Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - T

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A sandy place, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, on the
south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of
Megiddo. Its king was conquered by Joshua Jos 12:21 - It was assigned
to the Levites of the family of Kohath Jos 17:11-18 21:25 - It is
mentioned in the song of Deborah Jud 5:19 - It is identified with the
small modern village of Ta'annuk.


Approach to Shiloh, a place on the border of Ephraim Jos 16:6.
probably the modern T'ana, a ruin 7 miles south-east of Shechem,
on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain.


Impressions; rings, "the children of," returned from the Captivity
Ezr 2:43.


Famous, a town in the tribe of Ephraim Jud 7:22 - to the south of
Bethshean, near the Jordan.


Goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria
in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz Isa 7:6.


A Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt to
prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem Ezr 4:7.


Burning, a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the "fire of the
Lord" consumed the murmuring Israelites Num 11:3 Deu 9:22 - It was also
called Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.).


Playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nah 2:7 - where alone it occurs,
it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret.


1. A house or dwelling-place Job 5:24 18:6 - etc.
2. A portable shrine (comp.) Act 19:24 - containing the image of
Moloch Amo 5:26 - marg. and R.V., "Siccuth".
3. The human body 2Co 5:1,4 - a tent, as opposed to a permanent
4. The sacred tent (Heb. mishkan, "the dwelling-place"); the
movable tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God,
according to the "pattern" which God himself showed to him on
the mount Exo 25:9 Heb 8:5 - It is called
a. "the tabernacle of the congregation," rather "of meeting",
i.e., where God promised to meet with Israel Exo 29:42 - the
b. "tabernacle of the testimony" Exo 38:21 Num 1:50 - which does
not, however, designate the whole structure, but only the
enclosure which contained the "ark of the testimony"
Exo 25:16,22 Num 9:15.
c. the "tabernacle of witness" Num 17:8.
d. the "house of the Lord" Deu 23:18.
e. the "temple of the Lord" Jos 6:24.
f. a "sanctuary" Exo 25:8.

A particular account of the materials which the people provided
for the erection and of the building itself is recorded in Ex 25
The execution of the plan mysteriously given to Moses was
intrusted to Bezaleel and Aholiab, who were specially endowed
with wisdom and artistic skill, probably gained in Egypt, for
this purpose Exo 35:30-35 - The people provided materials for
the tabernacle so abundantly that Moses was under the necessity
of restraining them Exo 36:6 - These stores, from which they
so liberally contributed for this purpose, must have consisted
in a great part of the gifts which the Egyptians so readily
bestowed on them on the eve of the Exodus Exo 12:35-36 - The
tabernacle was a rectangular enclosure, in length about 45 feet
(i.e., reckoning a cubit at 18 inches) and in breadth and height
about 15 Its two sides and its western end were made of boards
of acacia wood, placed on end, resting in sockets of brass, the
eastern end being left open Exo 26:22 - This framework was
covered with four coverings, the first of linen, in which
figures of the symbolic cherubim were wrought with needlework in
blue and purple and scarlet threads, and probably also with
threads of gold Exo 26:1-6 36:8-13 - Above this was a second
covering of twelve curtains of black goats'-hair cloth, reaching
down on the outside almost to the ground Exo 26:7-11 - The
third covering was of rams' skins dyed red, and the fourth was
of badgers' skins (Heb. tahash, i.e., the dugong, a species of
seal), Exo 25:5 26:14 35:7,23 36:19 39:34 - Internally it was
divided by a veil into two chambers, the exterior of which was
called the holy place, also "the sanctuary" Heb 9:2 - and the
"first tabernacle" Heb 9:6 - and the interior, the holy of
holies, "the holy place," "the Holiest," the "second tabernacle"
Exo 28:29 Heb 9:3,7 - The veil separating these two chambers
was a double curtain of the finest workmanship, which was never
passed except by the high priest once a year, on the great Day
of Atonement. The holy place was separated from the outer court
which enclosed the tabernacle by a curtain, which hung over the
six pillars which stood at the east end of the tabernacle, and
by which it was entered. The order as well as the typical
character of the services of the tabernacle are recorded in
Heb 9:1-10:22 - The holy of holies, a cube of 10 cubits, contained
the "ark of the testimony", i.e., the oblong chest containing the
two tables of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded.
The holy place was the western and larger chamber of the
tabernacle. Here were placed the table for the shewbread, the
golden candlestick, and the golden altar of incense. Round about
the tabernacle was a court, enclosed by curtains hung upon sixty
pillars Exo 27:9-18 - This court was 150 feet long and 75 feet
broad. Within it were placed the altar of burnt offering, which
measured 7 1/2 feet in length and breadth and 4 1/2 feet high, with
horns at the four corners, and the laver of brass Exo 30:18.
which stood between the altar and the tabernacle. The whole
tabernacle was completed in seven months. On the first day of the
first month of the second year after the Exodus, it was formally
set up, and the cloud of the divine presence descended on it
Exo 39:22-43 40:1-38 - It cost 29 talents 730 shekels of gold,
100 talents 1,775 shekels of silver, 70 talents 2,400 shekels of
brass Exo 38:24-31 - The tabernacle was so constructed that it
could easily be taken down and conveyed from place to place during
the wanderings in the wilderness. The first encampment of the
Israelites after crossing the Jordan was at Gilgal, and there the
tabernacle remained for seven years Jos 4:19 - It was afterwards
removed to Shiloh Jos 18:1 - where it remained during the time
of the Judges, till the days of Eli, when the ark, having been
carried out into the camp when the Israelites were at war with the
Philistines, was taken by the enemy 1Sa 4:1 - and was never
afterwards restored to its place in the tabernacle. The old
tabernacle erected by Moses in the wilderness was transferred to
Nob 1Sa 21:1 - and after the destruction of that city by Saul
1Sa 22:9 1Ch 16:39-40 - to Gibeon. It is mentioned for the last
time in 1Ch 21:29 - A new tabernacle was erected by David at
Jerusalem 2Sa 6:17 1Ch 16:1 - and the ark was brought from
Perez-uzzah and deposited in it 2Sa 6:8-17 2Ch 1:4 - The word
thus rendered ('ohel) in Exo 33:7 - denotes simply a tent,
probably Moses' own tent, for the tabernacle was not yet erected.

Tabernacles, Feast of

the third of the great annual festivals of the Jews Lev 23:33-43.
It is also called the "feast of ingathering" Exo 23:16 Deu 16:13 - It
was celebrated immediately after the harvest, in the month Tisri, and
the celebration lasted for eight days Lev 23:33-43 - During that
period the people left their homes and lived in booths formed of the
branches of trees. The sacrifices offered at this time are mentioned
in Num 29:13-38 - It was at the time of this feast that Solomon's
temple was dedicated 1Ki 8:2 - Mention is made of it after the
return from the Captivity. This feast was designed
1. to be a memorial of the wilderness wanderings, when the people
dwelt in booths Lev 23:43 - and
2. to be a harvest thanksgiving Neh 8:9-18.
The Jews, at a later time, introduced two appendages to the original
festival, viz.,
1. that of drawing water from the Pool of Siloam, and pouring it
upon the altar Joh 7:2,37 - as a memorial of the water from the
rock in Horeb; and
2. of lighting the lamps at night, a memorial of the pillar of fire
by night during their wanderings. "The feast of Tabernacles, the
harvest festival of the Jewish Church, was the most popular and
important festival after the Captivity. At Jerusalem it was a
gala day. It was to the autumn pilgrims, who arrived on the 14th
(of the month Tisri, the feast beginning on the 15th) day, like
entrance into a silvan city. Roofs and courtyards, streets and
squares, roads and gardens, were green with boughs of citron and
myrtle, palm and willow. The booths recalled the pilgrimage
through the wilderness. The ingathering of fruits prophesied of
the spiritual harvest.", Valling's Jesus Christ, p. 133


(in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was
distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was sent
for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over the dead
body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes and sat up;
and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling the
saints and widows, he presented her alive" Act 9:36-43.


Mar 7:4 - means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the Jews
reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of raised
tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the Captivity.
Before this they had, properly speaking, no table. That which served
the purpose was a skin or piece of leather spread out on the carpeted
floor. Sometimes a stool was placed in the middle of this skin.

See BANQUET 00434.
See MEALS 02451.


Probably a string of beads worn round the neck Exo 35:22 Num 31:50 - In
Isa 3:20 - the Hebrew word means a perfume-box, as it is rendered in
the Revised Version.


A height.
1. Now Jebel et-Tur, a cone-like prominent mountain, 11 miles
west of the Sea of Galilee. It is about 1,843 feet high. The
view from the summit of it is said to be singularly extensive
and grand. This is alluded to in Psa 89:12 Jer 46:18 - It was
here that Barak encamped before the battle with Sisera (q.v.)
Jud 4:6-14 - There is an old tradition, which, however, is
unfounded, that it was the scene of the transfiguration of our
See HERMON 01754.
"The prominence and isolation of Tabor, standing, as it does, on
the border-land between the northern and southern tribes,
between the mountains and the central plain, made it a place of
note in all ages, and evidently led the psalmist to associate it
with Hermon, the one emblematic of the south, the other of the
north." There are some who still hold that this was the scene of
the transfiguration (q.v.).
2. A town of Zebulum 1Ch 6:77.
3. The "plain of Tabor" 1Sa 10:3 - should be, as in the Revised
Version, "the oak of Tabor." This was probably the Allon-bachuth
of Gen 35:8.


(Heb. toph), a timbrel (q.v.) or tambourine, generally played by women
Gen 31:27 1Sa 10:5 18:6 - In Job 17:6 - the word (Heb. topheth)
"tabret" should be, as in the Revised Version, "an open abhorring"
(marg., "one in whose face they spit;" lit., "a spitting in the face").


Good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria 1Ki 15:18.


Hooks or clasps by which the tabernacle curtains were connected
Exo 26:6,11,33 35:11.


=Hach'monite, a name given to Jashobeam 2Sa 23:8 - comp. 1Ch 11:11.


Isa 33:23 - the ropes attached to the mast of a ship. In Act 27:19.
this word means generally the furniture of the ship or the "gear"
Act 27:17 - all that could be removed from the ship.


Palm, a city built by Solomon "in the wilderness" 2Ch 8:4 - In
1Ki 9:18 - where the word occurs in the Authorized Version, the
Hebrew text and the Revised Version read "Tamar," which is properly a
city on the southern border of Palestine and toward the wilderness
(comp.) Eze 47:19 48:28 - In 2Ch 8:1-4 - Tadmor is mentioned in
connection with Hamath-zobah. It is called Palmyra by the Greeks and
Romans. It stood in the great Syrian wilderness, 176 miles from
Damascus and 130 from the Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast
commercial traffic with Western Asia. It was also an important
military station.
See SOLOMON 03473.
"Remains of ancient temples and palaces, surrounded by splendid
colonnades of white marble, many of which are yet standing, and
thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered over a large extent of
space, attest the ancient magnificence of this city of palms,
surpassing that of the renowned cities of Greece and Rome."


=Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called "Daphne" by the Greeks, now Tell
Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on the Tanitic branch of the
Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from Jerusalem fled
to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and settled there
for a time Jer 2:16 43:7 44:1 46:14 - A platform of brick-work, which
there is every reason to believe was the pavement at the entry of
Pharaoh's palace, has been discovered at this place. "Here," says the
discoverer, Mr. Petrie, "the ceremony described by Jeremiah
Jer 43:8-10 - ["brick-kiln", i.e., pavement of brick] took place
before the chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here
Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion" (R.V., "brickwork").


The wife of Pharaoh, who gave her sister in marriage to Hadad the
Edomite 1Ki 11:19,20.


The land of the newly inhabited, 2Sa 24:6 - It is conjectured that,
instead of this word, the reading should be, "the Hittites of
Kadesh," the Hittite capital, on the Orontes. It was apparently some
region east of the Jordan and north of Gilead.


1. Heb. tokhen, "a task," as weighed and measured out tally, i.e.,
the number told off; the full number Exo 5:18 - see
1Sa 18:27 1Ch 9:28 - In Eze 45:11 - rendered "measure."
2. Heb. hegeh, "a thought;" "meditation" Psa 90:9 - meaning properly
"as a whisper of sadness," which is soon over, or "as a thought."
The LXX. and Vulgate render it "spider;" the Authorized Version
and Revised Version, "as a tale" that is told. In Job 37:2 - this
word is rendered "sound;" Revised Version margin, "muttering;" and
in Eze 2:10 - "mourning."


1. Of silver contained 3,000 shekels Exo 38:25-26 - and was equal to
94 3/4 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent, however, as in the
LXX., was only 82 1/2 lbs. It was in the form of a circular mass,
as the Hebrew name - kikkar - denotes.
2. A talent of gold was double the weight of a talent of silver
2Sa 12:30 - Parable of the talents Mat 18:24 25:15.

Talitha Cumi

Mar 5:41 - a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little maid,
arise." Peter, who was present when the miracle was wrought, recalled
the actual words used by our Lord, and told them to Mark.


Abounding in furrows.
1. One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were slain by the men of Judah
under Caleb Num 13:22 Jos 15:14 Jud 1:10.
2. A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put Amnon to
death 2Sa 3:3 13:37 - His daughter, Maachah, was one of David's
wives, and the mother of Absalom 1Ch 3:2.


1. A Levite porter 1Ch 9:17 Neh 11:19.
2. One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem
Ezr 2:42 Neh 7:45 - probably the same as No. 1.


1. A place mentioned by Ezekiel Eze 47:19 48:28 - on the
southeastern border of Palestine. Some suppose this was "Tadmor"
2. The daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er, she was
married Gen 38:6 - After her husband's death, she was married to
Onan, his brother Gen 38:8 - and on his death, Judah promised to
her that his third son, Shelah, would become her husband. This
promise was not fulfilled, and hence Tamar's revenge and Judah's
great guilt Gen 38:12-30.
3. A daughter of David 2Sa 13:1-32 1Ch 3:9 - whom Amnon shamefully
outraged and afterwards "hated exceedingly," thereby
illustrating the law of human nature noticed even by the
heathen, "Proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris",
i.e., "It is the property of human nature to hate one whom you
have injured."
4. A daughter of Absalom 2Sa 14:27.


Heb. 'eshel Gen 21:33 1Sa 22:6 31:13 - in the R.V.; but in A.V.,
"grove," "tree"); Arab. asal. Seven species of this tree are found in
Palestine. It is a "very graceful tree, with long feathery branches
and tufts closely clad with the minutest of leaves, and surmounted in
spring with spikes of beautiful pink blosoms, which seem to envelop
the whole tree in one gauzy sheet of colour" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).


A corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the Adonis of the
Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In the Chaldean calendar
there was a month set apart in honour of this god, the month of June
to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At this festival,
which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud lamentations,
bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat "weeping for Tammuz"
Eze 8:14 - The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the
months of the Hebrew calendar.


Consolation, a Netophathite; one of the captains who supported
Gedaliah 2Ki 25:23 Jer 40:8.


Eze 30:14 - marg. (zoan A.V.)

See ZOAN 03949.


1. A town in the valley or lowland of Judah; formerly a royal city
of the Canaanites Jos 12:17 15:34 - It is now called Tuffuh,
about 12 miles west of Jerusalem.
2. A town on the border of Ephraim Jos 16:8 - The "land" of Tappuah
fell to Manasseh, but the "city" to Ephraim Jos 17:8.
3. En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the springs
near Yassuf Jos 17:7.


Stopping; station, an encampment of the Hebrews in the wilderness
Num 33:27,28.


The bearded darnel, mentioned only in Mat 13:25-30 - It is the Lolium
temulentum, a species of rye-grass, the seeds of which are a strong
soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance to wheat till the
ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered. It grows
plentifully in Syria and Palestine.


1Sa 17:6 - A.V., after the LXX. and Vulg., a kind of small shield. The
margin has "gorget," a piece of armour for the throat. The Revised
Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word (kidon) by "javelin."
The same Hebrew word is used in
1. Jos 8:18 - (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin");
2. Job 39:23 - (A.V., "shield;" R.V., "javelin");
3. Job 41:29 - (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin").


A Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning "the sea coast."
1. One of the "sons" of Javan Gen 10:4 1Ch 1:7.
2. The name of a place which first comes into notice in the days of
Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has given
rise to not a little discussion. Some think there was a Tarshish
in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of
Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea 1Ki 9:26 22:48.
2Ch 9:21 - Some, again, argue that Carthage was the place so
named. There can be little doubt, however, that this is the name
of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths of the
Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs, and
meaning "the great wady" or water-course). It was founded by a
Carthaginian colony, and was the farthest western harbour of
Tyrian sailors. It was to this port Jonah's ship was about to
sail from Joppa. It has well been styled "the Peru of Tyrian
adventure;" it abounded in gold and silver mines. It appears
that this name also is used without reference to any locality.
"Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply
ships intended for a long voyage Isa 23:1,14 - ships of a large
size (sea-going ships), whatever might be the port to which they
sailed. Solomon's ships were so styled 1Ki 10:22 22:49.


The chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth and for
its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even
Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." It
was the native place of the Apostle Paul Act 21:39 - It stood on the
banks of the river Cydnus, about 12 miles north of the
Mediterranean. It is said to have been founded by Sardanapalus, king
of Assyria. It is now a ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous.

See PAUL 02871.


Prince of darkness, one of the gods of the Arvites, who colonized part
of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by Shalmaneser 2Ki 17:31.


An Assyrian word, meaning "the commander-in-chief."
1. One of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah 2Ki 18:17.
2. One of Sargon's generals Isa 20:1.


1. a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern "pasha") "on
this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on the west of the
Euphrates. This Hebrew title - pehah - is given to governors of
provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah Neh 5:14 - and to
Zerubbabel Hag 1:1 - It is sometimes translated "captain"
1Ki 20:24 Dan 3:2-3 - sometimes also "deputy" Est 8:9 9:3 - With
2. Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple Ezr 5:6 - but
at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews Ezr 6:1-13.

Taverns, The Three

A place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed
for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates. Here Paul, on
his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman Christians Act 28:15.
The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio or mutatio, that is,
halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on the way to the
city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that from
Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and that from Antium; so necessarily
here would be a halting-place, which took its name from the three
shops there, the general store, the blacksmith's, and the
refreshment-house...Tres Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but
it more correctly means three shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul,


First mentioned in the command Exo 30:11-16 - that every Jew from twenty
years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an
offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for
many generations 2Ch 24:6 Mat 17:24 - Afterwards, when the people had
kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them
1Sa 8:10-18 - to pay taxes for civil purposes 1Ki 4:7 9:15 12:4.
Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign
princes that ruled over them. In the New Testament the payment of
taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty Rom 13:1-7.
1Pe 2:13-14 - Mention is made of
1. the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers Mat 17:25.
2. the annual tax (phoros) on property Luk 20:22 23:2.
3. the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute,") Mat 17:25 22:17 Mar 12:14.
4. the temple-tax ("tribute money" two drachmas half shekel,)
Mat 17:24-27 - comp. Exo 30:13.

See TRIBUTE 03722.


Luk 2:2 - R.V., "enrolment", "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is
simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of them with a view to
their taxation. The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of
Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some
that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the
time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This decree for
the taxing referred to the whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone.

See CENSUS 00751.


Est 2:16 - a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of
the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the
year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain."

Teil Tree

(an old name for the lime-tree, the tilia), Isa 6:13 - the terebinth,
or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists. The Hebrew
word here used (elah) is rendered oak (q.v.) in Gen 35:4 Jud 6:11,19.
Isa 1:29 - etc. In Isa 61:3 - it is rendered in the plural "trees;"
Hos 4:13 - "elm" (R.V., "terebinth"). Hos 4:13 - "elm" (R.V.,
"terebinth"). In 1Sa 17:2,19 - it is taken as a proper name, "Elah"
(R.V. marg., "terebinth"). "The terebinth of Mamre, or its lineal
successor, remained from the days of Abraham till the fourth century of
the Christian era, and on its site Constantine erected a Christian
church, the ruins of which still remain." This tree "is seldom seen in
clumps or groves, never in forests, but stands isolated and weird-like
in some bare ravine or on a hill-side where nothing else towers above
the low brushwood" (Tristram).

See ELM 01186.


Weighed Dan 5:27.

Tekoa, Tekoah

Pitching of tents; fastening down, a town of Judah, about 12 miles
south of Jerusalem, and visible from the city. From this place Joab
procured a "wise woman," who pretended to be in great affliction, and
skilfully made her case known to David. Her address to the king was in
the form of an apologue, similar to that of Nathan 2Sa 12:1-6 - The
object of Joab was, by the intervention of this woman, to induce David
to bring back Absalom to Jerusalem 2Sa 14:2,4,9 - This was also the
birth-place of the prophet Amoa Amo 1:1 - It is now the village of
Teku'a, on the top of a hill among ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem,
and close to Beth-haccerem ("Herod's mountain").


Hill of corn, a place on the river Chebar, the residence of Ezekiel
Eze 3:15 - The site is unknown.


Young lambs, a place at which Saul gathered his army to fight against
Amalek 1Sa 15:4 - probably the same as Telem No 2..


Or Thelasar, Isa 37:12 2Ki 19:12 - a province in the south-east of
Assyria, probably in Babylonia. Some have identified it with Tel
Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30 miles from Sinjar.


1. A porter of the temple in the time of Ezra Ezr 10:24.
2. A town in the southern border of Judah Jos 15:24 - probably the
same as Telaim.


Hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive Jews
returned to Jerusalem Ezr 2:59 Neh 7:61.


Hill of salt, a place in Babylon from which the Jews returned (id.).
Ezr 2:59 Neh 7:61.


South; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe so
called Gen 25:15 1Ch 1:30 Job 6:19 Isa 21:14 Jer 25:23 - which settled
at a place to which he gave his name, some 250 miles south-east of
Edom, on the route between Damascus and Mecca, in the northern part
of the Arabian peninsula, toward the Syrian desert; the modern


1. A grandson of Esau, one of the "dukes of Edom" Gen 36:11,15,42.
2. A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east,"
frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted for the
wisdom of its inhabitants Amo 1:12 Ob 1:8 Jer 49:7 Eze 25:13 - It
was divided from the hills of Paran by the low plain of Arabah
Hab 3:3.


A man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job's three friends
Job 2:11 22:1.


One of the sons of Ashur, the father of Tekoa 1Ch 4:6.


1. First used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the
Lord" 1Sa 1:9.
2. In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of
a. Christ's human body Joh 2:19,21.
b. Believers are called "the temple of God" 1Co 3:16,17.
c. The Church is designated "an holy temple in the Lord"
Eph 2:21.
d. Heaven is also called a temple Rev 16:17.
e. We read also of the heathen "temple of the great goddess Diana"
Act 19:27.
3. This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house
erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It
is called
a. "the temple" 1Ki 6:17.
b. "the temple [R.V., 'house'] of the Lord" 2Ki 11:10.
c. "thy holy temple" Psa 79:1.
d. "the house of the Lord" 2Ch 23:5,12.
e. "the house of the God of Jacob" Isa 2:3.
f. "the house of my glory" Isa 60:7.
g. an "house of prayer" Isa 56:7 Mat 21:13.
h. "an house of sacrifice" 2Ch 7:12.
i. "the house of their sanctuary" 2Ch 36:17.
j. "the mountain of the Lord's house" Isa 2:2.
k. "our holy and our beautiful house" Isa 64:11.
l. "the holy mount" Isa 27:13.
m. "the palace for the Lord God" 1Ch 29:1.
n. "the tabernacle of witness" 2Ch 24:6.
o. "Zion" Psa 74:2 84:7.
p. Christ calls it "my Father's house" Joh 2:16.

Temple, Herod's

The temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon had
stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great became king
of Judea. The building had suffered considerably from natural decay as
well as from the assaults of hostile armies, and Herod, desirous of
gaining the favour of the Jews, proposed to rebuild it. This offer
was accepted, and the work was begun (B.C. 18) and carried out at
great labour and expense, and on a scale of surpassing splendour. The
main part of the building was completed in ten years, but the erection
of the outer courts and the embellishment of the whole were carried on
during the entire period of our Lord's life on earth Joh 2:16,19-21.
and the temple was completed only A.D. 65 But it was not long
permitted to exist. Within forty years after our Lord's crucifixion,
his prediction of its overthrow was accomplished Luk 19:41-44 - The
Roman legions took the city of Jerusalem by storm, and notwithstanding
the strenuous efforts Titus made to preserve the temple, his soldiers
set fire to it in several places, and it was utterly destroyed (A.D.
70) and was never rebuilt. Several remains of Herod's stately temple
have by recent explorations been brought to light. It had two courts,
one intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer
court, called "the court of the Gentiles," intended for the use of
strangers of all nations. These two courts were separated by a low
wall, as Josephus states, some 4 1/2 feet high, with thirteen
openings. Along the top of this dividing wall, at regular intervals,
were placed pillars bearing in Greek an inscription to the effect that
no stranger was, on the pain of death, to pass from the court of the
Gentiles into that of the Jews. At the entrance to a graveyard at the
north-western angle of the Haram wall, a stone was discovered by M.
Ganneau in 1871 built into the wall, bearing the following inscription
in Greek capitals: "No stranger is to enter within the partition wall
and enclosure around the sanctuary. Whoever is caught will be
responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue." There can be
no doubt that the stone thus discovered was one of those originally
placed on the boundary wall which separated the Jews from the
Gentiles, of which Josephus speaks. It is of importance to notice
that the word rendered "sanctuary" in the inscription was used in a
specific sense of the inner court, the court of the Israelites, and is
the word rendered "temple" in Joh 2:15 Act 21:28-29 - When Paul
speaks of the middle wall of partition Eph 2:14 - he probably makes
allusion to this dividing wall. Within this partition wall stood the
temple proper, consisting of,

1. the court of the women, 8 feet higher than the outer court;
2. 10 feet higher than this court was the court of Israel;
3. the court of the priests, again 3 feet higher; and lastly
4. the temple floor, 8 feet above that; thus in all 29 feet
above the level of the outer court.
The summit of Mount Moriah, on which the temple stood, is now occupied
by the Haram esh-Sherif, i.e., "the sacred enclosure." This enclosure
is about 1,500 feet from north to south, with a breadth of about 1,000
feet, covering in all a space of about 35 acres. About the centre of
the enclosure is a raised platform, 16 feet above the surrounding
space, and paved with large stone slabs, on which stands the
Muslim mosque called Kubbet es-Sahkra i.e., the "Dome of the
Rock," or the Mosque of Omar. This mosque covers the site of Solomon's
temple. In the centre of the dome there is a bare, projecting rock,
the highest part of Moriah (q.v.), measuring 60 feet by 40 standing 6
feet above the floor of the mosque, called the sahkra, i.e., "rock."
Over this rock the altar of burnt-offerings stood. It was the
threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The exact position on this
"sacred enclosure" which the temple occupied has not been yet
definitely ascertained. Some affirm that Herod's temple covered the
site of Solomon's temple and palace, and in addition enclosed a square
of 300 feet at the south-western angle. The temple courts thus are
supposed to have occupied the southern portion of the "enclosure,"
forming in all a square of more than 900 feet. It is argued by others
that Herod's temple occupied a square of 600 feet at the south-west of
the "enclosure."

Temple, Solomon's

Before his death David had "with all his might" provided
materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on the
summit of Mount Moriah 1Ch 22:14 29:4 2Ch 3:1 - on the east of the
city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up Isaac Gen 22:1-14 - In
the beginning of his reign Solomon set about giving effect to the
desire that had been so earnestly cherished by his father, and
prepared additional materials for the building. From subterranean
quarries at Jerusalem he obtained huge blocks of stone for the
foundations and walls of the temple. These stones were prepared for
their places in the building under the eye of Tyrian master-builders.
He also entered into a compact with Hiram II., king of Tyre, for the
supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly timber
from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great rafts by the
sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem 1Ki 5:1-6:38 - As the
hill on which the temple was to be built did not afford sufficient
level space, a huge wall of solid masonry of great height, in some
places more than 200 feet high, was raised across the south of the
hill, and a similar wall on the eastern side, and in the spaces
between were erected many arches and pillars, thus raising up the
general surface to the required level. Solomon also provided for a
sufficient water supply for the temple by hewing in the rocky hill
vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the
"pools" near Bethlehem. One of these cisterns, the "great sea," was
capable of containing three millions of gallons. The overflow was led
off by a conduit to the Kidron. In all these preparatory undertakings
a space of about three years was occupied; and now the process of the
erection of the great building began, under the direction of skilled
Phoenician builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon's
reign, 480 years after the Exodus 1Ki 6:1 - 2Ch 3:1 - Many
thousands of labourers and skilled artisans were employed in the
work. Stones prepared in the quarries underneath the city 1Ki 5:17-18.
of huge dimension
See QUARRIES 26032.
were gradually placed on the massive walls, and closely fitted
together without any mortar between, till the whole structure was
completed. No sound of hammer or axe or any tool of iron was heard as
the structure arose 1Ki 6:7 - "Like some tall palm the noiseless
fabric sprang." The building was 60 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and
30 cubits high. The engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in
their explorations around the temple area, discovered what is believed
to have been the "chief corner stone" of the temple, "the most
interesting stone in the world." It lies at the bottom of the
south-eastern angle, and is 3 feet 8 inches high by 14 feet long. It
rests on the solid rock at a depth of 79 feet 3 inches below the
present surface.
See PINNACLE 02957.
In examining the walls the engineers were "struck with admiration at
the vastness of the blocks and the general excellence of the
workmanship." At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his
reign, seven and a half years after it had been begun, the temple was
completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. For
thirteen years there it stood, on the summit of Moriah, silent and
unused. The reasons for this strange delay in its consecration are
unknown. At the close of these thirteen years preparations for the
dedication of the temple were made on a scale of the greatest
magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought from the tent in which
David had deposited it to the place prepared for it in the temple, and
the glory-cloud, the symbol of the divine presence, filled the house.
Then Solomon ascended a platform which had been erected for him, in
the sight of all the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured
out his heart to God in prayer 1Ki 8:1 - 2Ch 6:1-7:1.
The feast of dedication, which lasted seven days, followed by the
feast of tabernacles, marked a new era in the history of Israel. On
the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the vast
assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes filled with joy
and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service beyond the building
of the temple, he would still have influenced the religious life of
his people down to the latest days. It was to them a perpetual
reminder and visible symbol of God's presence and protection, a strong
bulwark of all the sacred traditions of the law, a witness to duty, an
impulse to historic study, an inspiration of sacred song." The temple
consisted of,
1. The oracle or most holy place 1Ki 6:19 8:6 - called also the
"inner house" 1Ki 6:27 - and the "holiest of all" Heb 9:3 - It
was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. It was floored and
wainscotted with cedar 1Ki 6:16 - and its walls and floor were
overlaid with gold 1Ki 6:20,21,30 - There was a two-leaved door
between it and the holy place overlaid with gold 2Ch 4:22 - also
a veil of blue purple and crimson and fine linen 2Ch 3:14 - comp.
Exo 26:33 - It had no windows 1Ki 8:12 - It was indeed the
dwelling-place of God.
2. The holy place (q.v.), 1Ki 8:8-10 - called also the "greater
house" 2Ch 3:5 - and the "temple" 1Ki 6:17.
3. The porch or entrance before the temple on the east 1Ki 6:3.
2Ch 3:4 29:7 - In the porch stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz
1Ki 7:21 2Ki 11:14 23:3.
4. The chambers, which were built about the temple on the southern,
western, and northern sides 1Ki 6:5-10 - These formed a part of
the building.
Round about the building were,
1. The court of the priests 2Ch 4:9 - called the "inner court"
1Ki 6:36 - It contained the altar of burnt-offering 2Ch 15:8.
the brazen sea 2Ch 4:2-5,10 - and ten lavers 1Ki 7:38,39.
2. The great court, which surrounded the whole temple 2Ch 4:9 - Here
the people assembled to worship God Jer 19:14 26:2.
This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during the
course of its history,
1. 1Ki 14:25-26 - Sishak, king of Egypt
2. 2Ki 14:14 - Jehoash, king of Israel
3. 2Ki 16:8,17-18 - Tiglathpileser, king of Assyria
4. 2Ki 18:15-16 - Sennacherib, king of Assyria
5. At last it was pillaged and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar 2Ki 24:13.
2Ch 36:7 - He burned the temple, and carried all its treasures with
him to Babylon 2Ki 25:9-17 2Ch 36:19 Isa 64:11 - These sacred
vessels were at length, at the close of the Captivity, restored to
the Jews by Cyrus Ezr 1:7-11.

Temple, The Second

After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the high
priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to reorganize
the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42
including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of
some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were
animated in all their proceeding by a strong religious impulse, and
therefore one of their first cares was to restore their ancient
worship by rebuilding the temple. On the invitation of Zerubbabel, the
governor, who showed them a remarkable example of liberality by
contributing personally 1,000 golden darics (probably about besides
other gifts, the people with great enthusiasm poured their gifts into
the sacred treasury Ezr 2:1 - First they erected and dedicated
the altar of Jehovah on the exact spot where it had formerly stood,
and they then cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied
the site of the old temple; and in the second month of the second year
(B.C. 535) amid great public excitement and rejoicing Psa 116, 117, 118
the foundations of the second temple were laid. A wide interest was
felt in this great movement, although it was regarded with mingled
feelings by the spectators Hag 2:3 Zec 4:10 - The Samaritans made
proposals for a co-operation in the work. Zerubbabel and Jeshua and
the elders, however, declined all such cooperation: Judah must build
the temple without help. Immediately evil reports were spread
regarding the Jews. The Samaritans sought to "frustrate their purpose"
Ezr 4:5 - and sent messengers to Ecbatana and Susa, with the result
that the work was suspended. Seven years after this Cyrus died
ingloriously, having killed himself in Syria when on his way back from
Egypt to the east, and was succeeded by his son Cambyses (B.C. 529) on
whose death the "false Smerdis," an imposter, occupied the throne for
some seven or eight months, and then Darius Hystaspes became king
(B.C. 522) In the second year of this monarch the work of rebuilding
the temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion
Ezr 5:6-17 6:1-15 - under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and
admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for
consecration in the spring of B.C. 516 twenty years after the return
from captivity. This second temple had not the ark, the Urim and
Thummim, the holy oil, the sacred fire, the tables of stone, the pot
of manna, and Aaron's rod. As in the tabernacle, there was in it only
one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread, and the
incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the vessels of gold
that had belonged to Solomon's temple that had been carried to Babylon
but restored by Cyrus Ezr 1:7-11 - This second temple also differed
from the first in that, while in the latter there were numerous "trees
planted in the courts of the Lord," there were none in the former. The
second temple also had for the first time a space, being a part of the
outer court, provided for proselytes who were worshippers of Jehovah,
although not subject to the laws of Judaism. The temple, when
completed, was consecrated amid great rejoicings on the part of all
the people Ezr 6:16 - although there were not wanting outward
evidences that the Jews were no longer an independent people, but were
subject to a foreign power. Hag 2:9 - is rightly rendered in the
Revised Version, "The latter glory of this house shall be greater than
the former," instead of, "The glory of this latter house," etc., in
the Authorized Version. The temple, during the different periods of
its existence, is regarded as but one house, the one only house of God
(comp.) Hag 2:3 - The glory here predicted is spiritual glory and
not material splendour. "Christ himself, present bodily in the temple
on Mount Zion during his life on earth, present spiritually in the
Church now, present in the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, of which
he is the temple, calling forth spiritual worship and devotion is the
glory here predicted" (Perowne).


1. Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted Gen 22:1.
R.V., 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt,
i.e., to try, men Jas 1:2,12 - comp. Deu 8:2 - putting their
faith and patience to the test.
2. Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which
is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" Mat 4:3 - Our
Lord was in this way tempted in the wilderness. That temptation
was not internal, but by a real, active, subtle being. It was
not self-sought. It was submitted to as an act of obedience on
his part. "Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore
him a certain violence is implied in the words" Mat 4:1-11 - The
scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed to
have been the mountain of Quarantania (q.v.), "a high and
precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain
west of Jordan, near Jericho." Temptation is common to all
Dan 12:10 Zec 13:9 Psa 66:10 Luk 22:31,40 Heb 11:17 Jas 1:12.
1Pe 1:7 4:12 - We read of the temptation of
a. Joseph Gen 39:1.
b. David 2Sa 24:1 - 1Ch 21:1.
c. Hezekiah 2Ch 32:31.
d. Daniel Dan 6:1 - etc.
So long as we are in this world we are exposed to temptations, and
need ever to be on our watch against them.


1. Heb. 'ohel Gen 9:21,27 - This word is used also of
a. a dwelling or habitation 1Ki 8:66 Isa 16:5 Jer 4:20.
b. the temple Eze 41:1.
c. When used of the tabernacle, as in 1Ki 1:39 - it denotes the
covering of goat's hair which was placed over the mishcan.
2. Heb. mishcan Son 1:8 - used also of
a. a dwelling Job 18:21 Psa 87:2.
b. the grave Isa 22:16 - comp. Isa 14:18.
c. the temple Psa 46:4 84:2 132:5.
d. the tabernacle Exo 25:9 26:1 40:9 Num 1:50,53 10:11.
e. When distinguished from 'ohel, it denotes the twelve interior
curtains which lay upon the framework of the tabernacle (q.v.).
3. Heb. kubbah Num 25:8 - a dome-like tent devoted to the impure
worship of Baal-peor.
4. Heb. succah 2Sa 11:11 - a tent or booth made of green boughs or
branches (see) Gen 33:17 Lev 23:34,42 Psa 18:11 Jon 4:5 Isa 4:6.
Neh 8:15-17 - (where the word is variously rendered).
a. Jubal was "the father of such as dwell in tents" Gen 4:20.
b. The patriarchs were "dwellers in tents" Gen 9:21,27 12:8.
Gen 13:12 26:17.
c. during their wilderness wanderings all Israel dwelt in tents
Exo 16:16 Deu 33:18 Jos 7:24.

Tents have always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life
1Sa 17:54 2Ki 7:7 Psa 120:5 So 1:5 - Paul the apostle's occupation was
that of a tent-maker Act 18:3 - i.e., perhaps a maker of tent cloth.

Tenth Deal

i.e., the tenth part of an ephah (as in the R.V.), equal to an omer or
six pints. The recovered leper, to complete his purification, was
required to bring a trespass, a sin, and a burnt offering, and to
present a meal offering, a tenth deal or an omer of flour for each,
with oil to make it into bread or cakes Lev 14:10,21 - comp.
Exo 16:36 29:40.


The wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with his
family from his native mountains in the north to the plains of
Mesopotamia. He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham, and one
daughter, Sarah. He settled in "Ur of the Chaldees," where his son
Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Nahor settled at Haran, a
place on the way to Ur. Terah afterwards migrated with Abraham
(probably his youngest son) and Lot (his grandson), together with
their families, from Ur, intending to go with them to Canaan; but he
tarried at Haran, where he spent the remainder of his days, and died
at the age of two hundred and five years Gen 11:24-32 Jos 24:2 - What a
wonderful part the descendants of this Chaldean shepherd have played
in the history of the world!


Givers of prosperity, idols in human shape, large or small, analogous
to the images of ancestors which were revered by the Romans. In order
to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize David, Michal his wife
prepared one of the household teraphim, putting on it the goat's-hair
cap worn by sleepers and invalids, and laid it in a bed, covering it
with a mantle. She pointed it out to the soldiers, and alleged that
David was confined to his bed by a sudden illness 1Sa 19:13-16 - Thus
she gained time for David's escape. It seems strange to read of
teraphim, images of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes,
being in the house of David. Probably they had been stealthily
brought by Michal from her father's house. "Perhaps," says Bishop
Wordsworth, "Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil spirit,
had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to witchcraft);
and God overruled evil for good, and made his very teraphim (by the
hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument for David's escape.",
Deane's David, p. 32 Josiah attempted to suppress this form of
idolatry 2Ki 23:24 - The ephod and teraphim are mentioned together in
Hos 3:4 - It has been supposed by some (Cheyne's Hosea) that the
"ephod" here mentioned, and also in Jud 8:24-27 - was not the part of
the sacerdotal dress so called Exo 28:6-14 - but an image of Jehovah
overlaid with gold or silver (comp.) Jud 17:1-18:1.
1Sa 21:9 23:6,9 30:7-8 - and is thus associated with the teraphim.

See THUMMIM 03648.


(R.V. marg. of Deu 11:30 - etc.), the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists;
a tree very common in the south and east of Palestine.

See OAK 02758.


Severe, a eunuch or chamberlain in the palace of Ahasuerus, who
conspired with another to murder him. The plot was detected by
Mordecai, and the conspirators were put to death Est 2:21 6:2.


The third, a Roman Christian whom Paul employed as his amanuensis in
writing his epistle to the Romans Rom 16:22.


A modification of "Tertius;" a Roman advocate, whom the Jews employed
to state their case against Paul in the presence of Felix Act 24:1-9.
The charges he adduced against the apostle were,
1. "First, that he created disturbances among the Romans throughout
the empire, an offence against the Roman government (crimen
2. Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes;
disturbed the Jews in the exercise of their religion, guaranteed
by the state; introduced new gods, a thing prohibited by the Romans
3. And thirdly, that he attempted to profane the temple, a crime which
the Jews were permitted to punish."


Occurs twelve times in the New Testament Heb 9:15 - etc. as the
rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times rendered
"covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in the Revised
Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by testamentum, whence
the names "Old" and "New Testament," by which we now designate the
two sections into which the Bible is divided.

See BIBLE 00580.


1. Witness or evidence 2Th 1:10.
2. The Scriptures, as the revelation of God's will 2Ki 11:12.
Psa 19:7 119:88 Isa 8:16,20.
3. The altar raised by the Gadites and Reubenites Jos 22:10.

Testimony, Tabernacle of

The tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained "the
testimony", i.e., the "two tables" Exo 38:21 - The ark in which
these tables were deposited was called the "ark of the testimony"
Exo 40:3 - and also simply the "testimony" Exo 27:21 30:6.


Strictly the ruler over the fourth part of a province; but the word
denotes a ruler of a province generally Mat 14:1 Luk 3:1,19 9:7.
Act 13:1 - Herod and Phasael, the sons of Antipater, were the first
tetrarchs in Palestine. Herod the tetrarch had the title of king
Mat 14:9.


Breast, the name of one of the apostles Mar 3:18 - called "Lebbaeus" in
Mat 10:3 - and in Luk 6:16 - "Judas the brother of James;" while John
Joh 14:22 - probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas,
not Iscariot." These different names all designate the same person,
viz., Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle.


A badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother Gen 22:24.


1Ki 10:22 22:48.

See TARSHISH 03588.


Only mentioned in Act 19:29,31 - The ruins of this theatre at Ephesus
still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent structure,
capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was the largest
structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres, as places of
amusement, were unknown to the Jews.


Brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the
road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army against
this place, because of its participation in the conspiracy of the men
of Shechem; but as he drew near to the strong tower to which its
inhabitants had fled for safety, and was about to set fire to it, a
woman cast a fragment of millstone at him, and "all to brake his
skull" i.e., "altogether brake," etc. His armourbearer thereupon
"thrust him through, and he died" Jud 9:50-55.


Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in
2Sa 12:6 - If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be sold
to a Hebrew master till he could pay Exo 22:1-4 - A night-thief
might be smitten till he died, and there would be no blood-guiltiness
for him Exo 22:2 - A man-stealer was to be put to death Exo 21:16.
All theft is forbidden Exo 20:15 21:16 Lev 19:11 Deu 5:19 24:7.
Psa 50:18 Zec 5:3 Mat 19:18 Ro 13:9 Eph 4:28 1Pe 4:15.


A word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the
direct government of God himself. The nation was in all things
subject to the will of their invisible King. All the people were the
servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public and private affairs,
communicating to them his will through the medium of the prophets.
They were the subjects of a heavenly, not of an earthly, king. They
were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled directly by him (comp.) 1Sa 8:6-9.


Lover of God, a Christian, probably a Roman, to whom Luke dedicated
both his Gospel Luk 1:3 - and the Acts of the Apostles Act 1:1.
Nothing beyond this is known of him. From the fact that Luke applies
to him the title "most excellent", the same title Paul uses in
addressing Felix Act 23:26 24:3 - and Festus Act 26:25 - it has
been concluded that Theophilus was a person of rank, perhaps a Roman

Thessalonians, The Epistles to

1. The first epistle to the Thessalonians
a. was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability
written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" Act 18:11,18.
early in the period of his residence there, about the end of
A.D. 52
b. The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus
from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the
state of the church there Act 18:1-5 1Th 3:6 - While, on the
whole, the report of Timothy was encouraging, it also showed
that divers errors and misunderstandings regarding the tenor of
Paul's teaching had crept in amongst them. He addresses them in
this letter with the view of correcting these errors, and
especially for the purpose of exhorting them to purity of life,
reminding them that their sanctification was the great end
desired by God regarding them. The subscription erroneously
states that this epistle was written from Athens.

2. The second epistle to the Thessalonians
a. was probably also written from Corinth, and not many months
after the first.
b. The occasion of the writing of this epistle was the arrival of
tidings that the tenor of the first epistle had been
misunderstood, especially with reference to the second advent
of Christ. The Thessalonians had embraced the idea that Paul
had taught that "the day of Christ was at hand", that Christ's
coming was just about to happen. This error is corrected
1Th 2:1-12 - and the apostle prophetically announces what
first must take place. "The apostasy" was first to arise.
Various explanations of this expression have been given, but
that which is most satisfactory refers it to the Church of


A large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the capital of
one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was ruled by a
praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of Cassander, who
built the city. She was so called by her father, Philip, because he
first heard of her birth on the day of his gaining a victory over the
Thessalians. On his second missionary journey, Paul preached in the
synagogue here, the chief synagogue of the Jews in that part of
Macedonia, and laid the foundations of a church Act 17:1-4 1Th 1:9.
The violence of the Jews drove him from the city, when he fled to
Berea Act 17:5-10 - The "rulers of the city" before whom the Jews "drew
Jason," with whom Paul and Silas lodged, are in the original called
politarchai, an unusual word, which was found, however, inscribed on
an arch in Thessalonica. This discovery confirms the accuracy of the
historian. Paul visited the church here on a subsequent occasion
Act 20:1-3 - This city long retained its importance. It is the most
important town of European Turkey, under the name of Saloniki, with a
mixed population of about 85,000


Thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the council
at Jerusalem Act 5:36 - He headed an insurrection against the Roman
authority. Beyond this nothing is known of him.

Thick Clay

Hab 2:6 - is correctly rendered in the Revised Version "pledges."
The Chaldean power is here represented as a rapacious usurer,
accumulating the wealth that belonged to others.

Thieves, The Two

Luk 23:32,39-43 - robbers, rather brigands, probably followers of
Barabbas. Our Lord's cross was placed between those of the
"malefactors," to add to the ignominy of his position. According to
tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the penitent thief hanging
on the right, and Gestas of the impenitent on the left.


1. Heb. hoah 2Ki 14:9 Job 31:40 - In Job 41:2 - the Hebrew word
is rendered "thorn," but in the Revised Version "hook." It is
also rendered "thorn" in 2Ch 33:11 Pr 26:9 So 2:2.
"brambles" in Isa 34:13 - It is supposed to be a variety of
the wild plum-tree, but by some it is regarded as the common
thistle, of which there are many varieties in Palestine.
2. Heb. dardar, meaning "a plant growing luxuriantly" Gen 3:18.
Hos 10:8 - Gr. tribolos, "a triple point" Mat 7:16 Heb 6:8.
"brier," R.V. "thistle". This was probably the star-thistle,
called by botanists Centaurea calcitropa, or "caltrops," a weed
common in corn-fields.

See THORNS 03642.


Twin, one of the twelve Mat 10:3 Mar 3:18 - etc. He was also called
Didymus Joh 11:16 20:24 - which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew
name. All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel
Joh 11:15-16 14:4-5 20:24,25-26-29 - From the circumstance that in
the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew,
who was the son of Alphaeus Mar 3:18 - and that these two are always
followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been
supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.


1. Heb. hedek Pro 15:19 - rendered "brier" in Mic 7:4 - Some
thorny plant, of the Solanum family, suitable for hedges. This
is probably the so-called "apple of Sodom," which grows very
abundantly in the Jordan valley. "It is a shrubby plant, from 3
to 5 feet high, with very branching stems, thickly clad with
spines, like those of the English brier, with leaves very large
and woolly on the under side, and thorny on the midriff."
2. Heb. kotz Gen 3:18 Hos 10:8 - rendered - akantha - by the LXX. In the
New Testament this word - akantha - is also rendered "thorns"
Mat 7:16 13:7 Heb 6:8 - The word seems to denote any thorny or
prickly plant Jer 12:13 - It has been identified with the
Ononis spinosa by some.
3. Heb. na'atzutz Isa 7:19 55:13 - This word has been interpreted as
denoting the Zizyphus spina Christi, or the jujube-tree. It is
supposed by some that the crown of thorns placed in wanton
cruelty by the Roman soldiers on our Saviour's brow before his
crucifixion was plaited of branches of this tree. It overruns a
great part of the Jordan valley. It is sometimes called the
lotus-tree. "The thorns are long and sharp and recurved, and
often create a festering wound." It often grows to a great size.
4. Heb. atad Psa 58:9 - is rendered in the LXX. and Vulgate by
Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common
all over Palestine. From its resemblance to the box it is
frequently called the box-thorn.

Thorn in the Flesh

2Co 12:7-10 - Many interpretations have been given of this passage.
1. Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to
2. Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as
denoting temptation to unbelief.
3. Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or
head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical
infirmity, which was a hindrance to the apostle in his work
(comp.) 1Co 2:3 2Co 10:10 11:30 Gal 4:13-14 6:17 - With a great
amount of probability, it has been alleged that his malady was
defect of sight, consequent on the dazzling light which shone
around him at his conversion, acute opthalmia. This would
account for the statements in Gal 4:14 2Co 10:10 - also Act 23:5.
and for his generally making use of the help of an amanuensis
(comp.) Rom 16:22 - etc.
4. Another view which has been maintained is that this "thorn"
consisted in an infirmity of temper, to which he occasionally
gave way, and which interfered with his success (comp.)
Act 15:39 23:2-5 - If we consider the fact, "which the
experience of God's saints in all ages has conclusively
established, of the difficulty of subduing an infirmity of
temper, as well as the pain, remorse, and humiliation such an
infirmity is wont to cause to those who groan under it, we may
be inclined to believe that not the least probable hypothesis
concerning the 'thorn' or 'stake' in the flesh is that the
loving heart of the apostle bewailed as his sorest trial the
misfortune that, by impatience in word, he had often wounded
those for whom he would willingly have given his life" (Lias's
Second Cor., Introd.).


Mic 5:2 - another name for "families" or "clans" Num 1:16 10:4.
Jos 22:14,21 - Several "thousands" or "families" made up a "tribe."




1. Heb. miphtan, probably a projecting beam at a higher point than
the threshold proper 1Sa 5:4-5 Eze 9:3 10:4,18 46:2 47:1 - also
rendered "door" and "door-post."
2. 'Asuppim, pl. Neh 12:25 - rendered correctly "storehouses" in the
Revised Version. In 1Ch 26:15,17 - the Authorized Version retains
the word as a proper name, while in the Revised Version it is
translated "storehouses."


(Heb. kiss'e), a royal chair or seat of dignity Deu 17:18 2Sa 7:13.
Psa 45:6 - an elevated seat with a canopy and hangings, which cover it.
It denotes the seat of the high priest in 1Sa 1:9 4:13 - and of a
provincial governor in Neh 3:7 Psa 122:5 - The throne of Solomon is
described at length in 1Ki 10:18-20.


Perfection (LXX., "truth;" Vulg., "veritas"), Exo 28:30 Deu 33:8.
Jud 1:1 20:18 1Sa 14:3,18 23:9 2Sa 21:1 - What the "Urim and Thummim"
were cannot be determined with any certainty. All we certainly know is
that they were a certain divinely-given means by which God imparted,
through the high priest, direction and counsel to Israel when these
were needed. The method by which this was done can be only a matter of
mere conjecture. They were apparently material objects, quite distinct
from the breastplate, but something added to it after all the stones
had been set in it, something in addition to the breastplate and its
jewels. They may have been, as some suppose, two small images, like
the teraphim (comp.) Jud 17:5 18:14,17,20 Hos 3:4 - which were kept
in the bag of the breastplate, by which, in some unknown way, the high
priest could give forth his divinely imparted decision when consulted.
They were probably lost at the destruction of the temple by
Nebuchadnezzar. They were never seen after the return from captivity.


Often referred to in Scripture Job 40:9 Psa 77:18 104:7 - James and John
were called by our Lord "sons of thunder" Mar 3:17 - In Job 39:19.
instead of "thunder," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised
Version translates (ra'amah) by "quivering main" (marg., "shaking").
Thunder accompanied the giving of the law at Sinai Exo 19:16 - It was
regarded as the voice of God Job 37:2 Psa 18:13 81:7 - comp.
Joh 12:29 - In answer to Samuel's prayer 1Sa 12:17-18 - God sent
thunder, and "all the people greatly feared," for at such a season
(the wheat-harvest) thunder and rain were almost unknown in Palestine.


A city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its modern
name is Ak-hissar, i.e., "white castle." Here was one of the seven
churches Rev 1:11 2:18-28 - Lydia, the seller of purple, or rather of
cloth dyed with this colour, was from this city Act 16:14 - It was and
still is famous for its dyeing. Among the ruins, inscriptions have
been found relating to the guild of dyers in that city in ancient


Wood mentioned only in Rev 18:12 - among the articles which would cease
to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood,
by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the
cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order.
The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word - thuein -, "to
sacrifice," and it was so called because it was burnt in sacrifices,
on account of its fragrance. The wood of this tree was reckoned very
valuable, and was used for making articles of furniture by the Greeks
and Romans. Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the
forests of Palestine.


A city, the modern Tubarich, on the western shore of the Sea of
Tiberias. It is said to have been founded by Herod Antipas (A.D.
16) on the site of the ruins of an older city called Rakkath, and
to have been thus named by him after the Emperor Tiberius. It is
mentioned only three times in the history of our Lord Joh 6:1-23.
Joh 21:1 - In 1837 about one-half of the inhabitants perished by an
earthquake. The population of the city is now about six thousand,
nearly the one-half being Jews. "We do not read that our Lord ever
entered this city. The reason of this is probably to be found in the
fact that it was practically a heathen city, though standing upon
Jewish soil. Herod, its founder, had brought together the arts of
Greece, the idolatry of Rome, and the gross lewdness of Asia. There
were in it a theatre for the performance of comedies, a forum, a
stadium, a palace roofed with gold in imitation of those in Italy,
statues of the Roman gods, and busts of the deified emperors. He who
was not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel might well
hold himself aloof from such scenes as these" (Manning's Those Holy
Fields). After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) Tiberias became one
of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine. It was for more
than three hundred years their metropolis. From about A.D. 150 the
Sanhedrin settled here, and established rabbinical schools, which
rose to great celebrity. Here the Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Talmud
was compiled about the beginning of the fifth century. To this same
rabbinical school also we are indebted for the Masora, a "body of
traditions which transmitted the readings of the Hebrew text of the
Old Testament, and preserved, by means of the vowel-system, the
pronunciation of the Hebrew." In its original form, and in all
manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it
ceased to be a spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels
to insert between the consonants. This is supplied by the Masora, and
hence these vowels are called the "Masoretic vowel-points."

Tiberias, Sea of

Called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the Old
Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. John
Joh 21:1 - is the only evangelist who so designates this lake. His
doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote after the
other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the taking of
Jerusalem (A.D. 70) Tiberias had by this time become an important city,
having been spared by the Romans, and made the capital of the province
when Jerusalem was destroyed. It thus naturally gave its name to the

Tiberius Caesar

i.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only
mentioned in Luk 3:1 - He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he
succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14 He was noted for his vicious and
infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the Baptist
entered on his public ministry, and under him also our Lord taught
and suffered. He died A.D. 37 He is frequently referred to simply
as "Caesar" Mat 22:17,21 Mar 12:14,16,17 Luk 20:22,24,25 23:2.
Joh 19:12,15.


Building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position, whom a
considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For the period of
four years he contended for the throne with Omri 1Ki 16:21-22 - who at
length gained the mastery, and became sole monarch of Israel.


(in the LXX. called "Thorgal"), styled the "king of nations"
Gen 14:1-9 - Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch's brick - Goyyim -,
translated "nations," is the country called Gutium, east of Tigris
and north of Elam.

Tiglath-Pileser I

(not mentioned in Scripture) was the most famous of the monarchs of
the first Assyrian empire (about B.C. 1110) After his death, for two
hundred years the empire fell into decay. The history of David and
Solomon falls within this period. He was succeeded by his son,
Shalmaneser II.

Tiglath-Pileser III

Or Tilgath-Pil-neser, the Assyrian throne-name of Pul (q.v.). He
appears in the Assyrian records as gaining, in the fifth year of his
reign (about B.C. 741) a victory over Azariah Uzziah in 2Ch 26:1.
king of Judah, whose achievements are described in 2Ch 26:6-15 - He is
first mentioned in Scripture, however, as gaining a victory over
Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin of Damascus, who were confederates.
He put Rezin to death, and punished Pekah by taking a considerable
portion of his kingdom, and carrying off (B.C. 734) a vast number of
its inhabitants into captivity 2Ki 15:29 16:5-9 1Ch 5:6,26 - the
Reubenites, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh whom he
settled in Gozan. In the Assyrian annals it is further related that,
before he returned from Syria, he held a court at Damascus, and
received submission and tribute from the neighbouring kings, among
whom were Pekah of Samaria and "Yahu-khazi [i.e., Ahaz], king of
Judah" (comp.) 2Ki 16:10-16 - He was the founder of what is called
"the second Assyrian empire," an empire meant to embrace the whole
world, the centre of which should be Nineveh. He died B.C. 728 and
was succeeded by a general of his army, Ulula, who assumed the name
Shalmaneser IV.


Defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus Mar 10:46.


(Heb. toph), a small drum or tambourine; a tabret (q.v.). The
antiquity of this musical instrument appears from the scriptural
allusions to it Gen 31:27 Ex 15:20 Jud 11:34 - etc.

See MUSIC 02625.


A portion.
1. A town of Judah Jos 15:10 - The Philistines took possession of it
in the days of Ahaz 2Ch 28:18 - It was about 20 miles west of
Jerusalem. It has been identified with Timnatha of Dan
Jos 19:43 - and also with Timnath Jud 14:1,5.
2. A city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:57 - = Tibna near Jeba'.
3. A "duke" or sheik of Edom Gen 36:40.


1. Gen 38:12,14 - Heb. Timnathah, which is appropriately rendered in
the Revised Version, Timnah, a town in Judah.
2. The town where Samson sojourned, probably identical with
"Timnah" No. 1 Jud 14:1-18.


Portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried Jud 2:9 - It was "in the
mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash," 10 miles
south-west of Shechem. The same as Timnath-serah See 26664|.


Remaining portion, the city of Joshua in the hill country of Ephraim,
the same as Timnath-heres Jos 19:50 24:30 - "Of all sites I have
seen," says Lieut. Col. Conder, "none is so striking as that of
Joshua's home, surrounded as it is with deep valleys and wild, rugged
hills." Opposite the town is a hill, on the northern side of which
there are many excavated sepulchres. Among these is the supposed tomb
of Joshua, which is said to be "the most striking monument in the
country." It is a "square chamber with five excavations in three of
its sides, the central one forming a passage leading into a second
chamber beyond. A great number of lamp-niches cover the walls of the
porch, upwards of two hundred, arranged in vertical rows. A single
cavity with a niche for a lamp has been thought to be the
resting-place of the warrior-chief of Israel." The modern Kefr Haris,
10 miles south-west of Shechem.


A man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled Jud 15:6.


Honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem Act 6:5 - Nothing
further is known of him.


The Greek form of the name of Timothy Act 16:1 - etc.; the R.V. always

See TIMOTHY 03668.


Honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul's companion in many of
his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, are
mentioned as eminent for their piety 2Ti 1:5 - We know nothing of his
father but that he was a Greek Act 16:1 - He is first brought into
notice at the time of Paul's second visit to Lystra Act 16:2 - where he
probably resided, and where it seems he was converted during Paul's
first visit to that place 1Ti 1:2 2Ti 3:11 - The apostle having formed
a high opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should
become his companion Act 16:3 - and took and circumcised him, so that
he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the office of an
evangelist 1Ti 4:14 - and went with Paul in his journey through
Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and Philippi and Berea
Act 17:14 - Thence he followed Paul to Athens, and was sent by him with
Silas on a mission to Thessalonica Act 17:15 1Th 3:2 - We next find him
at Corinth 1Th 1:1 2Th 1:1 - with Paul. He passes now out of sight for
a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle at Ephesus
Act 19:22 - whence he is sent on a mission into Macedonia. He
accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia Act 20:4 - where he was with
him for some time. When the apostle was a prisoner at Rome, Timothy
joined him Php 1:1 - where it appears he also suffered imprisonment
Heb 13:23 - During the apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to
Timothy, asking him to rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring
with him certain things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and
parchments 2Ti 4:13 - According to tradition, after the apostle's
death he settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a
martyr's grave.

Timothy, First Epistle to

Paul in this epistle speaks of himself as having left Ephesus for
Macedonia 1Ti 1:3 - and hence not Laodicea, as mentioned in the
subscription; but probably Philippi, or some other city in that
region, was the place where this epistle was written. During the
interval between his first and second imprisonments he probably
visited the scenes of his former labours in Greece and Asia, and then
found his way into Macedonia, whence he wrote this letter to Timothy,
whom he had left behind in Ephesus. It was probably written about A.D.
66 or 67 The epistle consists mainly,
1. of counsels to Timothy regarding the worship and organization of
the Church, and the responsibilities resting on its several
members; and
2. of exhortation to faithfulness in maintaining the truth amid
surrounding errors.

Timothy, Second Epistle to

Was probably written a year or so after the first, and from Rome,
where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent to Timothy
by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy to come to him
before winter, and to bring Mark with him. 2Ti 4:11 - He was
anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" 2Ti 4:6.
and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness,
and to patience under persecution 2Ti 1:6-15 - and to a faithful
discharge of all the duties of his office 2Ti 4:1-5 - with all the
solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of quick and


Heb. bedil Num 31:22 Eze 22:18,20 - a metal well known in ancient times.
It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon
obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles. In Eze 27:12.
it is said to have been brought from Tarshish, which was probably a
commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In
Isa 1:25 - the word so rendered is generally understood of lead, the
alloy with which the silver had become mixed. Isa 1:22 - The fire
of the Babylonish Captivity would be the means of purging out the
idolatrous alloy that had corrupted the people.

Tinkling Ornaments

Isa 3:18 - anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still used
by women in Syria and the East.


Passing over; ford, one of the boundaries of Solomon's dominions
1Ki 4:24 - probably "Thapsacus, a great and wealthy town on the
western bank of the Euphrates," about 100 miles north-east of Tadmor.
All the land traffic between the east and the west passed through it.
Menahem undertook an expedition against this city, and "smote Tiphsah
and all that were therein" 2Ki 15:16 - This expedition implied a
march of some 300 miles from Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400
if by way of Aleppo; and its success showed the strength of the
Israelite kingdom, for it was practically a defiance to Assyria.
Conder, however, identifies this place with Khurbet Tafsah, some 6
miles west of Shechem.


The youngest of the sons of Japheth Gen 10:2 1Ch 1:5.


"To tire" the head is to adorn it 2Ki 9:30 - As a noun the word is
derived from "tiara," and is the rendering of the Heb. p'er, a
"turban" or an ornament for the head Eze 24:17 - R.V., "headtire;"
Eze 24:23 - In Isa 3:18 - the word - saharonim - is rendered "round
tires like the moon," and in Jud 8:21,26 - "ornaments," but in both
cases "crescents" in the Revised Version.


The last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. He
was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the throne
about B.C. 692 having been previously king of Ethiopia 2Ki 19:9.
Isa 37:9 - which with Egypt now formed one nation. He was a great
warrior, and but little is known of him. The Assyrian armies under
Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and
defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he
died, after reigning twenty-six years.


A word probably of Persian origin, meaning "severity," denoting a high
civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called Ezr 2:63.
Neh 7:65,70 - Nehemiah is called by this name in Neh 8:9 10:1 - and
the "governor" (pehah) in Neh 5:18 - Probably, therefore,
tirshatha=pehah=the modern pasha.


1. An old royal city of the Canaanites, which was destroyed by
Joshua Jos 12:24 - Jeroboam chose it for his residence, and he
removed to it from Shechem, which at first he made the capital
of his kingdom. It remained the chief residence of the kings of
Israel till Omri took Samaria 1Ki 14:17 15:21 16:6,8 - etc. Here
Zimri perished amid the flames of the palace to which in his
despair he had set fire 1Ki 16:18 - and here Menahem smote
Shallum 2Ki 15:14,16 - Solomon refers to its beauty Son 6:4 - It
has been identified with the modern mud hamlet Teiasir, 11
miles north of Shechem. Others, however, would identify it with
Telluza, a village about 6 miles east of Samaria.
2. The youngest of Zelophehad's five daughters Num 26:33 Jos 17:3.


Elijah the prophet was thus named 1Ki 17:1 21:17,28 - etc. In
1Ki 17:1 - the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the
same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in
the LXX., "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead." Some interpret
this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the
stranger from among the strangers in Gilead." This designation is
probably given to the prophet as denoting that his birthplace was
Tishbi, a place in Upper Galilee (mentioned in the apocryphal book of
Tobit), from which for some reason he migrated into Gilead. Josephus,
the Jewish historian (Ant. 8:13, 2) however, supposes that Tishbi was
some place in the land of Gilead. It has been identified by some with
el-Ishtib, a some place 22 miles due south of the Sea of Galilee,
among the mountains of Gilead.


The first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the
ecclesiastical year. 1Ki 8:2 - Called in the Assyrian inscriptions
Tasaritu, i.e. "beginning."

See ETHANIM 01261.


A tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart for
special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was recognized as
a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek
Gen 14:20 Heb 7:6 - and Jacob vowed unto the Lord and said, "Of all
that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." The
first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Lev 27:30-32.
Subsequent legislation regulated the destination of the tithes
Num 18:21-24,26-28 Deu 12:5-6,11,17 14:22-23 - The paying of the
tithes was an important part of the Jewish religious worship. In the
days of Hezekiah one of the first results of the reformation of
religion was the eagerness with which the people brought in their
tithes 2Ch 31:5-6 - The neglect of this duty was sternly rebuked by
the prophets Amo 4:4 Mal 3:8-10 - It cannot be affirmed that the Old
Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church,
nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is incorporated in
the gospel 1Co 9:13-14 - and if, as is the case, the motive that
ought to prompt to liberality in the cause of religion and of the
service of God be greater now than in Old Testament times, then
Christians outght to go beyond the ancient Hebrew in consecrating both
themselves and their substance to God. Every Jew was required by the
Levitical law to pay three tithes of his property
1. one tithe for the Levites;
2. one for the use of the temple and the great feasts; and
3. one for the poor of the land.


A point, Mat 5:18 Luk 16:17 - the minute point or stroke added to some
letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them from others which
they resemble; hence, the very least point.


Honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied
them to the council at Jerusalem Gal 2:1-3 Act 15:2 - although his name
nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a
Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles;
for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his
case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a
later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by
Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the
church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward
2Co 8:6 12:18 - He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and
cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth 2Co 7:6-15.
After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first
imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the
church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose
Tit 1:5 - The last notice of him is in 2Ti 4:10 - where we find
him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was
sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We
have no record of his death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.

Titus, Epistle to

Was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to
Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were
addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective
churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in
describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they
should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this
description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus
are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in
particular against the same misdirection of their cares and studies.
This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the letters, which
from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were
addressed might be expected to be somewhat alike, but extends in a
great variety of instances to the phrases and expressions. The writer
accosts his two friends with the same salutation, and passes on to the
business of his letter by the same transition (comp.) 1Ti 1:2-3.
with Tit 1:4-5 1Ti 1:4 Ti 1:13-14 3:9 1Ti 4:12 Ti 2:7,15.
Paley's Horae Paulinae. The date of its composition may be concluded
from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete
Tit 1:5 - That visit could not be the one referred to in Act 27:7.
when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he
continued a prisoner for two years. We may warrantably suppose that
after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia and took Crete by
the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that
were wanting." Thence he went to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and
from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote First Timothy, and thence to
Nicopolis in Epirus, from which place he wrote to Titus, about A.D. 66
or 67 In the subscription to the epistle it is said to have been
written from "Nicopolis of Macedonia," but no such place is known. The
subscriptions to the epistles are of no authority, as they are not


Good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct
the people of Judah in the law 2Ch 17:8.


Pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined with
those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Exile
Neh 2:10 - He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in
opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in
fear" Neh 6:17-19 - "Eliashib the priest" prepared for him during
Nehemiah's absence "a chamber in the courts of the house of God,"
which on his return grieved Nehemiah sore, and therefore he "cast
forth all the household stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber"
Neh 13:7,8.


Id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the
people 2Ch 17:8.

Tob, The Land of

A district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea
of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren Jud 11:3,5 - It
was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of
Ammon 2Sa 10:6,8 - Its modern name is Taiyibeh.


Measured, a town of Simeon 1Ch 4:32.


1. A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth Gen 10:3.
2. A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre
Eze 27:14 38:6 - probably an Armenian or a Scythian race;
descendants of No. 1


One of Samuel's ancestors 1Sa 1:1.


A king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to salute
him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host of
Hadadezer" 2Sa 8:9-10 - Called Tou 1Ch 18:9-10.


A scarlet worm.
1. Eldest son of Issachar Gen 46:13.
2. A judge of the tribe of Issachar who "judged" Israel
twenty-three years Jud 10:1-2 - when he died, and was buried in
Shamir. He was succeeded by Jair.


Productive, a town of Simeon, in the south of Judah 1Ch 4:29.


Descendants of Tola Num 26:23 1Ch 7:1-2.


One of the branches of the king of Persia's revenues Ezr 4:13 7:24.
probably a tax levied from those who used the bridges and fords and

Tombs of the Hebrews

Were generally excavated in the solid rock, or were natural caves.
Mention is made of such tombs in Jud 8:32 2Sa 2:32 2Ki 9:28 23:30.
They were sometimes made in gardens 2Ki 21:26 23:16 Mat 27:60 - They
are found in great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the
land. They were sometimes whitewashed Mat 23:27,29 - The body of
Jesus was laid in Joseph's new rock-hewn tomb, in a garden near to
Calvary. All evidence is in favour of the opinion that this tomb was
somewhere near the Damascus gate, and outside the city, and cannot be
identified with the so-called "holy sepulchre." The mouth of such
rocky tombs was usually closed by a large stone (Heb. golal), which
could only be removed by the united efforts of several men
Mat 28:2 - comp. Joh 11:39.

See GOLGOTHA 01522.
See SEPULCHRE 03279.

Tongues, Confusion of

At Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their
division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to
prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language"
Gen 11:1-8 - and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till
this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech."

See SHINAR 03389.

Tongues, Gift of

Granted on the day of Pentecost Act 2:4 - in fulfilment of a
promise Christ had made to his disciples Mar 16:17 - What this gift
actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued
that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit
among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that
salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words of Luke
Act 2:9 - clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the
time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own
special language with which they were naturally acquainted (comp.)
Joe 2:28-29 - Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in
1Co 12:10 - through 1Co 14:30 - "divers kinds of tongues" and the
"interpretation of tongues." This "gift" was a different
manifestation of the Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it
resembled it in many particulars. Tongues were to be "a sign to them
that believe not."


1. One of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment was
to be inflicted Exo 21:24 Lev 24:20 Deu 19:21.
2. "Gnashing of teeth" =rage, despair Mat 8:12 Act 7:54.
3. "cleanness of teeth" =famine Amo 4:6.
4. "children's teeth set on edge" =children suffering for the sins of
their fathers Eze 18:2.


Heb. pitdah Eze 28:13 Rev 21:20 - a golden yellow or "green" stone
brought from Cush or Ethiopia Job 28:19 - It was the second stone in
the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name
of Simeon inscribed on it Exo 28:17 - It is probably the chrysolite of
the moderns.


Lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai Deu 1:1 - now identified with
Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the Edomitish mountains.


=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children here
sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the noise of such
an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to burn," and hence a
place of burning, the name of a particular part in the valley of
Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive of all elements, is chosen
by the sacred writers to symbolize the agency by which God punishes
or destroys the wicked. We are not to assume from prophetical figures
that material fire is the precise agent to be used. It was not the
agency employed in the destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in
Isa 30:33 - Tophet properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom
bends round to the east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and
the Hill of Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer 'Ayub,
where it joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern
side especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of
beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be
either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that fire
that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the place of

See HINNOM 01790.


On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of
Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from
the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and
torches and weapons" Joh 18:1-3 - Although it was the time of full
moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there fell great, deep shadows
from the declivity of the mountain and projecting rocks; there were
there caverns and grottos, into which a fugitive might retreat;
finally, there were probably a garden-house and tower, into whose
gloom it might be necessary for a searcher to throw light around."
Lange's Commentary. Nah 2:3 - "torches," Revised Version, "steel,"
probably should be "scythes" for war-chariots.)


Gr. basanos Mat 4:24 - the "touch-stone" of justice; hence inquisition
by torture, and then any disease which racks and tortures the limbs.


(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals Lev 11:29 - Land
tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by "land
crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a lizard, called
by the modern Arabs - dhabb -.


Jud 16:9.

See FLAX 01352.

Tower of the Furnaces

Neh 3:11 12:38 - a tower at the north-western angle of the second
wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its contiguity to the
"bakers' street" Jer 37:21.


1. Of Babel Gen 11:4.
2. Edar Gen 35:21.
3. Penuel Jud 8:9,17.
4. Shechem Jud 9:46.
5. David Son 4:4.
6. Lebanon Son 7:4.
7. Syene Eze 29:10.
8. Hananeel Zec 14:10.
9. Siloam Luk 13:4.

There were several towers in Jerusalem 2Ch 26:9 Psa 48:12 - They
were erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard
Isa 5:2 Mat 21:33 - and towers for defence.


A rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek name
of a region on the east of Jordan Luk 3:1 - one of the five Roman
provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the
tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.


Any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation
to generation.
1. In Mar 7:3,9,13 Col 2:8 - this word refers to the arbitrary
interpretations of the Jews.
2. In 2Th 2:15 3:6 - it is used in a good sense.
3. Peter 1Pe 1:18 - uses this word with reference to the degenerate
Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp.)
Act 15:10 Mat 15:2-6 Gal 1:14.


(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes the
state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances of Peter
and Paul, Act 10:10 11:5 22:17 - ecstasies, "a preternatural, absorbed
state of mind preparing for the reception of the vision", (comp.)
2Co 12:1-4 - In Mar 5:42 Luk 5:26 - the Greek word is rendered
"astonishment," "amazement" (comp.) Mar 16:8 Act 3:10.

Transfiguration, The

Of Our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of the
three evangelists Mat 17:1-8 Mar 9:2-8 Luk 9:28-36 - The fullest
account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was
present on the occasion. What these evangelists record was an absolute
historical reality, and not a mere vision. The concurrence between them
in all the circumstances of the incident is exact. John seems to allude
to it also Joh 1:14 - Forty years after the event Peter distinctly
makes mention of it 2Pe 1:16-18 - In describing the sanctification
of believers, Paul also seems to allude to this majestic and glorious
appearance of our Lord on the "holy mount" Rom 12:2 2Co 3:18 - The
place of the transfiguration was probably Mount Hermon (q.v.), and not
Mount Tabor, as is commonly supposed.

Treasure Cities

1. Store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians
Exo 1:11.
See PITHOM 02968.
2. Towns in which the treasures of the kings of Judah were kept were
so designated 1Ch 27:25.

Treasure Houses

The houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure and
valuable articles of any kind Ezr 5:17 7:20 Neh 10:38 Dan 1:2.


Mat 27:6 Mar 12:41 Joh 8:20 - It does not appear that there was a
separate building so called. The name was given to the thirteen
brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into
which the offerings of the temple worshippers were put. These stood
in the outer "court of the women." "Nine chests were for the
appointed money-tribute and for the sacrifice-tribute, i.e.,
money-gifts instead of the sacrifices; four chests for
freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple decoration, and
burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Heb.).

Tree of Life

Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden Gen 2:9 3:22.
Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret
virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson
conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in
his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the
Life Joh 1:4 14:6 - Wisdom is compared to the tree of life Pro 3:18.
The "tree of life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation Rev 2:7 22:2,14.
is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.

Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil

stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life
Gen 2:9-3:24 - Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which
grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and
death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's

See ADAM 00077.

Trespass Offering

(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev 5:14-6:7 - also
in Num 5:5-8 - The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation.
The - asham -, which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins
were more private.

See OFFERING 02770.


A collection of families descending from one ancestor. The "twelve
tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of families which
sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Mat 24:30 - the word has a wider
significance. The tribes of Israel are referred to as types of the
spiritual family of God Rev 7:1-10.



Trouble or affiction of any kind Deu 4:30 Mat 13:21 2Co 7:4 - In
Rom 2:9 - "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that
shall overtake the wicked. In Mat 24:21,29 - the word denotes the
calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem.


A tax imposed by a king on his subjects 2Sa 20:24 1Ki 4:6 Ro 13:6.
In Mat 17:24-27 - the word denotes the temple rate (the "didrachma,"
the "half-shekel," as rendered by the R.V.) which was required to be
paid for the support of the temple by every Jew above twenty years of
age Exo 30:12 2Ki 12:4 2Ch 24:6,9 - It was not a civil but a
religious tax. In Mat 22:17 Mar 12:14 Luk 20:22 - the word may be
interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans imposed on
the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately regarded as
denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power on the people of
Israel. The "tribute money" shown to our Lord Mat 22:19 - was the
denarius, bearing Caesar's superscription. It was the tax paid by
every Jew to the Romans.

See PENNY 02891.


A word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the
unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is
derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168) or
from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220) to
express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are

1. That God is one, and that there is but one God
Deu 6:4 1Ki 8:60 Isa 44:6 Mar 12:29,32 Joh 10:30.
2. That the Father is a distinct divine Person (hypostasis,
subsistentia, persona, suppositum intellectuale), distinct from
the Son and the Holy Spirit.
3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person distinct
from the Father and the Holy Spirit.
4. That the Holy Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.


A city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor, named
after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from it (about 4
miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second missionary journey, saw
the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who appeared to him, saying, "Come
over, and help us" Act 16:8-11 - He visited this place also on other
occasions, and on one of these visits he left his cloak and some books
there 2Co 2:12 2Ti 4:13 - The ruins of Troas extend over many
miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak trees.
The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old


A town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul "tarried" when
on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary journey
Act 20:15.


A foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part of his
third missionary journey Act 20:4 21:29 - He was with Paul in
Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had brought him
with him into the temple, raised a tumult which resulted in Paul's
See TEMPLE, HEROD'S 03611.
In writing to Timothy, the apostle says, "Trophimus have I left at
Miletum sick" 2Ti 4:20 - This must refer to some event not noticed
in the Acts.


Were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers materials.
Some were made of silver Num 10:2 - and were used only by the priests
in announcing the approach of festivals and in giving signals of war.
Some were also made of rams' horns Jos 6:8 - They were blown at
special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special seasons
Lev 23:24 25:9 1Ch 15:24 2Ch 29:27 Psa 81:3 98:6 - "Trumpets" are
among the symbols used in the Book of Revelation Rev 1:10 8:2.

See HORN 01821.

Trumpets, Feast of

Was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first month
of the civil year. It received its name from the circumstances that
the trumpets usually blown at the commencement of each month were on
that occasion blown with unusual solemnity Lev 23:23-25 Num 10:10.
Num 29:1-6 - It was one of the seven days of holy convocation. The
special design of this feast, which is described in these verses, is
not known.


Used in various senses in Scripture.
1. In Pro 12:17,19 - it denotes that which is opposed to falsehood.
2. In Isa 59:14-15 Jer 7:28 - it means fidelity or truthfulness.
3. The doctrine of Christ is called "the truth of the gospel" Gal 2:5.
"the truth" 2Ti 3:7 4:4.
4. Our Lord says of himself, "I am the way, and the truth" Joh 14:6.

Tryphena and Tryphosa

Two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle
to the Romans Rom 16:12.


1. The fifth son of Japheth Gen 10:2.
2. A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It is
mentioned by Isaiah Isa 66:19 - along with Javan, and by Ezekiel
Eze 27:13 - along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also
among the confederates of Gog Eze 38:2-3 39:1 - and with Meshech
among the nations which were to be destroyed Eze 32:26 - This
nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian
Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper
Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of
the Black Sea.


The son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer in
brass and iron" Gen 4:22 - R.V., "the forger of every cutting
instrument of brass and iron").

Turtle, Turtle-dove

Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in
Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her purification
Luk 2:24 - The pigeon and the turtle-dove were the only birds
permitted to be offered in sacrifice Lev 1:14 5:7 14:22 15:14,29.
etc. The Latin name of this bird, - turtur -, is derived from its note,
and is a repetition of the Hebrew name - tor -. Three species are found
in Palestine,
1. the turtle-dove (Turtur auritus),
2. the collared turtle (T. risorius), and
3. the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis).

But it is to the first of these species which the various passages of
Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird Jer 8:7 So 2:11-12 - "Search
the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at the end of March, and
not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in the second week of April,
and clouds of doves are feeding on the clovers of the plain. They
overspread the whole face of the land." "Immediately on its arrival it
pours forth from every garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy
yet soothing ditty unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from
its plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring forth
his heart's sorrow to God, compares himself to a turtle-dove" Psa 74:19.


Chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord"
Eph 6:21-22 - who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part of
his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem Act 20:4 - He is alluded to
also in Col 4:7 Ti 3:12 2Ti 4:12 - as having been with Paul at
Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus, probably for the purpose of
building up and encouraging the church there.


Occurs only once in Scripture R.V. 1Co 10:11 - A.V. marg. The Greek
word - tupos - is rendered
1. "print" Joh 20:25.
2. "figure" Act 7:43 Ro 5:14.
3. "fashion" Act 7:44.
4. "manner" Act 23:25.
5. "form" Rom 6:17.
6. "example" or "ensample" 1Co 10:6,11 Php 3:17 1Th 1:7 2Th 3:9.
1Ti 4:12.
It properly means a "model" or "pattern" or "mould" into which clay or
wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact shape of the
mould. The word "type" is generally used to denote a resemblance
between something present and something future, which is called the


Prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul
disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to him
Act 19:9 - Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school"
was a private synagogue.


A rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles, in
a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon was the
oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more illustrious
history. The commerce of the whole world was gathered into the
warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to
navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on
the coasts and neighbouring islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on
the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily
and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of
Hercules at Gadeira (Cadiz)" (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David
a friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the
Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings 2Sa 5:11.
1Ki 5:1 2Ch 2:3 - Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky
fortress on the mainland, called "Old Tyre," and the city, built on a
small, rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a
place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was
assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by
Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586) for thirteen years, apparently without
success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander the Great,
after a siege of seven months, but continued to maintain much of its
commercial importance till the Christian era. It is referred to in
Mat 11:21 Act 12:20 - In A.D. 1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and
has remained a desolate ruin ever since. "The purple dye of Tyre had a
worldwide celebrity on account of the durability of its beautiful
tints, and its manufacture proved a source of abundant wealth to the
inhabitants of that city." Both Tyre and Sidon "were crowded with
glass-shops, dyeing and weaving establishments; and among their
cunning workmen not the least important class were those who were
celebrated for the engraving of precious stones." 2Ch 2:7,14 - The
wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently denounced by the
prophets, and its final destruction predicted Isa 23:1 Jer 25:22.
Eze 26:1-2 28:1-19 Amo 1:9-10 Zec 9:2-4 - Here a church was founded soon
after the death of Stephen, and Paul, on his return from his third
missionary journey spent a week in intercourse with the disciples
there Act 21:4 - Here the scene at Miletus was repeated on his
leaving them. They all, with their wives and children, accompanied him
to the sea-shore. The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at
Ptolemais, about 38 miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea
Act 21:5-8 - "It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1500 and
claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about B.C. 2700
It had two ports still existing, and was of commercial importance in
all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about B.C. 850 and all over the
Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken
by Alexander the Great after a terrible siege in B.C. 332 It is now a
town of 3,000 inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral.
A short Phoenician text of the fourth century B.C. is the only
monument yet recovered."

See PHENICIA 02930.

Tyropoeon Valley

(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the
historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times
separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up
with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned
by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was
probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal palace
on Zion and the temple. A fragment of the arch (q.v.) of this bridge
(called "Robinson's Arch"), where it projects from the sanctuary wall,
was discovered by Robinson in 1839 This arch was destroyed by the
Romans when Jerusalem was taken. The western wall of the temple area
rose up from the bottom of this valley to the height of 84 feet, where
it was on a level with the area, and above this, and as a continuance
of it, the wall of Solomon's cloister rose to the height of about 50
feet, "so that this section of the wall would originally present to
view a stupendous mass of masonry scarcely to be surpassed by any
mural masonry in the world."

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