Gerar, Genesis 20,21, who, exercising the right
    claimed by Eastern princes of collecting all the beautiful women of their
    dominions into their harem, (Genesis 12:15; Esther 2:3) sent for and took
    Sarah. A similar account is given of Abraham's conduct of this occasion to
    that of his behavior towards Pharaoh. [ABRAHAM] (B.C. 1920.)

  • Another king of Gerar int he time of Isaac, of whom a similar
    narrative is recorded in relation to Rebekah. (Genesis 26:1) etc. (B.C.

  • Son of the judge Gideon by his Shechemite concubine. (Judges 8:31)
    (B.C. 1322-1319.) After his father's death he murdered all his brethren,
    70 in number, with the exception of Jotham, the youngest, who concealed
    himself; and he then persuaded the Shechemites to elect him king. Shechem
    now became an independent state. After Abimelech had reigned three years,
    the citizens of Shechem rebelled. He was absent at the time, but he
    returned and quelled the insurrection. Shortly after he stormed and took
    Thebez, but was struck on the head by a woman with the fragment of a
    millstone, comp. (2 Samuel 11:21) and lest he should be said to have died
    by a woman, he bade his armor-bearer slay him.

  • A son of Abiathar. (1 Chronicles 18:16)


  • A Levite, a native of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark remained
    20 years. (1 Samuel 7:1,2; 1 Chronicles 13:7) (B.C. 1124.)

  • Second son of Jesse, who followed Saul to his war against the
    Philistines, (1 Samuel 16:8; 17:13) (B.C. 1063.)

  • A son of Saul, who was slain with his brothers at the fatal battle on
    Mount Gilboa. (1 Samuel 31:2) (B.C. 1053.)

  • Father of one of the twelve chief officers of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:11)
    (B.C. before 1014.)


(father of light). Same as ABNER. (1 Samuel 14:50) margin.


the father of Barak. (Judges 4:6,12; 5:1,12) (B.C. 1300.)


  • A Reubenite, son of Eliab, who with Korah, a Levite, organized a
    conspiracy against Moses and Aaron. (Numbers 16:1) ... [For details, see
    KORAH] (B.C. 1490.)

  • Eldest son of Hiel the bethelite, who died when his father laid the
    foundations of Jericho, (1 Kings 16:34) and thus accomplished the first
    part of the curse of Joshua. (Joshua 6:26) (B.C. after 905.)


a beautiful Shunammite (from Shunem, in the tribe of Issachar), taken into
David's harem to comfort him in his extreme old age. (1 Kings 1:1-4)


(father of a gift), The eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah,
David's sister, and brother to Joab and Asahel. (1 Chronicles 2:16) Like
his two brothers he was the devoted follower of David. He was his
companion in the desperate night expedition to the camp of Saul. (1 Samuel
26:6-9) (B.C. 1055.) On the outbreak of Absalom's rebellion he remained
true to the king,a nd commanded a third part of the army in the decisive
battle against Absalom. He rescued David from the hands of the gigantic
Philistine, Ishbi-benob. (2 Samuel 21:17) His personal prowess on this, as
on another occasion, when he fought singlehanded against three hundred,
won for him a place as captain of the second three of David's mighty men.
(2 Samuel 23:18; 1 Chronicles 11:20)


(father of peace), father or grandfather of Maachah, who was the
wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijah. (1 Kings 15:2,10) He is called
Absalom in (2 Chronicles 11:20,21) This person must be David's son. See
LXX.; (2 Samuel 14:27)


(father of deliverance).

  • Son of Bela, of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:4)

  • Son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, and father of Bukki, in the
    genealogy of the high priests. (1 Chronicles 6:4,5,50,51; Ezra 7:4,5)


(father of the wall), son of Shammai. (1 Chronicles 2:28)


(father of the dew), one of David's wives. (2 Samuel 3:4; 1
Chronicles 3:3)


(father of goodness), son of Shaharaim by Hushim. (1 Chronicles


(father of praise), descendant of Zorobabel in the genealogy of
Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:13)




(father of light).

  • Son of Ner, who was the brother of Kish, (1 Chronicles 9:36) the
    father of Saul. (B.C. 1063.) Abner, therefore, was Saul's first cousin,
    and was made by him commander-in-chief of his army. (1 Samuel 14:51;
    17:57; 26:5-14) After the death of Saul David was proclaimed king of
    Judah; and some time subsequently Abner proclaimed Ish-bosheth, Saul's
    son, king of Israel. War soon broke out between the two rival kings, and a
    "very sore battle" was fought at Gibeon between the men of Israel under
    Abner and the men of Judah under Joab. (1 Chronicles 2:16) Abner had
    married Rizpah, Saul's concubine, and this, according to the views of
    Oriental courts, might be so interpreted as to imply a design upon the
    throne. Rightly or wrongly, Ish-bosheth so understood it, and he even
    ventured to reproach Abner with it. Abner, incensed at his ingratitude,
    opened negotiations with David, by whom he was most favorably received at
    Hebron. He then undertook to procure his recognition throughout Israel;
    but after leaving his presence for the purpose was enticed back by Joab,
    and treacherously murdered by him and his brother Abishai, at the gate of
    the city, partly, no doubt, from fear lest so distinguished a convert to
    their cause should gain too high a place in David's favor, but ostensibly
    in retaliation for the death of Asahel. David in sorrow and indignation,
    poured forth a simple dirge over the slain hero. (2 Samuel 3:33,34)

  • The father of Jaasiel, chief of the Benjamites in David's reign, (1
    Chronicles 27:21) probably the same as the preceding.


Mentioned by our Saviour, (Matthew 24:15) as a sign of the approaching
destruction of Jerusalem, with reference to (Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11)
The prophecy referred ultimately to the destruction of Jerusalem by the
Romans, and consequently the "abomination" must describe some occurrence
connected with that event. It appears most probable that the profanities
of the Zealots constituted the abomination, which was the sign of the
impending ruin; but most people refer it to the standards or banners of
the Roman army. They were abomination because there were idolatrous images
upon them.


(father of a multitude) was the son of Terah, and founder of the
great Hebrew nation. (B.C. 1996-1822.) His family, a branch of the
descendants of Shem, was settled in Ur of the Chaldees, beyond the
Euphrates, where Abraham was born. Terah had two other sons, Nahor and
Haran. Haran died before his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a son,
Lot; and Terah, taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife and his
grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died. On the
death of his father, Abram, then in the 75th year of his age, with Sarai
and Lot, pursued his course to the land of Canaan, whither he was directed
by divine command, (Genesis 12:5) when he received the general promise
that he should become the founder of a great nation, and that all the
families of the earth should be blessed in him. He passed through the
heart of the country by the great highway to Shechem, and pitched his tent
beneath the terebinth of Moreh. (Genesis 12:6) Here he received in vision
from Jehovah the further revelation that this was the land which his
descendants should inherit. (Genesis 12:7) The next halting-place of the
wanderer was on a mountain between Bethel and Ai, (Genesis 12:8) but the
country was suffering from famine, and Abram journeyed still southward to
the rich cornlands of Egypt. There, fearing that the great beauty of Sarai
might tempt the powerful monarch of Egypt and expose his own life to
peril, he arranged that Sarai should represent herself as his sister,
which her actual relationship to him, as probably the daughter of his
brother Haran, allowed her to do with some semblance of truth. But her
beauty was reported to the king, and she was taken into the royal harem.
The deception was discovered, and Pharaoh with some indignation dismissed
Abram from the country. (Genesis 12:10-20) He left Egypt with great
possessions, and, accompanied by Lot, returned by the south of Palestine
to his former encampment between Bethel and Ai. The increased wealth of
the two kinsmen was the ultimate cause of their separation. Lot chose the
fertile plain of the Jordan near Sodom, while Abram pitched his tent among
the groves of Mamre, close to Hebron. (Genesis 13:1) ... Lot with his
family and possessions having been carried away captive by Chedorlaomer
king of Elam, who had invaded Sodom, Abram pursued the conquerors and
utterly routed them not far from Damascus. The captives and plunder were
all recovered, and Abram was greeted on his return by the king of Sodom,
and by Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who
mysteriously appears upon the scene to bless the patriarch and receive
from him a tenth of the spoil. (Genesis 14:1) ... After this the
thrice-repeated promise that his descendants should become a mighty nation
and possess the land in which he was a stranger was confirmed with all the
solemnity of a religious ceremony. (Genesis 15:1) ... Ten years had passed
since he had left his father's house, and the fulfillment of the promise
was apparently more distant than at first. At the suggestion of Sarai, who
despaired of having children of her own, he took as his concubine Hagar,
her Egyptian main, who bore him Ishmael in the 86th year of his age.
(Genesis 16:1) ... [HAGAR; ISHMAEL] But this was not the accomplishment of
the promise. Thirteen years elapsed, during which Abram still dwelt in
Hebron, when the covenant was renewed, and the rite of circumcision
established as its sign. This most important crisis in Abram's life, when
he was 99 years old, is marked by the significant change of his name to
Abraham, "father of a multitude;" while his wife's from Sarai became
Sarah. The promise that Sarah should have a son was repeated in the
remarkable scene described in ch. 18. Three men stood before Abraham as he
sat in his tent door in the heat of the day. The patriarch, with true
Eastern hospitality, welcomed the strangers, and bade them rest and
refresh themselves. The meal ended, they foretold the birth of Isaac, and
went on their way to Sodom. Abraham accompanied them, and is represented
as an interlocutor in a dialogue with Jehovah, in which he pleaded in vain
to avert the vengeance threatened to the devoted cities of the plain.
(Genesis 18:17-33) In remarkable contrast with Abraham's firm faith with
regard to the magnificent fortunes of his posterity stand the incident
which occurred during his temporary residence among the Philistines in
Gerar, whither he had for some cause removed after the destruction of
Sodom. It was almost a repetition of what took place in Egypt a few years
before. At length Isaac, the long-looked for child, was born. Sarah's
jealousy aroused by the mockery of Ishmael at the "great banquet" which
Abram made to celebrate the weaning of her son, (Genesis 21:9) demanded
that, with his mother Hagar, he should be driven out. (Genesis 21:10) But
the severest trial of his faith was yet to come. For a long period the
history is almost silent. At length he receives the strange command to
take Isaac, his only son, and offer him for a burnt offering at an
appointed place Abraham hesitated not to obey. His faith, hitherto
unshaken, supported him in this final trial, "accounting that God was able
to raise up his son, even from the dead, from whence also he received him
in a figure." (Hebrews 11:19) The sacrifice was stayed by the angel of
Jehovah, the promise of spiritual blessing made for the first time, and
Abraham with his son returned to Beersheba, and for a time dwelt there.
(Genesis 22:1) ... But we find him after a few years in his original
residence at Hebron, for there Sarah died, (Genesis 23:2) and was buried
in the cave of Machpelah. The remaining years of Abraham's life are marked
by but few incidents. After Isaac's marriage with Rebekah and his removal
to Lahai-roi, Abraham took to wife Keturah, by whom he had six children,
Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbok and Shuah, who became the ancestors
of nomadic tribes inhabiting the countries south and southeast of
Palestine. Abraham lived to see the gradual accomplishment of the promise
in the birth of his grandchildren Jacob and Esau, and witnessed their
growth to manhood. (Genesis 25:26) At the goodly age of 175 he was
"gathered to his people," and laid beside Sarah in the tomb of Machpelah
by his sons Isaac and Ishmael. (Genesis 25:7-10)


(a high father), the earlier name of Abraham.


(father of peace),third son of David by Maachah, daughter of Tamai
king of Geshur, a Syrian district adjoining the northeast frontier of the
Holy Land. (Born B.C. 1050.) Absalom had a sister, Tamar, who was violated
by her half-brother Amnon. The natural avenger of such an outrage would be
Tamar's full brother Absalom. He brooded over the wrong for two years, and
then invited all the princes to a sheep-shearing feast at his estate in
Baalhazor, on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin. Here he ordered his
servants to murder Amnon, and then fled for safety to his grandfather's
court at Geshur, where he remained for three years. At the end of that
time he was brought back by an artifice of Joab. David, however, would not
see Absalom for two more years; but at length Joab brought about a
reconciliation. Absalom now began at once to prepare for rebellion. He
tried to supplant his father by courting popularity, standing in the gate,
conversing with every suitor, and lamenting the difficulty which he would
find in getting a hearing. He also maintained a splendid retinue, (2
Samuel 15:1) and was admired for his personal beauty. It is probable too
that the great tribe of Judah had taken some offence at David's
government. Absalom raised the standard of revolt at Hebron, the old
capital of Judah, now supplanted by Jerusalem. The revolt was at first
completely successful; David fled from his capital over the Jordan to
Mahanaim in Gilead, and Absalom occupied Jerusalem. At last, after being
solemnly anointed king at Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 19:10) Absalom crossed the
Jordan to attack his father, who by this time had rallied round him a
considerable force. A decisive battle was fought in Gilead, in the wood of
Ephraim. Here Absalom's forces were totally defeated, and as he himself
was escaping his long hair was entangled in the branches of a terebinth,
where he was left hanging while the mule on which he was riding ran away
from under him. He was dispatched by Joab in spite of the prohibition of
David, who, loving him to the last, had desired that his life might be
spared. He was buried in a great pit in the forest, and the conquerors
threw stones over his grave, an old proof of bitter hostility. (Joshua


A monument of tomb which Absalom had built during his lifetime in the
king's dale, i.e. the valley of the Kedron, at the foot of Mount Olivet,
near Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 18:18) comp. with 2Sam 14:27 For his three sons,
and where he probably expected to be buried. The tomb there now, and
called by Absalom's name was probably built at a later date.


one of the cities in the land of Shinar. (Genesis 10:10) Its position is
quite uncertain.




(the PTOLEMAIS of the Maccabees and New Testament), Now called Acca
, or more usually by Europeans St. Jean d’Acre, the most
important seaport town on the Syrian coast, about 30 miles south of Tyre.
It was situated on a slightly projecting headland, at the northern
extremity of that spacious bay which is formed by the bold promontory of
Carmel on the opposite side. Later it was named Ptolemais, after one of
the Ptolemies, probably Soter. The only notice of it in the New Testament
is in (Acts 21:7) where it is called Ptolemais.


(the field of blood) (Akeldama in the Revised Version), the
name given by the Jews of Jerusalem to a field near Jerusalem purchased by
Judas with the money which he received for the betrayal of Christ, and so
called from his violent death therein. (Acts 1:19) The "field of blood" is
now shown on the steep southern face of the valley or ravine of Hinnom,
"southwest of the supposed pool of Siloam."


(trouble) signifies in the New Testament a Roman province which
included the whole of the Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas
proper, with the adjacent islands. This province, with that of Macedonia,
comprehended the while of Greece; hence Achaia and Macedonia are
frequently mentioned together in the New Testament to indicate all Greece.
(Acts 18:12; 19:21; Romans 15:26; 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians
7:5; 9:2; 11:10; 1 Thessalonians 1:7,8) In the time of the emperor
Claudius it was governed by a proconsul, translated in the Authorized
Version "deputy," of Achaia. (Acts 18:12)


(belonging to Achaia), a name of a Christian. (1 Corinthians


(troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho
and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction,
secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to
death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai
and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt.
(Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor
(i.e. trouble). [ACHOR, VALLEY OF] (B.C. 1450.)


(1 Chronicles 2:7)


king of Judah, (Matthew 1:9)



  • Father of Baalhanan king of Edom. (Genesis 36:38,39; 1 Chronicles

  • Son of Michaiah, a contemporary of Josiah, (2 Kings 22:12,14; Jeremiah
    26:22; 36:12) called ABDON in (2 Chronicles 34:20) (B.C. 623.)


son of Sadoc and father of Eliud in our Lord's genealogy. (Matthew 1:14)
The Hebrew form of the name would be Jachin, which is a short form
of Jehoiachin, the Lord will establish.


(angry), a Philistine king of Gath, who in the title of the 34th
Psalm is called Abimelech. David twice found a refuge with him when he
fled from Saul. (B.C. 1061.) On the first occasion he was alarmed for his
safety, feigned madness, and was sent away.




(valley of trouble), the spot at which Achan was stoned. (Joshua
7:24,26) On the northern boundary of Judah, (Joshua 15:7) near


(1 Chronicles 2:49) [ACHSAH]


(ankle-chain, anklet), daughter of Caleb. Her father promised her
in marriage to whoever should take Debir. Othniel, her father's younger
brother, took that city, and accordingly received the hand of Achsah as
his reward. Caleb added to her dowry the upper and lower springs. (B.C.
1450-1426.) (Joshua 15:15-19; Judges 1:11-15)


(fascination), a city within the territory of Asher, named between
Beten and Alammelech, (Joshua 19:25) originally the seat of a Canaanite
king. (Joshua 11:1; 12:20)


(lying, false).

  • A city in the lowlands of Judah, named with Keilah and Mareshah.
    (Joshua 15:44; Micah 1:14) It is probably the same with CHEZIB and
    CHOZEBA, which see.

  • A town belonging to Asher, (Joshua 19:29) from which the Canaanites
    were not expelled, (Judges 1:31) afterwards Ecdippa. It is now
    es-Zib, on the seashore, 2h. 20m. north of Acre.


See MAALEH-ACRABBIM, (Joshua 15:3) in the margin.


the fifth book in the New testament and the second treatise by the author
of the third Gospel, traditionally known as Luke. The book commences with
an inscription to one Theophilus, who was probably a man of birth and
station. The readers were evidently intended to be the members of the
Christian Church, whether Jews or Gentiles; for its contents are such as
are of the utmost consequence to the whole Church. They are the
fulfillment of the promise of the Father by the descent of the Holy
and the results of that outpouring by the dispersion of the
gospel among the Jews and Gentiles.
Under these leading heads all the
personal and subordinate details may be arranged. First St. Peter becomes
the prime actor under God int he founding of the Church. He is the centre
of the first group of sayings and doings. The opening of the door to Jews,
ch. 2, and Gentiles, ch. 10, is his office, and by him, in good time, is
accomplished. Then the preparation of Saul of Tarsus for the work to be
done, the progress, in his hand, of that work, his journeyings, preachings
and perils, his stripes and imprisonments, his testifying in Jerusalem and
being brought to testify in Rome, -- these are the subjects of the latter
half of the book, of which the great central figure is the apostle Paul.
The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of
the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. It seems most
probable that the place of writing was Roma, and the time about two years
from the date of St. Paul's arrival there, as related in (Acts 28:30) This
would give us fro the publication about 63 A.D.


(festival or boundary), one of the cities in the extreme
south of Judah, named with Dimonah and Kedesh. (Joshua 15:22)


(ornament, beauty).

  • The first of the two wives of Lamech, by whom were borne to him Jabal
    and Jubal. (Genesis 4:19) (B.C. 3600).

  • A Hittitess, one of the three wives of Esau, mother of Eliphaz.
    (Genesis 36:2,10,12,16) In (Genesis 26:34) she is called BASHEMATH. (B.C.


(adorned by Jehovah).

  • Maternal grandfather of King Josiah, and native of Boscath in the
    lowlands of Judah. (2 Kings 22:1) (B.C. 648.)

  • A Levite of the Gershonite branch, and ancestor of Asaph. (1
    Chronicles 6:41) In v. (1 Chronicles 6:21) Heb Isa called IDDO.

  • A Benjamite, son of Shimhi, (1 Chronicles 8:21) who is apparently the
    same as Shema in v. (1 Chronicles 8:13)

  • A priest, son of Jehoram. (1 Chronicles 9:12; Nehemiah 11:12)

  • Ancestor of Maaseiah, one of the captains who supported Jehoiada. (2
    Chronicles 23:1)

  • One of the descendants of Bani, who had married a foreign wife after
    the return from Babylon. (Ezra 10:29) (B.C. 459).

  • The descendant of another Bani, who had also taken a foreign wife.
    (Ezra 10:39)

  • A man of Judah, of the line of Pharez. (Nehemiah 11:5)


(a fire-god), the fifth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)


(red earth), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It
apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is
called in Hebrew Adamah. The idea of redness of color seems
to be inherent in either word. The creation of man was the work of the
sixth day -- the last and crowning act of creation. Adam was created (not
born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely
inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the
Lord God had planted "eastward in Eden," for the purpose of dressing it
and keeping it. [EDEN] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every
tree in the garden but one, which was called ("the tree of the knowledge
of good and evil," because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam
could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus
knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong
and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference.
Or he could "know good and evil," in Satan's way, be experiencing the evil
and knowing good only by contrast. -ED.) The prohibition to taste the
fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also
another tree which was called "the tree of life." While Adam was in the
garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were
brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to
fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into
a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described
as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the
serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a
violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. She took of
the fruit of the forbidden tree and gave it to her husband. The propriety
of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed;
self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and
they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of
necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of
life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy,
because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift
of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The
divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the
very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed,
(Genesis 3:15) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him
and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons
mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however,
that he had others.


Man, generically, for the name Adam was not confined to the father
of the human race, but like homo was applicable to woman as
well as to man. (Genesis 5:2)


a city on the Jordan, "beside Zaretan," in the time of Joshua. (Joshua


(red earth), one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali, named between
Chinnereth and Ramah. (Joshua 19:36)


the translation of the Hebrew word Shamir in (Ezekiel 3:9) and Zech
7:12 In (Jeremiah 17:1) it is translated "diamond." In these three
passages the word is the representative of some stone of excessive
hardness, and is used metaphorically. It is very probable that by
Shamir is intended emery, a variety of corundum, a
mineral inferior, only to the diamond in hardness.


(my man, earth), a place on the border of Naphtali. (Joshua


(high), a place on the south boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:3)




(new), a place in Judea, about four miles from Beth-horon. 1Ma
7:40,45 [HADASHAH]


(offspring of God), a son of Ishmael, (Genesis 25:13; 1 Chronicles
1:29) and probably the progenitor of an Arab tribe. (B.C. about 1850.)


(strong or stony), one of the places from which some of the
captivity returned with Zerubbabel to Judea who could not show their
pedigree as Israelites. (Ezra 2:59) Called ADDON (Nehemiah 7:61)


(mighty one), son of Bela, (1 Chronicles 8:3) called ARD in
(Numbers 26:40)


This word is used for any poisonous snake, and is applied in this general
sense by the translators of the Authorized Version. The word adder occurs
five times in the text of the Authorized Version (see below), and three
times int he margin as synonymous with cockatrice, viz., (Isaiah
11:8; 14:29; 59:5) It represents four Hebrew words:

  • Acshub is found only in (Psalms 140:3) and may be represented
    by the Toxicoa of Egypt and North Africa.

  • Pethen. [ASP]

  • Tsepha, or Tsiphoni, occurs five times in the Hebrew
    Bible. In (Proverbs 23:32) it is it is translated adder, and in (Isaiah
    11:8; 14:29; 59:5; Jeremiah 8:17) it is rendered cockatrice. From
    Jeremiah we learn that it was of a hostile nature, and from the
    parallelism of (Isaiah 11:8) it appears that the Tsiphoni was
    considered even more dreadful than the Pethen.

  • Shephipon occurs only in (Genesis 49:17) where it is used to
    characterize the tribe of Dan. The habit of lurking int he sand and biting
    at the horse's heels here alluded to suits the character of a well-known
    species of venomous snake, and helps to identify it with the celebrated
    horned viper, the asp of Cleopatra (Cerastes), which is found
    abundantly in the dry sandy deserts of Egypt, Syria and Arabia. The
    cerastes is extremely venomous. Bruce compelled a specimen to scratch
    eighteen pigeons upon the thigh as quickly as possible, and they all died
    in nearly the same interval of time.


(ornament). (Luke 3:28) Son of Cosam, and father of Melchi in our
Lord's genealogy; the third above Salathiel.


(lord). [ADDAN]


(flock), a Benjamites, son of Beriah, chief of the inhabitants of
Aijalon. (1 Chronicles 8:15) The name is more correctly Eder.


a fortified town near Jerusalem, probably the HADID of (Ezra 2:33) and
referred to in 1Ma 12:38


(ornament of God).

  • A prince of the tribe of Simeon, descended from the prosperous family
    of Shimei. (1 Chronicles 4:36) He took part in the murderous raid made by
    his tribe upon the peaceable Hamite shepherds of the valley of Gedor in
    the reign of Hezekiah. (B.C. about 711.)

  • A priest, ancestor of Maasiai. (1 Chronicles 9:12)

  • Ancestor of Azmaveth, David's treasurer. (1 Chronicles 27:25) (B.C.


(dainty, delicate), ancestor of a family who returned form Babylon
with Zerubbabel, to the number of 454, (Ezra 2:15) or 655 according to the
parallel list in (Nehemiah 7:20) (B.C. 536.) They joined with Nehemiah in
a covenant to separate themselves from the heathen. (Nehemiah 10:16) (B.C.


(slender), one of David's captains beyond the Jordan, and a chief
of the Reubenites. (1 Chronicles 11:42)


(2 Samuel 23:8) See JASHOBEAM.


(double ornament), a town belonging to Judah, lying in the low
country, and named, between Sharaim and hag-Gederah, in (Joshua 15:36)


(justice of Jehovah), Ancestor of Shaphat, the overseer of David's
herds that fed in the broad valleys. (1 Chronicles 27:29) (B.C. before


(earthy, fortress), one of the "cities of the plain," always
coupled with Zeboim. (Genesis 10:19; 14:2,8; 29:23; Hosea 11:8)


(given by the highest), one of the seven princes of Persia. (Esther


(rest, pleasure).

  • One of the family of Pahath-moab, who returned with Ezra and married a
    foreign wife. (Ezra 10:30) (B.C. 459.)

  • A priest, descendant of Harim in the days of Joiakim, the son of
    Jeshua. (Nehemiah 12:15) (B.C. 500.)



  • A Manassite who deserted from Saul and joined the fortunes of David on
    his road to Ziklag from the camp of the Philistines. He was captain of a
    thousand of his tribe, and fought at David's side in the pursuit of the
    Amalekites. (1 Chronicles 12:20) (B.C. 1054.)

  • The captain of over 300,000 men of Judah who were in Jehoshaphat's
    army. (2 Chronicles 17:14) (B.C. 908.)


(lord of Bezek), king of Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. [BEZEK]
This chieftain was vanquished by the tribe of Judah, (Judges 1:3-7) who
cut off his thumbs and great toes, and brought him prisoner to Jerusalem,
where he died. He confessed that he had inflicted the same cruelty upon 70
petty kings whom he had conquered. (B.C. 1425).


(my Lord is Jehovah).

  • The fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron while his father
    was king of Judah. (2 Samuel 3:4) (B.C. about 1050.) After the death of
    his three brothers, Amnon, Chileab and Absalom, he became eldest son; and
    when his father's strength was visibly declining, put forward his
    pretensions to the crown. Adonijah's cause was espoused by Abiathar and by
    Joab the famous commander of David's army. [JOAB] His name and influence
    secured a large number of followers among the captains of the royal army
    belonging to the tribe of Judah, comp. (1 Kings 1:5) and these, together
    with all the princes except Solomon, were entertained by Adonijah at the
    great sacrificial feast held "by the stone Zoheleth, which is by
    En-rogel." [EN-ROGEL] Apprised of these proceedings, David immediately
    caused Solomon to be proclaimed king, (1 Kings 1:33,34) at Gihon. [GIHON]
    This decisive measure struck terror into the opposite party, and Adonijah
    fled to the sanctuary, but was pardoned by Solomon on condition that he
    should "show himself a worthy man." (1 Kings 1:52) The death of David
    quickly followed on these events; and Adonijah begged Bath-sheba to
    procure Solomon's consent to his marriage with Abishag, who had been the
    wife of David in his old age. (1 Kings 1:3) This was regarded as
    equivalent to a fresh attempt on the throne [ABSALOM; ABNER]; and
    therefore Solomon ordered him to be put to death by Benaiah. (1 Kings

  • A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8)

  • The same as Adonikam. (Nehemiah 10:16) [ADONIKAM]


The sons of Adonikam, 666 in number, were among those who returned from
Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:13; Nehemiah 7:18); 1Esd 5:14 (B.C.
506-410.) The name is given as ADONIJAH in (Nehemiah 10:16)


(lord of heights), (1 Kings 4:6) by an unusual contraction ADORAM,
(2 Samuel 20:24) and 1Kin 12:18 Also HADORAM, (2 Chronicles 10:18) chief
receiver of the tribute during the reigns of David, (2 Samuel 20:24)
Solomon, (1 Kings 4:6) and Rehoboam. (1 Kings 12:18) This last monarch
sent him to collect the tribute from the rebellious Israelites, by whom he
was stoned to death, (B.C. 1014-973.)


(lord of justice), the Amorite king of Jerusalem who organized a
league with four other Amorite princes against Joshua. The confederate
kings having laid siege to Gibeon, Joshua marched to the relief of his new
allies and put the besiegers to flight. The five kings took refuge in a
cave at Makkedah, whence they were taken and slain, their bodies hung on
trees, and then buried in the place of their concealment. (Joshua 10:1-27)
(B.C. 1450.)


an expression used by St. Paul in reference to the present and prospective
privileges of Christians. (Romans 8:15,23; Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:5)
He probably alludes to the Roman custom by which a person not having
children of his own might adopt as his son one born of other parents. The
relationship was to all intents and purposes the same as existed between a
natural father and son. The term is used figuratively to show the close
relationship to God of the Christian. (Galatians 4:4,5; Romans 8:14-17) He
is received into God's family from the world, and becomes a child and heir
of God.




(double mound), a fortified city built by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles
11:9) in Judah. Adoraim is probably the same place with Adora, 1Ma 13:20
Unless that be Dor, on the seacoast below Carmel. Robinson identifies it
with Dura, a "large village" on a rising ground west of




The acts and postures by which the Hebrews expressed adoration bear a
great similarity to those still in use among Oriental nations. To rise up
and suddenly prostrate the body was the most simple method; but, generally
speaking, the prostration was conducted in a more formal manner, the
person falling upon the knee and then gradually inclining the body until
the forehead touched the ground. Such prostration was usual in the worship
of Jehovah, (Genesis 17:3; Psalms 95:6) it was the formal mode of
receiving visitors, (Genesis 18:2) of doing obeisance to one of superior
station, (2 Samuel 14:4) and of showing respect to equals. (1 Kings 2:19)
It was accompanied by such acts as a kiss, (Exodus 18:7) laying hold of
the knees or feet of the person to whom the adoration was paid, (Matthew
28:9) and kissing the ground on which he stood. (Psalms 72:9; Micah 7:17)
Similar adoration was paid to idols, (1 Kings 19:18) sometimes, however,
the act consisted simply in kissing the hand to the object of reverence,
(Job 31:27) and in kissing the statue itself. (Hosea 13:2)


(splendor of the king).

  • The name of an idol introduced into Samaria by the colonists from
    Sepharvaim. (2 Kings 17:31) He was worshipped with rites resembling those
    of Molech, children being burnt in his honor. Adrammelech was probably the
    male power of the sun, and ANAMMELECH, who is mentioned with Adrammelech
    as a companion god, the female power of the sun.

  • Son of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, who, with his brother Sharezer,
    murdered their father in the temple of Nisroch at Nineveh, after the
    failure of the Assyrian attack on Jerusalem. The parricides escaped into
    Armenia. (2 Kings 19:37; 2 Chronicles 32:21; Isaiah 37:38)


named form Adramys, brother of Croesus king of Lydia, a seaport in
the province of Asia [ASIA], situated on a bay of the Aegean Sea, about 70
miles north of Smyrna, in the district anciently called Aeolis, and also
Mysia. See (Acts 16:7) [MITYLENE] (Acts 27:2) The modern Adramyti
is a poor village.


more properly A’drias, the Adriatic Sea. (Acts 27:27) The
word seems to have been derived from the town of Adria, near the Po. In
Paul's time it included the whole sea between Greece and Italy, reaching
south from Crete to Sicily. [MELITA]


(flock of God), son of Barzillai, to whom Saul gave his daughter
Merab, although he had previously promised her to David. (1 Samuel 18:19)
(B.C. about 1062.) His five sons were amongst the seven descendants of
Saul whom David surrendered to the Gibeonites. (2 Samuel 21:8)


(justice of the people), Apocr. ODOLLAM, a city of Judah int he
lowland of the Shefelah, (Joshua 15:35) the seat of a Canaanite king,
(Joshua 12:15) and evidently a place of great antiquity. (Genesis
38:1,12,20) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7) it was one of the
towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah
11:30) and still a city in the time of the Macabees. (2Ma 12:38) Adullam
was probably near Deir Dubban, five or six miles north of
Eleutheropolis. The limestone cliffs of the whole of that locality are
pierced with extensive excavations, some one of which is doubtless the
"cave of Adullam," the refuge of David. (1 Samuel 22:1; 2 Samuel 23:13; 1
Chronicles 11:15)


(Exodus 20:14) The parties to this crime, according to Jewish law, were a
married woman and a man who was not her husband. The Mosaic penalty was
that both the guilty parties should be stoned, and it applied as well to
the betrothed as to the married woman, provided she were free. (22:22-24)
A bondwoman so offending was to be scourged, and the man was to make a
trespass offering. (Leviticus 19:20-22) At a later time, and when owing,
to Gentile example, the marriage tie became a looser bond of union, public
feeling in regard to adultery changed, and the penalty of death was seldom
or never inflicted. The famous trial by the waters of jealousy, (Numbers
5:11-29) was probably an ancient custom, which Moses found deeply seated
-- (But this ordeal was wholly in favor of the innocent, and exactly
opposite to most ordeals. For the water which the accused drank was
perfectly harmless, and only by a miracle could it produce a bad effect;
while in most ordeals the accused must suffer what naturally produces
death, and be proved innocent only by a miracle. Symbolically adultery is
used to express unfaithfulness to covenant vows to God, who is represented
as the husband of his people.)


(the going up to), a rising ground or pass over against Gilgal,"
and "on the south side of the ’torrent’" (Joshua 15:7; 18:17)
which is the position still occupied by the road leading up from Jericho
and the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, on the south face of the gorge of the
Wady Kelt. (Luke 10:30-36)


or Paraclete, one that pleads the cause of another. (1 John 2:1)
Used by Christ, (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7) to describe the office and work
of the Holy Spirit, and translated Comforter, i.e. (see margin of
Revised Version) Advocate, Helper, Intercessor. This use of the word is
derived from the fact that the Jews, being largely ignorant of the Roman
law and the Roman language, had to employ Roman advocates in their
trials before Roman courts. Applied to Christ, (1 John 2:1)




(laudble), a paralytic at Lydda healed by St. Peter. (Acts


(springs) a place "near to Salim," at which John baptized. (John
3:23) It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp. (John 3:22) with John
3:26 and with John 1:28 And abounded in water. It is given in the
Omomasticon as eight miles south of Scythopolis "near Salem and the








(a locust), a Christian prophet in the apostolic age, mentioned in
(Acts 11:28) and Acts 21:10 He predicted, (Acts 11:28) that a famine would
take place in the reign of Claudius. Josephus mentions a famine which
prevailed in Judea in the reign of Claudius, and swept away many of the
inhabitants. (In (Acts 21:10) we learn that Agabus and Paul met at
Caesarea some time after this.)


(flame), possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, like Pharaoh of
Egypt. One king of this name is mentioned in (Numbers 24:7) and another in
1Sam 15:8,9,20,32 The latter was the king of the Amalekites, whom Saul
spared contrary to Jehovah's well-known will. (Exodus 17:14; 25:17) For
this act of disobedience Samuel was commissioned to declare to Saul his
rejection, and he himself sent for Agag and cut him in pieces. (B.C. about
1070.) [SAMUEL]. Haman is called the AGAGITE in (Esther 3:1,10; 8:3,5) The
Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the Amalekite.






a beautifully-veined semi-transparent precious stone, a variety of quartz.
Its colors are delicately arranged in stripes or bands or blended in
clouds. It is mentioned four times in the text of the Authorized Version,
viz., in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12; Isaiah 54:12; Ezekiel 27:16) In the two
former passages; where it is represented by the Hebrew word shebo
it is spoken of as forming the second stone in the third row of the high
priest's breastplate; in each of the two latter places the original word
is cadced, by which, no doubt, is intended a different stone.
[RUBY] Our English agate derives its name from the Achates, on the
banks of which it was first found.


The aged occupied a prominent place in the social and political system of
the Jews. In private life they were looked up to as the
depositaries of knowledge, (Job 15:10) the young were ordered to rise up
in their presence, (Leviticus 19:32) they allowed them to give their
opinion first, (Job 32:4) they were taught to regard gray hair as a "crown
of glory," (Proverbs 16:31; 20:29) The attainment of old age was regarded
as a special blessing. (Job 5:26) In pubic main qualification of
those who acted as the representatives of the people in all matter of
difficulty and deliberation. [ELDERS]


(fugitive), a Hararite, father of Shammah, one of David's three
mightiest heroes. (2 Samuel 23:11) (B.C. 1050.)


This was little cared for by the patriarchs. The pastoral life, however,
was the means of keeping the sacred race, whilst yet a family, distinct
from mixture and locally unattached, especially whilst in Egypt. When
grown into a nation it supplied a similar check on the foreign
intercourse, and became the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth. "The land is
mine," (Leviticus 25:23) was a dictum which made agriculture likewise the
basis of the theocratic relation. Thus every family felt its own life with
intense keenness, and had its divine tenure which it was to guard from
alienation. The prohibition of culture in the sabbatical year formed a
kind of rent reserved by the divine Owner. Landmarks were deemed sacred,
(19:14) and the inalienability of the heritage was insured by its
reversion to the owner in the year of jubilee; so that only so many years
of occupancy could be sold. (Leviticus 25:8-16; 23-35) Rain. --
Water was abundant in Palestine from natural sources. (8:7; 11:8-12) Rain
was commonly expected soon after the autumnal equinox. The period denoted
by the common scriptural expressions of the "early" and the "latter rain,"
(11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1; James 5:7) generally
reaching from November to April, constituted the "rainy season," and the
remainder of the year the "dry season." Crops. -- The cereal crops
of constant mention are wheat and barley, and more rarely rye and
millet(?). Of the two former, together with the vine, olive and fig, the
use of irrigation, the plough and the harrow, mention is made ln the book
of (Job 31:40; 15:33; 24:6; 29:19; 39:10) Two kinds of cumin (the black
variety called fitches), (Isaiah 28:27) and such podded plants as beans
and lentils may be named among the staple produce. Ploughing and
-- The plough was probably very light, one yoke of oxen
usually sufficing to draw it. Mountains and steep places were hoed.
(Isaiah 7:25) New ground and fallows, (Jeremiah 4:3; Hosea 10:12) were
cleared of stones and of thorns, (Isaiah 5:2) early in the year, sowing or
gathering from "among thorns" being a proverb for slovenly husbandry. (Job
5:5; Proverbs 24:30,31) Sowing also took place without previous ploughing,
the seed being scattered broad cast and ploughed in afterwards. The soil
was then brushed over with a light harrow, often of thorn bushes. In
highly-irrigated spots the seed was trampled by cattle. (Isaiah 32:20)
Seventy days before the passover was the time prescribed for sowing. The
oxen were urged on by a goad like a spear. (Judges 3:31) The proportion of
harvest gathered to seed sown was often vast; a hundred fold is mentioned,
but in such a way as to signify that it was a limit rarely attained.
(Genesis 26:12; Matthew 13:8) Sowing a field with divers seed was
forbidden. (22:9) Reaping and Threshing. -- The wheat etc., was
reaped by the sickle or pulled by the roots. It was bound in sheaves. The
sheaves or heaps were carted, (Amos 2:13) to the floor -- a circular spot
of hard ground, probably, as now, from 50 to 80 or 100 feet in diameter.
(Genesis 1:10,11; 2 Samuel 24:16,18) On these the oxen, etc., forbidden to
be muzzled, (25:4) trampled out the grain. At a later time the Jews used a
threshing sledge called morag, (Isaiah 41:15; 2 Samuel 24:22; 1
Chronicles 21:23) probably resembling the noreg, still employed in
Egypt -- a stage with three rollers ridged with iron, which, aided by the
driver's weight crushed out, often injuring, the grain, as well as cut or
tore the straw, which thus became fit for fodder. Lighter grains were
beaten out with a stick. (Isaiah 28:27) The use of animal manure was
frequent. (Psalms 83:10; 2 Kings 9:37; Jeremiah 8:2) etc.
Winnowing. -- The shovel and fan, (Isaiah 30:24) indicate the
process of winnowing -- a conspicuous part of ancient husbandry. (Psalms
35:5; Job 21:18; Isaiah 17:13) Evening was the favorite time, (Ruth 3:2)
when there was mostly a breeze. The fan, (Matthew 3:12) was perhaps a
broad shovel which threw the grain up against the wind. The last process
was the shaking in a sieve to separate dirt and refuse. (Amos 9:9) Fields
and floors were not commonly enclosed; vineyard mostly were, with a tower
and other buildings. (Numbers 22:24; Psalms 80:13; Isaiah 5:5; Matthew
21:33) comp. Judg 6:11 The gardens also and orchards were enclosed,
frequently by banks of mud from ditches. With regard to occupancy, a
tenant might pay a fixed money rent, (Solomon 8:11) or a stipulated share
of the fruits. (2 Samuel 9:10; Matthew 21:34) A passer by might eat any
quantity of corn or grapes, but not reap or carry off fruit. (23:24,25;
Matthew 12:1) The rights of the corner to be left, and of gleaning
[CORNER; GLEANING], formed the poor man's claim on the soil for support.
For his benefit, too, a sheaf forgotten in carrying to the floor was to be
left; so also with regard to the vineyard’ and the olive grove.
(Leviticus 19:9,10; 24:19)




(a gatherer, i.e. together of wise men), The son of Jakeh,
an unknown Hebrew sage who uttered or collected the sayings of wisdom
recorded in Prov 30.



  • Son of Omri, seventh king of Israel, reigned B.C. 919-896. He married
    Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre; and in obedience to her wishes,
    caused temple to be built to Baal in Samaria itself; and an oracular grove
    to be consecrated to Astarte. See (1 Kings 18:19) One of Ahab's chief
    tastes was for splendid architecture which he showed by building an ivory
    house and several cities. Desiring to add to his pleasure-grounds at
    Jezreel the vineyard of his neighbor Naboth, he proposed to buy it or give
    land in exchange for it; and when this was refused by Naboth in accordance
    with the Levitical law, (Leviticus 25:23) a false accusation of blasphemy
    was brought against him, and he was murdered, and Ahab took possession of
    the coveted fields. (2 Kings 9:26) Thereupon Elijah declared that the
    entire extirpation of Ahab's house was the penalty appointed for his long
    course of wickedness. [ELIJAH] The execution, however, of the sentence was
    delayed in consequence of Ahab's deep repentance. (1 Kings 21:1) ... Ahab
    undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II. king of Damascus, two
    defensive and one offensive. In the first Ben-hadad laid siege to Samaria,
    but was repulsed with great loss. (1 Kings 20:1-21) Next year Ben-hadad
    again invaded Israel by way of Aphek, on the east of Jordan; yet Ahab's
    victory was so complete that Ben-hadad himself fell into his hands, but
    was released contrary to God's will, (1 Kings 20:22-34) on condition of
    restoring the cities of Israel, and admitting Hebrew commissioners into
    Damascus. After this great success Ahab enjoyed peace for three years,
    when he attacked Ramoth in Gilead, on the east of Jordan, in conjunction
    with Jehoshaphat king of Judah, which town he claimed as belonging to
    Israel. Being told by the prophet Micaiah that he would fall, he disguised
    himself, but was slain by "a certain man who drew a bow at a venture."
    When buried in Samaria, the dogs licked up his blood as a servant was
    washing his chariot; a partial fulfillment of Elijah's prediction, (1
    Kings 21:19) which was more literally accomplished in the case of his son.
    (2 Kings 9:26)

  • A lying prophet, who deceived the captive Israelites in Babylon, and
    was burnt to death by Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 29:21)


(after the brother), third son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:1)


(behind the breastwork), a name occurring in an obscure fragment of
the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)


(whom Jehovah holds), a priest, ancestor of Maasiai, (Nehemiah
11:13) called JAHZERAH in (1 Chronicles 9:12)


(blooming), father of Eli-phelet, one of David's thirty-seven
captains. (2 Samuel 23:34) In the corrupt list in (1 Chronicles 11:35)
Eliphelet appears as "Eliphal the son of Ur." (B.C. about 1050.)


Another (the Hebrew) form of AHASUERIUS. (Ezra 4:6) in margin.


(lion-king), the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned
in the Old Testament.

  • In (Daniel 9:1) Ahasuerus is said to be the father of Darius the Mede.
    [DARIUS] This first Ahasuerus is Cyaxares, the conqueror of Nineveh.
    (Began to reign B.C. 634.)

  • The Ahasuerus king of Persia, referred to in (Ezra 4:6) must be
    Cambyses, thought to be Cyrus’ successor, and perhaps his son. (B.C.

  • The third is the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther. This Ahasuerus is
    probably Xerxes of history, (Esther 1:1) (B.C. 485), and this conclusion
    is fortified by the resemblance of character and by certain chronological
    indications, the account of his life and character agreeing with the book
    of Esther In the third year of Ahaseuerus was held a great feast and
    assembly in Shushan the palace, (Esther 1:3) following a council held to
    consider the invasion of Greece. He divorced his queen Vashti for refusing
    to appear in public at this banquet, and married, four years afterwards,
    the Jewess Esther, cousin and ward of Mordecai. Five years after this,
    Haman, one of his counsellors, having been slighted by Mordecai, prevailed
    upon the king to order the destruction of all the Jews in the empire. But
    before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai influenced
    the king to put Haman to death and to give the Jews the right of


(water), a place, (Ezra 8:15) or a river, Ezra 8:21 On the banks of
which Ezra collected the second expedition which returned with him from
Babylon to Jerusalem. Perhaps it is the modern Hit, on the Euphrates due
east of Damascus.


(possessor), eleventh king of Judah, son of Jotham, reigned
741-726, about sixteen years. At the time of his accession, Rezin king of
Damascus and Pekah king of Israel had recently formed a league against
Judah, and they proceeded to lay siege to Jerusalem. Upon this Isaiah
hastened to give advice and encouragement to Ahaz, and the allies failed
in their attack on Jerusalem. Isai 7,8,9. But, the allies inflicted a most
severe injury on Judah by the capture of Elath, a flourishing port on the
Red Sea, while the Philistines invaded the west and south. 2Kin 16; 2Chr
28. Ahaz, having forfeited God's favor by his wickedness, sought
deliverance from these numerous troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser
king of Assyria, who forced him from his most formidable enemies. But Ahaz
had to purchase this help at a costly price; he became tributary to
Tiglath-pileser. He was weak, a gross idolater, and sought safety in
heathen ceremonies, making his son pass through the fire to Molech,
consulting wizards and necromancers. (Isaiah 8:19) and other idolatrous
practices. (2 Kings 23:12) His only service of permanent value was the
introduction of the sun-dial. He died at the age of 36, but was refused a
burial with the kings his ancestors. (2 Chronicles 28:27)

  • Son of Micah. (1 Chronicles 8:35,36; 9:42)


(sustained by the Lord).

  • Son of Ahab and Jezebel eighth king of Israel, reigned B.C. 896-895.
    After the battle of Ramoth in Gilead, in which Ahab perished [AHAB], the
    vassal king of Moab refused his yearly tribute; comp. (Isaiah 16:1) Before
    Ahaziah could take measures for enforcing his claim, he was seriously
    injured by a fall through a lattice in his palace at Samaria. Being an
    idolater, he sent to inquire of the oracle of Baalzebub in the Philistine
    city of Ekron whether he should recover his health. But Elijah, who now
    for the last time exercised the prophetic office, rebuked him for this
    impiety, and announced to him his approaching death. The only other
    recorded transaction of his reign, his endeavor to join the king of Judah
    in trading to Ophir, is related under JEHOSHAPHAT. (1 Kings 22:49-53; 2
    Kings 1:1; 2 Chronicles 20:35-37)

  • Fifth king of Judah, son of Jehoram and Athaliah (daughter of Ahab),
    and therefore nephew of the preceding Ahaziah, reigned one year, B.C. 884.
    He is Galled AZARIAH, (2 Chronicles 22:2) probably by a copyist's error,
    and JEHOAHAZ. (2 Chronicles 21:17) He was 22 years old at his accession.
    (2 Kings 8:26) (his age 42, in (2 Chronicles 22:2) Isa a copyist's error).
    Ahaziah was an idolater, and he allied himself with his uncle Jehoram king
    of Israel against Hazael, the new king of Syria. the two kings were,
    however defeated at Ramoth, where Jehoram was severely wounded. The
    revolution carried out in Israel by Jehu under the guidance of Elisha
    broke out while Ahaziah was visiting his uncle at Jezreel. As Jehu
    approached the town, Jehoram and Ahaziah went out to meet him; the former
    was shot through the heart by Jehu, and Ahaziah was pursued and mortally
    wounded. He died when he reached Megiddo.


(brother of the wise, discreet), son of Abishur by his wife
Abihail. (1 Chronicles 2:29) He was of the tribe of Judah.


(following), ancestor of Hushim a Benjamite. The name occurs in the
genealogy of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:12) It is not improbable that Aher
and Ahiram, (Numbers 26:38) are the same.


(a brother).

  • A Gadite, chief of a family who lived in Gilead in Bashan, (1
    Chronicles 5:15) in the days of Jotham and of Judah. (B.C. 758.)

  • A descendant of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles


(friend of Jehovah).

  • Son of Ahitub, grandson of Phinehas and great-grandson of Eli,
    succeeded his father as high priest in the reign of Saul. (1 Samuel
    14:3,18) Ahiah is probably the same person as Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.
    (B.C. 980.)

  • One of Solomon's princes. (1 Kings 4:3)

  • A prophet of Shiloh, (1 Kings 14:2) hence called the Shilonite, (1
    Kings 11:29) of whom we have two remarkable prophecies extant, the one in
    (1 Kings 11:30-39) addressed to Jeroboam, announcing the rending of the
    ten tribes from Solomon; the other in (1 Kings 14:6-16) in which he
    foretold the death of Abijah, the king's son, who was sick, and the
    destruction of Jeroboam's house on account of the images which he had set
    up. (1 Kings 14:2,3) (B.C. about 956.)

  • Father of Baasha king of Israel. (1 Kings 15:27,33)

  • Son of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:25)

  • Son of Bela. (1 Chronicles 8:7)

  • One of David's mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:36)

  • A Levite in David's reign. (1 Chronicles 26:20)

  • One of the "heads of the people" who joined in the covenant with
    Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:26)


son of Sharar the Hararite (or of Sacar,) (1 Chronicles 11:35) one of
David's thirty mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:33) (B.C. 1050.)


a Manassite of the family of Shemidah. (1 Chronicles 7:19)


(brother of help).

  • Son of Ammishaddai, hereditary chieftain of the tribe of Dan. (Numbers
    1:12; 2:25; 7:66) (B.C. 1490).

  • The Benjamite chief of a body of archers in the time of David. (1
    Chronicles 12:3) (B.C. 1050.)


(brother of renown).

  • The son of Shelomi and prince of the tribe of Asher. (Numbers

  • Chieftain of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:7)




(a brother who raises up), son of Shaphan the scribe, an
influential officer at the court of Josiah, was one of the delegates sent
by Hilkaih to consult Huldah. (2 Kings 22:12-14) In the reign of Jehoiakim
he successfully used his influence to protect the prophet Jeremiah.
(Jeremiah 26:24) He was the father of Gedaliah. [GEDALIAH] (B.C. 641).


(a brother of one born, i.e. before him).

  • Father of Jehoshaphat, the recorder or chronicler of the kingdom in
    the reigns of David and Solomon. (2 Samuel 8:16; 20:24; 1 Kings 4:3; 1
    Chronicles 18:15) (B.C. before 1015.)

  • The father of Baana, one of Solomon's twelve commissariat officers. (1
    Kings 4:12) It is uncertain whether he is the same with the


(brother of anger).

  • Son of Zadok the high priest in David's reign, and celebrated for his
    swiftness of foot. During Absalom's rebellion he carried to David the
    important intelligence that Ahithophel had counselled an immediate attack
    upon David and his followers. (2 Samuel 15:24-37; 17:15-22) Shortly
    afterwards he was the first to bring to the king the good news of
    Absalom's defeat. (2 Samuel 18:19-33) (B.C. 972-956.)

  • Saul's wife's father. (1 Samuel 14:50) (B.C. before 1093.)

  • Solomon's son-in-law. (1 Kings 4:15) (B.C. after 1014.)


(brother of the right hand).

  • One of the three giant Anakim who inhabited Mount Hebron, (Numbers
    13:22,23) seen by Caleb and the spies. (B.C. 1490.) The whole race was cut
    off by Joshua, (Joshua 11:21) and the three brothers were slain by the
    tribe of Judah. (Judges 1:10)

  • A Levite porter. (1 Chronicles 9:17)


(brother of the king).

  • Son of Ahitub, (1 Samuel 22:11,12) and high priest of Nob in the days
    of Saul. He gave David the shew bread to eat, and the sword of Goliath;
    and for so doing was put to death, with his whole house, by Saul's order.
    Abiathar alone escaped. [ABIATHAR] (B.C. 1085-1060.)

  • A Hittite. (1 Samuel 26:6)


(brother of death), a Levite apparently in the time of David. (1
Chronicles 6:25) In v. (1 Chronicles 6:35) for Ahimoth we find
MAHATH, as in (Luke 3:26)


(brother the noble, i.e. a noble brother), Son of Iddo, one
of Solomon's twelve commissaries who supplied provisions for the royal
household. (1 Kings 4:14) (B.C. 1014-975.)


(brother of grace, i.e. gracious).

  • The daughter of Ahimaaz and wife of Saul. (1 Samuel 14:50) (B.C. about

  • A native of Jezreel who was married to David during his wandering
    life. (1 Samuel 25:43) (B.C. 1060.) She lived with him and his other wife
    Abigail at the court of Achish, (1 Samuel 27:3) was taken prisoner with
    her by the Amalekites when they plundered Ziklag, (1 Samuel 30:5) but was
    rescued by David. (1 Samuel 30:18)



  • Son of Abinadab, who accompanied the ark when it was brought out of
    his father's house. (2 Samuel 6:3,4; 1 Chronicles 13:7) (B.C.1043.)

  • A Benjamite, one of the sons of Beriah. (1 Chronicles 8:14)

  • A Benjamite, Son of Jehiel. (1 Chronicles 8:31; 9:37)


(brother of evil, i.e. unlucky), Chief of the tribe of
Naphtali. (Numbers 1:15; 2:29; 7:78,83; 10:27)


(brother of height, lofty), one of the sons of Benjamin, and
ancestor of the AHIRAMITES (Numbers 26:38) In (Genesis 46:21) the name
appears as "Ehi and Rosh." It is uncertain whether Ahiram is the same as
AHER, (1 Chronicles 7:12) or AHARAH, (1 Chronicles 8:1)


(brother of help), a Danite, father of Aholiab one of the
architects of the tabernacle. (Exodus 31:6; 35:34; 38:23) (B.C. 1490)


(brother of the dawn), one of the sons of Bilhan, the grandson of
Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:10)


the controller of Solomon's household. (1 Kings 4:6)


(brother of foolishness), a native of Giloh, was a privy councillor
of David, whose wisdom was highly esteemed, though his name had an exactly
opposite signification. (2 Samuel 16:23) (B.C. 1055-1023.) He was the
grandfather of Bathsheba. Comp. (2 Samuel 11:3) with 2Sam 23:34 Ahithophel
joined the conspiracy of Absalom against David, and persuaded him to take
possession of the royal harem, (2 Samuel 16:21) and recommended an
immediate pursuit of David. His advice was wise; but Hushai advised
otherwise. When Ahithophel saw that Hushai's advice prevailed, he
despaired of success, and returning to his own home "put his household in
order and hanged himself." (2 Samuel 17:1-23)


(brother of goodness).

  • The son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli, and therefore of the family
    of Ithamar. (1 Samuel 14:3; 22:9,11) (B.C. 1125.) He was succeeded by his
    son Ahijah (AHIMELECH). (B.C. 1085.)

  • Son of Amariah, and father of Zadok the high priest, (1 Chronicles
    6:7,8; 2 Samuel 8:17) of the house of Eleazar. (B.C. before 1045.)


(fertile), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not
driven out. (Judges 1:31)


(ornamental) daughter of Sheshan, whom, having no issue, he gave in
marriage to his Egyptian slave Jarha. (1 Chronicles 2:31,35) From her were
descended Zabad, one of David's mighty men, (1 Chronicles 11:41) and
Aza-riah, one of the captains of hundreds in the reign of Joash. (2
Chronicles 23:1)


(brothely), son of Bela the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:4) In
(1 Chronicles 8:7) he is called AHIAH, OR AHIJAH. The patronymic, AHOHITE,
is found in (2 Samuel 23:9,28; 1 Chronicles 11:12,29; 27:4)




(my tabernacle) two symbolical names, are described as harlots, the
former representing Samaria and the latter Judah. Ezek. 23.


a Danite of great skill as a weaver and embroiderer, whom Moses appointed
with Bezaleel to erect the tabernacle. (Exodus 35:30-35) (B.C. 1490.)


(my tabernacle is exulted), One of the three wives of Esau. (B.C.
1797.) She was the daughter of Anah. (Genesis 36:2,26) In the earlier
narrative, (Genesis 26:34) Aholi-bamah is called Judith, which may have
been her original name.


(brother of water, i.e. cowardly), Son of Jabath, a
descendant of Judah, and head of one of the families of the Zorathites. (1
Chronicles 4:2)


(possession), properly Ahuzzam son of Ashur, the father or founder
of Tekoa, by his wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6)


(possesions) one of the friends of the Philistine king Abimelech,
who accompanied him at his interview with Isaac. (Genesis 26:26) (B.C.
about 1877.)


(heap of ruins).

  • A city lying east of Bethel and "beside Bethaven." (Joshua 7:2; 8:9)
    It was the second city taken by Israel after the passage of the Jordan,
    and was "utterly destroyed." (Joshua 7:3-5; 8:1; Joshua 9:3; 10:1,2;

  • A city of the Ammonites, apparently attached to Heshbon. (Jeremiah



  • Son of Zibeon, a descendant of Seir and ancestor of one of the wives
    of Esau, (1 Chronicles 1:40) called in (Genesis 36:24) AJAH = A IAH. He
    probably died before his father, as the succession fell to his brother

  • Father of Rizpah, the concubine of Saul. (2 Samuel 3:7; 21:8,10,11)
    (B.C. before 1040.)


(feminine of Ai), a place named by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:28) in
connection with Migron and Michmash probably the same as Ai.


like Aiath probably a variation of the name Ai, mentioned with Michmash
and Bethel. (Nehemiah 11:31)


(place of gazelles).

  • A city of the Kohathites. (Joshua 21:24; 1 Chronicles 6:69) It was a
    Levitical city and a city of refuge. It was originally allotted to the
    tribe of Dan, (Joshua 19:42) Authorized Version, AJALON, which tribe,
    however, was unable to dispossess the Amorites of the place. (Judges 1:35)
    Aijalon was one of the towns fortified by Reheboam, (2 Chronicles 11:10)
    and the last we hear of it is being in the hands of the Philistines. (2
    Chronicles 28:18) Being on the very frontier of the two kingdoms, we can
    understand how Aijalon should be spoken of sometimes, (1 Chronicles 6:69)
    comp. with 1Chr 6:66 As in Ephraim and sometimes, (2 Chronicles 11:10; 1
    Samuel 14:31) as in Judah and Benjamin. It is represented by the modern
    Yalo, a little to the north of the Jaffa road, about 14 miles out
    of Jerusalem.

  • A broad and beautiful valley near the city of Aijalon over which
    Joshua commanded the moon to stand still during the pursuit after the
    battle of Gibeon. (Joshua 10:12)

  • A place in Zebulon, mentioned as the burial-place of Elon, one of the
    Judges. (Judges 12:12)


(the hind of the morning dawn), found once only in the Bible, in
the title of (Psalms 22:1) It probably describes to the musician the
melody to which the psalm was to be played.


(spring, well).

  • One of the landmarks on the eastern boundary of Palestine. (Numbers
    34:11) It is probably ’Ain el-’Azy, the main source of
    the Orontes.

  • One of the southernmost cities of Judah, (Joshua 15:32) afterwards
    allotted to Simeon, (Joshua 19:7; 1 Chronicles 4:32) and given to the
    priests. (Joshua 21:16)


  • (Genesis 36:24)




(sharp sighted), son of Ezer, one of the "dukes" or chieftains of
the Horites, and descendant of Seir. (Genesis 36:27) He is called JAKAN in
(1 Chronicles 1:42)


Revised Version of (Acts 1:19) for ACELDAMA.



  • A descendant of Zerubbabel and son of Elioenai. (1 Chronicles

  • One of the porters or doorkeepers at the east gate of the temple.
    (B.C. 636-440.)

  • One of the Nethinim, whole family returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra
    2:45) (B.C. 536.)

  • A Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the people.
    (Nehemiah 8:7)


(the ascent of, or the going up to); also MAALEH-ACRABBIM
(the scorpion pass), A pass between the south end of the Dead Sea
and Zin, forming one of the landmarks on the south boundary at once of
Judah, (Joshua 15:3) and of the Holy Land. (Numbers 34:4) Also the
boundary of the Amorites. (Judges 1:36) As to the name, scorpions abound
in the whole of this district.


from the Arabic al bastraton, a whitish stone or from
Alabastron, the place in Egypt where it is found. It occurs only
in (Matthew 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37) The ancients considered alabaster
to be the best material in which to preserve their ointments. The Oriental
alabaster (referred to in the Bible) is a translucent carbonate of lime,
formed on the floors of limestone caves by the percolation of water. It is
of the same material as our marbles, but differently formed. It is usually
clouded or banded like agate, hence sometimes called onyx marble. Our
common alabaster is different from this, being a variety of gypsum or
sulphate of lime, used In its finer forms for vases, etc.; in the coarser
it is ground up for plaster of Paris. The noted sculptured slabs from
Nineveh are made of this material.


properly Al’emeth (covering), one of the sons of
Beecher,the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)


(king's oak), a place within the limits of Asher, named between
Achshaph and Amad. (Joshua 19:26) only.


(virgins), (Psalms 46:1) title; (1 Chronicles 15:20) Some interpret
it to mean a musical instrument, and others a melody.


(covering), a Benjamite, son of Jehoadah or Jarah, (1 Chronicles
8:36; 9:42) and descended from Jonathan the son of Saul. (B.C after


(helper of men -- brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the
son of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded his
father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (B.C. 334)
to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the mission of (Greece
to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and Palestine B.C. 334-332.
Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in this year he founded
Alexandria. In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who
in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next two years were occupied by Alexander in
the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria.
In B.C. 327 he crossed the Indus; turning westward he reached Susa B.C.
325, and proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of
his empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance, at
the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans; and those who
inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and unattempted. cf.
(Daniel 7:6; 8:5; 11:3) Alexander is intended in (Daniel 2:39) and also
Dani 7:6; 8:5-7; 11:3,4 The latter indicating the rapidity of his
conquests and his power. He ruled with great dominion, and did according
to his will, (Daniel 11:3) "and there was none that could deliver .... out
of his hand." (Daniel 8:7)


  • Son of Simon the Cyrenian, who was compelled to bear the cross for our
    Lord. (Mark 15:21)

  • One of the kindred of Annas the high priest. (Acts 4:6)

  • A Jew at Ephesus whom his countrymen put forward during the tumult
    raised by Demetrius the silversmith, (Acts 19:33) to plead their cause
    with the mob.

  • An Ephesian Christian reprobated by St. Paul in (1 Timothy 1:20) as
    having, together with one Hymenaeus, put from him faith and a good
    conscience, and so made shipwreck concerning the faith. This may be the
    same with

  • Alexander the coppersmith, mentioned by the same apostle, (2 Timothy
    4:14) as having done him many mischiefs.


(from Alexander), 3 Ma 3:1; (Acts 18:24; 6:9) the Hellenic, Roman
and Christian capital of Egypt. Situation. -- (Alexandria was
situated on the Mediterranean Sea directly opposite the island of Pharos,
12 miles west of the Canopic branch of the Nile and 120 miles from the
present city of Cairo.) It was founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. 332,
who himself traced the ground plan of the city. The work thus begun was
continued after the death of Alexander by the Ptolemies.
Description. -- Under the despotism of the later Ptolemies the
trade of Alexandria declined, but its population and wealth were enormous.
Its importance as one of the chief corn-ports of Rome secured for it the
general favor of the first emperors. Its population was mixed from the
first. According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a
place in his new city. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews
in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five
districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews
lived scattered in the remaining three. "For a long period Alexandria was
the greatest of known cities." After Rome became the chief city of the
world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and
second to Athens only in literature and science. Its collection of books
grew to be the greatest library of ancient times, and contained at one
time 700,000 rolls or volumes. Here was made the Septuagint translation of
the Old Testament into Greek, begun about B.C. 285, especially in grain,
was very great. According to the common legend, St. Mark first "preached
the gospel in Egypt, and founded the first church in Alexandria." At the
beginning of the second century the number of Christians at Alexandria
must have been very large, and the great leaders of Gnosticism who arose
there (Basilides, Valentinus) exhibit an exaggeration of the tendency of
the Church. PRESENT CONDITION. The city still bears the same name and is a
thriving metropolis, with inhabitants from nearly every European and
Oriental nation. Cleopatra's needle, set up by Thotmes in 1500 B.C., was
found in Alexandria.


the Jewish colonists of Alexandria, who were admitted to the privileges of
citizenship and had a synagogue at Jerusalem. (Acts 6:9)


the former occurring in (2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10,11) the latter in (1 Kings
10:11,12) These words are identical. From (1 Kings 10:11,12; 2 Chronicles
9:10,11) we learn that the almug was brought in great plenty from Ophir
for Solomon's temple and house, and for the construction of musical
instruments. It is probable that this tree is the red sandle wood, which
is a native of India and Ceylon. The wood is very heavy, hard and fine
grained, and of a beautiful garnet color.






a figure of speech, which has been defined by Bishop Marsh, in accordance
with its etymology as, "a representation of one thing which is intended to
excite the representation of another thing." ("A figurative representation
containing a meaning other than and in addition to the literal." "A fable
or parable; is a short allegory with one definite moral." -- Encyc. Brit.)
In every allegory there is a twofold sense -- the immediate or historic,
which is understood from the words, and the ultimate, which is concerned
with the things signified by the words. The allegorical interpretation is
not of the words, but of the thing signified by them, and not only may,
but actually does, coexist with the literal interpretation in every
allegory, whether the narrative in which it is conveyed be of things
possible or real. An illustration of this may be seen in (Galatians 4:24)
where the apostle gives an allegorical interpretation to the historical
narrative of Hagar and Sarah, not treating that narrative as an allegory
in itself; as our Authorized Version would lead us to suppose, but drawing
from it a deeper sense than is conveyed by the immediate representation.
(Addison's Vision of Mirza and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress
are among the best allegories in all literature.)


so written in (Revelation 19:6) foll., or more properly HALLELUJAH,
praise ye Jehovah, as it is found in the margin of (Psalms 104:35;
105:45; 106; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1) comp. Psal 113:9; 115:18; 116:19, 117:2
The literal meaning of "hallelujah" sufficiently indicates the character
of the Psalms in which it occurs as hymns of praise and thanksgiving.


On the first establishment of the Hebrews in Palestine no connections were
formed between them and the surrounding nations. But with the extension of
their power under the kings alliances became essential to the security of
their commerce. Solomon concluded two important treaties exclusively for
commercial purposes the first with Hiram king of Tyre (1 Kings 5:2-12;
9:27) the second with a Pharaoh, king of Egypt. (1 Kings 10:28,29) When
war broke out between Amaziah I and Jeroboam II, a coalition was formed
between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah on the one side, and Ahaz and
Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, on the other. (2 Kings 16:5-9) The
formation of an alliance was attended with various religious rites. A
victim was slain and divided into two parts, between which the contracting
parties passed. (Genesis 15:10) Generally speaking the oath alone is
mentioned in the contracting of alliances, either between nations, (Joshua
9:15) or individuals. (Genesis 25:28; 31:53; 1 Samuel 20:17; 2 Kings 11:4)
The event was celebrated by a feast. Genesis l.c.; (Exodus 24:11; 2 Samuel
3:12,20) Salt, as symbolical of fidelity, was used on these occasions.
Occasionally a pillar or a heap of stones was set up as a memorial of the
alliance. (Genesis 31:52) Presents were also sent by the parties
soliciting the alliance. (1 Kings 15:18; Isaiah 30:6); 1 Macc 16:18. The
fidelity of the Jews to their engagements was conspicuous at all periods
of their history, (Joshua 9:18) and any breach of covenant was visited
with very severe punishment. (2 Samuel 21:1; Ezekiel 17:16)


(an oak) a Simeonite, ancestor of Ziza, a prince of his tribe in
the reign of Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 4:37) (B.C. 727.)


a large strong tree of some description probably an oak.

  • ALLON more accurately ELON, a place named among the cities of
    Naphtali. (Joshua 19:33) Probably the more correct construction is to take
    it with the following word, i.e., "the oak by Zaanannim. [ELON]

  • ALLON BACHUTH (oak of weeping) the tree under which Rebekah's
    nurse, Deborah, was buried. (Genesis 35:8)


(measure) the first in order of the descendants of Joktan. (Genesis
10:26; 1 Chronicles 1:20)


(concealed) a city within the tribe of Benjamin, with "suburbs"
given to the priests. (Joshua 21:18) [ALEMETH]


(concealing the two cakes), one of the latest stations of the
Israelites between Dibon-gad and the mountains of Abarim (Numbers
33:46,47) It is probably identical with Beth-diblathaim.


This word is found in (Genesis 43:11; Exodus 25:33,34; 37:19,20; Numbers
17:8; Ecclesiastes 12:5; Jeremiah 1:11) in the text of the Authorized
Version. It is invariably represented by the same Hebrew word,
shaked meaning hasten. (Jeremiah 1:11,12) The almond tree is a
native of Asia and North Africa, but it is cultivated in the milder parts
of Europe." It resembles the peach tree in form, blossom and fruit. It is
in fact only another species of the same genus." The height of the tree is
about 12 or 14 feet; the flowers are pink, and arranged for the most part
in pairs, the leaves are long, ovate, with a serrated margin and an acute
point. The covering of the fruit is down and succulent, enclosing the hard
shell which contains the kernel. It is this but for which the tree is
chiefly valued. It is curious to observe, in connection with the almond
bowls of the golden candlestick, that, in the language of lapidaries,
almonds are pieces of rock crystal, even now used in adorning branch


The duty of alms-giving, especially in kind, consisting chiefly in
portions to be left designedly from produce of the field, the vineyard and
the oliveyard, (Leviticus 19:9,10; 23:22; 15:11; 24:19; 26:2-13; Ruth 2:2)
is strictly enjoined by the law. Every third year also, (14:28) each
proprietor was directed to share the tithe of his produce with "the
Levite, the stranger, the fatherless and the widow." The theological
estimate of alms-giving among the Jews is indicated in the following
passages: (Job 31:17; Proverbs 10:2; 11:4; Esther 9:22; Psalms 112:9; Acts
9:36) the case of Dorcas; (Acts 10:2) of Cornelius; to which may be added
Tobit 4:10,11; 14:10,11, and Ecclus. 3:30; 40:24. The Pharisees were
zealous in almsgiving, but too ostentatious their mode of performance, for
which our Lord finds fault with them. (Matthew 6:2) The duty of relieving
the poor was not neglected by the Christians. (Matthew 6:1-4; Luke 14:13;
Acts 20:35; Galatians 2:10) Regular proportionate giving was expected.
(Acts 11:30; Romans 15:25-27; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4)




(in Heb. Ahalim, Ahaloth), The name of a costly and sweet-smelling
wood which is mentioned in (Numbers 24:6; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17;
Solomon 4:14; John 19:39) It is usually identified with the Aquilaria
, an aromatic wood much valued in India. This tree
sometimes grows to the height of 120 feet, being 12 feet in girth.


a place or district, forming with Asher the jurisdiction of the ninth of
Solomon's commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:16)


(A), the first letter of the Greek alphabet. With Omega, the last letter,
it is used in the Old Testament and in the New to express the eternity of
God, as including both the beginning and the end. (Revelation 1:8,11;
21:6; 22:13; Isaiah 41:4; 44:6) hence these letters became a favorite
symbol of the eternal divinity of our Lord, and were used for this purpose
in connection with the cross, or the monogram of Christ (i.e. the first
two letters, ch and r, of Christ's name in Greek). Both Greeks and Hebrews
employed the letters of the alphabet as numerals.




(changing) the father of the apostle James the Less, (Matthew 10:3;
Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) and husband of Mary. (John 19:25) [MARY]
In this latter place he is called Clopas (not, as in the Authorized
Version, Cleophas).


The first altar of which we have any account is that built by Noah when he
left the ark. (Genesis 8:20) In the early times altars were usually built
in certain spots hallowed by religious associations, e.g., where God
appeared. (Genesis 12:7; 13:18; 26:25; 35:1) Though generally erected for
the offering of sacrifice, in some instances they appear to have been only
memorials. (Genesis 12:7; Exodus 17:15,16) Altars were most probably
originally made of earth. The law of Moses allowed them to be made of
either earth or unhewn stones. (Exodus 20:24,25) I. The Altar of Burnt
. It differed in construction at different times. (1) In the
tabernacle, (Exodus 27:1) ff.; Exod 38:1 ff., it was comparatively small
and portable. In shape it was square. It as five cubits in length, the
same in breadth, and three cubits high. It was made of planks of shittim
(or acacia) wood overlaid with brass. The interior was hollow. (Exodus
27:8) At the four corners were four projections called horns made, like
the altar itself, of shittim wood overlaid with brass, (Exodus 27:2) and
to them the victim was bound when about to be sacrificed. (Psalms 118:27)
Round the altar, midway between the top and bottom, ran a projecting
ledge, on which perhaps the priest stood when officiating. To the outer
edge of this, again, a grating or network of brass was affixed, and
reached to the bottom of the altar. At the four corners of the network
were four brazen rings, into which were inserted the staves by which the
altar was carried. These staves were of the same material as the altar
itself. As the priests were forbidden to ascend the altar by steps,
(Exodus 20:26) it has been conjectured that a slope of earth led gradually
up to the ledge from which they officiated. The place of the altar was at
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.)" (Exodus 40:29) (2) In
Solomon's temple the altar was considerably larger in its dimensions. It
differed too in the material of which it was made, being entirely of
brass. (1 Kings 8:64; 2 Chronicles 7:7) It had no grating, and instead of
a single gradual slope, the ascent to it was probably made by three
successive platforms, to each of which it has been supposed that steps
led. The altar erected by Herod in front of the temple was 15 cubits in
height and 50 cubits in length and breadth. According to (Leviticus
6:12,13) a perpetual fire was to be kept burning on the altar. II. The
Altar of Incense
, called also the golden altar to distinguish it from
the altar of burnt offering which was called the brazen altar.
(Exodus 38:30) (a) That in the tabernacle was made of acacia wood,
overlaid with pure gold. In shape it was square, being a cubit in length
and breadth and two cubits in height. Like the altar of burnt offering it
had horns at the four corners, which were of one piece with the rest of
the altar. This altar stood in the holy place, "before the vail that is by
the ark of the testimony." (Exodus 30:6; 40:5) (b) The altar of Solomon's
temple was similar, (1 Kings 7:48; 1 Chronicles 28:18) but was made of
cedar overlaid with gold. III. Other Altars. In (Acts 17:23)
reference is made to an alter to an unknown God. There were several altars
in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague.
Since they knew not what god was offended and required to be


(destroy not), found in the introductory verse to Psalms
57,58,59,75. It was probably the beginning of some song or poem to the
tune of which those psalms were to be chanted.


(a crowd of men) one of the stations of the Israelites on their
journey to Sinai, the last before Rephidim. (Numbers 33:13,14)


(evil), a duke of Edom, (Genesis 36:40) written ALIAH in (1
Chronicles 1:51)


(tall), a Horite, son of Shobal, (Genesis 36:23) written ALIAN in
(1 Chronicles 1:40)


(enduring), an unknown place in Asher, between Alammelech and
Misheal. (Joshua 19:26) only.


(Esther 16:10,17) and Amad’athus. (Esther 12:6)


(labor), an Asherite, son of Helem. (1 Chronicles 7:35)


(dweller in a valley), a son of Eliphaz by his concubine Timnah
grandson of Esau, and chieftain ("duke," Authorized Version) of Edom.
(Genesis 36:12,16; 1 Chronicles 1:36) (B.C. about 1700.)


a nomadic tribe of uncertain origin, which occupied the peninsula of Sinai
and the wilderness intervening between the southern hill-ranges of
Palestine and the border of Egypt. (Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:7; 27:8)
Their wealth consisted in flocks and herds. Mention is made of a "town" (1
Samuel 15:5) but their towns could have been little more than stations or
nomadic enclosures. The Amalekites first came in contact with the
Israelites at Rephidim, but were signally defeated. (Exodus 17:8-16) In
union with the Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites on the
borders of Palestine, and defeated them near Hormah. (Numbers 14:45) Saul
undertook an expedition against them. (1 Samuel 14:48) Their power was
thenceforth broken, and they degenerated into a horde of banditti. Their
destruction was completed by David. (1 Samuel 30:1-17)


a mountain in Ephraim, (Judges 12:15) probably so named because the
Amalekites once held possession of it.


(gathering place), a city in the south of Judah named with Shema
and Moladah in (Joshua 15:26) only.


[HAMAN] (Esther 10:7; 12:6; 13:3,12; 14:17; 16:10,17)


(a covenant), apparently a mountain in or near Lebanon. (Solomon
4:8) It is commonly assumed that this is the mountain in which the river
Abana, (2 Kings 5:12) has its source.


(the Lord says, i.e. promises).

  • Father of Ahitub according to (1 Chronicles 6:7,52) and son of
    Meraioth, in the line of the high priests.

  • The high priest in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 19:11) He
    was the son of Azariah.

  • The head of a Levitical house of the Kohathites. (1 Chronicles 23:13;

  • The head of one of the twenty-four courses of priest. (2 Chronicles
    31:15; Nehemiah 10:3; 12:2,13)

  • One of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:42)

  • A priest who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 10:3; 12:2,13)

  • A descendant of Pharez. (Nehemiah 11:4)

  • An ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet. (Zephaniah 1:1)


(a burden).

  • Son of Ithra, or Jether, by Abigail, David's sister. (2 Samuel 17:25)
    He joined in Absalom's rebellion, B.C. 1023, was appointed
    commander-in-chief and suffered defeat by Joab. (2 Samuel 18:6) David,
    incensed against Joab for killing Absalom, forgave Amasa and appointed him
    Joab's successor. (2 Samuel 19:13) Joab afterwards, when they were both in
    pursuit of the rebel Sheba, pretending to salute Amasa stabbed him with
    his sword. (2 Samuel 20:10)

  • A prince of Ephraim, son of Hadlai, in the reign of Ahaz. (2
    Chronicles 28:12)



  • A Kohathite, father of Mahath and ancestor of Samuel (1 Chronicles

  • Chief of the captains of Judah and Benjamin, who deserted to David
    while an outlaw at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:18) (B.C. 1060.)

  • One of the priests who blew trumpets before the ark. (1 Chronicles

  • Another Kohathite, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:12)


(burdensome), son of Azareel, a priest in the time of Nehemiah,
(Nehemiah 11:13) apparently the same as MAASIAI. (1 Chronicles 9:12) (B.C.


(whom Jehovah bears), son of Zichri and captain of 200,000 warriors
of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:16) (B.C. 910.)




(the strength of the Lord).

  • Son of Joash, and eighth king of Judah, reigned B.C. 837-809. He
    succeeded to the throne at the age of 25, on the murder of his father, and
    punished the murderers. In order to restore his kingdom to the greatness
    of Jehoshaphat's days, he made war on the Edomites, defeated them in the
    Valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, and took their capital, Selah or
    Petra, to which he gave the name of Jokteel, i.e. "God-subdued." Flushed
    with his success, he challenged Joash king of Israel to battle, but was
    completely defeated, and himself was taken prisoner and conveyed by Joash
    to Jerusalem, which opened its gates to the conqueror. Amaziah lived 15
    years after the death of Joash; and in the 29th year of his reign was
    murdered by conspirators at Lachish, whither he had retired from Jerusalem
    for safety. (2 Chronicles 25:27)

  • A descendant of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:34)

  • A Levite. (1 Chronicles 6:45)

  • Priest of the golden calf at Bethel who endeavored to drive the
    prophet Amos from Israel into Judah. (Amos 7:11,12,14)


a person of high rank employed by a government to represent it and
transact its business at the seat of government of some other power. The
earliest examples of ambassadors employed occur in (Numbers 20:14; 21:21;
Judges 11:7-19) afterwards in that of the fraudulent Gibeonites, (Joshua
9:4) etc., and in the instances of civic strife mentioned (Judges 11:12)
and Judg 20:12 Ambassadors are found to have been employed not only on
occasions of hostile challenge or insolent menace, (1 Kings 20:2,6; 2
Kings 14:8) but of friendly compliment, of request for alliance or other
aid, of submissive deprecation and of curious inquiry. (2 Kings 14:8;
16:7; 18:14; 2 Chronicles 32:31) Ministers are called ambassadors of


embassy, a message of a public nature brought by ambassadors. The word
also sometimes includes the ambassadors themselves. (Luke 14:32)


(Heb. chasmal) occurs only in (Ezekiel 1:4,27; 8:2) It is usually
supposed that the Hebrew word chasmal (denotes a metal) and not the
fossil resin called amber.


literally "true" and used as a substantive, "that which is true," "truth,"
(Isaiah 65:16) a word used in strong asseverations, fixing, as it were,
the stamp of truth upon the assertion which it accompanied, and making it
binding as an oath. Comp. (Numbers 5:22) In the synagogues and private
houses it was customary for the people or members of the family who were
present to say "amen" to the prayers which were offered. (Matthew 6:13; 1
Corinthians 14:16) And not only public prayers, but those offered in
private, and doxologies, were appropriately concluded with "amen." (Romans
9:5; 11:36; 15:33; 16:27; 2 Corinthians 13:14) etc.


(Heb. achlamah) a subspecies of quartz of a bluish-violet color.
Mention is made of this precious stone, which formed the third in the
third row of the high priestly breastplate, in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12) It
occurs also in (Revelation 21:20)


(builder), one of Solomon's servants, (Ezra 2:57) called AMON, OR
AMEN, AMON in (Nehemiah 7:59)


(Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:33) [AMMINADAB, 1]


(true), father of the prophet Jonah. (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1)


(head), The hill of, A hill facing Giah by the way of the
wilderness of Gibeon, named as the point to which Joab pursued Abner (2
Samuel 2:24)


i.e., as explained in the margin of the Authorized Version, my
. (Hosea 2:1)


(people of God).

  • The spy from the tribe of Dan. (Numbers 13:12) (B.C. 1490.) He
    perished by the plague for his evil report.

  • Father of Machir of Lo-debar. (2 Samuel 9:4; 17:27)

  • Father of Bath-sheba, (1 Chronicles 3:5) called ELIAM in (2 Samuel

  • The sixth son of Obed-edom, (1 Chronicles 26:5) and one of the
    doorkeepers of the temple. (B.C. 1014.)


(people of praise).

  • An Ephraimite father of Elishama, the chief of the tribe at the time
    of the Exodus. (Numbers 1:10; 2:18; 7:48,53; 10:22; 1 Chronicles 7:26)
    and, through him, ancestor of Joshua. (B.C. 1491.)

  • A Simeonite, father of Shemuel. (Numbers 34:20)

  • The father of Pedahel, prince of the tribe of Naphtali. (Numbers

  • The father-of Talmai king of Geshur. (2 Samuel 13:37)

  • A descendant of Pharez, son of Judah. (1 Chronicles 9:4)


(one of the prince's people).

  • Son of Ram or Aram, and father of Nahshon, or NAASSON (as it is
    written) (Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:32); (Numbers 1:7; 2:3; Ruth 4:19,20; 1
    Chronicles 2:10) One of the ancestors of Jesus Christ.

  • The chief of the 112 sons of Uzziel, a Junior Levitical house of the
    family of the Kohathites. (Exodus 6:23; 1 Chronicles 15:10,11)

  • In (1 Chronicles 6:22) Izhar, the son of Kohath, is called AMMINADIB;
    probably a clerical error.


Probably another form of Amminadab. He was noted for the swiftness of his
chariot. (Solomon 6:12) It is uncertain whether we ought to read here
AMMINADIB, with the Authorized Version, or my willing people, as
in the margin. Ammishad’da-i (people of the Almighty),
the father of Ahiezer, prince of the tribe of Dan at the time of the
Exodus. (Numbers 1:12; 2:25; 7:66,71; 10:25) (B.C. 1491.)


(people of the Giver, i.e. God), the son of Benaiah, who
commanded the third division of David's army. (1 Chronicles 27:6) (B.C.


(sons of renown, mountaineers), Am’monites, Children of
A people descended from Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his younger
daughter. (Genesis 19:38) comp Psal 83:7,8 The Ammonites are frequently
mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben-ammi's half-brother), and
sometimes under the same name. Comp. (Judges 10:6; 2 Chronicles 20:1;
Zephaniah 2:8) etc. The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites
is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them, (2:20) they are
said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border. (Numbers
21:24; 2:37; 3:16) (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed
to them. Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the
Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of maranders in
their incursions.) (1 Samuel 11:2; Amos 1:13) and a very high degree of
crafty cruelty to their toes. (Jeremiah 41:6,7; Judges 17:11,12) Moab was
the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its
predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a
footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated
to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance, (23:4) to the
Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the
animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by
a king, (Judges 11:12) etc.; (1 Samuel 12:12; 2 Samuel 10:1; Jeremiah
40:14) and by "princes." (2 Samuel 10:3; 1 Chronicles 19:3) The divinity
of the tribe was Molech [MOLECH], and they were gross idolaters.


a woman of Ammonite race. (1 Kings 14:21,31; 2 Chronicles 12:13)





  • Eldest son of David. (B.C. 1052.) He dishonored his half-sister Tamar,
    and was in consequence murdered by her brother. (2 Samuel 13:1-29)

  • Son of Shimon. (1 Chronicles 4:20)


a priest who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:7,20) (B.C. 536.)


(the mysterious), an Egyptian divinity, whose name occurs in that
of No-amon. (Nahum 3:8) Amen was one of the eight gods of the first order
and chief of the triad of Thebes. He was worshipped at that city as
Amen-Ra, or "Amen the Sun."



  • One of Ahab's governors. (1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chronicles 18:25)

  • King of Judah, son and successor of Manasseh, reigned two years, from
    B.C. 642 to 640. Amon devoted himself wholly to the service of false gods,
    but was killed in a conspiracy, and was succeeded by his son Josiah.


(dwellers on the summits, mountaineers), one of the chief nations
who possessed the land of Canaan before its conquest by the Israelites. As
dwelling on the elevated portions of the country, they are contrasted with
the Canaanites, who were the dwellers in the lowlands; and the two thus
formed the main broad divisions of the Holy Land, (Numbers 13:29) and see
(14:7; 1:7,20) "Mountain of the Amorites;" (1:44; Joshua 5:1; 10:6; 11:3)
They first occupied the barren heights west of the Dead Sea, at the place
called afterwards Engedi. From this point they stretched west to Hebron.
At the date of the invasion of the country, Sihon, their then king, had
taken the rich pasture land south of the Jabbok. This rich tract, bounded
by the Jabbok on the north, the Arnon on the south, the Jordan on the west
and "the wilderness" on the east, (Judges 11:21,22) was, perhaps in the
most special sense the "land of the Amorites," (Numbers 21:31; Joshua
12:2,3; 13:10; Judges 11:21,22) but their possessions are distinctly
stated to have extended to the very foot of Hermon, (3:8; 4:48) embracing
"Gilead and all Bashan," (3:10) with the Jordan valley on the east of the
river. (4:49) After the conquest of Canaan nothing of importance is heard
of the Amorites in the Bible.


(burden), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of
Bethlehem, originally a shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was
called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the
regular prophetic schools. (Amos 1:1; 7:14,15) He travelled from Judah
into the northern kingdom of Israel or Ephraim, and there exercised his
ministry, apparently not for any long time. (His date cannot be later than
B.C. 808 for he lived in the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah and Jeroboam
king of Israel; but his ministry probably took place at an earlier date,
perhaps about the middle of Jeroboam's reign Nothing is known of the time
or manner of his death. -- ED.)


The book of the prophecies of Amos seems to be divided into four principal
portions closely connected together. (1) From 1:1 to 2:3 he denounces the
sins of the nations bordering on Israel and Judah. (2) From 2:4 to 6:14 he
describes the state of those two kingdoms, especially, the former. (3)
From 7:1 to 9:10 he relates his visit to Bethel, and sketches the
impending punishment of Israel. At last he promises blessings. The chief
peculiarity of the style consists in the number of allusions to natural
objects and agricultural occupations, as might be expected from the early
life of the author.


(strong), father of the prophet Isaiah, and, according to
rabbinical tradition, brother of Amaziah king of Judah. (2 Kings 19:2,20;
20:1; Isaiah 1:1) (B.C. before 756.)


(a city surrounded by the sea), a city of Macedonia, through which
Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica (Acts
17:1) It was distant 33 Roman miles from Philippi, to the southwest, and
about three miles from the sea. Its site is now occupied by a village
called Neokhorio ; in Turkish Jeni-Keni, or "New Town."


(large), a Christian at Rome. (Romans 16:8) (A.D. 55.)


(Revised Version,) (Romans 16:8) (the full name of which AMPLIAS, above,
is the contraction. The name in this form is "common in the sepulchral
inscriptions of persons connected with Caesar's household." (A.D. 55.) --


(an exalted people).

  • A Levite of the family of the Kohathites, and father of Moses. (Exodus
    6:18,20) (B.C. 1571.)

  • A son of Dishon and descendant of Seir, (1 Chronicles 1:41) properly
    "Hamram" = HEMDAN in (Genesis 36:26)

  • One of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign
    wife. (Ezra 10:34) (B.C. 459).


A branch of the great Kohathite family of the tribe of Levi, (Numbers
3:27; 1 Chronicles 26:23) descended from Amram, the father of Moses.


(keeper of the gods) perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia,
who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against
the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain. Gen. 14.
(B.C. 1898.)


were ornaments, gems, scrolls. etc.. worn as preservatives against the
power of enchantments, and generally inscribed with mystic forms or
characters. The "earrings" in (Genesis 35:4) were obviously connected with
idolatrous worship and were probably amulets taken from the bodies of the
slain Shechemites. They are subsequently mentioned among the spoils of
Midian. (Judges 8:24) In (Hosea 2:13) is another like reference. The
"earrings" in (Isaiah 3:20) were also amulets.



  • A Levite of the family of Merari. (1 Chronicles 6:46)

  • A priest. (Nehemiah 11:12)


(grape-town), a town in the mountains of Judah, (Joshua 15:50)
named with Debir and Hebron as once belonging to the Anakim. (Joshua


(one who answers), the son of Zibeon and father of Aholibamah, one
of Esau's wives. (Genesis 36:2,14,25) He is supposed to have discovered
the "hot springs" (not "mules," as in the Authorized Version) in the
desert as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. (B.C. 1797.)


(gorge or pass), a place within the border of Issachar, named with
Shihon and Rabbith. (Joshua 19:19)


(whom Jehovah answers).

  • Probably a priest. (Nehemiah 8:4)

  • One of the "heads of the people" who signed the covenant with
    Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:22)


(long-necked), a race of giants, descendants of Arba, (Joshua
15:13; 21:11) dwelling in the southern part of Canaan, and particularly at
Hebron, which from their progenitor received the name of "city of Arba."
Anak was the name of the race rather than that of an individual. (Joshua
14:15) The race appears to have been divided into three tribes or
families, bearing the names Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. Though the
war-like appearance of the Anakim had struck the Israelites with terror in
the time of Moses, (Numbers 13:28; 9:2) they were nevertheless
dispossessed by Joshua, (Joshua 11:21,22) and their chief city, Hebron,
became the possession of Caleb. (Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:20) After this
time they vanish from history.


a Mizraite people or tribe. (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11)


(image of the king), one of the idols worshipped by the colonists
introduced into Samaria from Sepharvaim. (2 Kings 17:31) He was worshipped
with rites resembling those of Molech, and is the companion-god to


(a cloud), one of the "heads of the people" who signed the covenant
with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:26) (B.C. 410.)


(Protected by Jehovah), the seventh son of Elioenai, descended from
the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24)


(protected by Jehovah) probably a priest, and ancestor of Azariah,
who assisted in rebuilding the city wall in the days of Nehemiah.
(Nehemiah 3:23) (B.C. before 446.)


a place, named between Nob and Hazor, in which the Benjamites lived after
their return from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:32)


(whom Jehovah has graciously given)

  • A high priest in (Acts 23:2-5; 24:1) He was the son of Nebedaeus. He
    was nominated to the office by Herod king of Chalcis in A.D. 48; was
    deposed shortly before Felix left the province and assassinated by the
    Sicarii at the beginning of the last Jewish war.

  • A disciple at Jerusalem, husband of Sapphira. (Acts 5:1-11) having
    sold his goods for the benefit of the church he kept back a part of the
    price, bringing to the apostles the remainder as if it was the whole, his
    wife being privy to the scheme. St. Peter denounced the fraud, and Ananias
    fell down and expired.

  • A Jewish disciple at Damascus, (Acts 9:10-17) of high repute, (Acts
    22:12) who sought out Saul during the period of blindness which followed
    his conversion, and announced to him his future commission as a preacher
    of the gospel. Tradition makes him to have been afterwarded bishop of
    Damascus, and to have died by martyrdom.


(answer), father of Shamgar. (Judges 3:31; 5:6)


which literally means a thing suspended, is the equivalent of the Hebrew
word signifying a thing or person voted. Any object so devoted to Jehovah
was irredeemable. If an inanimate object, it was to be given to the
priests, (Numbers 18:14) if a living creature or even a man, it was to be
slain. (Leviticus 27:28,29) The word anathema frequently occurs in St.
Paul's writings, and is generally translated accused. An examination of
the passages in which it occurs shows that it had acquired a more general
sense as expressive either of strong feeling, (Romans 9:3) or of dislike
and condemnation. (1 Corinthians 12:3; 16:22; Galatians 1:9)


(answers to prayer).

  • Son of Becher, a son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)

  • One of the "heads of the people" who signed the covenant in the time
    of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:19) (B.C. 410.)


a priests’ city belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, with "suburbs."
(Joshua 21:18; 1 Chronicles 6:60) Anathoth lay about three miles from
Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:30) The cultivation of the priests survives in
tilled fields of grain, with figs and olives. There are the remains of
walls and strong foundations, and the quarries still supply Jerusalem with
building stones.


(Acts 27:29)


(manly), one of the apostles of our Lord, (John 1:40; Matthew 4:18)
brother of Simon Peter. He was of Bethsaida, and had been a disciple of
John the Baptist, leaving him to follow our Lord. By his means his brother
Simon was brought to Jesus. (John 1:41) His place among the apostles seems
to have been fourth, next after the three Peter, James and John, and in
company with Philip. (Mark 3:18; Acts 1:13) The traditions about him are
various. He is said to have preached in Scythia, in Greece, in Asia Minor
and Thrace, and to have been crucified at Patrae in Achaia.



  • An officer left as viceroy, 2 Macc. 4:31, in Antioch by Antiochus
    Epiphanes during his absence. 2 Macc. 4:31-38. (B.C. 171.)

  • Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes who was left by him on Garizem.
    2 Macc. 5:23.

  • A Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul, (Romans 16:7) together with


(two springs), a city of Issachar, with "suburbs," belonging to the
(Gershonites). (1 Chronicles 6:70)


(boy), a city of Manasseh, west of Jordan, with "suburbs," given to
the Kohathites. (1 Chronicles 6:70)


one of the three Amorite chiefs of Hebron who aided Abraham in the pursuit
after the four invading kings. (Genesis 14:13,24)


(2 Samuel 23:27) Anet’othite, (1 Chronicles 27:12) and
An’tothite, (1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3) an inhabitant of
Anathoth, of the tribe of Benjamin.


(Genesis 16:7) etc. (The special form in which God manifested himself to
man, and hence Christ's visible form before the incarnation. Compare (Acts
7:30-38) with the corresponding Old-Testament history; and (Genesis
18:1,13,14,33) and Genesis 19:1)


By the word "angels" (i.e. "messengers" of God) we ordinarily understand a
race of spiritual beings of a nature exalted far above that of man,
although infinitely removed from that of God -- whose office is "to do him
service in heaven, and by his appointment to succor and defend men on
earth. I. Scriptural use of the word. -- There are many passages
in which the expression "angel of God" is certainly used for a
manifestation of God himself (Genesis 22:11) with Genesis 22:12 and Exod
3:2 with Exod 3:6 and Exod 3:14 It is to be observed, also, that side by
side with these expressions we read of God's being manifested in the form
of man -- as to Abraham at Mamre, (Genesis 18:2,22) comp. Genesis
19:1 To Jacob at Penuel, (Genesis 32:24,30) to Joshua at Gilgal, (Joshua
5:13,15) etc. Besides this, which is the highest application of the word
angel, we find the phrase used of any messengers of God, such as the
prophets, (Isaiah 42:19; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1) the priests, (Malachi
2:7) and the rulers of the Christian churches. (Revelation 1:20) II.
Nature of angels -- Angels are termed "spirits," as in (Hebrews
1:14) -- but it is not asserted that the angelic nature is incorporeal.
The contrary seems expressly implied in (Luke 20:36; Philemon 3:21) The
angels are revealed to us as beings such as man might be, and will be when
the power of sin and death is removed, because always beholding his face,
(Matthew 18:10) and therefore being "made like him." (1 John 3:2) Their
number must be very large, (1 Kings 22:19; Matthew 26:53; Hebrews 12:22)
their strength is great, (Psalms 103:20; Revelation 5:2; 18:21)
their activity marvelous (Isaiah 6:2-6; Matthew 26:53; Revelation
8:13) their appearance varied according to circumstances, but was often
brilliant and dazzling. (Matthew 28:2-7; Revelation 10:1,2) Of the nature
of "fallen angels," the circumstances and nature of the temptation by
which they fell, we know absolutely nothing. All that is certain is that
they "left their first estate" and that they are now "angels of the
devil." (Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7,9) On the other hand the title
especially assigned to the angels of God -- that of the "holy ones," see
(Daniel 4:13,23; 8:13; Matthew 25:31) -- is precisely the one which is
given to those men who are renewed in Christ's image. Comp. (Hebrews 2:10;
5:9; 12:23) III. Office of the angels. Of their office in heaven
we have only vague prophetic glimpses as in (1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 6:1-3;
Daniel 7:9,10; Revelation 6:11), etc., which show us nothing but a
never-ceasing adoration. They are represented as being, in the widest
sense, agents of God's providence, natural and supernatural, to the body
and to the soul. In one word, they are Christ's ministers of grace now,
and they shall be of judgment hereafter. (Matthew 13:39,41,49; 16:27;
24:31) etc. That there are degrees of the angelic nature, both fallen and
unfallen, and special titles and agencies belonging to each, is clearly
declared by St. Paul, (Ephesians 1:21; Romans 8:38) but what their general
nature is it is useless to speculate.


(sighing of the people), a Manassite, son of Shemidah (1 Chronicles


(fountains), a city in the mountains of Judah, named with Eshtemoh
and Goshen. (Joshua 15:50)


This word occurs only in (Matthew 23:23) It is by no means a matter of
certainty whether the anise (Pimpinella anisum, Lin.) or the dill
(Anethum graveolens) is here intended though the probability is
more in favor of the latter plant. "Anise is an annual plant growing to
the height of one foot, carries a white flower, and blooms from June till
August. The seeds are imported and used in large quantities on account of
their aromatic and carminative properties. It grows wild in Egypt, in
Syria, Palestine and all parts of the Levant. Among the ancients anise
seems to have been a common pot-herb in every garden. Although it is less
used in medicine by the moderns than by the ancients, it still retains its
former reputation as an excellent stomachic, particularly for delicate
women and young children. The Romans chewed it in order to keep up an
agreeable moisture in the mouth and to sweeten the breath, while some
Orientals still do the same." Dill, a somewhat similar plant, is an
annual, bearing small aromatic seeds, used also for cookery and


This word does not occur in the Authorized Version; but anklets are
referred to in (Isaiah 3:16,18,20) They were fastened to the ankle band of
each leg; were as common as bracelets and armlets and made of much the
same material. The pleasant jingling and tinkling which they made as they
knocked against each other was no doubt one of the reasons why they were
admired, They are still worn in the East.


(grace), a "prophetess" in Jerusalem at the time of our Lord's
Presentation in the temple. (Luke 2:36) She was of the tribe of Asher.


(humble), the son of one Seth was appointed high priest A.D. 7 by
Quirinus, the imperial governor of Syria, but was obliged by Valerius
Gratus, procurator of Judea, to give way to Ismael, son of Phabi, at the
beginning of the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 14. About A.D. 25 Joseph
Caiaphas, son-in-law of An-nas, became high priest, (John 18:13) but in
Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas are both called high priests. Our Lord's first
hearing, (John 18:13) was before Annas, who then sent him bound to
Caiaphas. Some maintain that the two, Annas and Caiaphas, were together at
the head of the Jewish people, -- Caiaphas as actual high priest, Annas as
resident of the Sanhedrin- (Acts 4:6) Others again suppose that Annas held
the office of sagin, or substitute of the high priest; others
still that Annas held the title and was really the ruling power. He lived
to old age, having had five sons high priests.


in Holy Scripture, is either, I. Material -- with oil -- or II. Spiritual
-- with the Holy Ghost. I. MATERIAL. --

  • Ordinary. Anointing the body or head with oil was a common
    practice with the Jews, as with other Oriental nations. (28:40; Ruth 3:3;
    Micah 6:15) Anointing the head with oil or ointment seems also to have
    been a mark of respect sometimes paid by a host to his guests. (Luke 7:46)
    and Psal 23:5

  • Official. It was a rite of inauguration into each of the three
    typical offices of the Jewish commonwealth. a. Prophets were occasionally
    anointed to their office, (1 Kings 19:16) and were called messiahs, or
    anointed. (1 Chronicles 16:22; Psalms 105:15) b. Priests, at the first
    institution of the Levitical priesthood, were all anointed to their
    offices, (Exodus 40:15; Numbers 3:3) but afterwards anointing seems to
    have been specially reserved for the high priest, (Exodus 29:29; Leviticus
    16:32) so that "the priest that is anointed," (Leviticus 4:3) is generally
    thought to mean the high priest. c. Kings. Anointing was the principal and
    divinely-appointed ceremony in the inauguration of the Jewish Kings. (1
    Samuel 9:16; 10:1; 1 Kings 1:34,39) The rite was sometimes performed more
    than once. David was thrice anointed. d. Inanimate objects also were
    anointed with oil, in token of their being set apart for religious
    service. Thus Jacob anointed a pillar at Bethel. ((Genesis 31:13; Exodus

  • Ecclesiastical. Anointing with oil is prescribed by St. James
    to be used for the recovery of the sick. (James 5:14) Analogous to this is
    the anointing with oil practiced by the twelve. (Mark 6:13) II. SPIRITUAL.

  • In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of
    Messiah, or Anointed, (Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:25,26) and the nature of his
    anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. (Isaiah 61:1)
    see Luke 4:18 In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the
    Messiah, or Christ or Anointed, of the Old Testament, (John 1:41; Acts
    9:22; 17:2,3; 18:4,28) and the historical fact of his being anointed with
    the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded. (John 1:32,33; Acts 4:27; 10:38)
    Christ was anointed as prophet priest and king.

  • Spiritual anointing with the Holy Ghost is conferred also upon
    Christians by God. (2 Corinthians 1:21) " Anointing "expresses the
    sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit upon Christians who are priests
    and kings unto God.


(Heb. nemalah). This insect is mentioned twice in the Old
Testament: in (Proverbs 6:6; 30:25) In the former of these passages the
diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy
of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded
to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding
wise." (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that
ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while
this is true of most of the 104 European species, two of those species do
lay up food, and are called harvesting ants. Like species have
been found in Texas and South America, and are known to exist in
Palestine. They show many other proofs of their skill. Some of them build
wonderful houses; these are often several stories high, sometimes five
hundred times the height of the builders, with rooms, corridors, and
vaulted roofs supported by pillars. Some species keep a kind of cows;
others have a regular army of soldiers; some keep slaves -- "No closer
imitation of the ways of man could be found in the entire animal economy."
(See Encyc. Brit.) McCook's "The Honey Ants" gives many curious
facts about the habits of this peculiar kind of ant, and of the harvesting
ants of the American plains. -- ED.)


This term is employed by the apostle John alone, and is defined by him in
a manner which leaves no doubt as to its intrinsic meaning. With regard to
its application there is less certainty. In the first passage -- (1 John
2:18) -- in which it occurs, the apostle makes direct reference to the
false Christs whose coming, it had been fore-told, should mark the last
days. In v. 22 we find, "he is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the
Son;" and still more positively, "every spirit that confesseth not that
Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of antichrist." Comp. (2 John 1:7)
From these emphatic and repeated definitions it has been supposed that the
object of the apostle in his first epistle was to combat the errors of
Cerinthus, the Docetae and the Gnostics on the subject of the Incarnation.
(They denied the union of the divine and human in Christ.) The coming of
Antichrist was (believed to be foretold in the "vile person" of Daniel's
prophecy, (Daniel 11:21) which received its first accomplishment in
Antiochus Epiphanes but of which the complete fulfillment was reserved for
the last times. He is identified with "the man of sin, the son of
perdition." (2 Thessalonians 2:3) This interpretation brings Antichrist
into close connection with the gigantic power of evil, symbolized by the
"beast," (Revelation 13:1) ... who received his power from the dragon
(i.e. the devil, the serpent of Genesis), continued for forty and two
months, and was invested with the kingdom of the ten kings who destroyed
the harlot Babylon, (Revelation 17:12,17) the city of seven hills. The
destruction of Babylon is to be followed by the rule of Antichrist for a
short period, (Revelation 17:10) to be in his turn overthrown in "the
battle of that great day of God Almighty," (Revelation 16:14) with the
false prophet and all his followers. Rev. 19. The personality of
Antichrist is to be inferred as well from the personality of his
historical precursor as from that of him to whom he stands opposed. Such
an interpretation is to be preferred to that which regards Antichrist as
the embodiment and personification of all powers and agencies inimical to
Christ, or of the Antichristian might of the world.


(from Antiochus)-

  • IN SYRIA. The capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and afterwards the
    residence of the Roman governors of the province which bore the same name.
    Situation. -- This metropolis was situated where the chain of
    Lebanon, running northward, and the chain of Taurus, running eastward. are
    brought to an abrupt meeting. Here the Orontes breaks through the
    mountains; and Antioch was placed at a bend of the river, 16 1/2 miles
    from the Mediterranean, partly on an island, partly on the levee which
    forms the left bank, and partly on the steep and craggy ascent of Mount
    Silpius, which, rose abruptly on the south. It is about 300 miles north of
    Jerusalem. In the immediate neighborhood was Daphne the celebrated
    sanctuary of Apollo 2 Macc. 4:33; whence the city was sometimes called
    Antioch by Daphne, to distinguish it from other cities of the same
    name. Destruction. -- The city was founded in the year 300 B.C.,
    by Seleucus Nicator. It grew under the successive Seleucid kings till it
    became a city of great extent and of remarkable beauty. One feature, which
    seems to have been characteristic of the great Syrian cities, -- a vast
    street with colonnades, intersecting the whole from end to end, -- was
    added by Antiochus Epiphanes. By Pompey it was made a free city, and such
    it continued till the time of Antoninus Pius. The early emperors raised
    there some large and important structures, such as aqueducts,
    amphitheatres and baths. (Antioch, in Paul's time, was the third city of
    the Roman empire, and contained over 200,000 inhabitants. Now it is a
    small, mean place of about 6000. -- ED.) Bible History. -- No
    city, after Jerusalem, is so intimately connected with the history of the
    apostolic church. Jews were settled there from the first in large numbers,
    were governed by their own ethnarch, and allowed to have the same
    political privileges with the Greeks. The chief interest of Antioch,
    however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen,
    Here the first Gentile church was founded, (Acts 11:20,21) here the
    disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26) It was
    from Antioch that St. Paul started on his three missionary journeys.

  • IN PISIDIA, (Acts 13:14; 14:19,21; 2 Timothy 3:11) on the borders of
    Phrygia, corresponds to Yalobatch, which is distant from
    Aksher six hours over the mountains. This city, like the Syrian
    Antioch, was founded by Seleucus Nicator. Under the Romans it became a
    colonia, and was also called Caesarea.


(an opponent), the name of a number of kings of Syria who lived
during the interval between the Old and New Testaments, and had frequent
connection with the Jews during that period. They are referred to in the
Apocrypha especially in the books of the Maccabees.


(like the father), martyr at Pergamos, (Revelation 2:13) and
according to tradition the bishop of that place. (A.D. before 100.)




(for his father), a town to which the soldiers conveyed St. Paul by
night on their march. (Acts 23:31) Its ancient name was Capharsaba; and
Herod, when he rebuilt the city, changed it to Antipatris, in honor of his
father, Antipater. The village Kefr-Sabba still retains the ancient
name of Antipatris.


(from Marc Antony) (a square stone fortress or castle adjoining the
northwest corner of the temple area at Jerusalem. There was a tower at
each corner. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named by him from Marc
Antony. From the stairs of this castle Paul addressed the multitude who
had assaulted him (Acts 21:31-40) -- ED.)


(answers of Jehovah), a Benjamite, one of the sons of Jeroham. (1
Chronicles 8:24)


a dweller at Anathoth. (1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3) [ANATHOTH]


(confederate), son of Coz and descendant of Judah, through Ashur
the father of Tekoa (1 Chronicles 4:8)


(called), a Christian saluted by St. Paul in (Romans 16:10)
Tradition makes him bishop of Smyrna or Heraclea. (A.D. 55.)


(Heb. kophim) are mentioned in (1 Kings 10:22) and 2Chr 9:21 There
can be little doubt that the apes were brought from the same country which
supplied ivory and peacocks, both of which are common in Ceylon; and Sir
E. Tennent has drawn attention to the fact that the Tamil names for apes,
ivory and peacocks are identical with the Hebrew.


the names of certain tribes, colonies from which had been planted in
Samaria by the Assyrian leader Asnapper. (Ezra 4:9; 5:6) The first and
last are regarded as the same. Whence these tribes came is entirely a
matter of conjecture.


(strength), the name of several places in Palestine.

  • A royal city of the Canaanites, the king of which was killed by
    Joshua, (Joshua 12:18) probably the same as APHEKAH in (Joshua 15:53)

  • A city, apparently in the extreme north of Asher, (Joshua 19:30) from
    which the Canaanites were not ejected, (Judges 1:31) though here it is
    APHIK. This is probably the same place as APHEK, (Joshua 13:4) on the
    extreme north "border of the Amorites,"; identified with the Aphaca of
    classical times, the modern Afka.

  • A place at which the Philistines encamped while the Israelites pitched
    in Eben-ezer, before the fatal battle in which the sons of Eli were killed
    and the ark was taken. (1 Samuel 4:1) This would be somewhere to the
    northwest of and at no great distance from Jerusalem.

  • The scene of another encampment of the Philistines, before an
    encounter not less disastrous than that just named, -- the defeat and
    death of Saul. (1 Samuel 29:1) It is possible that it may be the same
    place as the preceding.

  • A city on the military road from Syria to Israel. (1 Kings 20:26) It
    is now found in Fik, at the head of the Wady Fik, six
    miles east of the Sea of Galilee.


(strong place), a city of Judah, in the mountains (Joshua 15:53)
probably the same as APHEK, 1.


(refreshed), one of the fore-fathers of King Saul. (1 Samuel


(strong), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not driven
out. (Judges 1:31) Probably the same place as APHEK, 2.


(dust), The house of, a place mentioned in (Micah 1:10) Its site is


(the dispersion), chief of the 15th of the 24 courses in the
service of the temple. (1 Chronicles 24:15)


A Greek word meaning revelation, applied chiefly to the book of Revelation


(concealed, hidden).

  • Old Testament Apocrypha._The collection of books to which this
    term is popularly applied includes the following (the order given is that
    in which they stand in the English version); I. 1 Esdras; II. 2 Esdras;
    III. Tobit; IV. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther,
    which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Wisdom
    of Solomon; VII. The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus;
    VII. Baruch; IX. The Song of the Three Holy Children, X. The History of
    Susanna; XI. The History of the destruction of Bel and the Dragon; XII.
    The Prayer of Manasses king of Judah; XIII. 1 Maccabee; XIV. 2 Maccabees.
    The primary meaning of apocrypha, "hidden, secret," seems, toward
    the close of the second century to have been associated with the
    signification "spurious," and ultimately to have settled down into the
    latter. The separate books of this collection are treated of in distinct
    articles. Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is
    discussed under CANON OF SCRIPTURE, THE.

  • New Testament Apocrypha -- (A collection of legendary and
    spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles. They are go entirely
    inferior to the genuine books, so full of nonsensical and unworthy stories
    of Christ and the apostles, that they have never been regarded as divine,
    or bound up in our Bibles. It is said that Mohammed obtained his ideas of
    Christ entirely from these spurious gospels. -- ED.)


(belonging to Apollo), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and
Silas passed in their way from Philippi and Amphipolis to Thessalonica.
(Acts 17:1) According to the Antonine Itinerary it was distant 30
Roman miles from Amphipolis and 37 Roman miles from Thessalonica.


(given by Apollo) a Jew from Alexandria, eloquent (which may also
mean learned) and mighty in the Scriptures; one instructed in the
way of the Lord, according to the imperfect view of the disciples of John
the Baptist, (Acts 18:24) but on his coming to Ephesus during a temporary
absence of St. Paul, A.D. 54, more perfectly taught by Aquila and
Priscilla. After this he became a preacher of the gospel, first in Achaia
and then in Corinth. (Acts 18:27; 19:1) When the apostle wrote his First
Epistle to the Corinthians, Apollos was with or near him, (1 Corinthians
16:12) probably at Ephesus in A.D. 57. He is mentioned but once more in
the New Testament, in (Titus 3:13) After this nothing is known of him.
Tradition makes him bishop of Caesarea.


or, as it is literally in the margin of the Authorized Version of
(Revelation 9:11) "a destroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word
ABADDON, "the angel of the bottomless pit." From the occurrence of the
word in (Psalms 88:11) the rabbins have made Abaddon the nethermost of the
two regions into which they divide the lower world; but that in
(Revelation 9:11) Abaddon is the angel and not the abyss is perfectly
evident in the Greek.


(one sent forth), in the New Testament originally the official name
of those twelve of the disciples whom Jesus chose to send forth first to
preach the gospel and to be with him during the course of his ministry on
earth. The word also appears to have been used in a non-official sense to
designate a much wider circle of Christian messengers and teachers See (2
Corinthians 8:23; Philemon 2:25) It is only of those who were officially
designated apostles that we treat in the article. Their names are given in
(Matthew 10:2-4) and Christ's charge to them in the rest of the chapter.
Their office. -- (1) The original qualification of an apostle, as
stated by St. Peter on the occasion of electing a successor to the traitor
Judas, was that he should have been personally acquainted with the whole
ministerial course of our Lord from his baptism by John till the day when
he was taken up into heaven. (2) They were chosen by Christ himself (3)
They had the power of working miracles. (4) They were inspired. (John
16:13) (5) Their world seems to have been pre-eminently that of founding
the churches and upholding them by supernatural power specially bestowed
for that purpose. (6) The office ceased, a matter of course, with its
first holders-all continuation of it, from the very condition of its
existence (cf. (1 Corinthians 9:1)), being impossible. Early history
and training
. -- The apostles were from the lower ranks of life,
simple and uneducated; some of them were related to Jesus according to the
flesh; some had previously been disciples of John the Baptist. Our Lord
chose them early in his public career They seem to have been all on an
equality, both during and after the ministry of Christ on earth. Early in
our Lord's ministry he sent them out two and two to preach repentance and
to perform miracles in his name Matt 10; Luke 9. They accompanied him in
his journey, saw his wonderful works, heard his discourses addressed to
the people, and made inquiries of him on religious matters. They
recognized him as the Christ of God, (Matthew 16:16; Luke 9:20) and
described to him supernatural power (Luke 9:54) but in the recognition of
the spiritual teaching and mission of Christ they made very low progress,
held back as they were by weakness of apprehension and by national
prejudices. Even at the removal of our Lord from the earth they were yet
weak in their knowledge, (Luke 24:21; John 16:12) though he had for so
long been carefully preparing and instructing them. On the feast of
Pentecost, ten days after our Lord's ascension, the Holy Spirit came down
on the assembled church, Acts 2; and from that time the apostles became
altogether different men, giving witness with power of the life and death
and resurrection of Jesus, as he had declared they should. (Luke 24:48;
Acts 1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 13:31) Later labors and history. --
First of all the mother-church at Jerusalem grew up under their hands,
Acts 3-7, and their superior dignity and power were universally
acknowledged by the rulers and the people. (Acts 5:12) ff. Their first
mission out of Jerusalem was to Samaria (Acts 8:5-25) where the Lord
himself had, during his ministry, sown the seed of the gospel. Here ends
the first period of the apostles’ agency, during which its centre is
Jerusalem and the prominent figure is that of St. Peter. The centre of the
second period of the apostolic agency is Antioch, where a church soon was
built up, consisting of Jews and Gentiles; and the central figure of this
and of the subsequent period is St. Paul. The third apostolic period is
marked by the almost entire disappearance of the twelve from the sacred
narrative and the exclusive agency of St. Paul, the great apostle of the
Gentiles. Of the missionary work of the rest of the twelve we know
absolutely nothing from the sacred narrative.


or Ap’paim (the nostrils), son of Nadab, and descended
from Jerahmeel, the founder of an important family of the tribe of Judah.
(1 Chronicles 2:30,31)


The principle, of appeal was recognized by the Mosaic law in the
establishment of a central court under the presidency of the judge or
ruler for the time being, before which all cased too difficult for the
local court were to be tried. (17:8,9) According to the above regulation,
the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge, (Judges 4:5) and
under the monarchy to the king. Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial
authority to a court permanently established for the purpose. (2
Chronicles 19:8) These courts were re-established by Ezra. (Ezra 7:25)
After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. St.
Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercized a right of appeal from the
jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor. (Acts


(fruitful) a Christian woman addressed jointly with Philemon and
Archippus in Phil. 2; apparently a member of Philemon's household, and not
improbably his wife. (A.D. 57)


(market-place of Appius), a well-known station on the Appian Way,
the great road which led from Rome to the neighborhood of the Bay of
Naples. (Acts 28:15) There is no difficulty in identifying the site with
some ruins near Treponti. [THREE TAVERNS TAVERNS, THE THREE]


Revised Version for Appii Forum. (Acts 28:16)


(Heb. tappuach). Mention of the apple tree occurs in the Authorized
Version in (Solomon 2:3; 8:5) and Joel 1:12 The fruit of this tree is
alluded to in (Proverbs 25:11) and Song 2:5; 7:8 It is a difficult matter
to say what is the specific tree denoted by the Hebrew word
tappuach. ("The apple proper is rare in Syria, and its fruit
inferior.") Most modern writers maintain that it is either the quince or
the citron; (others speak of the apricot, which is abundant and
deliciously perfumed.) The quince had some plausible arguments in its
favor. Its fragrance was held in high esteem by the ancients. The quince
was sacred to Venus. On the other hand Dr Royle says,"The rich color,
fragrant odor and handsome appearance of the citron, whether in flower or
in fruit, are particularly suited to the passages of scripture mentioned
above." But neither the quince nor the citron nor the apple appears fully
to answer to all the scriptural allusions. The orange would answer
all the demands of the scriptural passages, and orange trees are found in
Palestine; but there does not appear sufficient evidence that this tree
was known in the earlier times to the inhabitants of Palestine. The
question of identification therefore, must still be left an open one.


(an eagle), a Jew whom St. Paul found at Corinth on his arrival
from Athens. (Acts 18:2) (A.D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had
fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of
Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. He became acquainted with
St. Paul, and they abode together, and wrought at their common trade of
making the Cilician tent or hair-cloth. On the departure of the apostle
from Corinth, a year and eight months after, Priscilla and Aquila
accompanied him to Ephesus. There they remained and there they taught
Apollos. At what time they became Christians is uncertain.


(a city), or Ar of Moab, one of the chief places of Moab. (Numbers
21:28; Isaiah 15:1) In later times the place known as Areopolis and
Rabbath-Moab. The site still called Rabba. It lies about halfway
between Kerak and the Wady Mojeb, 10 or 11 miles from each,
the Roman road passing through it.


(lion), one of the sons of Jether, the head of a family of
Asherites. (1 Chronicles 7:88)


(ambush) a city of Judah in the mountainous district, probably in
the neighborhood of Hebron; mentioned only in (Joshua 15:62)


(burnt up). Although this word appears in the Authorized Version in
its original shape only in (Joshua 18:18) yet in the Hebrew text it is of
frequent occurrence. It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley
or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural
features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of
formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of
) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist
on the surface of the globe. Through the northern portion of this
extraordinary fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes of Huleh and
Gennesaret down its tortuous course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea.
This portion, about 150 miles in length, is known amongst the Arabs by the
name of el-Ghor. The southern boundary of the (Ghor is the wall of
cliffs which crosses the valley about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea. From
their summits, southward to the Gulf of Akabah, the valley changes its
name, or, it would be more accurate to say, retains old name of Wady


(desert, barren), a country known in the Old Testament under two
designations: --

  • The East Country, (Genesis 25:6) or perhaps the East,
    ((Genesis 10:30; Numbers 23:7; Isaiah 2:6) and Land of the Sons of the
    , (Genesis 29:1) Gentile name, Sons of the East, (Judges
    6:3; 7:12; 1 Kings 4:30; Job 1:3; Isaiah 11:14; Jeremiah 49:28; Ezekiel
    25:4) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and
    Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of
    Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and
    that this original signification may have become gradually extended to
    Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict

  • ’Arab and ’Arab, whence Arabia. (2
    Chronicles 9:14; Isaiah 21:13; Jeremiah 26:24; Ezekiel 27:21) (Arabia is a
    triangular peninsula, included between the Mediterranean and Red seas, the
    Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. Its extreme length, north and south, is
    about 1300 miles, and its greatest breadth 1500 miles. -Encyc.
    ) Divisions. -- Arabia may be divided into Arabia
    , containing the whole peninsula as far as the limits of the
    northern deserts; Northern Arabia (Arabia Deserta), constituting
    the great desert of Arabia; and Western Arabia, the desert of
    Petra and the peninsula of Sinai, or the country that has been called
    Arabia Petraea, I. Arabia Proper, or the Arabian
    consists of high tableland, declining towards the north.
    Most of it is well peopled, watered by wells and streams, and enjoys
    periodical rains. The moist fertile tracts are those on the southwest and
    south. II. Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert, is a high,
    undulating, parched plain, of which the Euphrates forms the natural
    boundary from the Persian Gulf to the frontier of Syria, whence it is
    bounded by the latter country and the desert of Petra on the northwest and
    west, the peninsula of Arabia forming its southern limit. It has few
    oases, the water of the wells is generally either brackish or unpotable
    and it is visited by the sand-wind called Samoom. The inhabitants
    principally descended from Ishmael and from Keturah, have always led a
    wandering and pastoral life. They conducted a considerable trade of
    merchandise of Arabia and India from the shore of the Persian Gulf.
    (Ezekiel 27:20-24) III. Western Arabia includes the peninsula of
    Sinai [SINAI] and the desert of Petra; corresponding generally
    with the limits of Arabia Petraea. The latter name is probably derived
    from that of its chief city, not from its stony character. It was mostly
    peopled by descendants of Esau, and was generally known as the land of
    Edom or Idumea [EDOM, IDUMAEA OR IDUMEA], as well as by its older
    appellation, the desert of Seir or Mount Seir. [SEIR] Inhabitants.
    -- (Arabia, which once ruled from India to the Atlantic, now has eight or
    nine millions of inhabitants, about one-fifth of whom are Bedouin or
    wandering tribes, and the other four-fifths settled Arabs. -- Encyc.

  • The descendants of JOKTAN occupied the principal portions of the south
    and southwest of the peninsula, with colonies in the interior. The
    principal Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of ancient Arabia, was
    that of the Yemen.

  • The ISHMAELITES appear to have entered the peninsula from the
    northwest. That they have spread over the whole of it (with the exception
    of one or two districts on the south coast), and that the modern nation is
    predominantly Ishmaelite, is asserted by the Arabs.

  • Of the descendants of KETURAH the Arabs say little. They appear to
    have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from
    Palestine to the Persian Gulf.

  • In northern and western Arabia are other peoples, which, from their
    geographical position and mode of life are sometimes classed with the
    Arabs, of these are AMALEK, the descendants of ESAU, etc.
    (Productions -- The productions are varied. The most noted animal
    is the horse. Camels, sheep, cattle, asses, mules and cats are common.
    Agricultural products are coffee, wheat, barley, millet, beans, pulse,
    dates and the common garden plants. In pasture lands Arabia is peculiarly
    fortunate. In mineral products it is singularly poor, lead being most
    abundant. -- Encyc. Brit.) Religion. -- The most ancient
    idolatry of the Arabs we must conclude to have been fetishism. Magianism,
    an importation from Chaldaea and Persia, must be reckoned among the
    religions of the pagan Arabs; but it never had very numerous followers.
    Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the
    second century, and about a century later it had made great progress. It
    flourished chiefly in the Yemen, where many churches were built. Judaism
    was propagated in Arabia, principally by Karaites, at the captivity. They
    are now nominally Mohammedans. Language. -- Arabic the language of
    Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic languages, and
    the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore,
    of great importance to the study of Hebrew. Government. -- Arabia
    is now under the government of the Ottoman empire.


the nomadic tribes inhabiting the country to the east and south of
Palestine, who in the early times of Hebrew history were known as
Ishmaelites and descendants of Keturah.


(a wild ass), a Benjamite, son of Beriah, who drove out the
inhabitants of Gath. (1 Chronicles 8:15) (B.C. 536.)


a royal city of the Canaanites, named with Hormah and Libnah. (Joshua
12:14) The wilderness of Judah was to the south of Arad." (Judges 1:16) It
may be identified with a hill, Tel ’Arad, an hour and a half
northeast by east from Milh (Moladah), and eight hours from



  • An Asherite, of the sons of Ulla. (1 Chronicles 7:39)

  • The sons of Arah returned with Zerubbabel in number 775 according to
    (Ezra 2:5) but 652 according to (Nehemiah 7:10) (B.C. 536.) One of his
    descendants, Shechaniah, was the father-in-law of Tobiah the Ammonite.
    (Nehemiah 6:18)



  • The name by which the Hebrews designated, generally, the country lying
    to the northeast of Palestine; the great mass of that high tableland
    which, rising with sudden abruptness from the Jordan and the very margin
    of the Lake of Gennesaret, stretched at an elevation of no less than 2000
    feet above the level of the sea, to the banks of the Euphrates itself.
    Throughout the Authorized Version the word is, with only a very few
    exceptions, rendered, as in the Vulgate and LXX., SYRIA. Its earliest
    occurrence in the book of Genesis is in the form of Aram-naharaim,
    i.e. the "highland of or between the two rivers." (Genesis 24:10)
    Authorized Version "Mesopotamia." In the later history we meet with a
    number of small nations or kingdoms forming parts of the general land of
    Aram; but as Damascus increased in importance it gradually absorbed the
    smaller powers, (1 Kings 20:1) and the name of Aram was at last applied to
    it alone. (Isaiah 7:8) also 1Kin 11:24,25; 15:18 etc.

  • Another Aram is named in (Genesis 22:21) as a son of Kemuel and
    descendant of Nahor.

  • An Asherite, one of the sons of Shamer. (1 Chronicles 7:34)

  • Son of Esrom or Hezron, and the Greek form of the Hebrew RAM. (Matthew
    1:3,4; Luke 3:33)


(highlands of two rivers). (Psalms 60:1), title. [ARAM]


Psal 60:1, title. [ARAM, 1]


a female inhabitant of Aram. (1 Chronicles 7:14)


(wild goat), a Horite, son of Dishan and brother of Uz. Genesis
36:28; 1Chr 1:42


(high or holy ground), a mountainous district of Asia mentioned in
the Bible in connection with the following events: -- (1) As the
resting-place of the ark after the deluge. (Genesis 8:4) (2) As the asylum
of the sons of Sennacherib. (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38) Authorized
Version has "the land of Armenia." (3) As the ally, and probably the
neighbor, of Minni and Ashchenaz. (Jeremiah 51:27) [ARMENIA] The name
Ararat was unknown to the geographers of Greece and Rome, as it still is
to the Armenians of the present day; but it was an ancient name for a
portion of Armenia. In its biblical sense it is descriptive generally of
the Armenian highlands -- the lofty plateau which over looks the plain of
the Araxes on the north and of Mesopotomia on the south. Various opinions
have been put forth as to the spot where the ark rested, as described in
(Genesis 8:4) (but it is probable that it rested on some of the lower
portions of the range than on the lofty peak to which exclusively)
Europeans have given the name Ararat, the mountain which is called
Massis by the Armenians, Agri-Dagh, i.e. Steep
, by the Turks, and Kuh-i-Nuh, i.e. Noah's
, by the Persians. It rises immediately out of the plain of
the Araxes, and terminates in two conical peaks, named the Great and Less
Ararat, about seven miles distant from each other; the former of which
attain an elevation of 17,260 feet above the level of the sea and about
14,000 above the plain of the Araxes, while the latter is lower by 4000
feet. The summit of the higher is covered with eternal snow for about 3000
feet. Arguri, the only village known to have been built on its slopes, was
the spot where, according to tradition, Noah planted his vineyard. "The
mountains of Ararat " are co-extensive with the Armenian plateau from the
base of Ararat in the north to the range of Kurdistan in the
south, we notice the following characteristics of that region as
illustrating the Bible narrative; (1) its elevation. It rises to a height
of from 6000 to 7000 feet above the level of the sea. (2) Its
geographical position. Viewed with reference to the dispersion of
the nations, Armenia is the true centre of the world; and at the present
day Ararat is the great boundary-stone between the empires of Russia,
Turkey and Persia. (3) Its physical character. The plains as well
as the mountains supply evidence of volcanic agency. (4) The
. Winter lasts from October to May, and is succeeded by a
brief spring and a summer of intense heat. (5) The vegetation.
Grass grows luxuriantly on the plateau, and furnishes abundant pasture
during the summer months to the flocks of the nomad Kurds. Wheat, barley
and vines ripen at far higher altitudes than on the Alps and the


(ark), a Jebusite who sold his threshing floor on Mount Moriah to
David as a site for an altar to Jehovah, together with his oxen. (2 Samuel
24:18-24; 1 Chronicles 21:25)


(city of the four), the progenitor of the Anakim, or sons of Anak,
from whom their chief city, HEBRON, received its name of Kirjath-Arba.
(Joshua 14:15; 15:13; 21:11)


Hebron, or Kirjath-Arba, as "the city of Arbah" is always rendered
elsewhere. (Genesis 35:27)


a native of the Arabah or Ghor. [ARABAH] Abi-albon the Arbathite
was one of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:31; 1 Chronicles 11:32)


a native of Arab. Paarai the Arbite was one of David's guard. (2 Samuel


A triumphal arch erected at Rome, and still remaining there, to
commemorate the conquest of Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by the
emperor Titus. It was erected after his death, A.D. 91, by the senate and
people of Rome. It was a magnificent structure, decorated with bas-reliefs
and inscriptions, and is of especial interest because its historic
bas-reliefs represent the captors carrying in triumph to Rome the golden
candlestick and sacred utensils from the Jewish temple at Jerusalem. From
these we obtain our best idea of their shape. -- ED.


(prince of the people), son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan
woman, Malthake, and, with his brother Antipas brought up at Rome. At the
death of Herod (B.C. 4) his kingdom was divided between his three sons,
Herod Antipas, Archelaus and Philip. Archelaus never properly bore the
title of king, (Matthew 2:22) but only that of ethnarch. In the tenth year
of his reign, or the ninth according to Dion Cassius, i.e. A.D. 6, a
complaint was preferred against him by his brothers and his subjects on
the ground of his tyranny, in consequence of which he was banished to
Vienne in Gaul, where he is generally said to have died.




perhaps the inhabitants of Erech, some of whom had been placed as
colonists in Samaria. (Ezra 4:9)


(Joshua 16:2) A place in the neighborhood of Bethel, on the boundary
between Ephraim and Benjamin. It designates a clan perhaps originally from
Erech in Babylonia, of which Hushai was one. [ARCHITE, THE]


(master of the horse), a Christian teacher in Colossae, (Colossians
4:17) called by St. Paul his "fellow soldier," Phil 2. He was probably a
member of Philemon's family. (A.D. 62.)


(as if from a place named Erech, on the frontiers of Ephraim), the usual
designation of David's friend Hushai. (2 Samuel 15:32; 17:5,14; 1
Chronicles 27:33)


The book of (Genesis 4:17,20,22) appears to divide mankind into two great
characteristic sections, viz., the "dwellers in tents" and the "dwellers
in cities." To the race of Shem is attributed (Genesis 10:11,12,22;
11:2-9) the foundation of those cities in the plain of Shinar, Babylon
Nineveh and others. The Israelites were by occupation shepherds, and by
habit dwellers in tents. (Genesis 47:3) They had therefore originally,
speaking properly, no architecture. From the time of the occupation of
Canaan they became dwellers in towns and in houses of stone. (Leviticus
14:34,45; 1 Kings 7:10) The peaceful reign and vast wealth of Solomon gave
great impulse to architecture; for besides the temple and his other great
works, he built fortresses and cities in various places, among which
Baalath and Tadmor are in all probability represented by Baalbec and
Palmyra. But the reigns of Herod and his successors were especially
remarkable for their great architectural works. Not only was the temple
restored, but the fortifications and other public buildings of Jerusalem
were enlarged and embellished. (Luke 21:5) The town of Caesarea was built
on the site of Strato's Tower; Samaria was enlarged, and received the name
of Sebaste. Of the original splendor of these great works no doubt can be
entertained; but of their style and appearance we can only conjecture that
they were formed on Greek and Roman models. The enormous stones employed
the Assyrian Persepolitan and Egyptian buildings find a parallel in the
substructions of Baalbec and in the huge blocks which still remain at
Jerusalem, relics of the buildings either of Solomon or of Herod.


(bear-keeper). The Hebrew words ’Ash and
’Aish, rendered "Arcturus" in the Authorized Version of (Job
9:9; 38:32) in conformity with the Vulgate of the former passages are now
generally believed to be identical, and to represent the constellation
Ursa Major, known commonly as the Great Bear or Charles’ Wain.


(one that descending), the son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin.
(Genesis 46:21; Numbers 26:40) In (1 Chronicles 8:3) he is called


the descendants of Ard or Addar, the grandson of Benjamin. (Numbers


(fugitive) a Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, by his wife Azubah.
(1 Chronicles 2:18)


(heroic), a son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16; Numbers 26:17) His
descendants are called Arelites. Numb 26:17.


a member of the court of Areopagus. (Acts 17:31) [MARS HILL’





  • A contemporary of Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 170, and Jason. 2 Macc.

  • The Aretas alluded to by St. Paul (2 Corinthians 11:32) was
    father-in-law of Herod Antipas.


(stony), a tract of country on the east of the Jordan, in Bashan,
the kingdom of Og, containing 60 great and fortified cities. In later
times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now apparently identified with
the Leiah, a very remarkable district south of Damascus and east of the
Sea of Galilee. (Deuteronomy 3:4,13,14)


perhaps a Gileadite officer who was governor of Argob. He was either an
accomplice of Pekah in the murder of Pekahiah or was slain by Pekah. (2
Kings 15:25)


(the strong), ninth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)


sixth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)


(lion). Either one of the accomplices of Pekah in his conspiracy
against Pekahiah, or one of the princes of Pekahiah who was put to death
with him. (2 Kings 15:20) (B.C. 757.)


(lion of God).

  • One of the "chief men" who under Ezra directed the caravan which he
    led back from Babylon to Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:16) (B.C. 459.) The word
    occurs also in reference to two Moabites slain by Benaiah. (2 Samuel
    23:20; 1 Chronicles 11:22) Many regard the word as an epithet,
    "lion-like;" but it seems better to look upon it as a proper name, and
    translate "two [sons] of Ariel."

  • A designation given by Isaiah to the city of Jerusalem. (Isaiah
    29:1,2,7) We must understand by it either "lion of God," as the chief
    city, or "hearth of God," a synonym for the altar of burnt offering. On
    the whole it seems most probable that, as a name given to Jerusalem, Ariel
    means "lion of God," whilst the word used by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 43:15,16)
    means "hearth of God."


(heights). (Matthew 27:57; Luke 23:51; John 19:38) St. Luke calls
it "a city of Judea." It is identified by many with the modern



  • The king of Eliasar, one of the allies of Chedorlaomer in his
    expedition against his rebellious tributaries. (Genesis 14:1) (B.C.

  • The captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard. (Daniel 2:14) etc.

  • Properly Eirioch, or Erioch, mentioned in Judith 1:6
    as king of the Elymaeans.


(lion-like), eighth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)


(the best ruler), a Thessalonian, (Acts 20:4; 27:2) who accompanied
St. Paul on his third missionary journey. (Acts 19:29) He was with the
apostle on his return to Asia, (Acts 20:4) and again, Acts 27:2 On his
voyage to Rome. We trace him afterwards as St. Paul's fellow prisoner in
(Colossians 4:10) and Phle 1:24 Tradition makes him bishop of Apamea.


(the best counsellor), a resident at Rome, some of whose household
are greeted in (Romans 16:10) Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples
and reports that he preached the gospel in Britain.




The first piece of the tabernacle's furniture, for which precise
directions were delivered. Exod 25. I. Description. -- It appears
to have been an oblong chest of shittim (acacia) wood, 2 1/2 cubits long
by 1 1/2 broad and deep. Within and without gold was overlaid on the wood,
and on the upper side or lid, which was edged round about with gold, the
mercy-seat was placed. The ark was fitted with rings, one at each of the
four corners, and through these were passed staves of the same wood
similarly overlaid, by which it was carried by the Kohathites. (Numbers
7:9; 10:21) The ends of the staves were visible without the veil in the
holy place of the temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 8:8) The ark, when
transported, was enveloped in the "veil" of the dismantled tabernacle, in
the curtain of badgers’ skins and in a blue cloth over all, and was
therefore not seen. (Numbers 4:5,20) II. Its purpose was to contain
inviolate the divine autograph of the two tables, that "covenant" from
which it derived its title. It was also probably a reliquary for the pot
of manna and the rod of Aaron. III. History. -- Before David's
time its abode was frequently shifted. It sojourned among several,
probably Levitical, families, (1 Samuel 7:1; 2 Samuel 6:3,11; 1 Chronicles
13:13; 15:24,25) in the border villages of eastern Judah; and did not take
its place in the tabernacle, but dwelt in curtains, i.e. in a separate
tent pitched for it in Jerusalem by David. Subsequently the temple, when
completed, received, in the installation of the ark in its shrine, the
signal of its inauguration by the effulgence of divine glory instantly
manifested. It was probably taken captive or destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar,
2 Esdr. 10:22, so that there was no ark in the second temple.


A small boat or basket made of the papyrus, a reed which grows in the
marshes of Egypt. It was covered with bitumen to make it water tight.


from Arka, one of the families of the Canaanites, (Genesis 10:17;
1 Chronicles 1:16) and from the context evidently located in the north of
Phoenicia. The site which now bears the name of ’Arka lies on
the coast, 2 to 2 1/2 hours from the shore, about 12 miles north of
Tripoli and 5 south of the Nahr el-Kebir.


(the hill or city of Megiddo). (Revelation 16:16) The scene of the
struggle of good and evil is suggested by that battle-field, the plain of
Esdraelon, which was famous for two great victories, of Barak over the
Canaanites and of Gideon over the Midianites; and for two great disasters,
the deaths of Saul and Josiah. Hence it signifies in Revelation a place of
great slaughter, the scene of a terrible retribution upon the wicked. The
Revised Version gives the name as Har-Magedon, i.e. the hill (as
Ar is the city) of Megiddo. -- ED.)


(land of Aram) is nowhere mentioned under that name in the original
Hebrew, though it occurs in the English version, (2 Kings 19:37) for
Ararat. Description. -- Armenia is that lofty plateau whence the
rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Araxes and Acampsis pour down their waters in
different directions; the first two to the Persian Gulf, the last two
respectively to the Caspian and Euxine seas. It may be termed the
nucleus of the mountain system of western Asia. From the centre of
the plateau rise two lofty chains of mountains, which run from east to
west. Divisions. -- Three districts are mentioned in the Bible. (1)
ARARAT is mentioned as the place whither the sons of Sennacherib fled.
(Isaiah 37:38) It was the central district, surrounding the mountain of
that name. (2) MINNI only occurs in (Jeremiah 51:27) It is probably
identical with the district Minyas, in the upper valley of the
Murad-su branch of the Euphrates. (3) TOGARMAH is noticed in two
passages of (Ezekiel 27:14; 38:6) both of which are in favor of its
identity with Armenia. Present condition. -- The Armenians,
numbering about two millions, are nominally Christians. About half of them
live in Armenia. Their favorite pursuit is commerce. The country is
divided, as to government, between Russia, Turkey and Persia. -- ED.


an ornament universal in the East, especially among women; used by princes
as one of the insignia of royalty, and by distinguished persons in
general. The word is not used in the Authorized Version, as even in (2
Samuel 1:10) it is rendered by "the bracelet on his arm."


son of Saul by Rizpah. (2 Samuel 21:8)


The subject naturally divides itself into -- I. Offensive weapons: Arms.
II. Defensive weapons: Armor. I. Offensive weapons. --

  • Apparently the earliest known and most widely used was the Chereb or
    SWORD. Very little can be gathered as to its shape, size, material or mode
    of use. Perhaps if anything is to be inferred it is that the Chereb
    is both a lighter and a shorter weapon than the modern sword. It was
    carried in a sheath, (1 Samuel 17:51; 2 Samuel 20:8; 1 Chronicles 21:27)
    slung by a girdle, (1 Samuel 25:13) and resting upon the thigh, (Psalms
    45:3; Judges 3:16) or upon the hips. (2 Samuel 20:8)

  • Next we have the SPEAR; and of this weapon we meet with at least three
    distinct kinds. A. The Chanith, a "spear," and that of the largest
    kind. It was the weapon of Goliath, (1 Samuel 17:7,45; 2 Samuel 21:19; 1
    Chronicles 20:5) and also of other giants, (2 Samuel 23:21; 1 Chronicles
    11:23) and mighty warriors. (2 Samuel 2:23; 23:18; 1 Chronicles 11:11,20)
    b. Apparently lighter than the preceding was the Cidon or
    "javelin." When not in action the Cidon was carried on the back of
    the warrior, (1 Samuel 17:6) Authorized Version "target." c. Another kind
    of spear was the Romach. In the historical books it occurs in
    (Numbers 25:7) and 1Kin 18:28 And frequently in the later books, as in (1
    Chronicles 12:8) ("buckler"); (2 Chronicles 11:12) (It varied much in
    length, weight and size.) d. The Shelach was probably a lighter
    missile or "dart." see (2 Chronicles 23:10; 32:5) ("darts"); (Nehemiah
    4:17,23) (see margin); (Job 33:18; 36:12; Joel 2:8) e. Shebet, a
    rod or staff, is used once only to denote a weapon. (2 Samuel 18:14)

  • Of missile weapons of offence the chief was undoubtedly the BOW,
    Kesheth. The ARROWS were carried in a quiver. (Genesis 27:3;
    Isaiah 22:6; 49:2; Psalms 127:5) From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would
    seem to have been some times poisoned; and (Psalms 120:4) may point to a
    practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them.

  • The SLING is first mentioned in (Judges 20:16) This simple weapon,
    with which David killed the giant Philistine, was the natural attendant of
    a shepherd. Later in the monarchy, slingers formed part of the regular
    army. (2 Kings 3:25)

  • The BATTLE AXE, (Jeremiah 51:20) a powerful weapon of whose exact form
    we have no knowledge. II. Armor. --

  • The BREASTPLATE, enumerated in the description of the arms of Goliath,
    a "coat of mail," literally a "breastplate of scales." (1 Samuel
    17:5) This word has furnished one of the names of Mount Hermon. See

  • The HABERGEON is mentioned but twice -- in reference to the gown of
    the high priest. (Exodus 28:32; 39:28) It was probably a quilted shirt or

  • The HELMET is referred to in (1 Samuel 17:5; 2 Chronicles 26:14;
    Ezekiel 27:10)

  • (GREAVES) or defences for the feet, made of brass, are named in (1
    Samuel 17:6) only.

  • Two kinds of SHIELD are distinguishable. A. The large shield;
    encompassing, (Psalms 6:12) the whole person. When not in actual conflict
    it was carried before the warrior. (1 Samuel 17:7,41) b. Of smaller
    dimensions was the buckler or target, probably for use in hand-to-hand
    fight. (1 Kings 10:16; 2 Chronicles 9:15,16)


I. JEWISH ARMY. -- Every man above 20 years of age was a soldier, (Numbers
1:3) each tribe formed a regiment, with its own banner and its own leader
(Numbers 2:2; 10:14) their positions in the camp or on the march were
accurately fixed, Numb. 2; the whole army started and stopped at a given
signal, (Numbers 10:5,6) thus they came up out of Egypt ready for the
fight. (Exodus 13:18) On the approach of an enemy a conscription was made
from the general body, under the direction of a muster-master, (20:5; 2
Kings 25:19) by whom also the officers were appointed. (20:9) The army had
then divided into thousands and hundreds under their respective captains,
(Numbers 31:14) and still further into families. (Numbers 2:34; 2
Chronicles 25:5; 26:12) With the king arose the custom of maintaining a
body-guard, which formed the nucleus of a standing army, and David's band
of 600, (1 Samuel 23:13; 25:13) he retained after he became king, and
added the CHERETHITES and PELETHITES. (2 Samuel 15:18; 20:7) David further
organized a national militia, divided into twelve regiments under their
respective officers, each of which was called out for one month in the
year. (1 Chronicles 27:1) ... It does not appear that the system
established by David was maintained by the kings of Judah; but in Israel
the proximity of the hostile kingdom of Syria necessitated the maintenance
of a standing army. The maintenance and equipment of the soldiers at the
public expense dated from the establishment of a standing army. It is
doubtful whether the soldier ever received pay even under the kings. II.
ROMAN EMPIRE ARMY. -- The Roman army was divided into legions, the number
of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni
("chief captains,") (Acts 21:31) who commanded by turns. The legion was
subdivided into ten cohorts ("band,") (Acts 10:1) the cohort into three
maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100
men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according
to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion,
each under the command of a centurion. (Acts 10:1,22; Matthew 8:5; 27:54)
In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers
served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the
Italian, (Acts 10:1) as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The
headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea.


In the received Hebrew text "the sons of Arnan" are mentioned in the
genealogy of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:21)


(Used in the Revised Version for Aram in (Luke 3:33) and is probably
another name or form of the name of Aram. [ARAM, 4])


(roaring), the river or torrent which formed the boundary between
Moab and the Amorites, on the north of Moab, (Numbers 21:13,14,24,26;
Judges 11:22) and afterwards between Moab and Israel (Reuben). (2:24,36;
Deuteronomy 3:8,12,16; 4:48; Joshua 12:1,2; 13:9,16; Judges 11:13,26)
There can be no doubt that the Wady el-Mojeb of the present day is
the Arnon. Its principal source is near Katrane, on the Haj


(a wild ass), a son of Gad, (Numbers 26:17) called ARODI in
(Genesis 46:16)







  • A city on the torrent Arnon, the southern point of the territory of
    Sihon king of the Amorites and afterwards of the tribe of Reuben, (2:36;
    3:12; 4:48; Joshua 12:2; 13:9,16; Judges 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33; 1
    Chronicles 5:8) but later again in possession of Moab. (Jeremiah 48:19) It
    is the modern Ara’ir, upon the very edge of the precipitous
    north bank of the Wady Mojeb.

  • Aroer, "that is ’facing’ Rahbah" (Rabbah of Ammon), a town
    built by and belonging to Gad. (Numbers 32:34; Joshua 13:25; 2 Samuel
    24:5) This is probably the place mentioned in (Judges 11:33) which was
    shown in Jerome's time.

  • Aroer, in (Isaiah 17:2) if a place at all, must be still farther north
    than either of the two already named.

  • A town in Judah, named only in (1 Samuel 30:28) perhaps Wady
    , on the road from Petra to Gaza.


Hothan the Aroerite was the father of two of David's captains. (1
Chronicles 11:44)


(strong city), (Isaiah 36:19; 37:13) a city or district in Syria,
apparently dependent on Damascus. (Jeremiah 49:23) No trace of its
existence has yet been discovered. (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13; Isaiah 10:9)


(stronghold of the Chaldees).

  • The son of Shem and ancestor of Eber. (Genesis 10:22,24; 11:10)

  • Arphaxad, a king "who reigned over the Medes in Ecbatana," Judith
    1:1-4; perhaps the same as Phraortes, who fell in a battle with the
    Assyrians, 633 B.C.




(the great warrior).

  • The first Artaxerxes is mentioned in (Ezra 4:7) and appears identical
    with Smerdis, the Magian impostor and pretended brother of Cambyses, who
    usurped the throne B.C. 522, and reigned eight months.

  • In (Nehemiah 2:1) we have another Artaxerxes. We may safely identify
    him with Artaxerxes Macrocheir or Longimanus, the son of Xerxces, who
    reigned B.C. 464-425.


(gift of Artemis), a companion of St. Paul. (Titus 3:12) According
to tradition he was bishop of Lystra.


(windows), the third of Solomons commissariat districts. (1 Kings
4:10) It included Sochoh, and was therefore probably a name for the rich
corn-growing lowland country.


(height), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Shechem, at
which Abimelech resided. (Judges 9:41)


(wandering) (Ezekiel 27:8,11) The island of Ruad, which
lies off Tortosa (Tartus), two or three miles from the Phoenician
coast. In agreement with this is the mention of "the Arvadite, in (Genesis
10:18) and 1Chr 1:16 As a son of Canaan, with Zidon, Hamath an other
northern localities.




prefect of the palace at Tirzah to Elah king of Israel, who was
assassinated at a banquet in his house by Zimri. (1 Kings 16:9)


(physician, or cure).

  • Son of Abijah and third king of Judah. (B.C. 956-916.) (His long reign
    of 41 years was peaceful in its earlier portion, and he undertook the
    reformation of all abuses, especially of idolatry. He burnt the symbol of
    his grandmother Maachah's religion and deposed her from the dignity of
    "king's mother,") and renewed the great altar which the idolatrous priests
    apparently had desecrated. (2 Chronicles 15:8) Besides this he fortified
    cities on his frontiers, and raised an army, amounting, according to (2
    Chronicles 14:8) to 580,000 men, a number probably exaggerated by an error
    of the copyist. During Asa's reign, Zerah, at the head of an enormous
    host, (2 Chronicles 14:9) attacked Mareshah. There he was utterly
    defeated, and driven back with immense loss to Gerar. The peace which
    followed this victory was broken by the attempt of Baasha of Israel to
    fortify Ramah. To stop this Asa purchased the help of Benhadad I. king of
    Damascus, by a large payment of treasure, forced Baasha to abandon his
    purpose, and destroyed the works which he had begun at Ramah. In his old
    age Asa suffered from gout, He died, greatly loved and honored, in the
    41st year of his reign.

  • Ancestor of Berechiah a Levite who resided in one of the villages of
    the Netophathites after the return from Babylon. (1 Chronicles 9:16)


(made by God).

  • Nephew of David, being the youngest son of his sister Zeruiah. He was
    celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting under his brother Joab
    at Gibeon, he pursued Abner, who was obliged to kill him in self-defence.
    (2 Samuel 2:18) ff. [ABNER] (B.C. 1050.)

  • One of the Levites in the reign of Jehoshaphat, who went throughout
    the cities of Judah to instruct the people in the knowledge of the law. (2
    Chronicles 17:8) (B.C. 910.)

  • A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah, who had charge of the tithes and
    dedicated things in the temple. (2 Chronicles 31:13) (B.C. 927.)

  • A priest, father of Jonathan, in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:15) He is
    called AZAEL in 1Esd 9:14. (B.C. before 459.)


(the Lord hath made), a servant of King Josiah, sent by him to seek
information of Jehovah respecting the book of the law which Hilkiah found
in the temple, (2 Kings 22:12,14) also called ASAIAH. (2 Chronicles 34:20)
(B.C. 641.)


(the Lord hath made).

  • A prince of one of the families of the Simeonites in the reign of
    Hezekiah. (1 Chronicles 4:36) (B.C. 910.)

  • A Levite in the reign of David, chief of the family of Merari. (1
    Chronicles 6:30) With 120 of his brethren he took part in bringing the ark
    from the house of Obed-edom to the city of David. (1 Chronicles

  • The first-born of "the Shilonite," from Shiloni, (1 Chronicles 9:5)
    who with his family dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon.
    (B.C. 536.) In (Nehemiah 11:5) he is called MAASEIAH.

  • (2 Chronicles 34:20) [ASAHIAH]


(collector of the people).

  • A Levite, son of Berechiah, one of the leaders of David's choir. (1
    Chronicles 6:39) Psalms 50 and 73-83 are attributed to him; and he was in
    after times celebrated as a seer as well as a musical composer. (2
    Chronicles 29:30; Nehemiah 12:46) (B.C. 1050.)

  • The father or ancestor of Joah, the chronicler to the kingdom of Judah
    in the reign of Hezekiah, (2 Kings 18:18,37; Isaiah 36:3,22) probably the
    same as the preceding.

  • The keeper of the royal forest or "paradise" of Artaxerxes, (Nehemiah
    2:8) a Jew, in high office at the court of Persia. (B.C. 536.)

  • Ancestor of Mattaniah, the conductor of the temple-choir after the
    return from Babylon. (1 Chronicles 9:16; Nehemiah 11:17) Most probably the
    same as 1 and 2.


(A school of poetry and musical composers founded by Asaph.)


(whom God hath bound (by an oath)), a son of Jehaleleel, in the
genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:16)


(upright toward God), one of the sons of Asaph, a musician, (1
Chronicles 25:2) called JESHARELAH in ver. 14




(worshipper of Neith), daughter of Potipherah, priest, or possibly
prince, of On [POTIPHERAH], wife of Joseph, (Genesis 41:45)
and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. (Genesis 41:50; 46:20) (B.C.


(Luke 2:36; Revelation 7:6) [ASHER, ASHER]


(Heb. oren), only in (Isaiah 44:14) As the true ash is not a native
of Palestine, some understand this to be a species of pine tree. Perhaps
the larch (Laryx europaea) may be intended.


(smoke), a city in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42) In
(Joshua 19:7) and 1Chr 4:32 It is mentioned again as belonging to Simeon.
It has not yet been identified.


(I adjure), a proper name, but whether of a person or place is
uncertain. (1 Chronicles 4:21)


(reproof of God), second son of Benjamin and ancestor of the
Ashbelites. (Genesis 46:21; Numbers 26:38; 1 Chronicles 8:1)


(1 Chronicles 1:6; Jeremiah 51:27) [ASHKENAZ]


(a stronghold), (Acts 8:40) one of the five confederate cities of
the Philistines situated about 30 miles from the southern frontier of
Palestine, three from the Mediterranean Sea, and nearly midway between
Gaza and Joppa. It was assigned to the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 15:47) but
was never subdued by the Israelites. Its chief importance arose from its
position on the high road from Palestine to Egypt. It is now an
insignificant village, with no memorials of its ancient importance, but is
still called Esdud.


the inhabitants of Ashdod, (Nehemiah 4:7) called Ashdothites in (Joshua


(3:17; Joshua 12:3; 13:20) and in Deuteronomy 4:49 Authorized Version,
translated springs of Pisgah, i.e. a valley or fountain near Mount


Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser (blessed), the eighth son
of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid. (Genesis 30:13) (B.C. 1753.) The
general position of his tribe was on the seashore from Carmel northward
with Manasseh on the south, Zebulun and Issachar on the southeast, and
Naphtali on the north-east. (Joshua 19:24-31; 17:10,11) and Judg 1:31,32
They possessed the maritime portion of the rich plain of Esdraelon;,
probably for a distance of 8 or 10 miles from the shore. This territory
contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine.


a place which formed one boundary of the tribe of Manasseh on the south.
(Joshua 17:7) Mr. Porter suggests that Teyasir may be the Asher of
Manasseh. Handbook, p.348.


(straight), the name of a Phoenician goddess, or rather of the idol
itself (Authorized Version "grove"). Asherah is closely connected with
ASHTORETH and her worship, (Judges 3:7) comp. Judg 2:3; 6:25; 1Kin 18:19
Ashtoreth being, perhaps, the proper name of the goddess, whilst Asherah
is the name of her image or symbol, which was of wood. See (Judges
6:25-30; 2 Kings 23:14)


descendants of Asher, and members of his tribe. (Judges 1:32)


The ashes on the altar of burnt offering were gathered into a cavity in
its surface. The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire, according to
regulations prescribed in Numb. 19, had the ceremonial efficacy of
purifying the unclean, (Hebrews 9:13) but of polluting the clean.
[SACRIFICE] Ashes about the person, especially on the head, were used as a
sign of sorrow. [MOURNING]


a god of the Hamathite colonists in Samaria. (2 Kings 17:30) It has been
regarded as identical with the Pan of the Greeks.


Apocrypha As’calon (migration), one of the five cities
of the Philistines, (Joshua 113:3; 1 Samuel 6:17) a seaport on the
Mediterranean, 10 miles north of Gaza. Samson went down from Timnath to
Ashkelon. (Judges 14:19) In the post-biblical times Ashkelon rose to
considerable importance. Near the town were the temple and sacred lake of
Derceto, the Syrian Venus. The soil around was remarkable for its
fertility. Ashkelon played a memorable part in the struggles of the


(spreading fire), one of the three sons of Gomer, son of Japhet.
(Genesis 10:3) We may probably recognize the tribe of Ashkenaz on the
northern shore of Asia Minor in the name of Lake Ascanius, and in Europe
in the name Scandia, Scandinavia. Knobel considers that Ashkenaz
is to be identified with the German race.


the name of two cities, both in the lowlands of Judah: (1) named between
Zoreah and Zanoah, and therefore probably northwest of Jerusalem, (Joshua
15:33) and (2) between Jiptah and Nezib, and therefore to the southwest of
Jerusalem. (Joshua 15:43) Each, according, to Robinson's map (1857), would
be about 16 miles from Jerusalem.


(horse-nose), the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar. (Daniel


properly As’riel (vow of God). (1 Chronicles 7:14)


and once As’taroth (a star), a city on the east of
Jordan in Bashan, in the kingdom of Og, doubtless so called from being a
seat of the worship of the goddess of the same name. (1:4; Joshua 9:10;
12:4; 13:12)


a native or inhabitant of Ashtaroth, (1 Chronicles 11:44) beyond


(Ashteroth of the two horns or peaks) a place of very great
antiquity, the abode of the Rephaim. (Genesis 14:5) The name reappears but
once, as Carnaim or Carnion, 1 Macc. 5:26,43,44; 2 Macc. 12:21,26, in "the
land of Galaad." It is probably the modern Es-Sanamein, on the Haj
route, about 25 miles south of Damascus.


(a star) the principal female divinity of the Phoenicians, called
Ishtar by the Assyrians and Astarte by the Greeks and Romans. She was by
some ancient writers identified with the moon. But on the other hand the
Assyrian Ishtar was not the moon-goddess, but the planet Venus; and
Astarte was by many identified with the goddess Venus (or Aphrodite), as
well as with the plant of that name. It is certain that the worship of
Astarte became identified with that of Venus, and that this worship was
connected with the most impure rites is apparent from the close connection
of this goddess with ASHERAH. (1 Kings 11:5,33; 2 Kings 23:13)


(black), the posthumous son of Hezron by his wife Abiah. (1
Chronicles 2:24; 4:5) He became "father" or founder of the town of Tekoa.
(B.C. 1658.)


Only in (2 Samuel 2:9) By some of the old interpreters the name is taken
as meaning the Geshurites; but if we follow the Targum of Jonathan, "the
Asherites" will denote the inhabitants of the whole of the country west of
the Jordan above Jez-reel.


One of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:33)


(orient). The passages in the New Testament where this word occurs
are the following; (Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22,26,27; 20:4,16,18;
21:27; 27:2; Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2
Timothy 1:15; 1 Peter 1:1; Revelation 1:4,11) In all these it may be
confidently stated that the word is used for a Roman province which
embraced the western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor and of which
Ephesus was the capital.


(chief of Asia) (Authorized Version; (Acts 19:31)), officers chosen
annually by the cities of that part of the province of Asia of which
Ephesus was, under Roman government, the metropolis. They had charge of
the public games and religious theatrical spectacles, the expenses of
which they bore.


(created by God).

  • A Simeonite whose descendant Jehu lived in the reign of Hezekiah. (1
    Chronicles 4:35)

  • One of the five swift writers whom Esdras was commanded to take to
    write the law and the history of the world. 2 Esd. 14:24.


(thorn-bush). The children of Asnah were among the Nethinim who
returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:50)


(swift), mentioned in (Ezra 4:10) as the person who settled the
Cutheans in the cities of Samaria. He was probably a general of
Esarhaddon. (B.C. 712.)


(Heb. pethen), translated (adder in) (Psalms 58:4; 91:13)
Probably the Egyptian cobra, a small and very poisonous serpent, a dweller
in the holes of walls, (Isaiah 11:8) and a snake upon which the
serpent-charmers practiced their art.


the name of some sweet perfume mentioned in Ecclus. 24:15. The Lignum
, is by some supposed to be the substance indicated by the
aspalathus, the plant which yields it is the Convolvulus scoparius
if Linnaeus.


third son of Haman. (Esther 9:7)


the pool in the "wilderness of Thecoe." 1 Macc. 9:33. Is it possible that
the name is a corruption of lacus Asphaltites?


the son of Gilead and great-grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 26:31; Joshua
17:2) He was the founder of the family of the Asrielites. (B.C. 1444.)


Five Hebrew names of the genus Asinus occur in the Old Testament.

  • Chamor denotes the male domestic ass.

  • Athon, the common domestic she-ass.

  • Air, the name of a wild ass, which occurs (Genesis 32:15;

  • Pere, a species of wild ass mentioned (Genesis 12:16)

  • Arod occurs only in (Job 39:5) but in what respect it differs
    from the Pere is uncertain. The ass in eastern countries is a very
    different animal from what he is in western Europe. The most noble and
    honorable amongst the Jews were wont to be mounted on asses. (With us the
    ass is a symbol of stubbornness and stupidity, while in the East it is
    especially remarkable for its patience, gentleness, intelligence, meek
    submission and great power of endurance." -- L. Abbott. The color is
    usually a reddish brown, but there are white asses, which are much prized.
    The ass was the animal of peace as the horse was the animal of war; hence
    the appropriateness of Christ in his triumphal entry riding on an ass. The
    wild ass is a beautiful animal. -- ED.) Mr. Lavard remarks that in
    fleetness the wild ass (Asinus hemippus) equals the gazelle and to
    overtake it is a feat which only one or two of the most celebrated mares
    have been known to accomplish.


second son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) also the Hebrew form for Assyria.


(steps), a tribe descended from Dedan, the grandson of Abraham.
(Genesis 26:3) Knobel considers them the same with the Asshur of (Ezekiel
27:28) and connected with southern Arabia.



  • Son of Korah. (Exodus 6:24; 1 Chronicles 6:22)

  • Son of Ebiasaph, and a forefather of Samuel (1 Chronicles

  • Son of Jeconiah, (1 Chronicles 3:17) unless "Jeconiah the captive" be
    the true rendering.


(approaching), a seaport of the Roman province of Asia in the
district anciently called Mysia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of
Adrn-myttium, and about seven miles from Lesbos. (Acts 20:13,14)


(Ezra 4:2; Psalms 83:8) [ASSHUR, ASSYRIA, ASSHUR; ASSYRIA]


was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14) the
capital of which was Nineveh. (Genesis 10:11) etc. It derived its name
apparently from Asshur, the son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) who in later
times was worshipped by the Assyrians as their chief god.

  • Extent. -- The boundaries of Assyria differed greatly at
    different periods, Probably in the earliest times it was confined to a
    small tract of low country lying chiefly on the left bank of the Tigris.
    Gradually its limits were extended, until it came to be regarded as
    comprising the whole region between the Armenian mountains (lat. 37
    30’) upon the north, and upon the south the country about Baghdad
    (lat. 33 30’). Eastward its boundary was the high range of Zagros,
    or mountains of Kurdistan; westward it was, according to the views
    of some, bounded by the Mesopotamian desert, while according to others it
    reached the Euphrates.

  • General character of the country. -- On the north and east the
    high mountain-chains of Armenia and Kurdistan are succeeded by low ranges
    of limestone hills of a somewhat arid aspect. To these ridges there
    succeeds at first an undulating zone of country, well watered and fairly
    productive, which extends in length for 250 miles, and is interrupted only
    by a single limestone range. Above and below this barrier is an immense
    level tract, now for the most part a wilderness, which bears marks of
    having been in early times well cultivated and thickly peopled

  • Original peopling. -- Scripture informs us that Assyria was
    peopled from Babylon, (Genesis 10:11) and both classical tradition and the
    monuments of the country agree in this representation.

  • Date of the foundation of the kingdom. -- As a country, Assyria
    was evidently known to Moses. (Genesis 2:14; 25:18; Numbers 24:22,24) The
    foundation of the Assyrian empire was probably not very greatly anterior
    to B.C. 1228.

  • History. -- The Mesopotamian researches have rendered it
    apparent that the original seat of government was not at Nineveh, but at
    Kileh-Sherghat, on the right bank of the Tigris. The most remarkable
    monarch of the earlier kings was called Tiglath-pileser. He appears to
    have been king towards the close of the twelfth century, and thus to have
    been contemporary with Samuel. Afterwards followed Pul, who invaded Israel
    in the reign of Menahem (2 Kings 15:29) about B.C. 770, and Shalmaneser
    who besieged Samaria three years, and destroyed the kingdom of Israel B.C.
    721, himself or by his successor Sargon, who usurped the throne at that
    time. Under Sargon the empire was as great as at any former era, and
    Nineveh became a most beautiful city. Sargon's son Sennacherib became the
    most famous of the Assyrian kings. He began to reign 704 B.C. He invaded
    the kingdom of Judea in the reign of Hezekiah. He was followed by
    Esarhaddon, and he by a noted warrior and builder, Sardanapalus. In
    Scripture it is remarkable that we hear nothing of Assyria after the reign
    of Esarhaddon, and profane history is equally silent until the attacks
    began which brought about her downfall. The fall of Assyria, long
    previously prophesied by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:5-19) was effected by the
    growing strength and boldness of the Medes, about 625 B.C. The prophecies
    of Nahum and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15) against Assyria were probably
    delivered shortly before the catastrophe.

  • General character of the empire. -- The Assyrian monarchs bore
    sway over a number of petty kings through the entire extent of their
    dominions. These native princes were feudatories of the great monarch, of
    whom they held their crown by the double tenure of homage and tribute. It
    is not quite certain how far Assyria required a religious conformity from
    the subject people. Her religion was a gross and complex polytheism,
    comprising the worship of thirteen principal and numerous minor
    divinities, at the head of all of whom stood the chief god, Asshur, who
    seems to be the deified patriarch of the nation. (Genesis 10:22)

  • Civilization of the Assyrians. -- The civilization of the
    Assyrians was derived originally from the Babylonians. They were a
    Shemitic race originally resident in Babylonia (which at that time was
    Cushite) and thus acquainted with the Babylonian inventions and
    discoveries, who ascended the valley of the Tigris and established in the
    tract immediately below the Armenian mountains a separate and distinct
    nationality. Still, as their civilization developed it became in many
    respects peculiar. Their art is of home growth. But they were still in the
    most important points barbarians. Their government was rude and
    inartificial, their religion coarse and sensual, and their conduct of war

  • Modern discoveries in Assyria. -- (Much interest has been
    excited in reference to Assyria by the discoveries lately made there,
    which confirm and illustrate the Bible. The most important of them is the
    finding of the stone tablets or books which formed the great library at
    Nineveh, founded by Shalmaneser B.C. 860, but embodying tablets written
    2000 years B.C. This library was more than doubled by Sardanapalus. These
    tablets were broken into fragments, but many of them have been put
    together and deciphered by the late Mr. George Smith, of the British
    Museum. All these discoveries of things hidden for ages, but now come to
    light, confirm the Bible. -- ED.)






(1 Chronicles 26:15,17) literally house of the gatherings. Some understand
it as the proper name of chambers on the south of the temple others of
certain store-rooms, or of the council chambers in the outer court of the
temple in which the elders held their celebrations.


(incomparable), a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul. (Romans


(thorn), The threshing-floor of, called also Abel-mizraim,
(Genesis 50:10,11) afterwards called Beth-hogla, and known to have lain
between the Jordan and Jericho, therefore on the west side of Jordan.


(a crown) a wife of Jerahmeel, and mother of Onam. (1 Chronicles



  • One of the towns in the "land of Jazer and land of Gilead," (Numbers
    32:3) east of the Jordan, taken and built by the tribe of Gad. (Numbers

  • A place on the (south?) boundary of Ephraim and Manasseh. (Joshua
    16:2,7) It is impossible to say whether Ataroth is or is not the same
    place as

  • ATAROTH-ADAR, or -ADDAR, on the west border of Benjamin, "near the
    ’mountain’ that is on the south side of the nether
    Beth-horon." (Joshua 16:5; 18:13) Perhaps the modern Atara, six miles
    northeast of Bethel.

  • "ATAROTH, THE HOUSE OF JOAB," a place(?) occurring in the list of the
    descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:54)


(shut up).

  • The children of Ater were among the porters or gate-keepers of the
    temple who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45)

  • The children of ATER OF HEZEKIAH to the number of 98 returned with
    Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:16; Nehemiah 7:21) and were among the heads of the
    people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17)


(lodging place). (1 Samuel 30:30) As the name does not occur
elsewhere, it has been suggested that it is an error of the transcriber
for Ether, a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42)


(whom Jehovah made), a descendant of Pharez, the son of Judah, who
dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:4) called
UTHAI in (1 Chronicles 9:4)


(afflicted of the Lord) daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married
Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah and introduced into that
kingdom the worship of Baal. (B.C. 891.) After the great revolution by
which Jehu seated himself on the throne of Samaria she killed all the
members of the royal family of Judah who had escaped his sword. (2 Kings
11:1) From the slaughter one infant, named Joash, the youngest son of
Ahaziah, was rescued by his aunt Jehosheba wife of Jehoiada, (2 Chronicles
23:11) the high priest. (2 Chronicles 24:6) The child was brought up under
Jehoiada's care, and concealed in the temple for six years, during which
period Athaliah reigned over Judah. At length Jehoiada thought it time to
produce the lawful king to the people, trusting to their zeal for the
worship of God and their loyalty to the house of David. His plan was
successful, and Athaliah was put to death.


natives of Athens (Acts 17:21)


(city of Athene), the capital of Attica, and the chief seat of
Grecian learning and civilization during the golden period of the history
of Greece. Description -- Athens is situated about three miles from
the seacoast, in the central plain of Attica. In this plain rise several
eminences Of these the most prominent is a lofty insulated mountain with a
conical peaked Summit, now called the Hill of St. George, and which bore
in ancient times the name of Lycabettus. This mountain, which was
not included within the ancient walls, lies to the northeast of Athens,
and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to
Athens what Vesuvius is to Naples, or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh Southwest
of Lycabettua there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed
part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus and at the distance
of a mile from the latter, was the Aeropolis, or citadel of
Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat
summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from
north to south. Immediately west of the Aeropolis is a second hill of
irregular form, the Areopagus (Mars’ Hill). To the southwest
there rises a third hill, the Pnyx, on which the assemblies of the
citizens were held. South of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the
harbors of Athens. History. -- Athens is said to have derived its
name from the prominence given to the worship of the goddess Athena
(Minerva) by its king, Erechtheus. The inhabitants were previously called
Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to tradition, was the original
founder of the city. This at first occupied only the hill or rock which
afterwards became the Acropolis; but gradually the buildings spread over
the ground at the southern foot of this hill. It was not till the time of
Pisistratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the city began to assume any
degree of splendor. The most remarkable building of these despots was the
gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus or Jupiter. Under Themistocles the
Acropolis began to form the centre of the city, round which the new walls
described an irregular circle of about 60 stadia or 7 1/4 miles in
circumference. Themistocles transferred the naval station of the Athenians
to the peninsula of Piraeus, which is distant about 4 1/2 miles from
Athens, and contains three natural harbors. It was not till the
administration of Pericles that the walls were built which connected
Athens with her ports. Buildings. -- Under the administration of
Pericles, Athens was adorned with numerous public buildings, which existed
in all their glory when St. Paul visited the city. The Acropolis was the
centre of the architectural splendor of Athens. It was covered with the
temples of gods and heroes; and thus its platform presented not only a
sanctuary, but a museum containing the finest productions of the architect
and the sculptor, in which the whiteness of the marble was relieved by
brilliant colors, and rendered still more dazzling by the transparent
clearness of the Athenian atmosphere. The chief building was the
Parthenon (i.e. House of the Virgin), the most perfect production
of Grecian architecture. It derived its name from its being the temple of
Athena Parthenos, or Athena the Virgin, the invincible goddess of war. It
stood on the highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre. It was
entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone,
and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of the purest
kind. It was adorned with the most exquisite sculptures, executed by
various artists under the direction of Phidias. But the chief wonder of
the Parthenon was the colossal statue of the virgin goddess executed by
Phidias himself: The Acropolis was adorned with another colossal figure of
Athena, in bronze, also the work of Phidias. It stood in the open air,
nearly opposite the Propylaea. With its pedestal it must have been about
70 feet high, and consequently towered above the roof of the Parthenon, so
that the point of its spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off
the promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. The Areopagus
, or Hill of Ares (Mars), is described elsewhere. [MARS HILL’ HILL]
The Pnyx, or place for holding the public assemblies of the Athenians,
stood on the side of a low rocky hill, at the distance of about a quarter
of a mile from the Areopagus. Between the Pnyx on the west) the Areopagus
on the north and the Acropolis on the east, and closely adjoining the base
of these hills, stood the Agora or "Market," where St. Paul disputed
daily. Through it ran the road to the gymnasium and gardens of the
Academy, which were situated about a mile from the walls. The
Academy was the place where Plato and his disciples taught. East of the
city, and outside the walls was the Lyceum, a gymnasium dedicated to
Apollo Lyceus, and celebrated as the place in which Aristotle taught.
Character. -- The remark of the sacred historian respecting the
inquisitive character of the Athenians (Acts 17:21) is attested by the
unanimous voice of antiquity. Their natural liveliness was partly owing to
the purity and clearness of the atmosphere of Attica, which also allowed
them to pass much of their time in the open air. The Athenian carefulness
in religion is confirmed by the ancient writers. Of the Christian church,
founded by St. Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical tradition,
Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. [DIONYSIUS] Present
-- (The population of Athens in 1871 was 48,000. Its
university has 52 professors and 1200 students. Educational institutions
are very numerous. A railway connects the Pirzeus or port with the city
and its terminus stands in the midst of what was once the Agora. --


(whom Jehovah afflicts), one of the sons of Bebai, who put away his
foreign wife at the exhortation of Ezra. (Ezra 10:28)


I. The great day of national humiliation, and the only one commanded in
the Mosaic law. [FASTS] The mode of its observance is described in Levi
16, and the conduct of the people is emphatically enjoined in (Leviticus
23:26-32) II. Time. -- It was kept on the tenth day of Tisri, that
is, from the evening of the ninth to the evening of the tenth of that
month, five days before the feast of tabernacles. Tisri corresponds to our
September-October, so that the 10th of Tisri would be about the first of
October. [FESTIVALS] III. How observed. -- It was kept by the
people as a high solemn sabbath. On this occasion only the high priest was
permitted to enter into the holy of holies. Having bathed his person and
dressed himself entirely in the holy white linen garments, he brought
forward a young bullock for a sin offering, purchased at his own cost, on
account of himself and his family, and two young goats for a sin offering,
with a ram for a burnt offering, which were paid for out of the public
treasury, on account of the people. He then presented the two goats before
the Lord at the door of the tabernacle and cast lots upon them. On one lot
"For Jehovah " was inscribed, and on the other "For Azazel
." A phrase of unusual difficulty. The best modern scholars agree that it
designates the personal being to whom the goat was sent, probably
Satan. This goat was called the scapegoat. After various
sacrifices and ceremonies the goat upon which the lot "For Jehovah
" had fallen was slain and the high priest sprinkled its blood before the
mercy-seat in the same manner as he had done that of the bullock. Going
out from the holy of holies he purified the holy place, sprinkling some of
the blood of both the victims on the altar of incense. At this time no one
besides the high priest was suffered to be present in the holy place. The
purification of the holy of holies and of the holy place being thus
completed, the high priest laid his hands upon the head of the goat on
which the lot "For Azazel " had fallen and confessed over it all
the sins of the people. The goat was then led, by a man chosen for the
purpose, into the wilderness, into "a land not inhabited," and was there
let loose. The high priest after this returned into the holy place bathed
himself again, put on his usual garments of office, and offered the two
rams as burnt offerings, one for himself and one for the people. IV.
Significance. In considering the I. meaning of the particular rites
of the day, three points appear to be of a very distinctive character.

  • The white garments of the high priest.

  • His entrance into the holy of holies.

  • The scapegoat. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Hebrews
    9:7-25) teaches us to apply the first two particulars. The high priest
    himself, with his person cleansed and dressed in white garments, was the
    best outward type which a living man could present in his own person of
    that pure and holy One who was to purify his people and to cleanse them
    from their sins. But respecting the meaning of the scapegoat we have no
    such light to guide us, and the subject is one of great doubt and
    difficulty. It has been generally considered that it was dismissed to
    signify the carrying away of the sins of the people, as it were, out of
    the sight of Jehovah. If we keep in view that the two goats are spoken of
    as parts of one and the same sin offering, we shall not have much
    difficulty in seeing that they form together but one symbolical
    expression; the slain goat setting forth the act of sacrifice, in giving
    up its own life for others "to Jehovah;" and the goat which carried off
    its load of sin "for complete removal" signifying the cleansing influence
    of faith in that sacrifice.


(crowns), a city of Gad. (Numbers 32:35)



  • Grandson of Sheshan the Jerahmeelite through his daughter Ahlai, whom
    he gave in marriage to Jarha, his Egyptian slave. (1 Chronicles 2:35,36)
    His grandson Zabad was one of David's mighty men. (1 Chronicles

  • One of the lion-faced warriors of Gad, captains of the host, who
    forded the Jordan at the time of its overflow and joined David in the
    wilderness. (1 Chronicles 12:11) (B.C. 1060.)

  • Second son of King Rehoboam by Maachah the daughter of Absalom. (2
    Chronicles 11:20) (B.C. 975.)


(from Attalus), a coast-town of Pamphylia, mentioned (Acts 14:25)
It was built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, and named after
the monarch. All its remains are characteristic of the date of its
foundation. Leake fixes Attalia at Adalia, on the south court of
Asia Minor, north of the Duden Su, the ancient Catarrhactes.


(venerable) Cae'sar, the first Roman emperor. He was born
A.U.C. 691, B.C. 63. His father was Caius Octavius; his mother Atia,
daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius Caesar. He was principally
educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After
his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was
taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal
of the latter, divided the empire with Antony. The struggle for the
supreme power was terminated in favor of Octavianus by the battle of
Actium, B.C. 31. On this victory he was saluted imperator by the senate,
who conferred on him the title Augustus, B.C. 27. The first link binding
him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of
Actium. That prince, who had espoused Antony's side, found himself
pardoned, taken into favor and confirmed, nay even increased, in his
power. After Herod's death, in A.D. 4, Augustus divided his dominions,
almost exactly according to his dying directions, among his sons. Augustus
died in Nola in Campania, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767, A.D. 14, in his 76th year;
but long before his death he had associated Tiberius with him in the


(Acts 27:1) [ARMY]


(ruin), a place in the empire of Assyria, apparently the same as
Ivan. (2 Kings 17:24)



  • The "plain of Aven" is mentioned by (Amos 1:5) in his denunciation of
    Syria and the country to the north of Palestine. This Aven is by some
    supposed to be the once magnificent Heiropolis, "city of I the sun," now
    Baalbek (Bal’bek) of Coele-Syria, whose ruins are one of the wonders
    of the ages. It was situated in a plain near the foot of the Anti-Libanus
    range of mountains, 42 miles northwest of Damascus. It is famous for the
    colossal ruins of its temples, one of which with its courts and porticos,
    extended over 1000 feet in length. The temples were built of marble or
    limestone and granite. Some of the columns were 7 feet in diameter and 62
    feet high, or including capital and pedestal, 89 feet. Some of the
    building-stones were 64 feet long and 12 feet thick. The temples are of
    Roman origin.

  • In (Hosea 10:8) the word is clearly an abbreviation of Bethaven, that
    is, Bethel. Comp. (Hosea 4:15) etc.

  • The sacred city of Heliopolis or On, in Egypt. (Ezekiel 30:17)


(ruins), A’vims or A’vites.

  • A people among the early inhabitants of Palestine, whom we meet with
    in the southwest corner of the seacoast, whither they may have made their
    way north-ward from the desert, (2:23) probably the same as the

  • The people of Avva, among the colonists who were sent by the king of
    Assyria to reinhabit the depopulated cities of Israel. (2 Kings


(ruins), the city of Hadad ben-Bedad, one of the kings of Edom
before there were kings in Israel. (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46)


a tool of which we do not know the ancient form. The only notice of it is
in connection with the custom of boring the ear of the slave. (Exodus
21:6; 15:17)


a name only occurring in (Zechariah 14:5) It is mentioned as the limit to
which the ravine of the Mount of Olives will extend when "Jehovah shall go
forth to fight."


(whom the Lord reserved), the father of Shaphan the scribe in the
reign of Josiah. (2 Kings 22:3; 2 Chronicles 34:8) (B.C. before 641.)


(whom the Lord hears), the father or immediate ancestor of Jeshua
the Levite, in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:9)


a Levite musician. (Nehemiah 12:36)


(whom the Lord helps).

  • A Korhite who joined David in his retreat at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles
    12:6) (B.C. 1060.)

  • A Levite musician of the family of Heman in the time of David, (1
    Chronicles 25:18) called UZZIEL in (1 Chronicles 25:4) (B.C. 1050.)

  • Son of Jeroham, and prince of the tribe of Dan when David numbered the
    people. (1 Chronicles 27:22)

  • One of the sons of Bani, who put away his foreign wife on the
    remonstrance of Ezra. (Ezra 10:41) (B.C. 459.)

  • Father or ancestor of Maasiai, or Amashai, a priest who dwelt in
    Jerusalem after the return from Babylon. (Nehemiah 11:13) comp. 1Chr 9:12
    (B.C. about 440.)


(whom the Lord helps) a common name in Hebrew, and especially in
the families of the priests of the line of Eleazar, whose name has
precisely the same meaning as Azariah. It is nearly identical, and is
often confounded, with Ezra as well as with Zerahiah and Seraiah. The
principal persons who bore this name were --

  • Son of Ahimaaz. (1 Chronicles 6:9) He appears from (1 Kings 4:2) to
    have succeeded Zadok, his grandfather, in the high priesthood, in the
    reign of Solomon, Ahimaaz having died before Zadok. (B.C. About 1000.)

  • A chief officer of Solomon's, the son of Nathan, perhaps David's
    grandson. (1 Kings 4:5)

  • Tenth king of Judah, more frequently called Uzziah. (2 Kings 14:21;
    15:1,6,8,17,23,27; 1 Chronicles 8:12)

  • Son of Ethan, of the sons of Zerah, where, perhaps, Zerahiah is the
    more probable reading. (1 Chronicles 2:8)

  • Son of Jehu of the family of the Jerahmeelites, and descended from
    Jarha the Egyptian slave of Sheshan. (1 Chronicles 2:38,39) He was
    probably one of the captains of hundreds in the time of Athaliah mentioned
    in (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B.C. 886.)

  • The son of Johanan. (1 Chronicles 6:10) He must have been high priest
    in the reign of Abijah and Asa. (B.C. 939.)

  • Another Azariah is inserted between Hilkiah, in Josiah's reign, and
    Seraiah who was put to death by Nebuchadnezzar, in (1 Chronicles

  • Son of Zephaniah, a Kohathite, and ancestor of Samuel the prophet. (1
    Chronicles 6:36) Apparently the same as Uzziah in ver. 24.

  • Azariah; the son of Oded, (2 Chronicles 15:1) called simply Oded in
    ver. 8, was a remarkable prophet in the days of King Asa, and a
    contemporary of Azariah the son of Johanan the high priest, and of Hanani
    the seer. (B.C. 939.)

  • Son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 21:2) (B.C.910.)

  • Another son of Jehoshaphat, and brother of the preceding. (2
    Chronicles 21:2)

  • In (2 Chronicles 22:6) Azariah is a clerical error for Ahaziah.

  • Son of Jeroham, one of the captains of Judah in the time of Athaliah.
    (2 Chronicles 23:1)

  • The high priest in the reign of Uzziah king of Judah. The most
    memorable event of his life is that which is recorded in (2 Chronicles
    26:17-20) (B.C. 810.) Azariah was contemporary with Isaiah the prophet and
    with Amos and Joel.

  • Son of Johanan, one of the captains of Ephraim in the reign of Ahaz.
    (2 Chronicles 28:12)

  • A Kohathite, father of Joel, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles
    29:12) (B.C. 726.)

  • A Merarite, son of Jehalelel, in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles

  • The high priest in the days of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:10,13) He
    appears to have co operated zealously with the king in that thorough
    purification of the temple and restoration of the temple service, which
    was so conspicuous a feature in his reign. He succeeded Urijah, who was
    high priest in the reign of Ahaz.

  • Son of Maaseiah who repaired part of the wall of Jerusalem in the time
    of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:23,24) (B.C. 446-410.)

  • One of the leaders of the children of the province who went up from
    Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:7)

  • One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in instructing the people in the
    knowledge of the law. (Nehemiah 8:7)

  • One of the priests who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah
    10:2) and probably the same with the Azariah who assisted in the
    dedication of the city wall. (Nehemiah 12:33)

  • (Jeremiah 13:2) (Jezaniah).

  • The original name of Abednego. (Daniel 1:6,7,11,19) He appears to have
    been of the seed-royal of Judah. (B.C. 603.)


(strong), a Reubenite, father of Bela. (1 Chronicles 5:8)


(whom the Lord strengthens)

  • A Levite musician in the reign of David, appointed to play the harp in
    the service which attended the procession by which the ark was brought up
    from the house of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 15:21) (B.C. 1048.)

  • The father of Hoshea, prince of the tribe of Ephraim when David
    numbered the people. (1 Chronicles 27:20)

  • One of the Levites in the reign of Hezekiah, who had charge of the
    tithes, and dedicated things in the temple. (2 Chronicles 31:13)


(strong devastation), father or ancestor of Nehemiah, the prince of
part of Bethzur. (Nehemiah 3:16)


(dugover), a town of Judah, with dependent villages, lying in the
Shefelah or rich agricultural plain. It is most clearly defined as being
near Shochoh, (1 Samuel 17:1) but its position has not yet been


(noble), a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:37,38; 9:43,44)


(bone), a city in the extreme south of Judah, (Joshua 15:29)
afterwards allotted to Simeon. (Joshua 19:3) Elsewhere it is EZEM.


(strength of fortune). The children of Azgad, to the number of 1222
(2322 according to) (Nehemiah 7:17) were among the laymen who returned
with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:12; 8:12) With the other heads of the People they
joined in the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:15) (B.C. 536.)


(whom God comforts), a Levite. (1 Chronicles 15:20) The name is a
shortened form of Jaaziel in ver. 18.


(strong) a layman of the family of Zattu, who had married a foreign
wife after the return from Babylon.


(strong unto death).

  • One of David's mighty men, a native of Bahurim, (2 Samuel 23:31; 1
    Chronicles 11:33) and therefore probably a Benjamite. (B.C. 1060).

  • A descendant of Mephibosheth, or Merib-baal. (1 Chronicles 8:36;

  • The father of Jeziel and Pelet, two of the skilled Benjamite slingers
    and archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 10:3) perhaps
    identical with No. 1.

  • Overseer of the royal treasures in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles


a place to all appearance in Benjamin, being named with other towns
belonging to that tribe. (Ezra 2:24) The name elsewhere occurs as


(strong), a place named as being on the southern boundary of the
Holy Land, apparently near the torrent of Egypt (Wadi el-Arish).
(Numbers 34:4,5; Joshua 15:4) It has not yet been identified.


(the ears (i.e. possibly the summits) of Tabor), one of the
landmarks of the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:34) The town, if town it
be, has hitherto escaped recognition.


(a helper), son of Eliakim, in the line of our Lord. (Matthew




(whom God helps).

  • The head of a house of the half tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan, a man
    of renown. (1 Chronicles 5:24) (B.C. 741.)

  • A Naphtalite, ancestor of Jerimoth, the head of the tribe at the time
    of David's census. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B.C. 1015.)

  • The father of Seraiah, an officer of Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 36:26) (B.C.


(help against the enemy).

  • A descendant of Zerubbabel, and son of Neariah of the royal line of
    Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:23)

  • Eldest son of Azel, and descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:38; 9:44)
    (B.C after 1037.)

  • A Levite, ancestor of Shemaiah, who lived in the time of Nehemiah. (1
    Chronicles 9:14; Nehemiah 11:15) (B.C. before 536.)

  • Governor of the house, or prefect of the palace, to King Ahaz, who was
    slain by Zichri, an Ephraimite hero, in the successful invasion of the
    southern kingdom by Pekah king of Israel. (2 Chronicles 28:7) (B.C.



  • Wife of Caleb, son of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:18,19)

  • Mother of King Jehoshaphat. (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chronicles 20:31) (B.C.


properly Az’zur (he that assists)

  • A Benjamite of Gibeon, and father of Hananiah the false prophet.
    (Jeremiah 28:1)

  • Father of Jaazaniah, one of the princes of the people against whom
    Ezekiel was commanded to prophesy. (Ezekiel 11:1)


(the strong). The more accurate rendering of the name of the
well-known Philistine city Gaza. (2:23; 1 Kings 4:24; Jeremiah 25:20)


(very strong), the father of Paltiel prince of the tribe of
Issachar, who represented his tribe in the division of the promised land.
(Numbers 34:26)


(one who helps), one of the heads of the People who signed the
covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17) (B.C. 410.) The name is probably
that of a family, and in Hebrew is the same as is elsewhere represented by

Choose A Letter Below To Go To A Different Definitions Section :

A . . . B . . . C . . . D . . . E . . . F . . . G . . . H . . . I . . . J . . . K . . . L . . . M

N . . . O . . . P . . . Q . . . R . . . S . . . T . . . U . . . V . . . W . . . X . . . Y . . . Z

Or Select A Letter Below To Go To Another Phrase List :

A . . . B . . . C . . . D . . . E . . . F . . . G . . . H . . . I . . . J . . . K . . . L . . . M

N . . . O . . . P . . . Q . . . R . . . S . . . T . . . U . . . V . . . W . . . X . . . Y . . . Z


Back To Bible Study Tools Index

Back To Endtime Prophecy Net Home Page