Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - Z

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Wanderings; the unloading of tents, so called probably from the fact
of nomads in tents encamping amid the cities and villages of that
region, a place in the north-west of Lake Merom, near Kedesh, in
Naphtali. Here Sisera was slain by Jael, "the wife of Heber the
Kenite," who had pitched his tent in the "plain [R.V., 'as far as the
oak'] of Zaanaim" Jud 4:11 - It has been, however, suggested by some
that, following the LXX. and the Talmud, the letter b, which in
Hebrew means "in," should be taken as a part of the word following,
and the phrase would then be "unto the oak of Bitzanaim," a place
which has been identified with the ruins of Bessum, about half-way
between Tiberias and Mount Tabor.


Place of flocks, mentioned only in Mic 1:11 - It may be identified with
Zenan, in the plain country of Judah Jos 15:37.


=Zaanaim, Jos 19:33.


Terror, one of the "dukes of Edom" Gen 36:27 - called also Zavan
1Ch 1:42.


1. One of David's valiant men 1Ch 11:41 - the descendant of Ahlai,
of the "children of Sheshan" 1Ch 2:31.
2. A descendant of Tahath 1Ch 7:21.
3. The son of Shemath. He conspired against Joash, king of Judah,
and slew him 2Ch 24:25-26 - He is called also Jozachar
2Ki 12:21.
4. Ezr 10:27.
5. Ezr 10:33.
6. Ezr 10:43.


Wanderer; pure.
1. Ezr 10:28.
2. The father of Baruch, who "earnestly repaired" part of the wall
of Jerusalem Neh 3:20 - marg., "Zaccai".


Gift, Ezr 8:14.


Gift of Jehovah.
1. An ancestor of Achan Jos 7:1,17-18 - He is probably the "Zimri"
of 1Ch 2:6.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:19.
3. Called "the Shiphmite," one of David's officers, who had charge
of his vineyards 1Ch 27:27.
4. A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph Neh 11:17 - probably the same
as Zichri 1Ch 9:15 - and Zaccur Neh 12:35.


Gift of God.
1. The father of Jashobeam, who was one of David's officers
1Ch 27:2.
2. An overseer of the priests after the Captivity Neh 11:14.


Gift, the son of Nathan, who was "king's friend" in the court of
Solomon 1Ki 4:5.


Mat 4:13,15 Rev 7:8.

See ZEBULUN 03889.


Pure, one whose "sons" returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem
Ezr 2:9 Neh 7:14.

See ZABBAI 03852.


Pure, a superintendant of customs; a chief tax-gather (publicanus) at
Jericho Luk 19:1-10 - "The collection of customs at Jericho, which at
this time produced and exported a considerable quantity of balsam,
was undoubtedly an important post, and would account for Zacchaeus
being a rich man." Being short of stature, he hastened on before the
multitude who were thronging about Christ as he passed through
Jericho on his way to Jerusalem, and climbed up a sycamore tree that
he might be able to see him. When our Lord reached the spot he looked
up to the publican among the branches, and addressing him by name,
told him to make haste and come down, as he intended that day to
abide at his house. This led to the remarkable interview recorded by
the evangelist, and to the striking parable of the ten pounds
Luk 19:12-27 - At Er-riha (Jericho) there is a large, venerable
looking square tower, which goes by the traditional name of the House
of Zacchaeus.


1. Father of Shammua, who was one of the spies sent out by Moses
Num 13:4.
2. A Merarite Levite 1Ch 24:27.
3. A son of Asaph, and chief of one of the courses of singers as
arranged by David 1Ch 25:2,10.
4. Son of Imri Neh 3:2.
5. A Levite Neh 10:12.
6. The son of Mattaniah Neh 13:13.


Remembered by the Lord.
1. Son of Jeroboam II., king of Israel. On the death of his father
there was an interregnum of ten years, at the end of which he
succeeded to the throne, which he occupied only six months,
having been put to death by Shallum, who usurped the throne. "He
did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his fathers
had done" 2Ki 14:29 15:8-12 - In him the dynasty of Jehu came to
an end.
2. The father of Abi, who was the mother of Hezekiah 2Ki 18:2.


1. A priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four
courses into which the priests had been originally divided by
David 1Ch 23:1-19 - Only four of these courses or "families"
of the priests returned from the Exile Ezr 2:36-39 - but they
were then re-distributed under the old designations. The priests
served at the temple twice each year, and only for a week each
time. Zacharias's time had come for this service. During this
period his home would be one of the chambers set apart for the
priests on the sides of the temple ground. The offering of
incense was one of the most solemn parts of the daily worship of
the temple, and lots were drawn each day to determine who should
have this great honour, an honour which no priest could enjoy
more than once during his lifetime. While Zacharias ministered
at the golden altar of incense in the holy place, it was
announced to him by the angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth,
who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would
give birth to a son who was to be called John, and that he would
be the forerunner of the long-expected Messiah Luk 1:12-17.
As a punishment for his refusing to believe this message, he was
struck dumb and "not able to speak until the day that these
things should be performed" Luk 1:20. Nine months passed
away, and Elisabeth's child was born, and when in answer to
their inquiry Zacharias wrote on a "writing tablet," "His name
is John," his mouth was opened, and he praised God
Luk 1:60-79. The child (John the Baptist), thus "born out of
due time," "waxed strong in spirit" Luk 1:80.
2. The "son of Barachias," mentioned as having been slain between
the temple and the altar Mat 23:35 Luk 11:51 - "Barachias" here may
be another name for Jehoiada, as some think.

See ZECHARIAH 03892.


Memorial, a son of Jehiel 1Ch 8:31 9:35 - called Zechariah 1Ch 9:37.


1. A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer 2Sa 8:17 1Ch 24:3 - high
priest in the time of David 2Sa 20:25 - and Solomon 1Ki 4:4.
He is first mentioned as coming to take part with David at
Hebron 1Ch 12:27-28 - He was probably on this account made ruler
over the Aaronites 1Ch 27:17 - Zadok and Abiathar acted as
high priests on several important occasions 1Ch 15:11.
2Sa 15:24-29,35,36 - but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure
the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon
"thrust him out from being high priest," and Zadok, remaining
faithful to David, became high priest alone 1Ki 2:27,35.
1Ch 29:22 - In him the line of Phinehas resumed the dignity,
and held it till the fall of Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his
sacred office by his son Azariah 1Ki 4:2 - comp. 1Ch 6:3-9.
2. The father of Jerusha, who was wife of King Uzziah, and mother
of King Jotham 2Ki 15:33 2Ch 27:1.
3. "The scribe" set over the treasuries of the temple by Nehemiah
along with a priest and a Levite Neh 13:13.
4. The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in rebuilding the
wall of Jerusalem Neh 3:4.


Little, a place probably east of the Dead Sea, where Joram discomfited
the host of Edom who had revolted from him 2Ki 8:21.


1. One of David's warriors, called the Ahohite 2Sa 23:28 - called
also Ilai 1Ch 11:29.
2. A wood near Shechem, from which Abimelech and his party brought
boughs and "put them to the hold" of Shechem, "and set the hold
on fire" Jud 9:48 - Probably the southern peak of Gerizim, now
called Jebel Sulman.
See SALMON 03192.


Shady, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
Num 33:41-42.


One of the two kings of Midian whom the "Lord delivered" into the
hands of Gideon. He was slain afterwards with Zebah Jud 8:5-21.

See ZEBAH 03882.


A race of giants; "a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims"
Deu 2:20-21 - They were overcome by the Ammonites, "who called them
Zamzummims." They belonged to the Rephaim, and inhabited the country
afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It has been conjectured that
they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims dwelling in Ham, a place
apparently to the south of Ashteroth Gen 14:5 - the ancient


1. A town in the low country or shephelah of Judah, near Zorah
Jos 15:34 - It was re-occupied after the return from the
Captivity Neh 11:30 - Zanu'ah in Wady Ismail, 10 miles west
of Jerusalem, occupies probably the same site.
2. A town in the hill country of Judah, some 10 miles to the
south-west of Hebron Jos 15:56.


The name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank
of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom Gen 41:45 - This is a
pure Egyptian word, and has been variously explained. Some think it
means "creator," or "preserver of life." Brugsch interprets it as
"governor of the district of the place of life", i.e., of Goshen, the
chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of life." Others explain
it as meaning "a revealer of secrets," or "the man to whom secrets
are revealed."


Smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of metals", a
small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile from the coast,
almost midway on the road between Tyre and Sidon. Here Elijah
sojourned with a poor widow during the "great famine," when the
"heaven was shut up three years and six months" 1Ki 17:10 - It
is called Sarepta in the New Testament Luk 4:26.


When the Hebrews crossed the Jordan, as soon as the feet of the
priests were dipped in the water, the flow of the stream was
arrested. The point of arrest was the "city of Adam beside Zaretan,"
probably near Succoth, at the mouth of the Jabbok, some 30 miles
up the river from where the people were encamped. There the water
"stood and rose upon an heap." Thus the whole space of 30 miles of
the river-bed was dry, that the tribes might pass over Jos 3:16,17.
comp. Psa 104:3.


The splendour of the dawn, a city "in the mount of the valley"
Jos 13:19 - It is identified with the ruins of Zara, near the mouth
of the Wady Zerka Main, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, some 3
miles south of the Callirrhoe. Of this town but little remains. "A few
broken basaltic columns and pieces of wall about 200 yards back from
the shore, and a ruined fort rather nearer the sea, about the middle
of the coast line of the plain, are all that are left" (Tristram's
Land of Moab).


A place near Succoth, in the plain of the Jordan, "in the clay
ground," near which Hiram cast the brazen utensils for the temple
1Ki 7:46 - probably the same as Zartan. It is also called Zeredathah
2Ch 4:17.

See ZEREDA 03909.


A sprout, Neh 10:14.


Id., one whose descendants returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel
Ezr 2:8 Neh 7:13 - probably the same as Zatthu.


Plenty, a descendant of Judah 1Ch 2:33.


An earnest temper;
1. may be enlightened Num 25:11-13 2Co 7:11 9:2.
2. or ignorant and misdirected Rom 10:2 Php 3:6.
3. As a Christian grace, it must be grounded on right principles and
directed to right ends Gal 4:18.
4. It is sometimes ascribed to God 2Ki 19:31 Isa 9:7 37:32 Eze 5:13.


A sect of Jews which originated with Judas the Gaulonite Act 5:37 - They
refused to pay tribute to the Romans, on the ground that this was a
violation of the principle that God was the only king of Israel. They
rebelled against the Romans, but were soon scattered, and became a
lawless band of mere brigands. They were afterwards called Sicarii,
from their use of the sica, i.e., the Roman dagger.


Gift of Jehovah.
1. A son of Asahel, Joab's brother 1Ch 27:7.
2. A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the system of
national education instituted by Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:7,8.
3. The son of Ishmael, "the ruler of the house of Judah in all the
king's matters" 2Ch 19:8-11.
4. A son of Beriah 1Ch 8:15-16.
5. A Korhite porter of the Lord's house 1Ch 26:2 - Three or four
others of this name are also mentioned.


Man-killer, or sacrifice, one of the two kings who led the vast host
of the Midianites who invaded the land of Israel, and over whom
Gideon gained a great and decisive victory Jud 7:21-8:21 - Zebah and
Zalmunna had succeeded in escaping across the Jordan with a remnant
of the Midianite host, but were overtaken at Karkor, probably in the
Hauran, and routed by Gideon. The kings were taken alive and brought
back across the Jordan; and confessing that they had personally taken
part in the slaughter of Gideon's brothers, they were put to death
(comp.) 1Sa 12:11 Isa 10:26 Psa 83:11.


Ezr 2:57 Neh 7:59 - "Pochereth of Zebaim" should be read as in the
Revised Version, "Pochereth-hazzebaim" ("snaring the antelopes"),
probably the name of some hunter.


A Galilean fisherman, the husband of Salome (q.v.), and the father of
James and John, two of our Lord's disciples Mat 4:21 27:56 Mar 15:40.
He seems to have been a man of some position in Capernaum, for he had
two boats and "hired servants" Mar 1:20 - of his own. No mention is
made of him after the call of his two sons by Jesus.


Gazelles or roes.
1. One of the "five cities of the plain" of Sodom, generally
coupled with Admah Gen 10:19 14:2 Deu 29:23 Hos 11:8 - It had a king
of its own (Shemeber), and was therefore a place of some
importance. It was destroyed along with the other cities of the
2. A valley or rugged glen somewhere near Gibeah in Benjamin
1Sa 13:18 - It was probably the ravine now bearing the name
Wady Shakh-ed-Dub'a, or "ravine of the hyena," north of Jericho.
3. A place mentioned only in Neh 11:34 - inhabited by the Benjamites
after the Captivity.


Given, the wife of Josiah and mother of Jehoiakim 2Ki 23:36.


Habitation, the governor of Shechem under Abimelech Jud 9:28,30,36 - He
informed his master of the intention of the people of Shechem to
transfer their allegiance to the Hivite tribe of Hamor. This led to
Abimelech's destroying the city, when he put its entire population to
the sword, and sowed the ruins with salt Jud 9:28-45.


The designation of Elon, the judge who belonged to the tribe of
Zebulun Jud 12:11,12.


Dwelling, the sixth and youngest son of Jacob and Leah Gen 30:20.
Little is known of his personal history. He had three sons Gen 46:14.


Lot of in Galilee, to the north of Issachar and south of Asher and
Naphtali Jos 19:10-16 - and between the Sea of Galilee and the
Mediterranean. According to ancient prophecy this part of Galilee
enjoyed a large share of our Lord's public ministry
Isa 9:1-2 Mat 4:12-16.

Zebulun, Tribe of

Numbered at Sinai Num 1:31 - and before entering Canaan Num 26:27.
It was one of the tribes which did not drive out the Canaanites, but
only made them tributary Jud 1:30 - It took little interest in
public affairs. It responded, however, readily to the summons of
Gideon Jud 6:35 - and afterwards assisted in enthroning David at
Hebron 1Ch 12:33,40 - Along with the other northern tribes, Zebulun
was carried away into the land of Assyria by Tiglath-pileser
2Ki 15:29 - In Deborah's song the words, "Out of Zebulun they that
handle the pen of the writer" Jud 5:14 - has been rendered in the
R.V., "They that handle the marshal's staff." This is a questionable
rendering. "The word - sopher - ('scribe' or 'writer') defines the word
- shebhet - ('rod' or 'pen') with which it is conjoined. The 'rod of the
scribe' on the Assyrian monuments was the stylus of wood or metal,
with the help of which the clay tablet was engraved, or the papyrus
inscribed with characters. The scribe who wielded it was the associate
and assistant of the 'lawgivers.'" (Sayce).


Jehovah is renowned or remembered.
1. A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets.
Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes
himself Zec 1:1 - as "the son of Berechiah." In Ezr 5:1 6:14.
he is called "the son of Iddo," who was properly his
grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of
Darius (B.C. 520) about sixteen years after the return of the
first company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai
Ezr 5:1 - His book consists of two distinct parts,
a. chapters 1 to 8 inclusive
1. It begins with a preface Zec 1:1-6 - which recalls the
nation's past history, for the purpose of presenting a
solemn warning to the present generation.
2. Then follows a series of eight visions Zec 1:7-6:8.
succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded
as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish
consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in
their minds.
3. The symbolical action, the crowning of Joshua Zec 6:9-15.
describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom
of God's Christ.
4. Chapters 7 and 8 delivered two years later, are an answer
to the question whether the days of mourning for the
destruction of the city should be any longer kept, and an
encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God's
presence and blessing.
b. 9 to the end.
bears no date. It is probable that a considerable interval
separates it from the first part. It consists of two burdens.
1. The first burden (ch. 9) gives an outline of the course of
God's providential dealings with his people down to the
time of the Advent.
2. The second burden (ch. 12) points out the glories that
await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and
triumph of God's kingdom.
2. The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of
Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly
condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion
against God 2Ch 24:20 - which so stirred up their resentment
against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him with
stones, and he died "in the court of the house of the Lord"
2Ch 24:21 - Christ alludes to this deed of murder in
Mat 23:35 Luk 11:51.
See ZACHARIAS 03862.
3. A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God," in the
time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise
counsel 2Ch 26:5 - Besides these, there is a large number of
persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing
is known.
4. One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben 1Ch 5:7.
5. One of the porters of the tabernacle 1Ch 9:21.
6. 1Ch 9:37.
7. A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the
house of Obededom 1Ch 15:20-24.
8. A Kohathite Levite 1Ch 24:25.
9. A Merarite Levite 1Ch 27:21.
10. The father of Iddo 1Ch 27:21.
11. One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time
of Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:7.
12. A Levite of the sons of Asaph 2Ch 20:14.
13. One of Jehoshaphat's sons 2Ch 21:2.
14. The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah 2Ch 29:1.
15. One of the sons of Asaph 2Ch 29:13.
16. One of the "rulers of the house of God" 2Ch 35:8.
17. A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him
about the return from captivity Ezr 8:16 - probably the same as
mentioned in Neh 8:4.
18. Neh 11:12.
19. Neh 12:16.
20. Neh 12:35,41.
21. Isa 8:2.


Side; sloping place, a town in the north of Palestine, near Hamath
Num 34:8 Eze 47:15 - It has been identified with the ruins of Sudud,
between Emesa (Hums) and Baalbec, but that is uncertain.


Righteousness of Jehovah.
1. The last king of Judah. He was the third son of Josiah, and his
mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah,
and hence he was the brother of Jehoahaz 2Ki 23:31 24:17-18 - His
original name was Mattaniah; but when Nebuchadnezzar placed him
on the throne as the successor to Jehoiachin he changed his name
to Zedekiah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counsellor, yet "he
did evil in the sight of the Lord" 2Ki 24:19-20 Jer 52:2-3 - He
ascended the throne at the age of twenty-one years. The kingdom
was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar; but, despite the
strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, as well as the
example of Jehoiachin, he threw off the yoke of Babylon, and
entered into an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt. This
brought up Nebuchadnezzar, "with all his host" 2Ki 25:1 - against
Jerusalem. During this siege, which lasted about eighteen
months, "every worst woe befell the devoted city, which drank
the cup of God's fury to the dregs" 2Ki 25:3 La 4:4-5,10 - The
city was plundered and laid in ruins. Zedekiah and his
followers, attempting to escape, were made captive and taken to
Riblah. There, after seeing his own children put to death, his
own eyes were put out, and, being loaded with chains, he was
carried captive (B.C. 588) to Babylon 2Ki 25:1-7 2Ch 36:12.
Jer 32:4-5 34:2-3 39:1-7 52:4-11 Eze 12:12 - where he
remained a prisoner, how long is unknown, to the day of his
death. After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to
carry out its complete destruction. The city was razed to the
ground. Only a small number of vinedressers and husbandmen were
permitted to remain in the land Jer 52:16 - Gedaliah, with a
Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, ruled over Judah
2Ki 25:22,24 Jer 40:1-2,5-6.
2. The son of Chenaanah, a false prophet in the days of Ahab
1Ki 22:11,24 2Ch 18:10,23.
3. The son of Hananiah, a prince of Judah in the days of Jehoiakim
Jer 36:12.


The wolf, one of the two leaders of the great Midianite host which
invaded Israel and was utterly routed by Gideon. The division of that
host, which attempted to escape across the Jordan, under Oreb and
Zeeb, was overtaken by the Ephraimites, who, in a great battle,
completely vanquished them, their leaders being taken and slain
Jud 7:25 Psa 83:11 Isa 10:26.


Slope; side, a town in Benjamin, where Saul and his son Jonathan were
buried 2Sa 21:14 - It was probably Saul's birthplace.


Cleft, an Ammonite; one of David's valiant men 2Sa 23:37.


First-born, of the tribe of Manasseh, and of the family of Gilead;
died in the wilderness. Having left no sons, his daughters, concerned
lest their father's name should be "done away from among his family,"
made an appeal to Moses, who, by divine direction, appointed it as "a
statute of judgment" in Israel that daughters should inherit their
father's portion when no sons were left Num 27:1-11 - But that the
possession of Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee
from the tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that
his daughters should not marry any one out of their father's tribe;
and this afterwards became a general law Num 36:1.


Luk 6:15.

See SIMON 03439.
See ZEALOTS 03880.


1. A town of Benjamin Jos 18:22 - now the ruin, rather two ruins,
es-Sumrah, 4 miles north of Jericho.
2. A mount in the highlands of Ephraim, to the north of Jerusalem
2Ch 13:4-20 - Here the armies of Abijah and Jeroboam engaged in a
bloody battle, which issued in the total defeat of the king of
Israel, who never "recovered strength again," and soon after


The designation of one of the Phoenician tribes Gen 10:18 - who
inhabited the town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon
range. In the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400) Zemar, or Zumur, was one of
the most important of the Phoenician cities, but it afterwards almost
disappears from history.


Vine-dresser, a Benjamite; one of the sons of Becher 1Ch 7:8.


A disciple called "the lawyer," whom Paul wished Titus to bring with
him Tit 3:13 - Nothing more is known of him.


Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness.
1. The son of Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth
in the order of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of
Josiah, king of Judah (B.C. 641) and was contemporary with
Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common. The book of his
prophecies consists of:
a. An introduction Zep 1:1-6 - announcing the judgment of
the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their
b. The description of the judgment Zep 1:7-18.
c. An exhortation to seek God while there is still time
Zep 2:1-3.
d. The announcement of judgment on the heathen Zep 2:4-15.
e. The hopeless misery of Jerusalem Zep 3:1-7.
f. The promise of salvation Zep 3:8-20.
2. The son of Maaseiah, the "second priest" in the reign of
Zedekiah, often mentioned in Jeremiah as having been sent from
the king to inquire Jer 21:1 - regarding the coming woes which he
had denounced, and to entreat the prophet's intercession that
the judgment threatened might be averted Jer 29:25-26,29 37:3.
Jer 52:24 - He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to
death by the king of Babylon "at Riblah in the land of Hamath"
2Ki 25:21.
3. A Kohathite ancestor of the prophet Samuel 1Ch 6:36.
4. The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem when
Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt
Zec 6:10.


Beacon; watch-tower, a Canaanite town; called also Hormah (q.v.),
Jud 1:17 - It has been identified with the pass of es-Sufah, but with
greater probability with S'beita.


A valley in the west of Judah, near Mareshah; the scene of Asa's
conflict with Zerah the Ethiopian 2Ch 14:9-13 - Identified with the
Wady Safieh.


1. An "Ethiopian," probably Osorkon II., the successor of Shishak
on the throne of Egypt. With an enormous army, the largest we
read of in Scripture, he invaded the kingdom of Judah in the
days of Asa 2Ch 14:9-15 - He reached Zephathah, and there
encountered the army of Asa. This is the only instance "in all
the annals of Judah of a victorious encounter in the field with
a first-class heathen power in full force." The Egyptian host
was utterly routed, and the Hebrews gathered "exceeding much
spoil." Three hundred years elapsed before another Egyptian
army, that of Necho (B.C. 609) came up against Jerusalem.
2. A son of Tamar Gen 38:30 - called also Zara Mat 1:3.
3. A Gershonite Levite 1Ch 6:21,41.


=Zared, luxuriance; willow bush, a brook or valley communicating with
the Dead Sea near its southern extremity Num 21:12 Deu 2:14 - It is
called the "brook of the willows" Isa 15:7 - and the "river of the
wilderness" Amo 6:14 - It has been identified with the Wady el-Aksy.


The fortress, a city on the north of Mount Ephraim; the birthplace of
Jeroboam 1Ki 11:26 - It is probably the same as Zaretan Jos 3:16.
Zererath Jud 7:22 - Zartanah 1Ki 4:12 - or Zeredathah.


A place in the plain of Jordan; the same as Zarthan 2Ch 4:17 1Ki 7:46.
Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great
castings of bronze for the temple.


Jud 7:22 - perhaps identical with Zereda or Zeredathah. Some identify
it with Zahrah, a place about 3 miles west of Beth-shean.


Star of Venus, the wife of Haman, whom she instigated to prepare a
gallows for Mordecai Est 5:10.


Stricken, mother of Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes
1Ki 11:26.


The seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel Hag 1:1.
Zorobabel, Mat 1:12 - called also the son of Pedaiah 1Ch 3:17-19.
i.e., according to a frequent usage of the word "son;" the grandson or
the nephew of Salathiel. He is also known by the Persian name of
Sheshbazzar Ezr 1:8,11 - In the first year of Cyrus, king of
Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 Ezr 2:64.
exclusive of a large number of servants, who returned from captivity
at the close of the seventy years. In the second year after the
Return, he erected an altar and laid the foundation of the temple on
the ruins of that which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar
Ezr 3:8-13 4:1-6:22 - All through the work he occupied a prominent
place, inasmuch as he was a descendant of the royal line of David.


Stricken of the Lord, David's sister, and the mother of Abishai, Joab,
and Asahel 1Ch 2:16 - who were the three leading heroes of David's
army, and being his nephews, they were admitted to the closest
companionship with him.


Olive planter, a Levite 1Ch 23:8.


A Benjamite 1Ch 7:10.


Fear, a Gadite 1Ch 5:13.


Post; statue, "a servant of the house of Saul" 2Sa 9:2 - who informed
David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive. He afterwards
dealt treacherously toward Mephibosheth, whom he slanderously
misrepresented to David.


Robber; or dyed.
1. A Hivite Gen 36:2.
2. A Horite, and son of Seir Gen 36:20.


Gazelle, a Benjamite 1Ch 8:9.


The mother of King Joash 2Ki 12:1 2Ch 24:1.


Remembered; illustrious.
1. A Benjamite chief 1Ch 8:19.
2. Another of the same tribe 1Ch 8:23.


Sides, a town of Naphtali Jos 19:35 - has been identified with
Kefr-Hattin, the "village of the Hittites," about 5 miles west of


The Lord is righteous, one who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah
Neh 10:1.


A fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north
of Tyre. It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan, the
grandson of Noah Gen 10:15,19 - It was the first home of the
Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive
commercial relations became a "great" city Jos 11:8 19:28 - It was the
mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe of Asher, but
was never subdued Jud 1:31 - The Zidonians long oppressed Israel
Jud 10:12 - From the time of David its glory began to wane, and
Tyre, its "virgin daughter" Isa 23:12 - rose to its place of
pre-eminence. Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the
Zidonians, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in
the land of Israel 1Ki 11:1,33 - This city was famous for its
manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce 1Ki 5:6 1Ch 22:4.
Eze 27:8 - It is frequently referred to by the prophets
Isa 23:2,4,12 Jer 25:22 27:3 47:4 Eze 27:8 28:21-22 32:30 Joe 3:4.
Our Lord visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Zidon Sidon (q.v.),
Mat 15:21 Mar 7:24 Luk 4:26 - and from this region many came forth to
hear him preaching Mar 3:8 Luk 6:17 - From Sidon, at which the ship
put in after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome Act 27:3-4.
This city is now a town of 20,000 inhabitants, with remains of walls
built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855 the sarcophagus of
Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid,
it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians," probably in the
third century B.C., and that his mother was a priestess of Ashtoreth,
"the goddess of the Sidonians." In this inscription Baal is mentioned
as the chief god of the Sidonians.


Brightness; splendour; i.e., "the flower month," mentioned only in
1Ki 6:1,37 - as the "second month." It was called Iyar by the later

See MONTH 02592.


1. The name of a family of Nethinim Ezr 2:43 Neh 7:46.
2. A ruler among the Nethinim Neh 11:21.


A town in the Negeb, or south country of Judah Jos 15:31 - in the
possession of the Philistines when David fled to Gath from Ziph with
all his followers. Achish, the king, assigned him Ziklag as his place
of residence. There he dwelt for over a year and four months. From
this time it pertained to the kings of Judah 1Sa 27:6 - During his
absence with his army to join the Philistine expedition against the
Israelites 1Sa 29:11 - it was destroyed by the Amalekites
1Sa 30:1-2 - whom David, however, pursued and utterly routed,
returning all the captives 1Sa 30:26-31 - Two days after his return
from this expedition, David received tidings of the disastrous battle
of Gilboa and of the death of Saul 2Sa 1:1-16 - He now left Ziklag
and returned to Hebron, along with his two wives, Ahinoam and Abigail,
and his band of 600 men. It has been identified with 'Asluj, a heap of
ruins south of Beersheba. Conder, however, identifies it with Khirbet
Zuheilikah, ruins found on three hills half a mile apart, some
seventeen miles north-west of Beersheba, on the confines of Philistia,
Judah, and Amalek.


Shadow, one of the wives of Lamech, of the line of Cain, and mother of
Tubal-cain Gen 4:19,22.


Drooping, Leah's handmaid, and the mother of Gad and Asher Gen 30:9-13.


Shadow (i.e., protection) of Jehovah.
1. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:20.
2. One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at
Ziklag 1Ch 12:20.


1. A Gershonite Levite 1Ch 6:20.
2. Another Gershonite Levite 1Ch 6:42.
3. The father of Joah 2Ch 29:12.


Vine-dressers; celebrated, one of the sons of Abraham by Keturah
Gen 25:2.


1. A son of Salu, slain by Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, because of
his wickedness in bringing a Midianitish woman into his tent
Num 25:6-15.
2. Murdered Elah at Tirzah, and succeeded him on the throne of
Israel 1Ki 16:8-10 - He reigned only seven days, for Omri, whom
the army elected as king, laid siege to Tirzah, whereupon Zimri
set fire to the palace and perished amid its ruins 1Ki 16:11-20.
Omri succeeded to the throne only after four years of fierce war
with Tibni, another claimant to the throne.


A low palm-tree, the south-eastern corner of the desert et-Tih, the
wilderness of Paran, between the Gulf of Akabah and the head of the
Wady Guraiyeh Num 13:21 - To be distinguished from the wilderness of
Sin (q.v.).


Ornament, one of the sons of Shimei 1Ch 23:10.


Sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was built. It
was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep valleys, that
of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah (q.v.), which it
surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the south-eastern hill of
Jerusalem. When David took it from the Jebusites Jos 15:63 2Sa 5:7.
he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became "the city of
David" 1Ki 8:1 2Ki 19:21,31 1Ch 11:5 - In the later books of the Old
Testament this name was sometimes used Psa 87:2 149:2 Isa 33:14.
Joe 2:1 - to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God's
chosen Israel Psa 51:18 87:5 - In the New Testament
See SION 03448.
it is used sometimes to denote the Church of God Heb 12:22 - and
sometimes the heavenly city Rev 14:1.


Littleness, a city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:54 - the modern
Si'air, 4 1/2 miles north-north-east of Hebron.


1. A son of Jehaleleel 1Ch 4:16.
2. A city in the south of Judah Jos 15:24 - probably at the pass of
3. A city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:55 - identified with the
uninhabited ruins of Tell ez-Zif, about 5 miles south-east
of Hebron. Here David hid himself during his wanderings
1Sa 23:19 Psa 54:1 - (title).


A descendant of Judah 1Ch 4:16.


Sweet odour, a city on the northern border of Palestine Num 34:9.
south-east of Hamath.


A little bird, the father of Balak, king of Moab Num 22:2,4.


A female bird. Reuel's daughter, who became the wife of Moses Exo 2:21.
In consequence of the event recorded in Exo 4:24-26 - she and her two
sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward
Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites,
with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them Exo 18:2-6.


The Lord protects, a Levite, son of Uzziel Exo 6:22.


Projecting; a flower, a cleft or pass, probably that near En-gedi,
which leads up from the Dead Sea 2Ch 20:16 - in the direction of
Tekoa; now Tell Hasasah.


Splendour; abundance.
1. A Simeonite prince 1Ch 4:37-43.
2. A son of Rehoboam 2Ch 11:20.


A Gershonite Levite 1Ch 23:11.


(Old Egypt. Sant= "stronghold," the modern San). A city on the Tanitic
branch of the Nile, called by the Greeks Tanis. It was built seven
years after Hebron in Palestine Num 13:22 - This great and important
city was the capital of the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings, who ruled
Egypt for more than 500 years. It was the frontier town of Goshen.
Here Pharaoh was holding his court at the time of his various
interviews with Moses and Aaron. "No trace of Zoan exists; Tanis was
built over it, and city after city has been built over the ruins of
that" (Harper, Bible and Modern Discovery). Extensive mounds of
ruins, the wreck of the ancient city, now mark its site
Isa 19:11,13 30:4 Eze 30:14 - "The whole constitutes one of the
grandest and oldest ruins in the world." This city was also called
"the Field of Zoan" Psa 78:12,43 - and "the Town of Rameses" (q.v.),
because the oppressor rebuilt and embellished it, probably by the
forced labour of the Hebrews, and made it his northern capital.


Small, a town on the east or south-east of the Dead Sea, to which Lot
and his daughters fled from Sodom Gen 19:22-23 - It was originally
called Bela Gen 14:2,8 - It is referred to by the prophets Isaiah
Isa 15:5 - and Jeremiah Jer 48:34 - Its ruins are still seen
at the opening of the ravine of Kerak, the Kir-Moab referred to in
2Ki 3:1 - the modern Tell esh-Shaghur.


=Aram-Zobah, Psa 60:1 - (title), a Syrian province or kingdom to the
south of Coele-Syria, and extending from the eastern slopes of
Lebanon north and east toward the Euphrates. Saul and David had war
with the kings of Zobah 1Sa 14:47 2Sa 8:3 10:6.


1. The father of Ephron the Hittite Gen 23:8.
2. One of the sons of Simeon Gen 46:10 Ex 6:15.


The serpent-stone, a rocky plateau near the centre of the village of
Siloam, and near the fountain of En-rogel, to which the women of the
village resort for water 1Ki 1:5-9 - Here Adonijah (q.v.) feasted all
the royal princess except Solomon and the men who took part with him
in his effort to succeed to the throne. While they were assembled
here Solomon was proclaimed king, through the intervention of Nathan.
On hearing this, adonijah fled and took refuge in the sanctuary
1Ki 1:49-53 - He was afterwards pardoned. Zoheleth projects into
or slightly over-hangs the Kidron valley. It is now called
ez-Zehwell or Zahweileh.


Snatching one of the sons of Ishi 1Ch 4:20.


Spreading out, a son of Helem 1Ch 7:35 - a chief of Asher.


Chirping, one of Job's friends who came to condole with him in his
distress Job 2:11 - The LXX. render here "king of the Mineans" Ma'in,
Maonites, Jud 10:12 - (in Southern Arabia). He is called a Naamathite,
or an inhabitant of some unknown place called Naamah.


Field of field of watchers, a place in Moab on the range of Pisgah
Num 23:14 - To this place Balak brought Balaam, that he might from
thence curse the children of Israel. Balaam could only speak the
word of the Lord, and that was blessing. It is the modern

See PISGAH 02962.


Place of wasps, a town in the low country of Judah, afterwards given
to Dan Jos 19:41 Jud 18:2 - probably the same as Zoreah Jos 15:33.
This was Samson's birthplace Jud 13:2,25 - and near it he found a
grave Jud 16:31 - It was situated on the crest of a hill overlooking
the valley of Sorek, and was fortified by Rehoboam 2Ch 11:10 - It has
been identified with Sur'ah, in the Wady Surar, 8 miles west of
Jerusalem. It is noticed on monuments in the fifteenth century B.C.
as attacked by the Abiri or Hebrews.


Honeycomb, a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Elkanah and Samuel 1Sa 1:1.
called also Zophai 1Ch 6:26.

Zuph, Land of

1Sa 9:5-6 - a district in which lay Samuel's city, Ramah. It was
probably so named after Elkanah's son, Zuph 1Ch 6:26 - marg.


1. One of the five Midianite kings whom the Israelites defeated and
put to death Num 31:8.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:30.


Rock of God, chief of the family of the Merarites Num 3:35 - at the time
of the Exodus.


Rock of the Almighty, the father of Shelumiel, who was chief of the
tribe of Simeon when Israel was encamped at Sinai Num 1:6 2:12.


Restless; sprouting, were smitten "in Ham" by Chedorlaomer and his
allies Gen 14:5 - Some have identified this tribe with the Zamzummims

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