Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - W

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Thin cakes Exo 16:31 29:2,23 Lev 2:4 7:12 8:26 Num 6:15,19 - used in
various offerings.


1. Rate of (mention only in) Mat 20:2.
2. to be punctually paid Lev 19:13 Deu 24:14-15.
3. judgements threatened against the withholding of Jer 22:13 Mal 3:5.
comp. Jas 5:4.
4. paid in money Mat 20:1-14.
5. to Jacob in kind Gen 29:15,20 30:28 31:7-8,41.


Heb. aghalah; so rendered in Gen 45:19,21,27 46:5 Num 7:3,7-8 - but
elsewhere rendered "cart" 1Sa 6:7 - etc. This vehicle was used for
peaceful purposes. In Eze 23:24 - however, it is the rendering of a
different Hebrew word, and denotes a war-chariot.

Wailing-place, Jews'

A section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews
assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition
Psa 79:1,4-5 - The stones in this part of the wall are of great size,
and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which
they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the
wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings left to the Jewish
Church, and as the writer gazed at the concourse he experienced a
feeling of sorrow that the remnants of the chosen race should be
heartlessly thrust outside the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy
temple by men of an alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders,
seated on the ground, with their backs against the wall, on the west
side of the area, and with their faces turned toward the eternal house,
read out of their well-thumbed Hebrew books passages from the prophetic
writings, such as" Isa 64:9-12 - (King's Recent Discoveries, etc.).
The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its past spiritual and
historic relations, is indeed "the saddest nook in this vale of tears."



1. Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled
villages" Eze 38:11 Lev 25:29-34.
2. They were made thick and strong Num 13:28 Deu 3:5.
3. Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the
temple being of great size 1Ki 6:7 7:9-12 20:30 Mar 13:1-2.
4. The term is used metaphorically of security and safety
Isa 26:1 60:18 Rev 21:12-20.

See FENCE 01321.


Of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious
fears to enter the Promised Land Num 14:26-35 - They wandered for forty
years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan Jos 4:19 5:6.
The record of these wanderings is given in Num 33:1-49 - Many of the
stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of
an intricate nature have been discussed regarding the "Wanderings,"
but it is enough for us to take the sacred narrative as it stands,
and rest assured that "He led them forth by the right way"
Psa 107:1-7,33-35.



The Israelites had to take possession of the Promised Land by
conquest. They had to engage in a long and bloody war before the
Canaanitish tribes were finally subdued. Except in the case of
Jericho and Ai, the war did not become aggressive till after the
death of Joshua. Till then the attack was always first made by the
Canaanites. Now the measure of the iniquity of the Canaanites was
full, and Israel was employed by God to sweep them away from off the
face of the earth. In entering on this new stage of the war, the
tribe of Judah, according to divine direction, took the lead. In the
days of Saul and David the people of Israel engaged in many wars with
the nations around, and after the division of the kingdom into two
they often warred with each other. They had to defend themselves also
against the inroads of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the
Babylonians. The whole history of Israel from first to last presents
but few periods of peace. The Christian life is represented as a
warfare, and the Christian graces are also represented under the
figure of pieces of armour Eph 6:11-17 1Th 5:8 2Ti 2:3-4 - The final
blessedness of believers is attained as the fruit of victory Rev 3:21.


1. A prison Gen 40:3-4.
2. a watch-station Isa 21:8.
3. a guard Neh 13:30.

Wars of the Lord, The Book of the

Num 21:14-15 - some unknown book so called (comp.) Gen 14:14-16.
Exo 17:8-16 Num 14:40-45 21:1-3,21-25,33-35 31:1 - (The wars here
recorded might be thus designated.)


Mar 7:1-9 - The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when
taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for
the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions
prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to
have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands
thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other,
then placed the ten finger-tips together, holding the hands up, so
that any surplus water might flow down to the elbow, and thence to
the ground.'" To neglect to do this had come to be regarded as a
great sin, a sin equal to the breach of any of the ten commandments.
Moses had commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause;
but the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a large
body of precepts. To such precepts about ceremonial washing Mark here

See ABLUTION 00051.


The periods into which the time between sunset and sunrise was
divided. They are so called because watchmen relieved each other at
each of these periods. There are frequent references in Scripture to
the duties of watchmen who were appointed to give notice of the
approach of an enemy 2Sa 18:24-27 2Ki 9:17-20 Isa 21:5-9 - They were
sometimes placed for this purpose on watch-towers 2Ki 17:9 18:8.
Ministers or teachers are also spoken of under this title Jer 6:17.
Eze 33:2-9 Heb 13:17 - The watches of the night were originally three
in number,
1. "the beginning of the watches" Lam 2:19.
2. "the middle watch" Jud 7:19 - and
3. "the morning watch" Exo 14:24 1Sa 11:11 - which extended
from two o'clock to sunrise.
But in the New Testament we read of four watches, a division probably
introduced by the Romans Mat 14:25 Mar 6:48 Luk 12:38.

See DAY 00984.


2Co 6:5 - lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual labour,
teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and the like"
(Meyer's Com.).

Water of Jealousy

A phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the water
used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses
Num 5:11-31 - in cases of "jealousy."

Water of Purification

used in cases of ceremonial cleansings at the consecration of the
Levites Num 8:7 - It signified, figuratively, that purifying of the
heart which must characterize the servants of God.

Water of Separation

Used along with the ashes of a red heifer for the ceremonial cleansing
of persons defiled by contact with a dead body Num 19:1.


Psa 42:7 - marg. R.V., "cataracts". If we regard this psalm as
descriptive of David's feelings when banished from Jerusalem by the
revolt of Absalom, this word may denote "waterfalls," inasmuch as
Mahanaim, where he abode, was near the Jabbok, and the region
abounded with rapids and falls.

Wave Offerings

Parts of peace-offerings were so called, because they were
waved by the priests Exo 29:24,26,27 Lev 7:20-34 8:27 9:21 10:14,15.
etc., in token of a solemn special presentation to God. They then
became the property of the priests. The first-fruits, a sheaf of
barley, offered at the feast of Pentecost Lev 23:17-20 - and
wheat-bread, the first-fruits of the second harvest, offered at the
Passover Lev 23:10-14 - were wave-offerings.


Made by melting the combs of bees. Mentioned Psa 22:14 68:2 97:5.
Mic 1:4 - in illustration.


Among the Hebrews children (whom it was customary for the mothers to
nurse,) Exo 2:7-9 1Sa 1:23 So 8:1 - were not generally weaned till they
were three or four years old.


(Heb. holedh), enumerated among unclean animals Lev 11:29 - Some think
that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax typhlus) common
in Palestine. There is no sufficient reason, however, to depart from
the usual translation. The weasel tribe are common also in Palestine.

Weaving, Weavers

Weaving was an art practised in very early times Exo 35:35 - The
Egyptians were specially skilled in it Isa 19:9 Eze 27:7 - and some
have regarded them as its inventors. In the wilderness, the Hebrews
practised it Exo 26:1,8 28:4,39 Lev 13:47 - It is referred to in
subsequent times as specially the women's work 2Ki 23:7 Pr 31:13,24.
No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the
"shuttle" Job 7:6 - "the pin" of the beam Jud 16:14 - "the web"
Jud 16:13-14 - and "the beam" 1Sa 17:7 2Sa 21:19 - The
rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa 38:12 - (A.V.) should be,
as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the margin,
"from the thrum." We read also of the "warp" and "woof"
Lev 13:48-49,51-53,58-59 - but the Revised Version margin has, instead
of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."


From the beginning, time was divided into weeks, each consisting of
six days of working and one of rest Gen 2:2-3 7:10 8:10,12 29:28 - The
references to this division of days becomes afterwards more frequent
Exo 34:22 Lev 12:5 Num 28:26 Deu 16:16 2Ch 8:13 Jer 5:24 Dan 9:24-27.
Dan 10:2-3 - It has been found to exist among almost all nations.

Weeks, Feast of

See PENTECOST 02893.


Reduced to English troy-weight, the Hebrew weights were:
1. The gerah Lev 27:25 Num 3:47 - a Hebrew word, meaning a grain or
kernel, and hence a small weight. It was the twentieth part of a
shekel, and equal to 12 grains.
2. Bekah Exo 38:26 - meaning "a half" i.e., "half a shekel," equal to
5 pennyweight.
3. Shekel, "a weight," only in the Old Testament, and frequently in
its original form Gen 23:15-16 Ex 21:32 30:13,15 38:24-29 - etc.
It was equal to 10 pennyweight.
4. Ma'neh, "a part" or "portion" Eze 45:12 - equal to 60 shekels,
i.e., to 2 lbs. 6 oz.
5. Talent of silver 2Ki 5:22 - equal to 3,000 shekels, i.e., 125
6. Talent of gold Exo 25:39 - double the preceding, i.e., 250 lbs.


(Heb. beer), to be distinguished from a fountain (Heb. 'ain). A "beer"
was a deep shaft, bored far under the rocky surface by the art of
man, which contained water which percolated through the strata in its
sides. Such wells were those of Jacob and Beersheba, etc. (see)
Gen 21:19,25,30,31 24:11 26:15,18-25,32 - etc. In the Pentateuch
this word beer, so rendered, occurs twenty-five times.

See FOUNTAIN 01378.


Sea-ward, i.e., toward the Mediterranean Deu 3:27.


The Hebrew word - tan - (plural, tannin) is so rendered in Job 7:12.
(A.V.; but R.V., "sea-monster"). It is rendered by "dragons" in
Deu 32:33 Psa 91:13 Jer 51:34 Psa 74:13 - (marg., "whales;" and marg.
of R.V., "sea-monsters"); Isa 27:1 - and "serpent" in Exo 7:9.
R.V. marg., "any large reptile," and so in Exo 7:10,12 - The
words of Job Job 7:12 - uttered in bitter irony, where he asks, "Am
I a sea or a whale?" simply mean, "Have I a wild, untamable nature,
like the waves of the sea, which must be confined and held within
bounds, that they cannot pass?" "The serpent of the sea, which was but
the wild, stormy sea itself, wound itself around the land, and
threatened to swallow it up...Job inquires if he must be watched and
plagued like this monster, lest he throw the world into disorder"
(Davidson's Job). The whale tribe are included under the general
Hebrew name - tannin - Gen 1:21 La 4:3 - "Even the sea-monsters
[tanninim] draw out the breast." The whale brings forth its young
alive, and suckles them. It is to be noticed of the story of Jonah's
being "three days and three nights in the whale's belly," as recorded
in Mat 12:40 - that here the Gr. ketos means properly any kind of
sea-monster of the shark or the whale tribe, and that in the book of
Jonah Jon 1:17 - it is only said that "a great fish" was prepared
to swallow Jonah. This fish may have been, therefore, some great
shark. The white shark is known to frequent the Mediterranean Sea, and
is sometimes found 30 feet in length.

See DRAGON 01068.


One of the earliest cultivated grains. It bore the Hebrew name
- hittah -, and was extensively cultivated in Palestine. There are
various species of wheat. That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the
Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk Gen 41:5.
The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" Deu 32:14 - and the "finest of the
wheat" Psa 81:16 147:14 - denote the best of the kind. It was exported
from Palestine in great quantities 1Ki 5:11 Eze 27:17 Act 12:20.
Parched grains of wheat were used for food in Palestine Rut 2:14.
1Sa 17:17 2Sa 17:28 - The disciples, under the sanction of the Mosaic
law Deu 23:25 - plucked ears of corn, and rubbing them in their
hands, ate the grain unroasted Mat 12:1 Mar 2:23 Luk 6:1 - Before any
of the wheat-harvest, however, could be eaten, the first-fruits had to
be presented before the Lord Lev 23:14.


(Heb. galgal;) rendered "wheel" in Psa 83:13 - and "a rolling thing" in
Isa 17:13 - R.V. in both, "whirling dust"). This word has been
supposed to mean the wild artichoke, which assumes the form of a
globe, and in autumn breaks away from its roots, and is rolled about
by the wind in some places in great numbers.


A symbol of purity 2Ch 5:12 Psa 51:7 Isa 1:18 Rev 3:18 7:14 - Our Lord,
at his transfiguration, appeared in raiment "white as the light"
Mat 17:2 - etc.


To be treated with kindness Exo 22:22 Deu 14:29 16:11,14 24:17,19-21.
Exo 26:12 27:19 - etc. In the New Testament the same tender regard for
them is inculcated Act 6:1-6 1Ti 5:3-16 - and exhibited.


The ordinance of marriage was sanctioned in Paradise Gen 2:24.
Mat 19:4-6 - Monogamy was the original law under which man lived, but
polygamy early commenced Gen 4:19 - and continued to prevail all
down through Jewish history. The law of Moses regulated but did not
prohibit polygamy. A man might have a plurality of wives, but a wife
could have only one husband. A wife's legal rights Exo 21:10 - and
her duties Pro 31:10-31 1Ti 5:14 - are specified. She could be
divorced in special cases Deu 22:13-21 - but could not divorce her
husband. Divorce was restricted by our Lord to the single case of
adultery Mat 19:3-9 - The duties of husbands and wives in their
relations to each other are distinctly set forth in the New Testament
1Co 7:2-5 Eph 5:22-33 Col 3:18-19 1Pe 3:1-7.


1. Heb. midhbar, denoting not a barren desert but a district or
region suitable for pasturing sheep and cattle Psa 65:12.
Isa 42:11 Jer 23:10 Joe 1:19 2:22 - an uncultivated place.
This word is used of the wilderness of
a. Beersheba Gen 21:14 - on the southern border of Palestine;
b. the Red Sea Exo 13:18.
c. of Shur Exo 15:22.
d. a portion of the Sinaitic peninsula; of Sin Exo 17:1.
e. Sinai Lev 7:38.
f. Moab Deu 2:8.
g. Judah Jud 1:16.
h. Ziph, Maon, En-gedi 1Sa 23:14,24 24:1.
i. Jeruel and Tekoa 2Ch 20:16,20.
j. Kadesh Psa 29:8.
k. "The wilderness of the sea" Isa 21:1 - Principal Douglas,
referring to this expression, says: "A mysterious name, which
must be meant to describe Babylon (see especially) Isa 21:9.
perhaps because it became the place of discipline to God's
people, as the wilderness of the Red Sea had been (comp.)
Eze 20:35 - Otherwise it is in contrast with the symbolic
title in Isa 22:1 - Jerusalem is the "valley of vision,"
rich in spiritual husbandry; whereas Babylon, the rival centre
of influence, is spiritually barren and as restless as the sea
(comp.) Isa 57:20 - " A Short Analysis of the O.T.
2. Jeshimon, a desert waste Deu 32:10 Psa 68:7.
3. 'Arabah, the name given to the valley from the Dead Sea to the
eastern branch of the Red Sea. In Deu 1:1 2:8 - it is rendered
"plain" (R.V., "Arabah").
4. Tziyyah, a "dry place" Psa 78:17 105:41.
5. Tohu, a "desolate" place, a place "waste" or "unoccupied"
Deu 32:10 Job 12:24 - comp. Gen 1:2 - "without form". The
wilderness region in the Sinaitic peninsula through which for
forty years the Hebrews wandered is generally styled "the
wilderness of the wanderings." This entire region is in the form
of a triangle, having its base toward the north and its apex
toward the south. Its extent from north to south is about 250
miles, and at its widest point it is about 150 miles broad.
Throughout this vast region of some 1,500 square miles there is
not a single river. The northern part of this triangular
peninsula is properly the "wilderness of the wanderings"
(et-Tih). The western portion of it is called the "wilderness of
Shur" Exo 15:22 - and the eastern the "wilderness of Paran."
The "wilderness of Judea" Mat 3:1 - is a wild, barren region,
lying between the Dead Sea and the Hebron Mountains. It is the
"Jeshimon" mentioned in 1Sa 23:19.


1. Heb. 'arabim Lev 23:40 Job 40:22 Isa 15:7 44:3-4 Psa 137:1-2.
This was supposed to be the weeping willow, called by Linnaeus
Salix Babylonica, from the reference in Psa 137:1-2 - This
tree is frequently found "on the coast, overhanging wells and
pools. There is a conspicuous tree of this species over a pond
in the plain of Acre, and others on the Phoenician plain." There
are several species of the salix in Palestine, but it is not
indigenous to Babylonia, nor was it cultivated there. Some are
of opinion that the tree intended is the tamarisk or poplar.
2. Heb. tzaphtzaphah Eze 17:5 - called by the Arabs the safsaf, the
general name for the willow. This may be the Salix AEgyptica of
naturalists. Tristram thinks that by the "willow by the
water-courses," the Nerium oleander, the rose-bay oleander, is
meant. He says, "It fringes the Upper Jordan, dipping its wavy
crown of red into the spray in the rapids under Hermon, and is
nutured by the oozy marshes in the Lower Jordan nearly as far as
to Jericho...On the Arnon, on the Jabbok, and the Yarmuk it
forms a continuous fringe. In many of the streams of Moab it
forms a complete screen, which the sun's rays can never
penetrate to evaporate the precious moisture. The wild boar lies
safely ensconced under its impervious cover."


Isa 3:22 - (R.V., "shawls"), a wrap or veil. The same Hebrew word is
rendered "vail" (R.V., "mantle") in Rut 3:15.


Properly only an opening in a house for the admission of light and
air, covered with lattice-work, which might be opened or closed
2Ki 1:2 Act 20:9 - The spies in Jericho and Paul at Damascus were
let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town wall
Jos 2:15 2Co 11:33 - The clouds are metaphorically called the
"windows of heaven" Gen 7:11 Mal 3:10 - The word thus rendered in
Isa 54:12 - ought rather to be rendered "battlements" (LXX.,
"bulwarks;" R.V., "pinnacles"), or as Gesenius renders it, "notched
battlements, i.e., suns or rays of the sun"= having a radiated
appearance like the sun.


Blowing from the four quarters of heaven Jer 49:36 Eze 37:9 Dan 8:8.
Zec 2:6 - The east wind was parching Eze 17:10 19:12 - and is
sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind Job 27:21.
Isa 27:8 - This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June,
as the west wind Luk 12:54 - does from November to February. The
south was a hot wind Job 37:17 Luk 12:55 - It swept over the Arabian
peninsula. The rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a
whirlwind Isa 21:1 - a commotion among the nations of the world as
a striving of the four winds Dan 7:2 - The winds are subject to the
divine power Psa 18:10 135:7.


The common Hebrew word for wine is - yayin -, from a root meaning "to
boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning
"to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The
Greek word for wine is - oinos -, and the Latin - vinun -. But besides
this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus
1. Ashishah 2Sa 6:19 1Ch 16:3 So 2:5 Hos 3:1 - which, however, rather
denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised
Version, a cake of raisins.
2. 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year
Son 8:2 Isa 49:26 Joe 1:5 3:18 Amo 9:13 - from a root meaning "to
tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring
to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of
intoxication is ascribed to it.
3. Hometz.
See VINEGAR 03771.
4. Hemer, Deu 32:14 - (rendered "blood of the grape") Isa 27:2.
("red wine"), Ezr 6:9 7:22 Dan 5:1-2,4 - This word conveys the
idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when
poured out. It is derived from the root - hamar -, meaning "to
boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or
becoming inflamed.
5. 'Enabh, a grape Deu 32:14 - The last clause of this verse should
be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the
grape ['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hos 3:1 - the
phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the
Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp.)
Gen 49:11 Num 6:3 Deu 23:24 - etc., where this Hebrew word is
rendered in the plural "grapes."
6. Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that
increase its stimulating properties Isa 5:22 Psa 75:8 - "The wine
[yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Pro 23:30.
"mixed wine;" Isa 65:11 - "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled
7. Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" Deu 28:51 - "new wine"
Pro 3:10 - "sweet wine" Mic 6:15 - R.V., "vintage". This Hebrew
word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of"
and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in
intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the
blessings promised to Esau Gen 27:28 - mention is made of "plenty
of corn and tirosh." Palestine is called "a land of corn and
tirosh" Deu 33:28 - comp. Isa 36:17 - See also Deu 28:51.
2Ch 32:28 Joe 2:19 Hos 4:11 - ("wine [yayin] and new wine
[tirosh] take away the heart").
8. Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up,"
"absorb"), found only in Isa 1:22 Hos 4:18 - ("their drink;"
Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nah 1:10.
("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their
drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e.,
according to their sobhe).
9. Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root
meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term
applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Num 28:7.
"strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes
distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev 10:9 - "Do not drink wine
[yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Num 6:3 Jud 13:4,7 Isa 28:7.
(in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated
"strong drink" also in Isa 5:11 24:9 29:9 56:12 Pr 20:1 31:6.
Mic 2:11.
See DRINK, STRONG 01079.
10. Yekebh Deu 16:13 - but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into
which the new wine flowed from the press. Joe 2:24 - "their
vats;" Joe 3:13 - "the fats;" Pro 3:10 - "Thy presses shall burst
out with new wine [tirosh];" Hag 2:16 Jer 48:33 - "wine-presses;"
2Ki 6:27 Job 24:11.
11. Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In
Isa 25:6 - it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine
that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine.
12. Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with
water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength,
or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken
Psa 75:8 Pr 23:30 - In Act 2:13 - the word - gleukos -, rendered
"new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been
intoxicating. In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of
what they called - debash -, which was obtained by boiling down
must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In
Gen 43:11 - this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of
syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This
word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey"
(debash), Exo 3:8,17 13:5 33:3 Lev 20:24 Num 13:27.
See HONEY 01809.
Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of
Galilee Joh 2:1-11 - The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine
Jer 35:1 - The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use
during the period of their vow Num 6:1-4 - and those who were
dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain
from it Jud 13:4-5 Luk 1:15 7:33 - The priests, too, were forbidden
the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred
functions Lev 10:1,9-11 - "Wine is little used now in the East, from
the fact that Muslims are not allowed to taste it, and very few of
other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with
it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people
indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in
fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of
drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times,
for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than
seventy times in the Bible. A drink-offering of wine was presented
with the daily sacrifice Exo 29:40,41 - and also with the offering
of the first-fruits Lev 23:13 - and with various other sacrifices
Num 15:5,7,10 - Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover.
And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened
bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as
memorials of his body and blood. Several emphatic warnings are given
in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine
Luk 21:34 Ro 13:13 Eph 5:18 1Ti 3:8 Ti 1:7.


Mar 12:1 - The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here
in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus),
as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes
ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole
apparatus. In the parallel passage in Mat 21:33 - the Greek word
- lenos - is used. This properly denotes the upper one of the two vats.

See WINE-PRESS 03818.


Consisted of two vats or receptacles,
1. A trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were
thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised
Isa 16:10 La 1:15 Joe 3:13.
2. A trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the
juice ran from the trough above, the gath Neh 13:15 Job 24:11.
Isa 63:2-3 Hag 2:16 Joe 2:24 - Wine-presses are found in almost
every part of Palestine. They are "the only sure relics we have
of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron
and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound
in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys
of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of
the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment
Isa 63:2 La 1:15 Rev 14:19,20.


Corn was winnowed,
1. By being thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this
was done in the evening or during the night, when the west wind
from the sea was blowing, which was a moderate breeze and fitted
for the purpose. The north wind was too strong, and the east
wind came in gusts. Rut 3:2 Jer 4:11,12.
2. By the use of a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away
Isa 30:24 Mat 3:12.

Wise Men

Mentioned in Dan 2:12 - included three classes,
1. astrologers,
2. Chaldeans, and
3. soothsayers.

The word in the original (hakamim) probably means "medicine men. In
Chaldea medicine was only a branch of magic. The "wise men" of
Mat 2:7 - who came from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia
or Arabia.

Wise, Wisdom

a moral rather than an intellectual quality.
1. To be "foolish" is to be godless Psa 14:1 - comp. Jud 19:23.
2Sa 13:13.
2. True wisdom is a gift from God to those who ask it Job 28:12-28.
Pro 3:13-18 Ro 1:22 16:27 1Co 1:17-21 2:6-8 Jas 1:5.
3. "Wisdom" in Pro 1:20 8:1 9:1-5 - may be regarded not as a mere
personification of the attribute of wisdom, but as a divine person,
"Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" 1Co 1:24 - In
Mat 11:19 - it is the personified principle of wisdom that is meant.


Occurs only in Exo 22:18 - as the rendering of - mekhashshepheh -, the
feminine form of the word, meaning "enchantress" (R.V., "sorceress"),
and in Deu 18:10 - as the rendering of - mekhashshepheth -, the masculine
form of the word, meaning "enchanter."


1Sa 15:23 2Ki 9:22 2Ch 33:6 Mic 5:12 Na 3:4 Gal 5:20 - In the popular
sense of the word no mention is made either of witches or of
witchcraft in Scripture. The "witch of En-dor" 1Sa 28:7-25 - was a
necromancer, i.e., one who feigned to hold converse with the dead.
The damsel with "a spirit of divination" Act 16:16 - was possessed by
an evil spirit, or, as the words are literally rendered, "having a
spirit, a pithon." The reference is to the heathen god Apollo, who
was regarded as the god of prophecy.


1. More than one witness was required in criminal cases
Deu 17:6 19:15.
2. They were the first to execute the sentence on the condemned
Deu 13:9 17:7 1Ki 21:13 Mat 27:1 Act 7:57,58.
3. False witnesses were liable to punishment Deu 19:16-21.
4. It was also an offence to refuse to bear witness Lev 5:1.

Witness of the Spirit

Rom 8:16 - the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit
on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work
continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his
stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to
works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc.


A pretender to supernatural knowledge and power, "a knowing one," as
the original Hebrew word signifies. Such an one was forbidden on pain
of death to practise his deceptions Lev 19:31 20:6,27 1Sa 28:3.
Isa 8:19 19:3.


Heb. zeeb, frequently referred to in Scripture as an emblem of
treachery and cruelty. Jacob's prophecy, "Benjamin shall ravin as a
wolf" Gen 49:27 - represents the warlike character of that tribe (see)
Jud 19:1 - Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom by the
words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" Isa 11:6 - The habits
of the wolf are described in Jer 5:6 Hab 1:8 Zep 3:3 Eze 22:27.
Mat 7:15 10:16 Act 20:29 - Wolves are still sometimes found in
Palestine, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old.


1. Was "taken out of man" Gen 2:23 - and therefore the man has the
2. "The head of the woman is the man;" but yet honour is to be shown
to the wife, "as unto the weaker vessel" 1Co 11:3,8-9 1Pe 3:7.
3. Several women are mentioned in Scripture as having been endowed
with prophetic gifts, as
a. Miriam Exo 15:20.
b. Deborah Jud 4:4-5.
c. Huldah 2Ki 22:14.
d. Noadiah Neh 6:14.
e. Anna Luk 2:36,37.
f. the daughters of Philip the evangelist Act 21:8,9.
4. Women are forbidden to teach publicly 1Co 14:34-35 1Ti 2:11-12.
5. Among the Hebrews it devolved upon women:
a. to prepare the meals for the household Gen 18:6 2Sa 13:8.
b. to attend to the work of spinning Exo 35:26 Pr 31:19.
c. making clothes 1Sa 2:19 Pr 31:21.
d. to bring water from the well Gen 24:15 1Sa 9:11.
e. to care for the flocks Gen 29:6 Ex 2:16.
6. The word "woman," as used in Mat 15:28 Joh 2:4 20:13,15 - implies
tenderness and courtesy and not disrespect. Only where revelation
is known has woman her due place of honour assigned to her.


See FOREST 01374.


Neh 10:34 13:31 - It would seem that in the time of Nehemiah
arrangements were made, probably on account of the comparative
scarcity of wood, by which certain districts were required, as chosen
by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire perpetually burning
Lev 6:13.


One of the first material used for making woven cloth
Lev 13:47,48,52,59 19:19 - The first-fruit of wool was to be offered
to the priests Deu 18:4 - The law prohibiting the wearing of a
garment "of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen together"
Deu 22:11 - may, like some other laws of a similar character, have
been intended to express symbolically the separateness and simplicity
of God's covenant people. The wool of Damascus, famous for its
whiteness, was of great repute in the Tyrian market Eze 27:18.

Word of God

Heb 4:12 - etc. The Bible so called because the writers of its
several books were God's organs in communicating his will to men. It
is his "word," because he speaks to us in its sacred pages. Whatever
the inspired writers here declare to be true and binding upon us, God
declares to be true and binding. This word is infallible, because
written under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and therefore free
from all error of fact or doctrine or precept.
See BIBLE 00580.
All saving knowledge is obtained from the word of God. In the case of
adults it is an indispensable means of salvation, and is efficacious
thereunto by the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit
Joh 17:17 2Ti 3:15-16 1Pe 1:23.

Word, The

(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the
writings of John Joh 1:1-14 1Jo 1:1 Rev 19:13 - As such, Christ is the
revealer of God. His office is to make God known. "No man hath seen
God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the
Father, he hath declared him" Joh 1:18 - This title designates the
divine nature of Christ. As the Word, he "was in the beginning" and
"became flesh." "The Word was with God and "was God," and was the
Creator of all things (comp.) Psa 33:6 107:20 119:89 147:18 Isa 40:8.

Works, Covenant of

Entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the
human race (comp.) Gen 9:11-12 17:1-21 - so styled because perfect
obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the covenant
of grace.


Works, Good

The old objection against the doctrine of salvation by grace, that it
does away with the necessity of good works, and lowers the sense of
their importance Rom 6:1-23 - although it has been answered a
thousand times, is still alleged by many. They say if men are not
saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the most moral of men
are saved in the same way as the very chief of sinners, then good
works are of no moment. And more than this, if the grace of God is
most clearly displayed in the salvation of the vilest of men, then the
worse men are the better. The objection has no validity. The gospel of
salvation by grace shows that good works are necessary. It is true,
unchangeably true, that without holiness no man shall see the Lord.
"Neither adulterers, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards" shall
inherit the kingdom of God. Works are "good" only when,
1. they spring from the principle of love to God. The moral
character of an act is determined by the moral principle that
prompts it. Faith and love in the heart are the essential
elements of all true obedience. Hence good works only spring
from a believing heart, can only be wrought by one reconciled to
God Eph 2:10 Jas 2:18-22.
2. Good works have the glory of God as their object; and
3. they have the revealed will of God as their only rule
Deu 12:32 Rev 22:18,19.

Good works are an expression of gratitude in the believer's heart
Joh 14:15,23 Gal 5:6 - They are the fruits of the Spirit
Tit 2:10-12 - and thus spring from grace, which they illustrate and
strengthen in the heart. Good works of the most sincere believers are
all imperfect, yet like their persons they are accepted through the
mediation of Jesus Christ Col 3:17 - and so are rewarded; they have
no merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace.


1. Heb. sas Isa 51:8 - denotes the caterpillar of the clothes-moth.
2. The manna bred worms (tola'im), but on the Sabbath there was not
any worm (rimmah) therein Exo 16:20,24 - Here these words refer to
caterpillars or larvae, which feed on corrupting matter. These
two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable Job 25:6.
Isa 14:11 - Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar
Deu 28:39 Jon 4:7 - and rimmah, the larvae, as bred from
putridity Job 17:14 21:26 24:20 - In Mic 7:17 - where it is
said, "They shall move out of their holes like worms," perhaps
serpents or "creeping things," or as in the Revised Version,
"crawling things," are meant. The word is used figuratively in
Job 25:6 Psa 22:6 Isa 41:14 Mar 9:44,46,48 Isa 66:24.


Heb. la'anah, the Artemisia absinthium of botanists. It is noted for
its intense bitterness Deu 29:18 Pr 5:4 Jer 9:15 Amo 5:7 - It is a type
of bitterness, affliction, remorse, punitive suffering. In Amo 6:12.
this Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock" (R.V., "wormwood"). In the
symbolical language of the Apocalypse Rev 8:10-11 - a star is
represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing the third
part of the water to turn wormwood. The name by which the Greeks
designated it, absinthion, means "undrinkable." The absinthe of
France is distilled from a species of this plant. The "southernwood"
or "old man," cultivated in cottage gardens on account of its
fragrance, is another species of it.


Homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any
created being Exo 34:14 Isa 2:8 - Such worship was refused by Peter
Act 10:25-26 - and by an angel Rev 22:8,9.


(Gr. neocoros temple-sweeper Act 19:35 - of the great goddess Diana).
This name neocoros appears on most of the extant Ephesian coins


Eph 6:12.

See GAMES 01425.


The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early
Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book"
Exo 17:14 - a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is
afterwards made of writing Exo 28:11,21,29,36 31:18 32:15-16 34:1-28.
Exo 39:6,14,30 - The origin of this art is unknown, but there is
reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was well known. The
inspired books of Moses are the most ancient extant writings, although
there are written monuments as old as about B.C. 2000 The words
expressive of "writing," "book," and "ink," are common to all the
branches or dialects of the Semitic language, and hence it has been
concluded that this art must have been known to the earliest Semites
before they separated into their various tribes, and nations, and
families. "The Old Testament and the discoveries of Oriental
archaeology alike tell us that the age of the Exodus was throughout
the world of Western Asia an age of literature and books, of readers
and writers, and that the cities of Palestine were stored with the
contemporaneous records of past events inscribed on imperishable clay.
They further tell us that the kinsfolk and neighbours of the
Israelites were already acquainted with alphabetic writing, that the
wanderers in the desert and the tribes of Edom were in contact with
the cultured scribes and traders of Ma'in [Southern Arabia], and that
the 'house of bondage' from which Israel had escaped was a land where
the art of writing was blazoned not only on the temples of the gods,
but also on the dwellings of the rich and powerful.", Sayce.
See DEBIR 00995.
See PHOENICIA 02943.
The "Book of the Dead" was a collection of prayers and formulae, by
the use of which the souls of the dead were supposed to attain to rest
and peace in the next world. It was composed at various periods from
the earliest time to the Persian conquest. It affords an interesting
glimpse into the religious life and system of belief among the ancient
Egyptians. We learn from it that they believed in the existence of one
Supreme Being, the immortality of the soul, judgement after death, and
the resurrection of the body. It shows, too, a high state of literary
activity in Egypt in the time of Moses. It refers to extensive
libraries then existing. That of Ramessium, in Thebes, e.g., built by
Rameses II., contained 20,000 books. When the Hebrews entered Canaan
it is evident that the art of writing was known to the original
inhabitants, as appears, e.g., from the name of the city Debir having
been at first Kirjath-sepher, i.e., the "city of the book," or the
"book town" Jos 10:38 15:15 Jud 1:11 - The first mention of
letter-writing is in the time of David 2Sa 11:14-15 - Letters are
afterwards frequently spoken of 1Ki 21:8-9,11 2Ki 10:1,3,6-7 19:14.
2Ch 21:12-15 30:1,6-9 - etc.

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