Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - S

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Thou hast forsaken me, one of the Aramaic words uttered by our Lord on
the cross Mat 27:46 Mar 15:34.


The transliteration of the Hebrew word - tsebha'oth -, meaning "hosts,"
"armies" Rom 9:29 Jas 5:4 - In the LXX. the Hebrew word is rendered by
"Almighty." Rev 4:8 - comp. Isa 6:3 - It may designate Jehovah as
1. God of the armies of earth, or
2. God of the armies of the stars, or
3. God of the unseen armies of angels; or perhaps it may include
all these ideas.


(Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour"), the day of rest.
It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man
was in innocence Gen 2:2 - "The sabbath was made for man," as a day of
rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul. It is
next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to the children
of Israel in the wilderness Exo 16:23 - and afterwards, when the law
was given from Sinai Exo 20:11 - the people were solemnly charged to
"remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." Thus it is spoken of as
an institution already existing. In the Mosaic law strict regulations
were laid down regarding its observance Exo 35:2-3 Lev 23:3 26:34.
These were peculiar to that dispensation. In the subsequent history
of the Jews frequent references are made to the sanctity of the
Sabbath Isa 56:2,4,6,7 58:13-14 Jer 17:20-22 Neh 13:19 - In later
times they perverted the Sabbath by their traditions. Our Lord
rescued it from their perversions, and recalled to them its true
nature and intent Mat 12:10-13 Mar 2:27 Luk 13:10-17 - The Sabbath,
originally instituted for man at his creation, is of permanent and
universal obligation. The physical necessities of man require a
Sabbath of rest. He is so constituted that his bodily welfare needs
at least one day in seven for rest from ordinary labour. Experience
also proves that the moral and spiritual necessities of men also
demand a Sabbath of rest. "I am more and more sure by experience that
the reason for the observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the
everlasting necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is
man the blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as
a day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do feel
by experience the eternal obligation, because of the eternal
necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it. It thrives in
proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made for man. God made
it for men in a certain spiritual state because they needed it. The
need, therefore, is deeply hidden in human nature. He who can
dispense with it must be holy and spiritual indeed. And he who, still
unholy and unspiritual, would yet dispense with it is a man that
would fain be wiser than his Maker" (F. W. Robertson). The ancient
Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently recovered inscriptions on
the bricks among the ruins of the royal palace, was based on the
division of time into weeks of seven days. The Sabbath is in these
inscriptions designated Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for
the heart" and "a day of completion of labour."

Sabbath Day's journey

Supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than half-a-mile,
the distance to which, according to Jewish tradition, it was allowable
to travel on the Sabbath day without violating the law Act 1:12.
comp. Exo 16:29 Num 35:5 Jos 3:4.

Sabbatical Year

Every seventh year, during which the land, according to the law of
Moses, had to remain uncultivated Lev 25:2-7 - comp. Exo 23:10-12.
Lev 26:34-35 - Whatever grew of itself during that year was not for the
owner of the land, but for the poor and the stranger and the beasts
of the field. All debts, except those of foreigners, were to be
remitted Deu 15:1-11 - There is little notice of the observance of this
year in Biblical history. It appears to have been much neglected
2Ch 36:20-21.


Descendants of Seba Gen 10:7 - Africans Isa 43:3 - They were "men of
stature," and engaged in merchandise Isa 45:14 - Their conversion to
the Lord was predicted Psa 72:10 - This word, in Eze 23:42 - should be
read, as in the margin of the Authorized Version, and in the Revised
Version, "drunkards." Another tribe, apparently given to war, is
mentioned in Job 1:15.


Rest, the third son of Cush Gen 10:7 1Ch 1:9.


The fifth son of Cush (id.). Gen 10:7 1Ch 1:9.


1. One of David's heroes 1Ch 11:35 - called also Sharar 2Sa 23:33.
2. A son of Obed-edom the Gittite, and a temple porter 1Ch 26:4.


(Chald. sabkha; Gr. sambuke), a Syrian stringed instrument resembling
a harp Dan 3:5,7,10,15 - not the sackbut, which is a wind instrument.


Cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used for
sacks, and also worn by mourners Gen 37:34 42:25 2Sa 3:31 Es 4:1-2.
Psa 30:11 - etc., and as a sign of repentance Mat 11:21 - It was put
upon animals by the people of Nineveh Jon 3:8.


The offering up of sacrifices is to be regarded as a divine
institution. It did not originate with man. God himself appointed it
as the mode in which acceptable worship was to be offered to him by
guilty man. The language and the idea of sacrifice pervade the whole
Bible. Sacrifices were offered in the ante-diluvian age. The Lord
clothed Adam and Eve with the skins of animals, which in all
probability had been offered in sacrifice Gen 3:21 - Abel offered a
sacrifice "of the firstlings of his flock" Gen 4:4 Heb 11:4 - A
distinction also was made between clean and unclean animals, which
there is every reason to believe had reference to the offering up of
sacrifices Gen 7:2,8 - because animals were not given to man as food
till after the Flood. The same practice is continued down through the
patriarchal age Gen 8:20 12:7 13:4,18 15:9-11 22:1-18 - etc.). In the
Mosaic period of Old Testament history definite laws were prescribed
by God regarding the different kinds of sacrifices that were to be
offered and the manner in which the offering was to be made. The
offering of stated sacrifices became indeed a prominent and
distinctive feature of the whole period Exo 12:3-27 Lev 23:5-8.
Num 9:2-14.
See ALTAR 00185.
We learn from the Epistle to the Hebrews that sacrifices had in
themselves no value or efficacy. They were only the "shadow of good
things to come," and pointed the worshippers forward to the coming of
the great High Priest, who, in the fullness of the time, "was offered
once for all to bear the sin of many." Sacrifices belonged to a
temporary economy, to a system of types and emblems which served their
purposes and have now passed away. The "one sacrifice for sins" hath
"perfected for ever them that are sanctified." Sacrifices were of two
1. Unbloody, such as:
a. first-fruits and tithes;
b. meat and drink-offerings; and
c. incense.
2. Bloody, such as
a. burnt-offerings;
b. peace-offerings; and
c. sin and trespass offerings.

See OFFERINGS 02770.


The origin of this Jewish sect cannot definitely be traced. It was
probably the outcome of the influence of Grecian customs and
philosophy during the period of Greek domination. The first time they
are met with is in connection with John the Baptist's ministry. They
came out to him when on the banks of the Jordan, and he said to them,
"O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath
to come?" Mat 3:7 - The next time they are spoken of they are
represented as coming to our Lord tempting him. He calls them
"hypocrites" and "a wicked and adulterous generation" Mat 16:1-4.
Mat 22:23 - The only reference to them in the Gospels of Mark
Mar 12:18-27 - and Luke Luk 20:27-38 - is their attempting to
ridicule the doctrine of the resurrection, which they denied, as they
also denied the existence of angels. They are never mentioned in
John's Gospel. There were many Sadducees among the "elders" of the
Sanhedrin. They seem, indeed, to have been as numerous as the
Pharisees Act 23:6 - They showed their hatred of Jesus in taking
part in his condemnation Mat 16:21 26:1-3,59 Mar 8:31 15:1.
Luk 9:22 22:66 - They endeavoured to prohibit the apostles from
preaching the resurrection of Christ Act 2:24,31,32 4:1-2 5:17,24-28.
They were the deists or sceptics of that age. They do not appear as
a separate sect after the destruction of Jerusalem.


Just, mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord Mat 1:14.


Heb. karkom, Arab. zafran (i.e., "yellow"), mentioned only in
Son 4:13-14 - the Crocus sativus. Many species of the crocus are
found in Palestine. The pistils and stigmata, from the centre of its
flowers, are pressed into "saffron cakes," common in the East. "We
found," says Tristram, "saffron a very useful condiment in travelling
cookery, a very small pinch of it giving not only a rich yellow colour
but an agreable flavour to a dish of rice or to an insipid stew."


One separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by
profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ Psa 16:3 Ro 1:7 8:27.
Php 1:1 Heb 6:10 - The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 - are
probably not the disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of
angels" Heb 12:22 Psa 68:17 - with reference to Deu 33:2 - This
word is also used of the holy dead Mat 27:52 Rev 18:24 - It was not
used as a distinctive title of the apostles and evangelists and of a
"spiritual nobility" till the fourth century. In that sense it is not
a scriptural title.


A shoot, a descendant of Arphaxed Luk 3:35-36 - called also Shelah
1Ch 1:18,24.


A city on the south-east coast of Cyprus Act 13:5 - where Saul and
Barnabas, on their first missionary journey, preached the word in one
of the Jewish synagogues, of which there seem to have been several in
that place. It is now called Famagusta.


Whom I asked of God, the son of Jeconiah Mat 1:12 1Ch 3:17 - also called
the son of Neri Luk 3:27 - The probable explanation of the apparent
discrepancy is that he was the son of Neri, the descendant of Nathan,
and thus heir to the throne of David on the death of Jeconiah (comp.)
Jer 22:30.


Wandering, a city of Bashan assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh
Deu 3:10 Jos 12:5 13:11 - identified with Salkhad, about 56 miles
east of Jordan.


Peace, commonly supposed to be another name of Jerusalem
Gen 14:18 Psa 76:2 Heb 7:1-2.


Peaceful, a place near AEnon (q.v.), on the west of Jordan, where John
baptized Joh 3:23 - It was probably the Shalem mentioned in
Gen 33:18 - about 7 miles south of AEnon, at the head of the great
Wady Far'ah, which formed the northern boundary of Judea in the Jordan


1. A Benjamite Neh 11:8.
2. A priest in the days of Joshua and Zerubbabel Neh 12:20.


1. A priest Neh 12:7.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 9:7 Neh 11:7.


Garment, the son of Nashon Rut 4:20 Mat 1:4-5 - possibly the same as
Salma in 1Ch 2:51.


Shady; or Zalmon (q.v.), a hill covered with dark forests, south of
Shechem, from which Abimelech and his men gathered wood to burn that
city Jud 9:48 - In Psa 68:14 - the change from war to peace is
likened to snow on the dark mountain, as some interpret the expression.
Others suppose the words here mean that the bones of the slain left
unburied covered the land, so that it seemed to be white as if covered
with snow. The reference, however, of the psalm is probably to
Jos 11:1 - and Jos 12:1 - The scattering of the kings and
their followers is fitly likened unto the snow-flakes rapidly falling
on the dark Salmon. It is the modern Jebel Suleiman.


A promontory on the east of Crete, under which Paul sailed on his
voyage to Rome Act 27:7 - the modern Cape Sidero.


1. The wife of Zebedee (Mary) and mother of James and John Mat 27:56.
and probably the sister of Mary, the mother of our Lord Joh 19:25.
She sought for her sons places of honour in Christ's kingdom
Mat 20:20-21 - comp. Mat 19:28 - She witnessed the crucifixion
Mar 15:40 - and was present with the other women at the
sepulchre Mat 27:56.
2. "The daughter of Herodias," not named in the New Testament. On
the occasion of the birthday festival held by Herod Antipas, who
had married her mother Herodias, in the fortress of Machaerus,
she "came in and danced, and pleased Herod" Mar 6:14-29 - John the
Baptist, at that time a prisoner in the dungeons underneath the
castle, was at her request beheaded by order of Herod, and his
head given to the damsel in a charger, "and the damsel gave it
to her mother," whose revengeful spirit was thus gratified. "A
luxurious feast of the period" (says Farrar, Life of Christ)
"was not regarded as complete unless it closed with some gross
pantomimic representation; and doubtless Herod had adopted the
evil fashion of his day. But he had not anticipated for his
guests the rare luxury of seeing a princess, his own niece, a
grand-daughter of Herod the Great and of Mariamne, a descendant,
therefore, of Simon the high priest and the great line of
Maccabean princes, a princess who afterwards became the wife of
a tetrarch [Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis] and the mother of a
king, honouring them by degrading herself into a scenic dancer."


1. Used to season food Job 6:6.
2. mixed with the fodder of cattle Isa 30:24 - "clean;" in marg.
of R.V. "salted").
3. All meat-offerings were seasoned with salt Lev 2:13.
4. To eat salt with one is to partake of his hospitality, to derive
subsistence from him; and hence he who did so was bound to look
after his host's interests Ezr 4:14 - "We have maintenance from
the king's palace;" A.V. marg., "We are salted with the salt of the
palace;" R.V., "We eat the salt of the palace").
5. A "covenant of salt" Num 18:19 2Ch 13:5 - was a covenant of
perpetual obligation.
6. New-born children were rubbed with salt Eze 16:4.
7. Disciples are likened unto salt, with reference to its cleansing
and preserving uses Mat 5:13.
8. When Abimelech took the city of Shechem, he sowed the place with
salt, that it might always remain a barren soil Jud 9:45.
9. Sir Lyon Playfair argues, on scientific grounds, that under the
generic name of "salt," in certain passages, we are to understand
petroleum or its residue asphalt. Thus in Gen 19:26 - he would
read "pillar of asphalt;" and in Mat 5:13 - instead of "salt,"
"petroleum," which loses its essence by exposure, as salt does not,
and becomes asphalt, with which pavements were made. The Jebel
Usdum, to the south of the Dead Sea, is a mountain of rock salt
about 7 miles long and from 2 to 3 miles wide and some hundreds of
feet high.

Salt Sea

Jos 3:16.

See DEAD SEA 00991.

Salt, The City of

One of the cities of Judah Jos 15:62 - probably in the Valley of
Salt, at the southern end of the Dead Sea.

Salt, Valley of

A place where it is said David smote the Syrians 2Sa 8:13 - This
valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the
Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, "and he
smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above text. It is
conjectured that while David was leading his army against the
Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and
that David sent Joab or Abishai against them, who drove them back and
finally subdued Edom. (Comp. title to) Psa 60:1 - Here also Amaziah
"slew of Edom ten thousand men" 2Ki 14:7 - comp. 2Ki 8:20-22.
2Ch 25:5-11.


"Eastern modes of salutation are not unfrequently so prolonged as to
become wearisome. The profusely polite Arab asks so many questions
after your health, your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other
things, that a person ignorant of the habits of the country would
imagine there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow
oppressing you, which you wished to conceal, so as to spare the
feelings of a dear, sympathizing friend, but which he, in the depth of
his anxiety, would desire to hear of. I have often listened to these
prolonged salutations in the house, the street, and the highway, and
not unfrequently I have experienced their tedious monotony, and I have
bitterly lamented useless waste of time" (Porter, Through Samaria,
etc.). The work on which the disciples were sent forth was one of
urgency, which left no time for empty compliments and prolonged
greetings Luk 10:4.


This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the
Egyptians Exo 14:13 - and of deliverance generally from evil or danger.
In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great
deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by
Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" Heb 2:3.


Samaritan Pentateuch

On the return from the Exile, the Jews refused the Samaritans
participation with them in the worship at Jerusalem, and the latter
separated from all fellowship with them, and built a temple for
themselves on Mount Gerizim. This temple was razed to the ground more
than one hundred years B.C. Then a system of worship was instituted
similar to that of the temple at Jerusalem. It was founded on the Law,
copies of which had been multiplied in Israel as well as in Judah. Thus
the Pentateuch was preserved among the Samaritans, although they never
called it by this name, but always "the Law," which they read as one
book. The division into five books, as we now have it, however, was
adopted by the Samaritans, as it was by the Jews, in all their priests'
copies of "the Law," for the sake of convenience. This was the only
portion of the Old Testament which was accepted by the Samaritans as of
divine authority. The form of the letters in the manuscript copies of
the Samaritan Pentateuch is different from that of the Hebrew copies,
and is probably the same as that which was in general use before the
Captivity. There are other peculiarities in the writing which need not
here be specified. There are important differences between the Hebrew
and the Samaritan copies of the Pentateuch in the readings of many
sentences. In about two thousand instances in which the Samaritan and
the Jewish texts differ, the LXX. agrees with the former. The New
Testament also, when quoting from the Old Testament, agrees as a rule
with the Samaritan text, where that differs from the Jewish. Thus
Exo 12:40 - in the Samaritan reads, "Now the sojourning of the children of
Israel and of their fathers which they had dwelt in the land of Canaan
and in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years" (comp.) Gal 3:17 - It
may be noted that the LXX. has the same reading of this text.

See EXODUS 01283.


The name given to the new and mixed inhabitants whom Esarhaddon (B.C.
677) the king of Assyria, brought from Babylon and other places and
settled in the cities of Samaria, instead of the original inhabitants
whom Sargon (B.C. 721) had removed into captivity 2Ki 17:24 - comp.
Ezr 4:2,9-10 - These strangers (comp.) Luk 17:18 - amalgamated with
the Jews still remaining in the land, and gradually abandoned their
old idolatry and adopted partly the Jewish religion. After the return
from the Captivity, the Jews in Jerusalem refused to allow them to
take part with them in rebuilding the temple, and hence sprang up an
open enmity between them. They erected a rival temple on Mount
Gerizim, which was, however, destroyed by a Jewish king (B.C. 130)
They then built another at Shechem. The bitter enmity between the Jews
and Samaritans continued in the time of our Lord: the Jews had "no
dealings with the Samaritans" Joh 4:9 - comp. Luk 9:52,53 - Our Lord
was in contempt called "a Samaritan" Joh 8:48 - Many of the
Samaritans early embraced the gospel Joh 4:5-42 Act 8:25 9:31 15:3.
Of these Samaritans there still remains a small population of about
one hundred and sixty, who all reside in Shechem, where they carefully
observe the religious customs of their fathers. They are the "smallest
and oldest sect in the world."


Be gracious, O Nebo! or a cup-bearer of Nebo, probably the title of
Nergal-sharezer, one of the princes of Babylon Jer 39:3.


An island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage from
Assos to Miletus Act 20:15 - on his third missionary journey. It is
about 27 miles long and 20 broad, and lies about 42 miles
south-west of Smyrna.


An island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Thracia, about 32 miles
distant. This Thracian Samos was passed by Paul on his voyage from
Troas to Neapolis Act 16:11 - on his first missionary journey. It is
about 8 miles long and 6 miles broad. Its modern name is Samothraki.


Of the sun, the son of Manoah, born at Zorah. The narrative of his
life is given in Jud 13-16. He was a "Nazarite unto God" from his
birth, the first Nazarite mentioned in Scripture Jud 13:3-5 - comp.
Num 6:1-21 - The first recorded event of his life was his marriage with
a Philistine woman of Timnath Jud 14:1-5 - Such a marriage was not
forbidden by the law of Moses, as the Philistines did not form one of
the seven doomed Canaanite nations Exo 34:11-16 Deu 7:1-4 - It was,
however, an ill-assorted and unblessed marriage. His wife was soon
taken from him and given "to his companion" Jud 14:20 - For this
Samson took revenge by burning the "standing corn of the Philistines"
Jud 15:1-8 - who, in their turn, in revenge "burnt her and her father
with fire." Her death he terribly avenged Jud 15:7-19 - During the
twenty years following this he judged Israel; but we have no record
of his life. Probably these twenty years may have been simultaneous
with the last twenty years of Eli's life. After this we have an
account of his exploits at Gaza Jud 16:1-3 - and of his infatuation
for Delilah, and her treachery Jud 16:4-20 - and then of his
melancholy death Jud 16:21-31 - He perished in the last terrible
destruction he brought upon his enemies. "So the dead which he slew
at his death were more [in social and political importance=the elite
of the people] than they which he slew in his life." "Straining all
his nerves, he bowed: As with the force of winds and waters pent,
When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars With horrible
convulsion to and fro He tugged, he shook, till down they came, and
drew The whole roof after them, with burst of thunder Upon the heads
of all who sat beneath, Lords, ladies, captains, counsellors, or
priests, Their choice nobility and flower." Milton's Samson

Samuel, Books of

1. The LXX. translators regarded the books of Samuel and of Kings as
forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books,
which they called "Books of the Kingdom." The Vulgate version
followed this division, but styled them "Books of the Kings." These
books of Samuel they accordingly called the "First" and "Second"
Books of Kings, and not, as in the modern Protestant versions, the
"First" and "Second" Books of Samuel.
2. The authors of the books of Samuel were probably Samuel, Gad, and
Nathan. Samuel penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first
book. Gad, the companion of David 1Sa 22:5 - continued the
history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it, probably arranging
the whole in the form in which we now have it 1Ch 29:29.
3. The contents of the books.
a. The first book comprises a period of about a hundred years, and
nearly coincides with the life of Samuel. It contains
1. the history of Eli (1-4)
2. the history of Samuel (5-12)
3. the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31)
b. The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years,
contains a history of the reign of David
1. over Judah (1-4) and
2. over all Israel (5-24) mainly in its political aspects.
c. The last four chapters of Second Samuel may be regarded as a
sort of appendix recording various events, but not
4. These books do not contain complete histories. Frequent gaps are
met with in the record, because their object is to present a
history of the kingdom of God in its gradual development, and not
of the events of the reigns of the successive rulers. It is
noticeable that the section 2Sa 11:2-12:29 - containing an
account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the
corresponding passage in 1Ch 20:1.


Held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to
Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder
this work Neh 2:10,19 4:1-12 6:1 - His daughter became the wife of
one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the
grief of Nehemiah Neh 13:28.


Involves more than a mere moral reformation of character, brought
about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the Holy Spirit
bringing the whole nature more and more under the influences of the
new gracious principles implanted in the soul in regeneration. In
other words, sanctification is the carrying on to perfection the work
begun in regeneration, and it extends to the whole man Rom 6:13.
2Co 4:6 Col 3:10 1Jo 4:7 1Co 6:19 - It is the special office of the
Holy Spirit in the plan of redemption to carry on this work
1Co 6:11 2Th 2:13 - Faith is instrumental in securing
sanctification, inasmuch as it
1. secures union to Christ Gal 2:20 - and
2. brings the believer into living contact with the truth, whereby
he is led to yield obedience "to the commands, trembling at the
threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life
and that which is to come."

Perfect sanctification is not attainable in this life 1Ki 8:46.
Pro 20:9 Ec 7:20 Jas 3:2 1Jo 1:8 - See Paul's account of himself in
Rom 7:14-25 Php 3:12-14 1Ti 1:15 - also the confessions of David
Psa 19:12-13 51:1 - of Moses Psa 90:8 - of Job Job 42:5-6.
and of Daniel Dan 9:3-20 - "The more holy a man is, the more humble,
self-renouncing, self-abhorring, and the more sensitive to every sin
he becomes, and the more closely he clings to Christ. The moral
imperfections which cling to him he feels to be sins, which he laments
and strives to overcome. Believers find that their life is a constant
warfare, and they need to take the kingdom of heaven by storm, and
watch while they pray. They are always subject to the constant
chastisement of their Father's loving hand, which can only be designed
to correct their imperfections and to confirm their graces. And it
has been notoriously the fact that the best Christians have been those
who have been the least prone to claim the attainment of perfection
for themselves.", Hodge's Outlines.


1. the Holy Land Exo 15:17 - comp. Psa 114:2.
2. the temple 1Ch 22:19 2Ch 29:21.
3. the tabernacle Exo 25:8 Lev 12:4 21:12.
4. the holy place, the place of the Presence (Gr. hieron, the
temple-house; not the - naos -, which is the temple area, with its
courts and porches), Lev 4:6 Eph 2:21 - R.V., marg.;
5. God's holy habitation in heaven Psa 102:19 - In the final state
there is properly "no sanctuary" Rev 21:22 - for God and the Lamb
"are the sanctuary" (R.V., "temple"). All is there hallowed by
the Divine Presence; all is sancturary.


Mentioned only in Mar 6:9 Act 12:8 - The sandal was simply a sole,
made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by leathern straps.
Sandals were also made of seal-skin Eze 16:10 - lit. tahash,
"leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V., "sealskin," or marg.,

See SHOE 03404.


More correctly Sanhedrin (Gr. synedrion), meaning "a sitting
together," or a "council." This word (rendered "council," A.V.) is
frequently used in the New Testament Mat 5:22 26:59 Mar 15:1 - etc. to
denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews,
which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of
seventy men Num 11:16-17 - But that seems to have been only a temporary
arrangement which Moses made. This council is with greater
probability supposed to have originated among the Jews when they were
under the domination of the Syrian kings in the time of the
Maccabees. The name is first employed by the Jewish historian
Josephus. This "council" is referred to simply as the "chief priests
and elders of the people" Mat 26:3,47,57,59 27:1,3,12,20 - etc., before
whom Christ was tried on the charge of claiming to be the Messiah.
Peter and John were also brought before it for promulgating heresy
Act 4:1-23 5:17-41 - as was also Stephen on a charge of blasphemy
Act 6:12-15 - and Paul for violating a temple by-law
Act 22:30 23:1-10 - The Sanhedrin is said to have consisted of
seventy-one members, the high priest being president. They were of
three classes
1. the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four priestly courses
1Ch 24:1.
2. the scribes, and
3. the elders. As the highest court of judicature, "in all causes
and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil, supreme," its
decrees were binding, not only on the Jews in Palestine, but on
all Jews wherever scattered abroad. Its jurisdiction was greatly
curtailed by Herod, and afterwards by the Romans. Its usual
place of meeting was within the precincts of the temple, in the
hall "Gazith," but it sometimes met also in the house of the
high priest Mat 26:3 - who was assisted by two vice-presidents.


A palm branch, or a thorn bush, a town in the south (the negeb) of
Judah Jos 15:31 - called also Hazarsusah Jos 19:5 - or
Hazar-susim 1Ch 4:31.


Extension, the son of the giant whom Sibbechai slew 2Sa 21:18 - called
also Sippai 1Ch 20:4.


Beautiful, a town of Judah Mic 1:11 - identified with es-Suafir, 5
miles south-east of Ashdod.


Beautiful, the wife of Ananias (q.v.). She was a partner in his guilt
and also in his punishment Act 5:1-11.


Associated with diamonds Exo 28:18 - and emeralds Eze 28:13 - one of the
stones in the high priest's breastplate. It is a precious stone of a
sky-blue colour, probably the lapis lazuli, brought from Babylon. The
throne of God is described as of the colour of a sapphire Exo 24:10.
comp. Eze 1:26.


Princess, the wife and at the same time the half-sister of Abraham
Gen 11:29 20:12 - This name was given to her at the time that it was
announced to Abraham that she should be the mother of the promised
child. Her story is from her marriage identified with that of the
patriarch till the time of her death. Her death, at the age of one
hundred and twenty-seven years (the only instance in Scripture where
the age of a woman is recorded), was the occasion of Abraham's
purchasing the cave of Machpelah as a family burying-place. In the
allegory of Gal 4:22-31 - she is the type of the "Jerusalem which is
above." She is also mentioned as Sara in Heb 11:11 - among the Old
Testament worthies, who "all died in faith."

See ABRAHAM 00054.


My princess, the name originally borne by Sarah Gen 11:31 17:15.

Sardine Stone

Rev 4:3 - R.V., "sardius;" Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a
root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called
"sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated
among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate
Exo 28:17 39:10 - It is our red carnelian.


The metropolis of Lydia in Asia Minor. It stood on the river Pactolus,
at the foot of mount Tmolus. Here was one of the seven Asiatic
churches Rev 3:1-6 - It is now a ruin called Sert-Kalessi.


Rev 21:20 - a species of the carnelian combining the sard and the onyx,
having three layers of opaque spots or stripes on a transparent red
basis. Like the sardine, it is a variety of the chalcedony.


Luk 4:26.

See ZAREPHATH 03872.


(In the inscriptions, "Sarra-yukin" [the god] has appointed the king;
also "Sarru-kinu," the legitimate king.) On the death of Shalmaneser
(B.C. 723) one of the Assyrian generals established himself on the
vacant throne, taking the name of "Sargon," after that of the famous
monarch, the Sargon of Accad, founder of the first Semitic empire, as
well as of one of the most famous libraries of Chaldea. He forthwith
began a conquering career, and became one of the most powerful of the
Assyrian monarchs. He is mentioned by name in the Bible only in
connection with the siege of Ashdod Isa 20:1 - At the very beginning
of his reign he besieged and took the city of Samaria 2Ki 17:6.
2Ki 18:9-12 - On an inscription found in the palace he built at
Khorsabad, near Nieveh, he says, "The city of Samaria I besieged, I
took; 27,280 of its inhabitants I carried away; fifty chariots that
were among them I collected," etc. The northern kingdom he changed
into an Assyrian satrapy. He afterwards drove Merodach-baladan (q.v.),
who kept him at bay for twelve years, out of Babylon, which he entered
in triumph. By a succession of victories he gradually enlarged and
consolidated the empire, which now extended from the frontiers of
Egypt in the west to the mountains of Elam in the east, and thus
carried almost to completion the ambitious designs of Tiglath-pileser
(q.v.). He was murdered by one of his own soldiers (B.C. 705) in his
palace at Khorsabad, after a reign of sixteen years, and was succeeded
by his son Sennacherib.


Adversary; accuser.
1. When used as a proper name, the Hebrew word so rendered has the
article "the adversary" Job 1:6-12 2:1-7.
2. In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos,
or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times. He is also
a. "the dragon," "the old serpent" Rev 12:9 20:2.
b. "the prince of this world" Joh 12:31 14:30.
c. "the prince of the power of the air" Eph 2:2.
d. "the god of this world" 2Co 4:4.
e. "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience"
Eph 2:2.
3. The distinct personality of Satan and his activity among men are
thus obviously recognized.
a. He tempted our Lord in the wilderness Mat 4:1-11.
b. He is "Beelzebub, the prince of the devils" Mat 12:24.
c. He is "the constant enemy of God, of Christ, of the divine
kingdom, of the followers of Christ, and of all truth;
full of falsehood and all malice, and exciting and seducing
to evil in every possible way."
4. His power is very great in the world.
a. He is a "roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour" 1Pe 5:8.
b. Men are said to be "taken captive by him" 2Ti 2:26.
c. Christians are warned against his "devices" 2Co 2:11.
and called on to "resist" him Jas 4:7.
d. Christ redeems his people from "him that had the power of
death, that is, the devil" Heb 2:14.
e. Satan has the "power of death," not as lord, but simply as


Hairy one. Mentioned in Greek mythology as a creature composed of a
man and a goat, supposed to inhabit wild and desolate regions. The
Hebrew word is rendered also "goat" Lev 4:24 - and "devil", i.e., an
idol in the form of a goat Lev 17:7 2Ch 11:15 - When it is said
Isa 13:21 - comp. Isa 34:14 - "the satyrs shall dance there," the
meaning is that the place referred to shall become a desolate waste.
Some render the Hebrew word "baboon," a species of which is found in


Asked for.
1. A king of Edom Gen 36:37-38 - called Shaul in 1Ch 1:48.
2. The son of Kish (probably his only son, and a child of prayer,
"asked for"), of the tribe of Benjamin, the first king of the
Jewish nation. The singular providential circumstances connected
with his election as king are recorded in 1Sa 8 - His father's
she-asses had strayed, and Saul was sent with a servant to seek
for them. Leaving his home at Gibeah 1Sa 9:1-5 - "the hill of
God," A.V.; lit., as in R.V. marg., "Gibeah of God"), Saul and
his servant went toward the north-west over Mount Ephraim, and
then turning north-east they came to "the land of Shalisha," and
thence eastward to the land of Shalim, and at length came to the
district of Zuph, near Samuel's home at Ramah 1Sa 9:5-10 - At
this point Saul proposed to return from the three days'
fruitless search, but his servant suggested that they should
first consult the "seer." Hearing that he was about to offer
sacrifice, the two hastened into Ramah, and "behold, Samuel came
out against them," on his way to the "bamah", i.e., the
"height", where sacrifice was to be offered; and in answer to
Saul's question, "Tell me, I pray thee, where the seer's house
is," Samuel made himself known to him. Samuel had been divinely
prepared for his coming 1Sa 9:15-17 - and received Saul as his
guest. He took him with him to the sacrifice, and then after the
feast "communed with Saul upon the top of the house" of all that
was in his heart. On the morrow Samuel "took a vial of oil and
poured it on his head," and anointed Saul as king over Israel
1Sa 9:25-10:8 - giving him three signs in confirmation of his
call to be king. When Saul reached his home in Gibeah the last
of these signs was fulfilled, and the Sprit of God came
upon him, and "he was turned into another man." The simple
countryman was transformed into the king of Israel, a remarkable
change suddenly took place in his whole demeanour, and the
people said in their astonishment, as they looked on the
stalwart son of Kish, "Is Saul also among the prophets?", a
saying which passed into a "proverb." (Comp.) 1Sa 19:24 - The
intercourse between Saul and Samuel was as yet unknown to the
people. The "anointing" had been in secret. But now the time had
come when the transaction must be confirmed by the nation.
Samuel accordingly summoned the people to a solemn assembly
"before the Lord" at Mizpeh. Here the lot was drawn
1Sa 10:17-27 - and it fell upon Saul, and when he was
presented before them, the stateliest man in all Israel, the air
was rent for the first time in Israel by the loud cry, "God save
the king!" He now returned to his home in Gibeah, attended by a
kind of bodyguard, "a band of men whose hearts God had touched."
On reaching his home he dismissed them, and resumed the quiet
toils of his former life. Soon after this, on hearing of the
conduct of Nahash the Ammonite at Jabeshgilead (q.v.), an army
out of all the tribes of Israel rallied at his summons to the
trysting-place at Bezek, and he led them forth a great army to
battle, gaining a complete victory over the Ammonite invaders at
Jabesh 1Sa 11:1-11 - Amid the universal joy occasioned by
this victory he was now fully recognized as the king of Israel.
At the invitation of Samuel "all the people went to Gilgal, and
there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal." Samuel now
officially anointed him as king 1Sa 11:15 - Although Samuel
never ceased to be a judge in Israel, yet now his work in that
capacity practically came to an end. Saul now undertook the
great and difficult enterprise of freeing the land from its
hereditary enemies the Philistines, and for this end he gathered
together an army of 3,000 men 1Sa 13:1-2 - The Philistines
were encamped at Geba. Saul, with 2,000 men, occupied Michmash
and Mount Bethel; while his son Jonathan, with 1,000 men,
occupied Gibeah, to the south of Geba, and seemingly without any
direction from his father "smote" the Philistines in Geba. Thus
roused, the Philistines, who gathered an army of 30,000 chariots
and 6,000 horsemen, and "people as the sand which is on the
sea-shore in multitude," encamped in Michmash, which Saul had
evacuated for Gilgal. Saul now tarried for seven days in Gilgal
before making any movement, as Samuel had appointed 1Sa 10:8.
but becoming impatient on the seventh day, as it was drawing to
a close, when he had made an end of offering the burnt offering,
Samuel appeared and warned him of the fatal consequences of his
act of disobedience, for he had not waited long enough
1Sa 13:13-14 - When Saul, after Samuel's departure, went out
from Gilgal with his 600 men, his followers having decreased to
that number 1Sa 13:15 - against the Philistines at Michmash
(q.v.), he had his head-quarters under a pomegrante tree at
Migron, over against Michmash, the Wady esSuweinit alone
intervening. Here at Gibeah-Geba Saul and his army rested,
uncertain what to do. Jonathan became impatient, and with his
armour-bearer planned an assault against the Philistines,
unknown to Saul and the army 1Sa 14:1-15 - Jonathan and his
armour-bearer went down into the wady, and on their hands and
knees climbed to the top of the narrow rocky ridge called Bozez,
where was the outpost of the Philistine army. They surprised and
then slew twenty of the Philistines, and immediately the whole
host of the Philistines was thrown into disorder and fled in
great terror. "It was a very great trembling;" a supernatural
panic seized the host. Saul and his 600 men, a band which
speedily increased to 10,000 perceiving the confusion, pursued
the army of the Philistines, and the tide of battle rolled on as
far as to Bethaven, halfway between Michmash and Bethel. The
Philistines were totally routed. "So the Lord saved Israel that
day." While pursuing the Philistines, Saul rashly adjured the
people, saying, "Cursed be the man that eateth any food until
evening." But though faint and weary, the Israelites "smote the
Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon" (a distance of
from 15 to 20 miles). Jonathan had, while passing through the
wood in pursuit of the Philistines, tasted a little of the
honeycomb which was abundant there 1Sa 14:27 - This was
afterwards discovered by Saul ver. 1Sa 14:42 - and he
threatened to put his son to death. The people, however,
interposed, saying, "There shall not one hair of his head fall
to the ground." He whom God had so signally owned, who had
"wrought this great salvation in Israel," must not die. "Then
Saul went up from following the Philistines: and the Philistines
went to their own place" 1Sa 14:24-46 - and thus the campaign
against the Philistines came to an end. This was Saul's second
great military success. Saul's reign, however, continued to be
one of almost constant war against his enemies round about
1Sa 14:47,48 - in all of which he proved victorious. The war
against the Amalekites is the only one which is recorded at
length 1Sa 15:1 - These oldest and hereditary Exo 17:8.
Num 14:43-45 - enemies of Israel occupied the territory to the
south and south-west of Palestine. Samuel summoned Saul to
execute the "ban" which God had pronounced Deu 25:17-19 - on
this cruel and relentless foe of Israel. The cup of their
iniquity was now full. This command was "the test of his moral
qualification for being king." Saul proceeded to execute the
divine command; and gathering the people together, marched from
Telaim 1Sa 15:4 - against the Amalekites, whom he smote "from
Havilah until thou comest to Shur," utterly destroying "all the
people with the edge of the sword", i.e., all that fell into his
hands. He was, however, guilty of rebellion and disobedience in
sparing Agag their king, and in conniving at his soldiers'
sparing the best of the sheep and cattle; and Samuel, following
Saul to Gilgal, in the Jordan valley, said unto him, "Because
thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, he also hath rejected
thee from being king" 1Sa 15:23 - The kingdom was rent from
Saul and was given to another, even to David, whom the Lord
chose to be Saul's successor, and whom Samuel anointed
1Sa 16:1-13 - From that day "the spirit of the Lord departed
from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him." He
and Samuel parted only to meet once again at one of the schools
of the prophets. David was now sent for as a "cunning player on
an harp" 1Sa 16:16,18 - to play before Saul when the evil
spirit troubled him, and thus was introduced to the court of
Saul. He became a great favourite with the king. At length
David returned to his father's house and to his wonted avocation
as a shepherd for perhaps some three years. The Philistines once
more invaded the land, and gathered their army between Shochoh
and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim, on the southern slope of the valley
of Elah. Saul and the men of Israel went forth to meet them, and
encamped on the northern slope of the same valley which lay
between the two armies. It was here that David slew Goliath of
Gath, the champion of the Philistines 1Sa 17:4-54 - an
exploit which led to the flight and utter defeat of the
Philistine army. Saul now took David permanently into his
service 1Sa 18:2 - but he became jealous of him 1Sa 18:9.
and on many occasions showed his enmity toward him 1Sa 18:10,11.
his enmity ripening into a purpose of murder which at different
times he tried in vain to carry out. After some time the
Philistines "gathered themselves together" in the plain of
Esdraelon, and pitched their camp at Shunem, on the slope of
Little Hermon; and Saul "gathered all Israel together," and
"pitched in Gilboa" 1Sa 28:3-14 - Being unable to discover
the mind of the Lord, Saul, accompanied by two of his retinue,
betook himself to the "witch of Endor," some 7 or 8 miles
distant. Here he was overwhelmed by the startling communication
that was mysteriously made to him by Samuel 1Sa 28:16-19.
who appeared to him. "He fell straightway all along on the
earth, and was sore afraid, because of the words of Samuel"
1Sa 28:20 - The Philistine host "fought against Israel: and
the men of Israel fled before the Philistines, and fell down
slain in Mount Gilboa" 1Sa 31:1 - In his despair at the
disaster that had befallen his army, Saul "took a sword and fell
upon it." And the Philistines on the morrow "found Saul and his
three sons fallen in Mount Gilboa." Having cut off his head,
they sent it with his weapons to Philistia, and hung up the
skull in the temple of Dagon at Ashdod. They suspended his
headless body, with that of Jonathan, from the walls of
Bethshan. The men of Jabesh-gilead afterwards removed the bodies
from this position; and having burnt the flesh, they buried the
bodies under a tree at Jabesh. The remains were, however,
afterwards removed to the family sepulchre at Zelah
2Sa 21:13,14.
See DAVID 00982.
3. "Who is also called Paul" (q.v.), the circumcision name of the
apostle, given to him, perhaps, in memory of King Saul
Act 7:58 8:1 9:1.


One who saves from any form or degree of evil. In its highest sense
the word indicates the relation sustained by our Lord to his redeemed
ones, he is their Saviour. The great message of the gospel is about
salvation and the Saviour. It is the "gospel of salvation." Faith in
the Lord Jesus Christ secures to the sinner a personal interest in
the work of redemption. Salvation is redemption made effectual to the
individual by the power of the Holy Spirit.


Lev 16:8-26 - R.V., "the goat for Azazel" (q.v.), the name given to the
goat which was taken away into the wilderness on the day of Atonement
Lev 16:20-22 - The priest made atonement over the scapegoat, laying
Israel's guilt upon it, and then sent it away, the goat bearing "upon
him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited." At a later
period an evasion or modification of the law of Moses was introduced
by the Jews. "The goat was conducted to a mountain named Tzuk,
situated at a distance of ten Sabbath days' journey, or about six and
a half English miles, from Jerusalem. At this place the Judean desert
was supposed to commence; and the man in whose charge the goat was
sent out, while setting him free, was instructed to push the unhappy
beast down the slope of the mountain side, which was so steep as to
insure the death of the goat, whose bones were broken by the fall.
The reason of this barbarous custom was that on one occasion the
scapegoat returned to Jerusalem after being set free, which was
considered such an evil omen that its recurrence was prevented for
the future by the death of the goat" (Twenty-one Years' Work in the
Holy Land). This mountain is now called el-Muntar.


This dye was obtained by the Egyptians from the shell-fish Carthamus
tinctorius; and by the Hebrews from the Coccus ilicis, an insect
which infests oak trees, called kermes by the Arabians.
1. This colour was early known Gen 38:28.
2. It was one of the colours of
a. the ephod Exo 28:6.
b. the girdle Exo 28:8.
c. the breastplate Exo 28:15 - of the high priest.
3. It is also mentioned in various other connections Jos 2:18.
2Sa 1:24 La 4:5 Na 2:3.
4. A scarlet robe was in mockery placed on our Lord Mat 27:28 Luk 23:11.
5. "Sins as scarlet" Isa 1:18 - i.e., as scarlet robes "glaring and
habitual." Scarlet and crimson were the firmest of dyes, and thus
not easily washed out.


(Heb. shebet Gr. skeptron), properly a staff or rod. As a symbol of
authority, the use of the sceptre originated in the idea that the
ruler was as a shepherd of his people Gen 49:10 Num 24:17 Psa 45:6.
Isa 14:5 - There is no example on record of a sceptre having ever
been actually handled by a Jewish king.


An implement, a Jew, chief of the priests at Ephesus Act 19:13-16.
i.e., the head of one of the twenty-four courses of the house of
Levi. He had seven sons, who "took upon them to call over them which
had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus," in imitation of Paul.
They tried their method of exorcism on a fierce demoniac, and failed.
His answer to them was to this effect Act 19:15 - "The Jesus whom you
invoke is One whose authority I acknowledge; and the Paul whom you
name I recognize to be a servant or messenger of God; but what sort
of men are ye who have been empowered to act as you do by neither?"
(Lindsay on the Acts of the Apostles.)


A separation, an alienation causing divisions among Christians, who
ought to be united 1Co 12:25.


The law so designated by Paul Gal 3:24-25 - As so used, the word does
not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the modern page),
i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision of a family, taking
them to and from the school, being responsible for their safety and
manners. Hence the pedagogue was stern and severe in his discipline.
Thus the law was a pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ,
i.e., to prepare for faith in Christ by producing convictions of
guilt and helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when
"faith came", i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is

Schools of the Prophets

1Sa 19:18-24 2Ki 2:3,5,7,12,15 - were instituted for the purpose
of training young men for the prophetical and priestly offices.

See PROPHET 03006.
See SAMUEL 03209.


Mentioned along with serpents Deu 8:15 - Used also figuratively to
denote wicked persons Eze 2:6 Luk 10:19 - also a particular kind of
scourge or whip 1Ki 12:11 - Scorpions were a species of spider. They
abounded in the Jordan valley.


1Ki 12:11 - Variously administered. In no case were the stripes to
exceed forty Deu 25:3 - comp. 2Co 11:24 - In the time of the apostles,
in consequence of the passing of what was called the Porcian law, no
Roman citizen could be scourged in any case Act 16:22-37.
See BASTINADO 00469.

In the scourging of our Lord Mat 27:26 Mar 15:15 - the words of
prophecy Isa 53:5 - were fulfilled.


Anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the
nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to
designate the holder of some military office Jud 5:14 - A.V., "pen of
the writer;" R.V., "the marshal's staff;" marg., "the staff of the
scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business
it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king 2Sa 8:17.
2Sa 20:25 1Ch 18:16 24:6 1Ki 4:3 2Ki 12:9-11 18:18-37 - etc. They
discharged various other important public duties as men of high
authority and influence in the affairs of state. There was also a
subordinate class of scribes, most of whom were Levites. They were
engaged in various ways as writers. Such, for example, was Baruch,
who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord"
Jer 36:4,32 - In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation
lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law,
gaining for themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with
its contents. On them devolved the duty of multiplying copies of the
law and of teaching it to others Ezr 7:6,10-12 Neh 8:1,4,9,13 - It
is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the
sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by
their traditions Mat 23:1 - thereby obscuring it and rendering
it of none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q.v.) are in
the Gospels interchangeable Mat 22:35 Mar 12:28 Luk 20:39 - etc. They
were in the time of our Lord the public teachers of the people, and
frequently came into collision with him. They afterwards showed
themselves greatly hostile to the apostles Act 4:5 6:12 - Some of
the scribes, however, were men of a different spirit, and showed
themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers. Thus Gamaliel
advised the Sanhedrin, when the apostles were before them charged with
"teaching in this name," to "refrain from these men and let them
alone" Act 5:34-39 - comp. Act 23:9.


A small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle 1Sa 17:40 - "a
shepherd's bag." In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr.
pera, which was a bag carried by travellers and shepherds, generally
made of skin Mat 10:10 Mar 6:8 Luk 9:3 10:4 - The name "scrip" is meant
to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps, fragments, as if
scraped off from larger articles, trifles.


Invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of
sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we
usually call the Old Testament 2Ti 3:15-16 Joh 20:9 Gal 3:22 2Pe 1:20.
It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate his revealed will. From time
to time he raised up men to commit to writing in an infallible record
the revelation he gave. The "Scripture," or collection of sacred
writings, was thus enlarged from time to time as God saw necessary.
We have now a completed "Scripture," consisting of the Old and New
Testaments. The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was
precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name. He
placed the seal of his own authority on this collection of writings,
as all equally given by inspiration Mat 5:17 7:12 22:40 Luk 16:29,31.

See BIBLE 00580.
See CANON 00714.


The Scythians consisted of "all the pastoral tribes who dwelt to the
north of the Black Sea and the Caspian, and were scattered far away
toward the east. Of this vast country but little was anciently known.
Its modern representative is Russia, which, to a great extent,
includes the same territories." They were the descendants of Japheth
Gen 9:27 - It appears that in apostolic times there were some of this
people that embraced Christianity Col 3:11.


In land measure, a space of 50 cubits long by 50 broad. In measure of
capacity, a seah was a little over one peck.

See MEASURE 02453.


Commonly a ring engraved with some device Gen 38:18,25 - Jezebel "wrote
letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal" 1Ki 21:8.
Seals are frequently mentioned in Jewish history Deu 32:34 Neh 9:38.
Neh 10:1 Es 3:12 So 8:6 Isa 8:16 Jer 22:24 32:44 - etc. Sealing a
document was equivalent to the signature of the owner of the seal.
"The use of a signet-ring by the monarch has recently received a
remarkable illustration by the discovery of an impression of such a
signet on fine clay at Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh. This
seal appears to have been impressed from the bezel of a metallic
finger-ring. It is an oval, 2 inches in length by 1 inch wide, and
bears the image, name, and titles of the Egyptian king Sabaco"
(Rawlinson's Hist. Illus. of the O.T., p. 46) The actual signet-rings
of two Egyptian kings (Cheops and Horus) have been discovered.
See SIGNET 03426.
The use of seals is mentioned in the New Testament only in connection
with the record of our Lord's burial Mat 27:66 - The tomb was sealed
by the Pharisees and chief priests for the purpose of making sure that
the disciples would not come and steal the body away Mat 27:63,64 - The
mode of doing this was probably by stretching a cord across the stone
and sealing it at both ends with sealing-clay. When God is said to
have sealed the Redeemer, the meaning is, that he has attested his
divine mission Joh 6:27 - Circumcision is a seal, an attestation of
the covenant Rom 4:11 - Believers are sealed with the Spirit, as
God's mark put upon them Eph 1:13 4:30 - Converts are by Paul styled
the seal of his apostleship, i.e., they are its attestation 1Co 9:2.
Seals and sealing are frequently mentioned in the book of Revelation
Rev 5:1 6:1 7:3 10:4 22:10.

Sea of Glass

A figurative expression used in Rev 4:6 15:2 - According to the
interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in
storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God,
those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless
but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy
anger." (Comp.) Psa 36:6 77:19 Ro 11:33-36.

Sea of Jazer

Jer 48:32 - a lake, now represented by some ponds in the high
valley in which the Ammonite city of Jazer lies, the ruins of which
are called Sar.


Gen 8:22.

See MONTH 02592.

Sea, the

(Heb. yam), signifies
1. "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean Gen 1:10.
2. a river, as the Nile Isa 19:5 - the Euphrates Isa 21:1 Jer 51:36.
3. the Red Sea Exo 14:16,27 15:4 - etc.
4. the Mediterranean Exo 23:31 Num 34:6-7 Jos 15:47 Psa 80:11 - etc.
5. the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake
6. the Dead Sea or "salt sea" Gen 14:3 Num 34:3,12 - etc.

The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isa 60:5 - where it probably
means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Dan 7:3 Rev 13:1 - it
may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.

Sea, the Molten

The great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the
temple, described in 1Ki 7:23-26 2Ch 4:2-5 - It stood in the
south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in
diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on
the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was
capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (comp.)
2Ch 4:5 - which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was
afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. It was
made of "brass" (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured
cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah 1Ch 18:8 - Ahaz afterwards
removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement
2Ki 16:17 - It was destroyed by the Chaldeans 2Ki 25:13.


1. One of the sons of Cush Gen 10:7.
2. The name of a country and nation Isa 43:3 45:14 - mentioned along
with Egypt and Ethiopia, and therefore probably in north-eastern
Africa. The ancient name of Meroe. The kings of Sheba and Seba
are mentioned together in Psa 72:10.


The eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new moon of
February to that of March Zec 1:7 - Assyrian sabatu, "storm."

See MONTH 02592.


Enclosure, one of the six cities in the wilderness of Judah, noted for
its "great cistern" Jos 15:61 - It has been identified with the ruin
Sikkeh, east of Bethany.


A hill or watch-tower, a place between Gibeah and Ramah noted for its
"great well" 1Sa 19:22 - probably the modern Suweikeh, south of


(Gr. hairesis, usually rendered "heresy",) Act 24:14 1Ch 11:19 Gal 5:20.
etc., meaning properly "a choice," then "a chosen manner of life,"
and then "a religious party," as the "sect" of the Sadducees Act 5:17.
of the Pharisees Act 15:5 - the Nazarenes, i.e., Christians Act 24:5.
It afterwards came to be used in a bad sense, of those holding
pernicious error, divergent forms of belief 2Pe 2:1 Gal 5:20.


Second, a Christian of Thessalonica who accompanied Paul into Asia
Act 20:4.


A name sometimes applied to the prophets because of the visions
granted to them. It is first found in 1Sa 9:9 - It is afterwards
applied to Zadok, Gad, etc. 2Sa 15:27 24:11 1Ch 9:22 25:5 2Ch 9:29.
Amo 7:12 Mic 3:7 - The "sayings of the seers" 2Ch 33:18-19 - is
rendered in the Revised Version "the history of Hozai" (marg., the
seers; so the LXX.), of whom, however, nothing is known.

See PROPHET 03006.


To boil Exo 16:23.

Seething Pot

A vessel for boiling provisions in Job 41:20 Jer 1:13.


1. The youngest son of Hiel the Bethelite. His death is recorded in
1Ki 16:34 - (comp.) Jos 6:26.
2. A descendant of Judah 1Ch 2:21-22.


Rough; hairy.
1. A Horite; one of the "dukes" of Edom Gen 36:20-30.
2. The name of a mountainous region occupied by the Edomites,
extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the
south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea to near the Akabah, or
the eastern branch of the Red Sea. It was originally occupied by
the Horites Gen 14:6 - who were afterwards driven out by the
Edomites Gen 32:3 33:14,16 - It was allotted to the descendants of
Esau Deu 2:4,22 Jos 24:4 2Ch 20:10 Isa 21:11 Ex 25:8.
3. A mountain range (not the Edomite range,) Gen 32:3 - lying between
the Wady Aly and the Wady Ghurab Jos 15:10.


Woody district; shaggy, a place among the mountains of Ephraim,
bordering on Benjamin, to which Ehud fled after he had assassinated
Eglon at Jericho Jud 3:26,27.


=Se'lah, rock, the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley
extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea 2Ki 14:7 - It was near
Mount Hor, close by the desert of Zin. It is called "the rock"
Jud 1:36 - When Amaziah took it he called it Joktheel (q.v.) It is
mentioned by the prophets Isa 16:1 Ob 1:3 - as doomed to destruction.
It appears in later history and in the Vulgate Version under the name
of Petra. "The caravans from all ages, from the interior of Arabia
and from the Gulf of Persia, from Hadramaut on the ocean, and even
from Sabea or Yemen, appear to have pointed to Petra as a common
centre; and from Petra the tide seems again to have branched out in
every direction, to Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, through Arsinoe,
Gaza, Tyre, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and by other routes, terminating
at the Mediterranean."

See EDOM 01129.


A word frequently found in the Book of Psalms, and also in Hab 3:9,13.
about seventy-four times in all in Scripture. Its meaning is
doubtful. Some interpret it as meaning "silence" or "pause;" others,
"end," "a louder strain," "piano," etc. The LXX. render the word by
daplasma i.e., "a division."


Cliff of divisions the name of the great gorge which lies between
Hachilah and Maon, south-east of Hebron. This gorge is now called the
Wady Malaky. This was the scene of the interview between David and
Saul mentioned in 1Sa 26:13 - Each stood on an opposing cliff, with
this deep chasm between.


The sea-port of Antioch, near the mouth of the Orontes. Paul and his
companions sailed from this port on their first missionary journey
Act 13:4 - This city was built by Seleucus Nicator, the "king of
Syria." It is said of him that "few princes have ever lived with so
great a passion for the building of cities. He is reputed to have
built in all nine Seleucias, sixteen Antiochs, and six Laodiceas."
Seleucia became a city of great importance, and was made a "free
city" by Pompey. It is now a small village, called el-Kalusi.


Mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord Luk 3:26.


Thorny, a place many of the inhabitants of which returned from Babylon
with Zerubbabel Ezr 2:35 Neh 7:38.


Act 5:21 - the "elders of Israel" who formed a component part of the


The acacia; rock-thorn, the southern cliff in the Wady es-Suweinit, a
valley south of Michmash, which Jonathan climbed with his armour-
bearer 1Sa 14:4-5 - The rock opposite, on the other side of the wady,
was called Bozez.


=Shenir, the name given to Hermon by the Amorites Deu 3:9 - It means
"coat of mail" or "breastplate," and is equivalent to "Sirion." Some
interpret the word as meaning "the prominent" or "the snowy
mountain." It is properly the name of the central of the three
summits of Hermon (q.v.).


Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he succeeded on
the throne of Assyria (B.C. 705) in the 23rd year of Hezekiah. "Like
the Persian Xerxes, he was weak and vainglorious, cowardly under
reverse, and cruel and boastful in success." He first set himself to
break up the powerful combination of princes who were in league
against him. Among these was Hezekiah, who had entered into an
alliance with Egypt against Assyria. He accordingly led a very
powerful army of at least 200,000 men into Judea, and devastated the
land on every side, taking and destroying many cities 2Ki 18:13-16.
comp. Isa 22 - Isa 24:1 - and 2Ch 32:1-8 - His own account of
this invasion, as given in the Assyrian annals, is in these words:
"Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I came
up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my power I
took forty-six of his strong fenced cities; and of the smaller towns
which were scattered about, I took and plundered a countless number.
From these places I took and carried off 200,156 persons, old and
young, male and female, together with horses and mules, asses and
camels, oxen and sheep, a countless multitude; and Hezekiah himself I
shut up in Jerusalem, his capital city, like a bird in a cage,
building towers round the city to hem him in, and raising banks of
earth against the gates, so as to prevent escape...Then upon Hezekiah
there fell the fear of the power of my arms, and he sent out to me
the chiefs and the elders of Jerusalem with 30 talents of gold and
800 talents of silver, and divers treasures, a rich and immense
booty...All these things were brought to me at Nineveh, the seat of
my government." (Comp.) Isa 22:1-13 - for description of the feelings
of the inhabitants of Jerusalem at such a crisis.) Hezekiah was not
disposed to become an Assyrian feudatory. He accordingly at once
sought help from Egypt 2Ki 18:20-24 - Sennacherib, hearing of this,
marched a second time into Palestine 2Ki 18:17,37 19:1.
2Ch 32:9-23 Isa 36:2-22 Isa 37:25 - should be rendered "dried up all
the Nile-arms of Matsor," i.e., of Egypt, so called from the "Matsor"
or great fortification across the isthmus of Suez, which protected it
from invasions from the east). Sennacherib sent envoys to try to
persuade Hezekiah to surrender, but in vain.
See TIRHAKAH 03676.
He next sent a threatening letter 2Ki 19:10-14 - which Hezekiah
carried into the temple and spread before the Lord. Isaiah again
brought an encouraging message to the pious king 2Ki 19:20-34 - "In
that night" the angel of the Lord went forth and smote the camp of the
Assyrians. In the morning, "behold, they were all dead corpses." The
Assyrian army was annihilated. This great disaster is not, as was to
be expected, taken notice of in the Assyrian annals. Though
Sennacherib survived this disaster some twenty years, he never again
renewed his attempt against Jerusalem. He was murdered by two of his
own sons (Adrammelech and Sharezer), and was succeeded by another son,
Esarhaddon (B.C. 681) after a reign of twenty-four years.


Barley, the chief of the forth priestly course 1Ch 24:8.


Numbering, Gen 10:30 - supposed by some to be the ancient Himyaritic
capital, "Shaphar," Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian
Gulf and the Red Sea.


Oba 1:20 - some locality unknown. The modern Jews think that Spain is
meant, and hence they designate the Spanish Jews "Sephardim," as they
do the German Jews by the name "Ashkenazim," because the rabbis call
Germany Ashkenaz. Others identify it with Sardis, the capital of
Lydia. The Latin father Jerome regarded it as an Assyrian word,
meaning "boundary," and interpreted the sentence, "which is in
Sepharad," by "who are scattered abroad in all the boundaries and
regions of the earth." Perowne says: "Whatever uncertainty attaches
to the word Sepharad, the drift of the prophecy is clear, viz., that
not only the exiles from Babylon, but Jewish captives from other and
distant regions, shall be brought back to live prosperously within
the enlarged borders of their own land."


Taken by Sargon, king of Assyria 2Ki 17:24 18:34 19:13 Isa 37:13 - It
was a double city, and received the common name Sepharvaim, i.e.,
"the two Sipparas," or "the two booktowns." The Sippara on the east
bank of the Euphrates is now called Abu-Habba; that on the other bank
was Accad, the old capital of Sargon I., where he established a great
See SARGON 03227.
The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions at Tel el-Amarna in
Egypt, consisting of official despatches to Pharaoh Amenophis IV. and
his predecessor from their agents in Palestine, proves that in the
century before the Exodus an active literary intercourse was carried
on between these nations, and that the medium of the correspondence
was the Babylonian language and script.



See VERSIONS 03768.


First mentioned as purchased by Abraham for Sarah from Ephron the
Hittite Gen 23:20 - This was the "cave of the field of Machpelah,"
where also Abraham and Rebekah and Jacob and Leah were burried
Gen 49:29-32 - In Act 7:16 - it is said that Jacob was "laid in the
sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor
the father of Sychem." It has been proposed, as a mode of reconciling
the apparent discrepancy between this verse and Gen 23:20 - to read
Act 7:16 - thus: "And they [i.e., our fathers] were carried over
into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum
of money of the sons of Emmor [the son] of Sychem." In this way the
purchase made by Abraham is not to be confounded with the purchase
made by Jacob subsequently in the same district. Of this purchase by
Abraham there is no direct record in the Old Testament.

See TOMB 03697.


Abundance; princess, the daughter of Asher and grand-daughter of Jacob
Gen 46:17 - called also Sarah Num 26:46 - R.V., "Serah").


Soldier of Jehovah.
1. The father of Joab 1Ch 4:13,14.
2. The grandfather of Jehu 1Ch 4:35.
3. One of David's scribes or secretaries 2Sa 8:17.
4. A Netophathite Jer 40:8 - a chief priest of the time of Zedekiah.
He was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, and there
put to death 2Ki 25:18-23.
5. Ezr 2:2.
6. Father of Ezra the scribe Ezr 7:1.
7. A ruler of the temple Neh 11:11.
8. A priest of the days of Jehoiakim Neh 12:1,12.
9. The son of Neriah. When Zedekiah made a journey to Babylon to do
homage to Nebuchadnezzar, Seraiah had charge of the royal gifts
to be presented on that occasion. Jeremiah took advantage of the
occasion, and sent with Seraiah a word of cheer to the exiles in
Babylon, and an announcement of the doom in store for that
guilty city. The roll containing this message Jer 50:1-8.
Seraiah was to read to the exiles, and then, after fixing a
stone to it, was to throw it into the Euphrates, uttering, as it
sank, the prayer recorded in Jer 51:59-64 - Babylon was at this
time in the height of its glory, the greatest and most powerful
monarchy in the world. Scarcely seventy years elapsed when the
words of the prophet were all fulfilled. Jer 51:59 - is rendered
in the Revised Version, "Now Seraiah was chief chamberlain,"
instead of "was a quiet prince," as in the Authorized Version.


Mentioned in Isa 6:2-3,6-7 - This word means fiery ones, in allusion,
as is supposed, to their burning love. They are represented as
"standing" above the King as he sat upon his throne, ready at once to
minister unto him. Their form appears to have been human, with the
addition of wings.
See ANGELS 00240.
This word, in the original, is used elsewhere only of the "fiery
serpents" Num 21:6,8 Deu 8:15 - comp. Isa 14:29 30:6 - sent by God as
his instruments to inflict on the people the righteous penalty of sin.


Fear, one of the sons of Zebulun Gen 46:14.


Act 16:35,38 - (R.V., "lictors"), officers who attended the magistrates
and assisted them in the execution of justice.

Sergius Paulus

A "prudent man" (R.V., "man of understanding"), the deputy (R.V.,
"proconsul") of Cyprus Act 13:6-13 - He became a convert to Christianity
under Paul, who visited this island on his first mission to the
heathen. A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887)
discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is found,
among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of the curators of
the banks and the channel of the river Tiber. After serving his three
years as proconsul at Cyprus, he returned to Rome, where he held the
office referred to. As he is not saluted in Paul's letter to the
Romans, he probably died before it was written.

Sermon on the Mount

After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely
mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee Luk 6:12 - on the
following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among
them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his
apostles Mar 3:14-15 - After this solemn consecration of the twelve,
he descended from the mountain-peak to a more level spot Luk 6:17.
and there he sat down and delivered the "sermon on the mount"
Mat 5:1-7:29 Luk 6:20-49 - to the assembled multitude. The mountain here
spoken of was probably that known by the name of the "Horns of Hattin"
(Kurun Hattin), a ridge running east and west, not far from Capernaum.
It was afterwards called the "Mount of Beatitudes."


(Heb. nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in Scripture. More than
forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. The poisonous character
of the serpent is alluded to in Jacob's blessing on Dan Gen 49:17.
see Pro 30:18-19 Jas 3:7 Jer 8:17.
See ADDER 00085.
This word is used symbolically of a deadly, subtle, malicious enemy
Luk 10:19 - The serpent is first mentioned in connection with the
history of the temptation and fall of our first parents Gen 3:1-6.
It has been well remarked regarding this temptation: "A real serpent
was the agent of the temptation, as is plain from what is said of the
natural characteristic of the serpent in the first verse of the
chapter Gen 3:1 - and from the curse pronounced upon the animal
itself. But that Satan was the actual tempter, and that he used the
serpent merely as his instrument, is evident
1. from the nature of the transaction; for although the serpent may
be the most subtle of all the beasts of the field, yet he has
not the high intellectual faculties which the tempter here
2. In the New Testament it is both directly asserted and in various
forms assumed that Satan seduced our first parents into sin"
Joh 8:44 Ro 16:20 2Co 11:3,14 Rev 12:9 20:2 - Hodge's System.
Theol., ii. 127

Serpent, Fiery

(LXX. "deadly," Vulg. "burning"), Num 21:6 - probably the naja
haje of Egypt; some swift-springing, deadly snake Isa 14:29 - After
setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the Israelites
entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from the mountains of
Edom as far as the Persian Gulf. While traversing this region, the
people began to murmur and utter loud complaints against Moses. As a
punishment, the Lord sent serpents among them, and much people of
Israel died. Moses interceded on their behalf, and by divine
direction he made a "brazen serpent," and raised it on a pole in the
midst of the camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it
were at once healed. (Comp.) Joh 3:14,15.
See ASP 00348.
This "brazen serpent" was preserved by the Israelites till the days of
Hezekiah, when it was destroyed 2Ki 18:4.

See BRASS 00641.


Branch, the father of Nahor Gen 11:20-23 - called Saruch in Luk 3:35.


Occurs only in 2Ki 4:43 - Authorized Version (R.V., "servant"). The
Hebrew word there rendered "servitor" is elsewhere rendered
"minister," "servant" Exo 24:13 33:11 - Probably Gehazi, the personal
attendant on Elisha, is here meant.


Appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve Gen 4:25 5:3.
His mother gave him this name, "for God," said she, "hath appointed
me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed instead of Abel, whom
Cain slew."


Hidden, one of the spies sent to search the Promised Land. He was of
the tribe of Asher Num 13:13.


This number occurs frequently in Scripture, and in such connections as
lead to the supposition that it has some typical meaning. On the
seventh day God rested, and hallowed it Gen 2:2-3 - The division of
time into weeks of seven days each accounts for many instances of the
occurrence of this number. This number has been called the symbol of
perfection, and also the symbol of rest. "Jacob's seven years'
service to Laban; Pharaoh's seven fat oxen and seven lean ones; the
seven branches of the golden candlestick; the seven trumpets and the
seven priests who sounded them; the seven days' siege of Jericho; the
seven churches, seven spirits, seven stars, seven seals, seven vials,
and many others, sufficiently prove the importance of this sacred
number" (see) Lev 25:4 1Sa 2:5 Psa 12:6 79:12 Pr 26:16 Isa 4:1.
Mat 18:21-22 Luk 17:4.
1. The feast of Passover Exo 12:15,16.
2. the feast of Weeks Deu 16:9.
3. of Tabernacles Deu 13:15.
4. and the Jubilee Lev 25:8 - were all ordered by seven.
5. Seven is the number of sacrifice 2Ch 29:21 Job 42:8.
6. of purification and consecration Lev 4:6,17 8:11,33 14:9,51.
7. of forgiveness Mat 18:21-22 Luk 17:4.
8. of reward Deu 28:7 1Sa 2:5.
9. of punishment Lev 26:21,24,28 Deu 28:25.
10. It is used for any round number in such passages as Job 5:19.
Pro 26:16,25 Isa 4:1 Mat 12:45.
11. It is used also to mean "abundantly" Gen 4:15,24 Lev 26:24 Psa 79:12.

Seventy Weeks

A prophetic period mentioned in Dan 9:24 - and usually interpreted
on the "year-day" theory, i.e., reckoning each day for a year. This
period will thus represent 490 years. This is regarded as the
period which would elapse till the time of the coming of the Messiah,
dating "from the going forth of the commandment to restore and
rebuild Jerusalem" i.e., from the close of the Captivity.


Or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan Jos 19:42.
Jud 1:35 - It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his
supplies 1Ki 4:9 - It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3
miles north of Ajalon.


Two gates.
1. A city in the plain of Judah 1Sa 17:52 - called also Sharaim
Jos 15:36.
2. A town in Simeon 1Ch 4:31.


Servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the
harem of king Ahasuerus Est 2:14.


Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and
investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews
Ezr 10:15 Neh 8:7 11:16.


The Omnipotent, the name of God in frequent use in the Hebrew
Scriptures, generally translated "the Almighty."


Used in Col 2:17 Heb 8:5 10:1 - to denote the typical relation of the
Jewish to the Christian dispensation.


Aku's command, the Chaldean name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew
youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon Dan 1:6,7.
Dan 3:12-30 - He and his two companions refused to bow down before the
image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up on the plains of Dura. Their
conduct filled the king with the greatest fury, and he commanded them
to be cast into the burning fiery furnace. Here, amid the fiery
flames, they were miraculously preserved from harm. Over them the
fire had no power, "neither was a hair of their head singed, neither
had the smell of fire passed on them." Thus Nebuchadnezzar learned
the greatness of the God of Israel.

See ABEDNEGO 00014.


Perfect, a place (probably the village of Salim) some 2 miles east
of Jacob's well. There is an abundant supply of water, which may have
been the reason for Jacob's settling at this place Gen 33:18-20 - The
Revised Version translates this word, and reads, "Jacob came in peace
to the city of Shechem," thus not regarding it as a proper name at

Shalim, Land of

Land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem
1Sa 9:4 - perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan
Jos 19:42.

Shalisha, Land of

Probably the district of Baal-shalisha 2Ki 4:42 - lying about 12 miles
north of Lydda 1Sa 9:4.

Shallecheth, The gate of

i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate;
one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the
going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley valley
of the cheesemakers 1Ch 26:16.


1. The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against
Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and
reigned in his stead" 2Ki 15:10 - He reigned only "a month of
days in Samaria" 2Ki 15:13 - marg. Menahem rose up against
Shallum and put him to death 2Ki 15:14,15,17 - and became king in
his stead.
2. Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah 2Ki 22:14.
3. One of the posterity of Judah 1Ch 2:40,41.
4. A descendant of Simeon 1Ch 4:25.
5. One of the line of the high priests 1Ch 6:13.
6. 1Ch 7:13.
7. A keeper of the gate in the reign of David 1Ch 9:17.
8. A Levite porter 1Ch 9:19,31 Jer 35:4.
9. An Ephraimite chief 2Ch 28:12.
10. The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah Jer 32:7.
11. A son of king Josiah 1Ch 3:15 Jer 22:11 - who was elected to
succeed his father on the throne, although he was two years
younger than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown under the
name of Jehoahaz (q.v.). He did not imitate the example of his
father 2Ki 23:32 - but was "a young lion, and it learned to catch
the prey; it devoured men" Eze 19:3 - His policy was
anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time at Riblah, sent an
army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded, and Jehoahaz was
carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim being appointed
king in his stead. He remained a captive in Egypt till his
death, and was the first king of Judah that died in exile.


An Assyrian king Hos 10:14 - identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or
IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C.
728 He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued
and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after
rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched
against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken
2Ki 17:3-5 18:9 - by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had
broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the
vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a
king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as


The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the
Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this name, the
son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for the purpose of
freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the invasion,
slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.). The goad was a formidable
sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably
contemporary for a time with Deborah and Barak Jud 3:31 5:6.


A sharp thorn.
1. One of the sons of Michah 1Ch 24:24.
2. A town among the mountains of Judah Jos 15:48 - probably Somerah,
2 1/2 miles north-west of Debir.
3. The residence of Tola, one of the judges, on Mount Ephraim
Jud 10:1-2.


1. One of the "dukes" of Edom Gen 36:13,17.
2. One of the sons of Jesse 1Sa 16:9 - He is also called Shimeah
2Sa 13:3 - and Shimma 1Ch 2:13.
3. One of David's three mighty men 2Sa 23:11,12.
4. One of David's mighties 2Sa 23:25 - called also Shammoth
1Ch 11:27 - and Shamhuth 1Ch 27:8.


1. One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the land Num 13:4.
He represented the tribe of Reuben.
2. One of David's sons 1Ch 14:4 3:5 - "Shimea;" 2Sa 5:14.
3. A Levite under Nehemiah Neh 11:17.


A coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah 2Ki 22:3-7 - He consulted
Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the law which was
delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest 2Ki 22:8-14 - His grandson
Gedaliah was governor of Judea 2Ki 25:22.


1. One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon Num 13:5.
2. The father of Elisha 1Ki 19:16-19.
3. One of David's chief herdsmen 1Ch 27:29.


Brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the
wilderness Num 33:23,24.


Two gates Jos 15:36 - more correctly Shaaraim 1Sa 17:52 - probably
Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya, in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles
north-west of Socoh.


(god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and
his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then fled into the
land of Armenia 2Ki 19:37.

Sharon, Saron

A plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill
country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15
miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility 1Ch 27:29.
Isa 33:9 35:2 65:10 - The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated Son 2:1.
It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in
Jos 12:18.


Plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the
original inhabitants Gen 14:5 - Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the
land of Moab.

Shaveh, Valley of

Valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or
Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem Gen 14:17.


("Seraiah,") 2Sa 8:17 - "Shisha," 1Ki 4:3 - one of David's
secretaries 1Ch 18:16.


Asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel Ezr 3:2,8 Neh 12:1.


2Ki 10:12,14 - marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the
shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some
place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty
men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so
rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.


A remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name
which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son Isa 7:3 - perhaps his eldest


An oath, seven.
1. Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah Gen 10:7 - whose descendants
settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf.
2. Heb. id. A son of Joktan Gen 10:28 - probably the founder of the
3. Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah
Gen 25:3.
4. Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in
Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans of classical geography, who
carried on the trade in spices with the other peoples of the
ancient world. They were Semites, speaking one of the two main
dialects of Himyaritic or South Arabic. Sheba had become a
monarchy before the days of Solomon. Its queen brought him gold,
spices, and precious stones 1Ki 10:1-13 - She is called by our
Lord the "queen of the south" Mat 12:42.
5. Heb. shebha', "seven" or "an oak." A town of Simeon Jos 19:2.
6. Heb. id. A "son of Bichri," of the family of Becher, the son of
Benjamin, and thus of the stem from which Saul was descended
2Sa 20:1-22 - When David was returning to Jerusalem after the
defeat of Absalom, a strife arose between the ten tribes and the
tribe of Judah, because the latter took the lead in bringing
back the king. Sheba took advantage of this state of things, and
raised the standard of revolt, proclaiming, "We have no part in
David." With his followers he proceeded northward. David seeing
it necessary to check this revolt, ordered Abishai to take the
gibborim, "mighty men," and the body-guard and such troops as he
could gather, and pursue Sheba. Joab joined the expedition, and
having treacherously put Amasa to death, assumed the command of
the army. Sheba took refuge in Abel-Bethmaachah, a fortified
town some miles north of Lake Merom. While Joab was engaged in
laying siege to this city, Sheba's head was, at the instigation
of a "wise woman" who had held a parley with him from the city
walls, thrown over the wall to the besiegers, and thus the
revolt came to an end.


Whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up.
1. A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God
1Ch 15:24.
2. Another Levite Neh 9:4,5.
3. A priest Neh 10:12.
4. A Levite Neh 10:4.


Breaks; ruins, a place near Ai Jos 7:5 - (R.V. marg., "the quarries").


Tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah,
i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride
he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it
Isa 22:15-25 - He appears to have been the leader of the party who
favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured
that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to
confer with the Assyrian ambassador 2Ki 18:18,26,37 19:2.
Isa 36:3,11,22 37:2 - was a different person.


Captive of God.
1. One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple
treasures in the time of David 1Ch 23:16 26:24.
2. One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to
"lift up the horn" in the temple service 1Ch 25:4-5 - called also
Shubael ver. 1Ch 25:20.


One intimate with Jehovah.
1. A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the
priests 1Ch 24:11.
2. One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by
courses" of the daily portion 2Ch 31:15 - Shechani'ah, id.
3. A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1Ch 3:21-22.
4. Ezr 8:5.
5. Ezr 10:2-4.
6. The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem
Neh 3:29.
7. The father-in-law of Tobiah Neh 6:18.
8. A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel
Neh 12:3 - marg., or Shebaniah.


1. The son of Hamor the Hivite Gen 33:19 34:1.
2. A descendant of Manasseh Num 26:31 Jos 17:2.
3. A city in Samaria Gen 33:18 - called also Sichem Gen 12:6.
Sychem Act 7:16 - It stood in the narrow sheltered valley
between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these
mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here
Abraham pitched his tent and built his first altar in the
Promised Land, and received the first divine promise Gen 12:6,7.
Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of the
children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled
with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the
teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards
called "the oak of the sorcerer" Gen 33:19 35:4 Jud 9:37.
See MEONENIM 02483.
Here too, after a while, he dug a well, which bears his name to
this day Joh 4:5,39-42 - To Shechem Joshua gathered all
Israel "before God," and delivered to them his second parting
address Jos 24:1-15 - He "made a covenant with the people
that day" at the very place where, on first entering the land,
they had responded to the law from Ebal and Gerizim Jos 24:25.
the terms of which were recorded "in the book of the law of
God", i.e., in the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of
this solemn transaction a great stone was set up "under an oak"
(comp.) Gen 28:18 31:44-48 Ex 24:4 Jos 4:3,8,9 - possibly the
old "oak of Moreh," as a silent witness of the transaction to
all coming time. Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the
central city of refuge for Western Palestine Jos 20:7 - and
here the bones of Joseph were buried Jos 24:32 - Rehoboam was
appointed king in Shechem 1Ki 12:1,19 - but Jeroboam
afterwards took up his residence here. This city is mentioned in
connection with our Lord's conversation with the woman of
Samaria Joh 4:5 - and thus, remaining as it does to the
present day, it is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is
the modern Nablus, a contraction for Neapolis, the name given to
it by Vespasian. It lies about a mile and a half up the valley
on its southern slope, and on the north of Gerizim, which rises
about 1,100 feet above it, and is about 34 miles north of
Jerusalem. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about
160 are Samaritans and 100 Jews, the rest being Christians and
Muslims. The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivalled
beauty. Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only
very beautiful, spot in Central Palestine." Gaza, near Shechem,
only mentioned 1Ch 7:28 - has entirely disappeared. It was
destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and its place was taken
by Shechem.

See SYCHAR 03542.


A Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used
by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence
in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord
led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a
cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For
references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo 14:20.
Exo 40:34-38 Lev 9:23-24 Num 14:10 16:19,42 - It is probable that after
the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle
upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however,
no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by
Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the
priests could not stand to minister 1Ki 8:10-13 2Ch 5:13-14 7:1-3.
Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the
symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood. It
afterwards disappeared.

See CLOUD 00849.


Are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac
were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of
Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of
intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt
introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are
frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his
flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people
Psa 23:1-2 74:1 77:20 Isa 40:11 53:6 Joh 10:1-5,7-16 - "The sheep
of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5
inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the
weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs.,
but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of
fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so
frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices Exo 29:22.
Lev 3:9 7:3 9:19 - Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great
festivity Gen 31:19 38:12-13 1Sa 25:4-8,36 2Sa 13:23-28.


A strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered
within it Num 32:24 1Ch 17:7 Psa 50:9 78:70 - In Joh 10:16 - the
Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule
and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so
rendered in the Revised Version. (See also) Mat 03:31 Luk 2:8 1Co 9:7.

See FOLD 01365.


One of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah Neh 3:1,32 12:39.
It was in the eastern wall of the city.


Occurs only in Joh 5:2 - (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so
rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be
supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."


Weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the
Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than
half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" Exo 30:13.
Num 3:47 - was equal to twenty gerahs Eze 45:12 - There were shekels
of gold 1Ch 21:25 - of silver 1Sa 9:8 - of brass 1Sa 17:5.
and of iron 1Sa 17:7 - When it became a coined piece of money, the
shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money.
Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in
value to fifty silver ones. The temple contribution, with which the
public sacrifices were bought Exo 30:13 2Ch 24:6 - consisted of one
common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic
drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's
mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ Mat 17:24,27.
A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel
1Sa 9:8.


1. Judah's third son Gen 38:2,5,11,14.
2. A son of Arphaxad 1Ch 1:18.


Whom Jehovah repays.
1. Ezr 10:39.
2. The father of Hananiah Neh 3:30.
3. A priest in the time of Nehemiah Neh 13:13.
4. Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah
Jer 37:3 38:1.
5. Father of a captain of the ward Jer 37:13.
6. Jer 36:14.


A name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah Gen 5:32 6:10.
He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of
Japheth the elder" in Gen 10:21 - are more correctly rendered "the
elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is
generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife
were saved in the ark Gen 7:13 - Noah foretold his preeminence over
Canaan Gen 9:23-27 - He died at the age of six hundred years, having
been for many years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual
chronology. The Israelitish nation sprang from him
Gen 11:10-26 1Ch 1:24-27.


1. A Reubenite 1Ch 5:8.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:13.
3. One who stood by Ezra when he read the law Neh 8:4.
4. A town in the south of Judah Jos 15:26.


Rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" 1Ch 12:3.


Whom Jehovah heard.
1. A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam 1Ki 12:22-24.
2. Neh 3:29.
3. A Simeonite 1Ch 4:37.
4. A priest Neh 12:42.
5. A Levite 1Ch 9:16.
6. 1Ch 9:14 Neh 11:15.
7. A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren
took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron
1Ch 15:8.
8. A Levite 1Ch 24:6.
9. The eldest son of Obed-edom 1Ch 26:4-8.
10. A Levite 2Ch 29:14.
11. A false prophet who hindered the rebuilding of Jerusalem
Neh 6:10.
12. A prince of Judah who assisted at the dedication of the wall of
Jerusalem Neh 12:34-36.
13. A false prophet who opposed Jeremiah Jer 29:24-32.
14. One of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat appointed to teach the law
2Ch 17:8.
15. A Levite appointed to "distribute the oblations of the Lord"
2Ch 31:15.
16. A Levite 2Ch 35:9.
17. The father of Urijah the prophet Jer 26:20.
18. The father of a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim Jer 36:12.


Whom Jehovah guards.
1. One who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:5.
2. Ezr 10:32,41.


Soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings
in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been
reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham Gen 14:2.


Eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung
by men's voices 1Ch 15:21 Psa 6:1 12:1 - (title).


Most high name.
1. A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:8.
2. A Levite in David's time 1Ch 15:18,20.


Heard of God.
1. The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the
land Num 34:20.
2. Used for "Samuel" 1Ch 6:33 - R.V.
3. A prince of the tribe of Issachar 1Ch 7:2.


A tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag 1Sa 7:12.
a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the
Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is


=Senir, Deu 3:9 So 4:8 - the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the


(Heb., "the all-demanding world" Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the
invisible world of departed souls.

See HELL 01731.


A treeless place, Num 34:10-11 - "The coast shall go down from Shepham
to Riblah."


Judged of the Lord.
1. A son of David by Abital 2Sa 3:4.
2. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:5.
3. A Simeonite prince in David's time 1Ch 27:16.
4. One of Jehoshaphat's sons 2Ch 21:2.
5. Ezr 2:4.
6. Ezr 2:57 Neh 7:59.
7. One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death
Jer 38:1-4.


A word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the
word "pastor" is used instead Jer 2:8 3:15 10:21 12:10 17:16 - This
word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to
their subjects and of God to his people Psa 23:1 80:1 Isa 40:11 44:28.
Jer 25:34-35 Na 3:18 Joh 10:11,14 Heb 13:20 1Pe 2:25 5:4 - The duties
of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very
onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold,
marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here
he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed,
and if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the
rest, seeking diligently till he found and brought it back. In those
lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the
shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running
stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs.
At night he brought the flock home to the fold, counting them as they
passed under the rod at the door to assure himself that none were
missing. Nor did his labours always end with sunset. Often he had to
guard the fold through the dark hours from the attack of wild beasts,
or the wily attempts of the prowling thief (see) 1Sa 17:34 - Deane's


Flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with
the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem
Ezr 8:17-18,24-30 Neh 8:7 9:4-5 10:12.


Root, a descendant of Manasseh 1Ch 7:16.


One of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to
Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" Zec 7:2.


Dan 3:2 - Babylonian officers.


Jer 25:26 - supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to
a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown
antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the
Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and
so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This
is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer 51:41 - where
Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no
reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See
Streane's Jeremiah, l.c.)


Whitish, one of the sons of Anak Num 13:22 - When the Israelites
obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and
slain Jos 15:14 Jud 1:10.


O sun-god, defend the lord! Ezr 1:8,11 - probably another name for
Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezr 2:2 Hag 1:12,14 Zec 4:6,10.


1. "The children of Sheth" Num 24:17 - R.V., "the sons of tumult,"
which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence
that this is a proper name here.
2. The antediluvian patriarch 1Ch 1:1.


A star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus Est 1:14.


Star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder
the rebuilding of the temple Ezr 5:3,6 6:6,13.


Heb. Shebher.
1. The son of Caleb 1Ch 2:49.
2. Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes 2Sa 20:25.


Exo 25:30 - (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1Ch 9:32 - (marg., "bread
of ordering"); Num 4:7 - called "hallowed bread" (R.V., "holy
bread") in 1Sa 21:1-6 - This bread consisted of twelve loaves made
of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two
rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They
were renewed every Sabbath Lev 24:5-9 - and those that were removed
to give place to the new ones were to be eaten by the priests only in
the holy place (see) 1Sa 21:3-6 - comp. Mat 12:3-4 - The number of
the loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and also the
entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;" and the placing of them on
the table symbolized the entire consecration of Israel to the Lord,
and their acceptance of God as their God. The table for the bread was
made of acacia wood, 3 feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches
high. It was plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold,
passed through golden rings, were used for carrying it.


River, or an ear of corn. The tribes living on the east of Jordan,
separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the
rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from
mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to
pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them
from the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west
invaded Gilead, and were defeated by the Gileadites under the
leadership of Jephthah, and tried to escape by the "passages of the
Jordan," the Gileadites seized the fords and would allow none to pass
who could not pronounce "shibboleth" with a strong aspirate. This the
fugitives were unable to do. They said "sibboleth," as the word was
pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus they were detected
Jud 12:1-6 - Forty-two thousand were thus detected, and "Without
reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well-pronouncing


Fragrance, a town of Reuben, east of Jordan Num 32:38.


1. Used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under
different circumstances in size, form, and material 1Sa 17:7.
2Sa 1:21 1Ki 10:17 1Ch 12:8,24,34 Isa 22:6 Eze 39:9 Na 2:3.
2. Used figuratively of God and of earthly princes as the defenders
of their people Gen 15:1 Deu 33:29 Psa 33:20 84:11.
3. Faith is compared to a shield Eph 6:16.
4. Shields were usually "anointed" Isa 21:5 - in order to preserve
them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off
them more easily.


From the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in the
title of Psa 7:1 - The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Hab 3:1.
The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion;
a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a
dithyrambic ode.


Overturning, a town of Issachar Jos 19:19.


Dark, 1Ch 13:5 - the southwestern boundary of Canaan, the Wady

See SIHOR 03428.
See NILE 02730.


Black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern
Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile brook," or "blue river", which rises
in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the
north of Caesarea Jos 19:26 - Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka.
Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to
worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesarea), and
brought their gods with them. Once here they would not easily be
exterminated" (The Land and the Book).


Aqueducts, a town in the south of Judah Jos 15:32 - called also
Sharuhen and Shaaraim Jos 19:6.

Shiloah, The waters of

=Siloah, Neh 3:15 - and Siloam (q.v.)


Generally understood as denoting the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as
the word signifies Gen 49:10 - The Vulgate Version translates the word,
"he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised
Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX., "until that
which is his shall come to Shiloh." It is most simple and natural to
render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, "till Shiloh
come," interpreting it as a proper name (comp.) Isa 9:6 - Shiloh, a
place of rest, a city of Ephraim, "on the north side of Bethel," from
which it is distant 10 miles Jud 21:19 - the modern Seilun (the
Arabic for Shiloh), a "mass of shapeless ruins." Here the tabernacle
was set up after the Conquest Jos 18:1-10 - where it remained during
all the period of the judges till the ark fell into the hands of the
Philistines. "No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded
than this early sanctuary, nothing more featureless than the
landscape around; so featureless, indeed, the landscape and so
secluded the spot that from the time of St. Jerome till its
re-discovery by Dr. Robinson in 1838 the very site was forgotten and
unknown." It is referred to by Jeremiah Jer 7:12,14 26:4-9 - five
hundred years after its destruction.


Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated
1Ki 11:29 15:29 - The plural form occurs 1Ch 9:5 - denoting the
descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.


The hearing prayer.
1. One of David's sons by Bathsheba 1Ch 3:5 - called also Shammua
1Ch 14:4.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari 1Ch 6:30.
3. Another Levite of the family of Gershon 1Ch 6:39.
4. One of David's brothers 1Sa 16:9 - marg.


1. One of David's brothers 2Sa 13:3 - same as Shimea 2Sa 13:4.
2. A Benjamite, a descendant of Gibeon 1Ch 8:32 - called also
Shimeam 1Ch 9:38.


1. A son of Gershon, and grandson of Levi Num 3:18 1Ch 6:17,29.
called Shimi in Exo 6:17.
2. A Benjamite of the house of Saul, who stoned and cursed David
when he reached Bahurim in his flight from Jerusalem on the
occasion of the rebellion of Absalom 2Sa 16:5-13 - After the
defeat of Absalom he "came cringing to the king, humbly suing
for pardon, bringing with him a thousand of his Benjamite
tribesmen, and representing that he was heartily sorry for his
crime, and had hurried the first of all the house of Israel to
offer homage to the king" 2Sa 19:16-23 - David forgave him; but
on his death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding
Shimei, of whose fidelity he seems to have been in doubt
1Ki 2:8-9 - He was put to death at the command of Solomon,
because he had violated his word by leaving Jerusalem and going
to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped
1Ki 2:36-46|.
3. One of David's mighty men who refused to acknowledge Adonijah as
David's successor 1Ki 1:8 - He is probably the same person who is
called elsewhere 1Ki 4:18 - "the son of Elah."
4. A son of Pedaiah, the brother of Zerubbabel 1Ch 3:19.
5. A Simeonite 1Ch 4:26-27.
6. A Reubenite 1Ch 5:4.
7. A Levite of the family of Gershon 1Ch 6:42.
8. A Ramathite who was "over the vineyards" of David 1Ch 27:27.
9. One of the sons of Heman, who assisted in the purification of
the temple 2Ch 29:14.
10. A Levite 2Ch 31:12-13.
11. Another Levite Ezr 10:23 - "The family of Shimei" Zec 12:13.
R.V., "the family of the Shimeites" were the descendants of
Shimei (1)


Hearkening. Ezr 10:31.


Famous, a Benjamite 1Ch 8:21.


Guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).


1. A Simeonite 1Ch 4:37.
2. The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies
1Ch 11:45.
3. Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of
Hezekiah 2Ch 29:13.


Watchman, the fourth son of Issachar Gen 46:13 1Ch 7:1 - R.V.,
correctly, "Shimron".


Watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages,
allotted to Zebulun Jos 19:15 - now probably Semunieh, on the northern
edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.


The same, probably, as Shimron Jos 12:20.


The shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who
took part in opposing the rebuilding of the temple after the
Captivity Ezr 4:8-9,17-23.


Cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his
confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer Gen 14:2.

Shinar, The Land of

LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably
identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to
the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built Gen 11:1-6 - and the
city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history Isa 11:11.
Zec 5:11 - Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who
tilled the land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of
Semites invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This
was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from which the
land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of Amarpel
("Amraphel, king of Shinar,") Gen 14:1 - who became the founder of
the new empire of Chaldea.

See AMRAPHEL 00221.


Probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards
1Ch 27:27.


Beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives Exo 1:15.


Judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of Canaan
Num 34:24.


Early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians Gen 49:13 - Moses
Deu 28:68 - and Job Job 9:26 - make reference to them, and Balaam
speaks of the "ships of Chittim" Num 24:24 - Solomon constructed a
navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors
1Ki 9:26-28 2Ch 8:18 - Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide
himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have
been wrecked before they set sail 1Ki 22:48,49 2Ch 20:35-37 - In
our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called
"ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient
merchant ships and navigation from the record in Act 27:1-28:12.

Shishak I

=Sheshonk I., king of Egypt. His reign was one of great national
success, and a record of his wars and conquests adorns the portico of
what are called the "Bubastite kings" at Karnak, the ancient Thebes.
Among these conquests is a record of that of Judea. In the fifth year
of Rehoboam's reign Shishak came up against the kingdom of Judah with
a powerful army. He took the fenced cities and came to Jerusalem. He
pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the royal palace, and
carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made 1Ki 11:40.
1Ki 14:25 2Ch 12:2.
See REHOBOAM 03094.
This expedition of the Egyptian king was undertaken at the instigation
of Jeroboam for the purpose of humbling Judah. Hostilities between the
two kingdoms still continued; but during Rehoboam's reign there was
not again the intervention of a third party.


Isa 41:19 - (R.V., "acacia tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making
the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must
therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites
wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal).
"The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of - sunt -,
everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A
slightly different form of the tree, equally common under the name of
- seyal -, is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in
the plural form, the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made."
Stanley's Sinai, etc. Exo 25:10,13,23,28.


Acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" Num 33:49 - a plain or valley in the
land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two
victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings,
and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) "secretly" to
"view" the land and Jericho Jos 2:1.


Opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia,
anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The
plain lying between these mountains and the Tigris was called
su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain." This name was sometimes
shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as Shoa Eze 23:23.
Some think it denotes a place in Babylon.

See PEKOD 02883.


1. One of David's sons by Bathseheba 2Sa 5:14.
2. One of the sons of Caleb 1Ch 2:18 - the son of Hezron.


Poured out, the "captain of the host of Hadarezer" when he mustered
his vassals and tributaries from beyond "the river Euphrates"
2Sa 10:15-18 - called also Shophach 1Ch 19:16.


Captors Ezr 2:42.


1. The second son of Seir the Horite; one of the Horite "dukes"
Gen 36:20.
2. One of the sons of Caleb, and a descendant of Hur
1Ch 2:50,52 4:1-2.


Captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed kindness to
David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim 2Sa 17:27.


2Ch 28:18 - Shochoh 1Sa 17:1 - = Shoco 2Ch 11:7.

See SOCOH 03468.


Of various forms, from the mere sandal (q.v.) to the complete covering
of the foot. The word so rendered (A.V.) in Deu 33:25 - - min'al -, "a
bar," is derived from a root meaning "to bolt" or "shut fast," and
hence a fastness or fortress. The verse has accordingly been rendered
"iron and brass shall be thy fortress," or, as in the Revised
Version, "thy bars [marg., "shoes"] shall be iron and brass."


1. The mother of Jehozabad, who murdered Joash 2Ki 12:21 - called
also Shimrith, a Moabitess 2Ch 24:26.
2. A man of Asher 1Ch 7:32 - called also Shamer 1Ch 7:34.


Hidden, or hollow, a town east of Jordan Num 32:35 - built by the
children of Gad. This word should probably be joined with the word
preceding it in this passage, Atroth-Shophan, as in the Revised


Lilies, the name of some musical instrument, probably like a lily in
shape Psa 45:1 69:1 - (title). Some think that an instrument of six
strings is meant.


In title of Psa 80:1 - (R.V. marg., "lilies, a testimony"), probably the
name of the melody to which the psalm was to be sung.

Shrines, Silver

Little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of
Ephesus Act 19:24 - The manufacture of these was a very large and
profitable business.


1. A Canaanite whose daughter was married to Judah 1Ch 2:3.
2. A daughter of Heber the Asherite 1Ch 7:32.


Prostration; a pit.
1. One of Abraham's sons by Keturah Gen 25:2 1Ch 1:32.
2. 1Ch 4:11.

Shual, The land of

Land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin 1Sa 13:17.
possibly the same as Shalim 1Sa 9:4 - in the neighbourhood of
Shaalabbin Jos 19:42.


A designation of Bildad Job 2:11 - probably because he was a descendant
of Shuah.


The same, as some think, with "Shunammite," from "Shunem:" otherwise,
the import of the word is uncertain Son 6:13 - (R.V., "Shulammite").


A person of Shunem 1Ki 1:3 2Ki 4:12 - The Syr. and Arab. read


Two resting-places, a little village in the tribe of Issachar, to the
north of Jezreel and south of Mount Gilboa Jos 19:18 - where the
Philistines encamped when they came against Saul 1Sa 28:4 - and where
Elisha was hospitably entertained by a rich woman of the place. On
the sudden death of this woman's son she hastened to Carmel, 20
miles distant across the plain, to tell Elisha, and to bring him with
her to Shunem. There, in the "prophet's chamber," the dead child lay;
and Elisha entering it, shut the door and prayed earnestly: and the
boy was restored to life 2Ki 4:8-37 - This woman afterwards retired
during the famine to the low land of the Philistines; and on
returning a few years afterwards, found her house and fields in the
possession of a stranger. She appealed to the king at Samaria, and
had them in a somewhat remarkable manner restored to her (comp.)
2Ki 8:1-6.


An enclosure; a wall, a part, probably, of the Arabian desert, on the
north-eastern border of Egypt, giving its name to a wilderness
extending from Egypt toward Philistia Gen 16:7 20:1 25:18 Ex 15:22.
The name was probably given to it from the wall (or shur) which the
Egyptians built to defend their frontier on the north-east from the
desert tribes. This wall or line of fortifications extended from
Pelusium to Heliopolis.


A lily, the Susa of Greek and Roman writers, once the capital of Elam.
It lay in the uplands of Susiana, on the east of the Tigris, about
150 miles to the north of the head of the Persian Gulf. It is the
modern Shush, on the northwest of Shuster. Once a magnificent city,
it is now an immense mass of ruins. Here Daniel saw one of his
visions Dan 8:1 - and here also Nehemiah Neh 1:1 - began his public
life. Most of the events recorded in the Book of Esther took place
here. Modern explorers have brought to light numerous relics, and the
ground-plan of the splendid palace of Shushan, one of the residences
of the great king, together with numerous specimens of ancient art,
which illustrate the statements of Scripture regarding it Dan 8:2.
The great hall of this palace Est 1:2 - "consisted of several
magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343 feet 9
inches, and a depth of 244 feet. These groups were arranged into a
central phalanx of thirty-six columns (six rows of six each), flanked
on the west, north, and east by an equal number, disposed in double
rows of six each, and distant from them 64 feet 2 inches." The
inscriptions on the ruins represent that the palace was founded by
Darius and completed by Artaxerxes.


Lily of the testimony, the title of Psa 60:1.



The Lord sustains, one of David's heroes 1Ch 11:29 - general of the
eighth division of the army 1Ch 27:11 - He slew the giant Saph in the
battle of Gob 2Sa 21:18 - R.V., "Sibbechai". Called also Mebunnai
2Sa 23:27.


Coolness; fragrance, a town in Reuben, in the territory of Moab, on
the east of Jordan Jos 13:19 - called also Shebam and Shibmah
Num 32:3,38 - It was famous for its vines Isa 16:9 Jer 48:32 - It
has been identified with the ruin of Sumieh, where there are rock-cut
wine-presses. This fact explains the words of the prophets referred to
above. It was about 5 miles east of Heshbon.


=She'chem, (q.v.), Gen 12:6.


Of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn were
cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a sickle used
for warlike purposes, more correctly, however, called a pruning-hook
Deu 16:9 Jer 50:16 - marg., "scythe;" Joe 3:13 Mar 4:29.

Siddim, Vale of

Valley of the broad plains, "which is the salt sea" Gen 14:3,8,10.
between Engedi and the cities of the plain, at the south end of the
Dead Sea. It was "full of slime-pits" (R.V., "bitumen pits"). Here
Chedorlaomer and the confederate kings overthrew the kings of Sodom
and the cities of the plain. God afterwards, on account of their
wickedness, "overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the
inhabitants of the cities;" and the smoke of their destruction "went
up as the smoke of a furnace" Gen 19:24-28 - and was visible from
Mamre, where Abraham dwelt. Some, however, contend that the "cities of
the plain" were somewhere at the north of the Dead Sea.

See SODOM 03469.


Fishing; fishery, Gen 10:15,19 - (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon);
Mat 11:21-22 Luk 6:17.

See ZIDON 03926.


A seal used to attest documents Dan 6:8-10,12 - In Dan 6:17 - this
word properly denotes a ring. The impression of a signet ring on fine
clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. It bears
the name and title of an Egyptian king. Two actual signet rings of
ancient Egyptian monarchs (Cheops and Horus) have also been
discovered. When digging a shaft close to the south wall of the temple
area, the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, at a depth of
12 feet below the surface, came upon a pavement of polished stones,
formerly one of the streets of the city. Under this pavement they
found a stratum of 16 feet of concrete, and among this concrete, 10
feet down, they found a signet stone bearing the inscription, in Old
Hebrew characters, "Haggai, son of Shebaniah." It has been asked,
Might not this be the actual seal of Haggai the prophet? We know that
he was in Jerusalem after the Captivity; and it is somewhat singular
that he alone of all the minor prophets makes mention of a signet
Hag 2:23.

See SEAL 03246.


Striking down. The whole country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon
to the Jabbok, was possessed by the Amorites, whose king, Sihon,
refused to permit the Israelites to pass through his territory, and
put his army in array against them. The Israelites went forth against
him to battle, and gained a complete victory. The Amorites were
defeated; Sihon, his sons, and all his people were smitten with the
sword, his walled towns were captured, and the entire country of the
Amorites was taken possession of by the Israelites Num 21:21-30.
Deu 2:24-37 - The country from the Jabbok to Hermon was at this time
ruled by Og, the last of the Rephaim. He also tried to prevent the
progress of the Israelites, but was utterly routed, and all his cities
and territory fell into the hands of the Israelites (comp.)
Num 21:33-35 Deu 3:1-14 Psa 135:10-12 136:17-22 - These two victories gave
the Israelites possession of the country on the east of Jordan, from
the Arnon to the foot of Hermon. The kingdom of Sihon embraced about
1,500 square miles, while that of Og was more than 3,000 square miles.


(correctly Shi'hor) black; dark the name given to the river Nile in
Isa 23:3 Jer 2:18 - In Jos 13:3 - it is probably "the river of
Egypt", i.e., the Wady el-Arish 1Ch 13:5 - which flows "before
Egypt", i.e., in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the
sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza.


Wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called
Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church
there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from
the council of the apostles and elders Act 15:22 - as bearers of the
decree adopted by the council. He assisted Paul there in his
evangelistic labours, and was also chosen by him to be his companion
on his second missionary tour Act 16:19-24 - He is referred to in the
epistles under the name of Silvanus 2Co 1:19 1Th 1:1 2Th 1:1 1Pe 5:12.
There is no record of the time or place of his death.


Heb. demeshek, "damask," silk cloth manufactured at Damascus, Amo 3:12.
A.V., "in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch;" R.V., "in
the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed" (marg.,
"in Damascus on a bed"). Heb. meshi, Eze 16:10,13 - rendered "silk").
In Gen 41:42 - (marg. A.V.), Pro 31:22 - (R.V., "fine linen"), the word
"silk" ought to be "fine linen." Silk was common in New Testament
times Rev 18:12.


A highway; a twig, only in 2Ki 12:20 - If taken as a proper name (as in
the LXX. and other versions), the locality is unknown.

Siloah, The Pool of

1. Heb. shelah; i.e., "the dart", Neh 3:15.
2. with the art. - shiloah -, "sending," Isa 8:6 - (comp.)
Isa 7:3 - =Siloam (q.v.)

Siloam, Pool of

Sent or sending. Here a notable miracle was wrought by our Lord in
giving sight to the blind Joh 9:7-11 - It has been identified with
the Birket Silwan in the lower Tyropoeon valley, to the south-east of
the hill of Zion. The water which flows into this pool intermittingly
by a subterranean channel springs from the "Fountain of the Virgin"
(q.v.). The length of this channel, which has several windings, is
1,750 feet, though the direct distance is only 1,100 feet. The pool is
53 feet in length from north to south, 18 feet wide, and 19 deep. The
water passes from it by a channel cut in the rock into the gardens
See EN-ROGEL 01214.
Many years ago (1880) a youth, while wading up the conduit by which
the water enters the pool, accidentally discovered an inscription cut
in the rock, on the eastern side, about 19 feet from the pool. This is
the oldest extant Hebrew record of the kind. It has with great care
been deciphered by scholars, and has been found to be an account of
the manner in which the tunnel was constructed. Its whole length is
said to be "twelve hundred cubits;" and the inscription further notes
that the workmen, like the excavators of the Mont Cenis Tunnel,
excavated from both ends, meeting in the middle. Some have argued that
the inscription was cut in the time of Solomon; others, with more
probability, refer it to the reign of Hezekiah. A more ancient tunnel
was discovered in 1889 some 20 feet below the ground. It is of smaller
dimensions, but more direct in its course. It is to this tunnel that
Isaiah Isa 8:6 - probably refers. The Siloam inscription above
referred to was surreptitiously cut from the wall of the tunnel in
1891 and broken into fragments. These were, however, recovered by the
efforts of the British Consul at Jerusalem, and have been restored to
their original place.

Siloam, Tower of

Mentioned only Luk 13:4 - The place here spoken of is the village
now called Silwan, or Kefr Silwan, on the east of the valley of
Kidron, and to the north-east of the pool. It stands on the west slope
of the Mount of Olives. As illustrative of the movement of small bands
of Canaanites from place to place, and the intermingling of Canaanites
and Israelites even in small towns in earlier times, M.C. Ganneau
records the following curious fact: "Among the inhabitants of the
village (of Siloam) there are a hundred or so domiciled for the most
part in the lower quarter, and forming a group apart from the rest,
called Dhiabrye, i.e., men of Dhiban. It appears that at some remote
period a colony from the capital of king Mesha (Dibon-Moab) crossed
the Jordan and fixed itself at the gates of Jerusalem at Silwan. The
memory of this migration is still preserved; and I am assured by the
people themselves that many of their number are installed in other
villages round Jerusalem" (quoted by Henderson, Palestine).


Used for a great variety of purposes, as may be judged from the
frequent references to it in Scripture. It first appears in commerce
in Gen 13:2 23:15-16 - It was largely employed for making vessels for
the sanctuary in the wilderness Exo 26:19 27:17 Num 7:13,19 10:2 - There
is no record of its having been found in Syria or Palestine. It was
brought in large quantities by foreign merchants from abroad, from
Spain and India and other countries probably.


Isa 7:23 - Literally the words are "at a thousand of silver", i.e.,
"pieces of silver," or shekels.


1. The second son of Jacob by Leah Gen 29:33 - He was associated with
Levi in the terrible act of vengeance against Hamor and the
Shechemites Gen 34:25-26 - He was detained by Joseph in Egypt as a
hostage Gen 42:24 - His father, when dying, pronounced a
malediction against him Gen 49:5-7 - The words in the Authorized
Version Gen 49:6 - "they digged down a wall," ought to be, as
correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "they houghed an ox."
2. An aged saint who visited the temple when Jesus was being
presented before the Lord, and uttered lofty words of
thankgiving and of prophecy Luk 2:29-35.
3. One of the ancestors of Joseph Luk 3:30.
4. Surnamed Niger, i.e., "black," perhaps from his dark complexion,
a teacher of some distinction in the church of Antioch
Act 13:1-3 - It has been supposed that this was the Simon of
Cyrene who bore Christ's cross. Note the number of nationalities
represented in the church at Antioch.
5. James Act 15:14 - thus designates the apostle Peter (q.v.).

Simeon, The Tribe of

Was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Gen 49:5-7.
They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of
insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the
wilderness by about two-thirds (comp.) Num 1:23 26:14 - Moses
pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence
Deu 33:1 - This tribe received as their portion a part of the
territory already allotted to Judah Jos 19:1-9 - It lay in the
south-west of the land, with Judah on the east and Dan on the north;
but whether it was a compact territory or not cannot be determined.
The subsequent notices of this tribe are but few 1Ch 4:24-43 - Like
Reuben on the east of Jordan, this tribe had little influence on the
history of Israel.


The abbreviated form of Simeon.
1. One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite Mat 10:4 Mar 3:18.
This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but
is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was
the name of a Jewish sect. The Revised Version has "Cananaean;"
marg., "or Zealot" He is also called "Zelotes" Luk 6:15 Act 1:13.
R.V., "the Zealot"), because previous to his call to the
apostleship he had been a member of the fanatical sect of the
Zealots. There is no record regarding him.
2. The father of Judas Iscariot Joh 6:71 13:2,26.
3. One of the brothers of our Lord Mat 13:55 Mar 6:3.
4. A Pharisee in whose house "a woman of the city which was a
sinner" anointed our Lord's feet with ointment Luk 7:36-40.
5. A leper of Bethany, in whose house Mary anointed our Lord's head
with ointment "as he sat at meat" Mat 26:6-13 Mar 14:3-9.
6. A Jew of Cyrene, in North Africa, then a province of Libya. A
hundred thousand Jews from Palestine had been settled in this
province by Ptolemy Soter (B.C. 323) where by this time they
had greatly increased in number. They had a synagogue in
Jerusalem for such of their number as went thither to the annual
feasts. Simon was seized by the soldiers as the procession
wended its way to the place of crucifixion as he was passing by,
and the heavy cross which Christ from failing strength could no
longer bear was laid on his shoulders. Perhaps they seized him
because he showed sympathy with Jesus. He was the "father of
Alexander and Rufus" Mat 27:32 - Possibly this Simon may have been
one of the "men of Cyrene" who preached the word to the Greeks
Act 11:20.
7. A sorcerer of great repute for his magical arts among the
Samaritans Act 8:9-11 - He afterwards became a professed convert
to the faith under the preaching of Philip the deacon and
evangelist Act 8:12-13 - His profession was, however, soon found
to be hollow. His conduct called forth from Peter a stern rebuke
Act 8:18-23 - From this moment he disappears from the Church's
history. The term "Simony," as denoting the purchase for money
of spiritual offices, is derived from him.
8. A Christian at Joppa, a tanner by trade, with whom Peter on one
occasion lodged Act 9:43.
9. Simon Peter Mat 4:18.

See PETER 02911.


Watchman, a Levite of the family of Merari 1Ch 26:10.


Is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God"
1Jo 3:4 Ro 4:15 - in the inward state and habit of the soul, as
well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or
commission Rom 6:12-17 7:5-24 - It is "not a mere violation of the
law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence
against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates his law
with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is
1. intrinsically vile and polluting, and
2. that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous
wrath of God.

Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters,
1. ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and
2. pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines.

The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the moral
state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul
that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin Rom 6:12-17 Gal 5:17.
Jas 1:14-15 - The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever
remain such to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted
sin to enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it,
however, in no way makes God the author of sin. Adam's sin Gen 3:1-6.
consisted in his yielding to the assaults of temptation and eating the
forbidden fruit. It involved in it,
1. the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and
2. the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he
became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his
Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion with him; his
whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the penalty
involved in the covenant of works. Original sin. "Our first
parents being the root of all mankind, the guilt of their sin
was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature were
conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by
ordinary generation."

Adam was constituted by God the federal head and representative of all
his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and therefore when
he fell they fell with him Rom 5:12-21 1Co 15:22-45 - His probation
was their probation, and his fall their fall. Because of Adam's first
sin all his posterity came into the world in a state of sin and
condemnation, i.e.,
1. a state of moral corruption, and
2. of guilt, as having judicially imputed to them the guilt of
Adam's first sin.

"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the
moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam.
This inherited moral corruption consists in,
1. the loss of original righteousness; and
2. the presence of a constant proneness to evil, which is the root
and origin of all actual sin. It is called
a. "sin" Rom 6:12,14,17 Ro 7:5-17.
b. the "flesh" Gal 5:17,24.
c. "lust" Jas 1:14,15.
d. the "body of sin" Rom 6:6.
e. "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation from the life
of God" Eph 4:18,19.
It influences and depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still
downward to deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no
recuperative element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it
is also universally inherited by all the natural descendants of
Adam Rom 3:10-23 5:12-21 8:7.

Pelagians deny original sin, and regard man as by nature morally and
spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick;
Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as
described above, spiritually dead Eph 2:1 1Jo 3:14 - The doctrine of
original sin is proved,

1. From the fact of the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no
man that sinneth not" 1Ki 8:46 Isa 53:6 Psa 130:3.
Rom 3:19,22,23 Gal 3:22.
2. From the total depravity of man. All men are declared to be
destitute of any principle of spiritual life; man's apostasy
from God is total and complete Job 15:14-16 Ge 6:5-6.
3. From its early manifestation Psa 58:3 Pr 22:15.
4. It is proved also from the necessity, absolutely and
universally, of regeneration Joh 3:3 2Co 5:17.
5. From the universality of death Rom 5:12-20.

Various kinds of sin are mentioned,

1. "Presumptuous sins," or as literally rendered, "sins with an
uplifted hand", i.e., defiant acts of sin, in contrast with
"errors" or "inadvertencies" Psa 19:13.
2. "Secret", i.e., hidden sins Psa 19:12 - sins which escape the
notice of the soul.
3. "Sin against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death"
Mat 12:31-32 1Jo 5:16 - which amounts to a wilful rejection of

Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which means, as
does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so called from the
abundance of clay found there. It is called by Ezekel Eze 30:15.
"the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its importance as a fortified
city. It has been identified with the modern Tineh, "a miry place,"
where its ruins are to be found. Of its boasted magnificence only
four red granite columns remain, and some few fragments of others.


Of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the mountain
district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third month after
the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a whole year. Their
journey from the Red Sea to this encampment, including all the
windings of the route, was about 150 miles. The last twenty-two
chapters of Exodus, together with the whole of Leviticus and Num. 1
contain a record of all the transactions which occurred while
they were here. From Rephidim Exo 17:8-13 - the Israelites journeyed
forward through the Wady Solaf and Wady esh-Sheikh into the plain of
er-Rahah, "the desert of Sinai," about 2 miles long and half a mile
broad, and encamped there "before the mountain." The part of the
mountain range, a protruding lower bluff, known as the Ras Sasafeh
(Sufsafeh), rises almost perpendicularly from this plain, and is in
all probability the Sinai of history. Dean Stanley thus describes the
scene:, "The plain itself is not broken and uneven and narrowly shut
in, like almost all others in the range, but presents a long retiring
sweep, within which the people could remove and stand afar off. The
cliff, rising like a huge altar in front of the whole congregation,
and visible against the sky in lonely grandeur from end to end of the
whole plain, is the very image of the 'mount that might be touched,'
and from which the voice of God might be heard far and wide over the
plain below." This was the scene of the giving of the law. From the
Ras Sufsafeh the law was proclaimed to the people encamped below in
the plain of er-Rahah. During the lengthened period of their
encampment here the Israelites passed through a very memorable
experience. An immense change passed over them. They are now an
organized nation, bound by covenant engagement to serve the Lord their
God, their ever-present divine Leader and Protector. At length, in the
second month of the second year of the Exodus, they move their camp
and march forward according to a prescribed order. After three days
they reach the "wilderness of Paran," the "et-Tih", i.e., "the
desert", and here they make their first encampment. At this time a
spirit of discontent broke out amongst them, and the Lord manifested
his displeasure by a fire which fell on the encampment and inflicted
injury on them. Moses called the place Taberah (q.v.), Num 11:1-3.
The journey between Sinai and the southern boundary of the Promised
Land (about 150 miles) at Kadesh was accomplished in about a year.

Sinaiticus Codex

Usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one
of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the
occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount
Sinai, in 1859 it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a
previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the
LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Leipsic, under
the title of the Codex Frederico-Augustanus, after his royal patron the
king of Saxony. In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia
sent him to prosecute his search for MSS., which he was convinced were
still to be found in the Sinai convent. The story of his finding the
manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a romance. He
reached the convent on 31st January; but his inquiries appeared to be
fruitless. On the 4th February he had resolved to return home without
having gained his object. "On that day, when walking with the provisor
of the convent, he spoke with much regret of his ill-success. Returning
from their promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the monk to his room, and
there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of the
LXX., which he, the ghostly brother, owned. The MS. was wrapped up in a
piece of cloth, and on its being unrolled, to the surprise and delight
of the critic the very document presented itself which he had given up
all hope of seeing. His object had been to complete the fragmentary
LXX. of 1844 which he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek
codices on vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a
copy of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and
perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph." This
precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained possession of,
and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who fully appreciated its
importance, and caused it to be published as nearly as possible in
facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting. The
entire codex consists of 346 1/2 folios. Of these 199 belong to the Old
Testament and 147 1/2 to the New, along with two ancient documents
called the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The books of
the New Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul,
the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse of
John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written in the
fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the Vatican codex;
but while the latter wants the greater part of Matthew and sundry
leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus is the only copy of the
New Testament in uncial characters which is complete. Thus it is the
oldest extant MS. copy of the New Testament. Both the Vatican and the
Sinai codices were probably written in Egypt.

See VATICANUS 03766.

Sinim, The Land of

Isa 49:12 - supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia
Gen 10:17 - is intended.


An inhabitant of Sin, near Arka Gen 10:17 1Ch 1:15.

See ARKITE 00310.


(Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Lev 4-6:13,
Lev 9:7-11,22-24 12:6-8 15:2,14,25-30 14:19,31 Num 6:10-14 - On the
day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity Lev 16:5,11,15.
The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on
the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual
festivals Num 29:5 - and on the occasion of the consecration of the
priests Exo 29:10-14,36 - As each individual, even the most private
member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and
the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of
any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus
impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the
salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as
often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This
resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that
lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to
peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that
incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly
represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the
hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of
Christ is called emphatically "the precious blood," and the blood that
"cleanseth from all sin" 1Jo 1:7.

Sin, Wilderness of

lying between Elim and sinai Exo 16:1 - comp. Num 33:11-12 - This was
probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the
eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory
of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula.
While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on
account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed
all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt. God heard their
murmurings, and gave them "manna" and then quails in abundance.


1. Denotes Mount Hermon in Deu 4:48 - called Sirion by the
Sidonians, and by the Amorites Shenir Deu 3:9.
See HERMON 01754.
2. The Greek form of Zion (q.v.) in Mat 21:5 Joh 12:15.

See ZION 03938.


Fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David found
friends when he fled from Saul 1Sa 30:28.


Retiring, a well from which Joab's messenger brought back Abner
2Sa 3:26 - It is now called 'Ain Sarah, and is situated about a
mile from Hebron, on the road to the north.


A breastplate, the Sidonian name of Hermon (q.v.), Deu 3:9 Psa 29:6.


(Egypt. Ses-Ra, "servant of Ra").
1. The captain of Jabin's army Jud 4:2 - which was routed and
destroyed by the army of Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. After
all was lost he fled to the settlement of Heber the Kenite in
the plain of Zaanaim. Jael, Heber's wife, received him into her
tent with apparent hospitality, and "gave him butter" (i.e.,
lebben, or curdled milk) "in a lordly dish." Having drunk the
refreshing beverage, he lay down, and soon sank into the sleep
of the weary. While he lay asleep Jael crept stealthily up to
him, and taking in her hand one of the tent pegs, with a mallet
she drove it with such force through his temples that it entered
into the ground where he lay, and "at her feet he bowed, he
fell; where he bowed, there he fell down dead." The part of
Deborah's song Jud 5:24-27 - referring to the death of Sisera
(which is a "mere patriotic outburst," and "is no proof that
purer eyes would have failed to see gross sin mingling with
Jael's service to Israel") is thus rendered by Professor Roberts
(Old Testament Revision): "Extolled above women be Jael, The
wife of Heber the Kenite, Extolled above women in the tent. He
asked for water, she gave him milk; She brought him cream in a
lordly dish. She stretched forth her hand to the nail, Her right
hand to the workman's hammer, And she smote Sisera; she crushed
his head, She crashed through and transfixed his temples. At her
feet he curled himself, he fell, he lay still; At her feet he
curled himself, he fell; And where he curled himself, there he
fell dead."
2. The ancestor of some of the Nethinim who returned with
Zerubbabel Ezr 2:53 Neh 7:55.


Strife, the second of the two wells dug by Isaac, whose servants here
contended with the Philistines Gen 26:21 - It has been identified with
the modern Shutneh, in the valley of Gerar, to the west of Rehoboth,
about 20 miles south of Beersheba.


The attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged
in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his
hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning.
The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when
it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at
the receipt of custom Mat 9:9 - is the exact way to state the case.",
Thomson, Land and Book.


A Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, "bricks"), used after the Captivity as
the name of the third month of the Jewish year, extending from the
new moon in June to the new moon in July Est 8:9.


1. Coats made of Gen 3:21.
2. Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the
tabernacle Exo 25:5 Num 4:8-14.

Skull, The place of a

See GOLGOTHA 01522.


Jer 2:14 - (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev 18:13.
the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning "bodies."
The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply
"servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery as it existed under
the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but
only regulated the already existing custom of slavery
Exo 21:20,21,26,27 Lev 25:44-46 Jos 9:6-27 - The gospel in its spirit
and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its
influence is gradually disappearing from among men.


Gen 11:3 - LXX., "asphalt;" R.V. marg., "bitumen". The vale of Siddim
was full of slime pits Gen 14:10 - Jochebed daubed the "ark of
bulrushes" with slime Exo 2:3.

See PITCH 02966.


With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant
1Sa 17:40,49 - There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its
use that with the left hand they "could sling stones at a hair
breadth, and not miss" Jud 20:16 1Ch 12:2 - It was used by the
Israelites in war 2Ki 3:25.
See ARMOUR 00315.
The words in Pro 26:8 - "As he that bindeth a stone in a sling,"
etc. (Authorized Version), should rather, as in the Revised Version,
be "As a bag of gems in a heap of stones," etc.


The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of
Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them
swords and spears 1Sa 13:19 - Thus the Philistines sought to make
their conquest permanent (comp.) 2Ki 24:16.


Myrrh, an ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor,
about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus. It is now the chief city
of Anatolia, having a mixed population of about 200 of whom about
one-third are professed Christians. The church founded here was one
of the seven addressed by our Lord Rev 2:8-11 - The celebrated
Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a
prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom,
A.D. 155


1. Heb. homit, among the unclean creeping things Lev 11:30 - This
was probably the sand-lizard, of which there are many species in
the wilderness of Judea and the Sinai peninsula.
2. Heb. shablul Psa 58:8 - the snail or slug proper. Tristram
explains the allusions of this passage by a reference to the
heat and drought by which the moisture of the snail is
evaporated. "We find," he says, "in all parts of the Holy Land
myriads of snail-shells in fissures still adhering by the
calcareous exudation round their orifice to the surface of the
rock, but the animal of which is utterly shrivelled and wasted,
'melted away.'"


The expression Amo 3:5 - "Shall one take up a snare from the earth?"
etc. (Authorized Version), ought to be, as in the Revised Version,
"Shall a snare spring up from the ground?" etc.

See GIN 01492.


Common in Palestine in winter Psa 147:16 - The snow on the tops of the
Lebanon range is almost always within view throughout the whole year.
The word is frequently used figuratively by the sacred writers
Job 24:19 Psa 51:7 68:14 Isa 1:18 - It is mentioned only once in the
historical books 2Sa 23:20 - It was "carried to Tyre, Sidon, and
Damascus as a luxury, and labourers sweltering in the hot
harvest-fields used it for the purpose of cooling the water which they
drank Pro 25:13 Jer 18:14 - No doubt Herod Antipas, at his feasts in
Tiberias, enjoyed also from this very source the modern luxury of


(Nubian, Sabako), an Ethiopian king who brought Egypt under his sway.
He was bribed by Hoshea to help him against the Assyrian monarch
Shalmaneser 2Ki 17:4 - This was a return to the policy that had been
successful in the reign of Jeroboam I.


Jer 2:22 Mal 3:2 - Heb. borith, properly a vegetable alkali, obtained
from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the salsola kali
(saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead Sea and of the
Mediterranean. It does not appear that the Hebrews were acquainted
with what is now called "soap," which is a compound of alkaline
carbonates with oleaginous matter. The word "purely" in Isa 1:25.
(R.V., "throughly;" marg., "as with lye") is lit. "as with - bor -."
This word means "clearness," and hence also that which makes clear,
or pure, alkali. "The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil,
instead of soap Job 9:30 - and also in smelting metals, to make them
melt and flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius).


A fence; hedge, 1Ch 4:18 - R.V., Soco =So'choh 1Ki 4:10 - R.V.,
Socoh, Sho'choh 1Sa 17:1 - R.V., Socoh, Sho'co 2Ch 11:7 - R.V.,
Soco, Sho'cho 2Ch 28:18 - R.V., Soco, a city in the plain or
lowland of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when they invaded
Judah after their defeat at Michmash. It lay on the northern side of
the valley of Elah (Wady es-Sunt). It has been identified with the
modern Khurbet Shuweikeh, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem.
In this campaign Goliath was slain, and the Philistines were
completely routed.


Burning; the walled, a city in the vale of Siddim Gen 13:10 14:1-16.
The wickedness of its inhabitants brought down upon it fire from
heaven, by which it was destroyed Gen 18:16-33 19:1-29 Deu 23:17 - This
city and its awful destruction are frequently alluded to in Scripture
Deu 29:23 32:32 Isa 1:9-10 3:9 13:19 Jer 23:14 Eze 16:46-56 Zep 2:9.
Mat 10:15 Ro 9:29 2Pe 2:6 - etc. No trace of it or of the other cities
of the plain has been discovered, so complete was their destruction.
Just opposite the site of Zoar, on the south-west coast of the Dead
Sea, is a range of low hills, forming a mass of mineral salt called
Jebel Usdum, "the hill of Sodom." It has been concluded, from this
and from other considerations, that the cities of the plain stood at
the southern end of the Dead Sea.


Rom 9:29 - R.V., "Sodom", the Greek form for Sodom.


Those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom Deu 23:17.
1Ki 14:24 Ro 1:26-27 - Asa destroyed them "out of the land"
1Ki 15:12 - as did also his son Jehoshaphat 1Ki 22:46.

Solemn Meeting

Isa 1:13 - the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles
Lev 23:36 Num 29:35 - R.V., "solemn assembly;" marg., "closing festival".
It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of
the Passover Deu 16:8.


Peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the
first after their legal marriage 2Sa 12:1 - He was probably born
about B.C. 1035 1Ch 22:5 29:1 - He succeeded his father on the throne
in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age.
Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah,
i.e., "beloved of the Lord" 2Sa 12:24-25 - He was the first king of
Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor,
passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son
shall reign after me." His history is recorded in 1Ki 11 - and
2Ch 1:1 - His elevation to the throne took place before his father's
death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in
consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah 1Ki 1:5-40 - During his long
reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest
splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the
Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the
brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the
idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages
1Ki 11:1-8 14:21,31 - Before his death David gave parting instructions
to his son 1Ki 2:1-9 1Ch 22:7-16, 28:1 - As soon as he had settled
himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive
empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the
daughter of Pharaoh 1Ki 3:1 - of whom, however, nothing further is
recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the
external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government
prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who
in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings.
See HIRAM 01791.
For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work
of collecting materials 1Ch 29:6-9 2Ch 2:3-7 - for building a
temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant.
He was not permitted to build the house of God 1Ch 22:8 - that
honour was reserved to his son Solomon.
See TEMPLE 03610.
After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection
of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts
of his kingdom. For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged
in the erection of a royal palace on Ophel 1Ki 7:1-12 - It was 100
cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. Its lofty roof was supported by
forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar
wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the
Forest of Lebanon." In front of this "house" was another building,
which was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was
the "Hall of Judgment," or Throne-room 1Ki 7:7 10:18-20 2Ch 9:17-19.
"the King's Gate," where he administered justice and gave audience to
his people. This palace was a building of great magnificence and
beauty. A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen
consort, the daughter of Pharaoh. From the palace there was a private
staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the temple.
Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a
plentiful supply of water for the city Ecc 2:4-6 - He then built
Millo (LXX., "Acra") for the defence of the city, completing a line of
ramparts around it 1Ki 9:15,24 11:27 - He erected also many other
fortifications for the defence of his kingdom at various points where
it was exposed to the assault of enemies 1Ki 9:15-19 2Ch 8:2-6.
Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of
Tadmor (q.v.) in the wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a
military outpost. During his reign Palestine enjoyed great commercial
prosperity. Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and
Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of
Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the
produce of all nations 1Ki 9:26-28 10:11-12 2Ch 8:17-18 9:21 - This
was the "golden age" of Israel. The royal magnificence and splendour
of Solomon's court were unrivalled. He had seven hundred wives and
three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his
wealth, and his sensuality. The maintenance of his household involved
immense expenditure. The provision required for one day was "thirty
measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen,
and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside
harts, and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" 1Ki 4:22,23.
Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity,
but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity. He was the
leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new
intellectual life. "He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs
were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree
that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the
wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things,
and of fishes" 1Ki 4:32-33 - His fame was spread abroad through all
lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon."
Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south"
Mat 12:42 - the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix. "Deep,
indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced
a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her
dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the
burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. Yet this
she undertook, and carried it out with safety." 1Ki 10:1-13.
2Ch 9:1-12 - She was filled with amazement by all she saw and
heard: "there was no more spirit in her." After an interchange of
presents she returned to her native land. But that golden age of
Jewish history passed away. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in
clouds and darkness. His decline and fall from his high estate is a
sad record. Chief among the causes of his decline were his polygamy
and his great wealth. "As he grew older he spent more of his time
among his favourites. The idle king living among these idle women, for
1,000 women, with all their idle and mischievous attendants, filled
the palaces and pleasure-houses which he had built 1Ki 11:3.
learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish ways.
He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his
mind. He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at
the great feasts. But his heart was not right with God; his worship
became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true
religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement
which offered itself. Now for the first time a worship was publicly
set up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular
or forbidden, like that of Gideon Jud 8:27 - or the Danites
Jud 18:30-31 - but was downright idolatrous." 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 23:13.
This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed
against him 1Ki 11:14-22,23-25-26-40 - and one judgment after
another fell upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died,
after a reign of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and
"with him was buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel." "He
leaves behind him but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his
kingdom and disgrace his name." "The kingdom of Solomon," says
Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history.
A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty
maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each
of which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is
suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and
greatness. An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates
to the borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire,
rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period of peace
which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural
magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position
of dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during
this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse. The ruling
nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence
lately gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife,
oppression, recovery, inglorious submission, and desperate effort,
re-commences.", Historical Illustrations.

Solomon, Song of

Called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song of
songs" Son 1:1 - as being the finest and most precious of its kind;
the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The Solomonic
authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences,
both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that
it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poem setting
forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of
the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare) Mat 9:15 Joh 3:29.
Eph 5:23,27,29 Rev 19:7-9 21:2,9 22:17 - Compare also Psa 45:1.
Isa 54:4-6 62:4-5 Jer 2:2 3:1-20 Eze 16:1 - Hos 2:16,19,20.

Solomon's Porch

Joh 10:23 Act 3:11 5:12 - a colonnade, or cloister probably, on
the eastern side of the temple. It is not mentioned in connection
with the first temple, but Josephus mentions a porch, so called, in
Herod's temple (q.v.).


1. Of Moses Exo 15:1-19 Num 21:17 Deu 32:1-44 Rev 15:3.
2. Deborah Jud 5:1-31.
3. Hannah 1Sa 2:1-10.
4. David 2Sa 22:1-51.

And Psalms,
1. Mary Luk 1:46-55.
2. Zacharias Luk 1:68-79.
3. the angels Luk 2:13.
4. Simeon Luk 2:29.
5. the redeemed Rev 5:9 19:1-3.
6. Solomon See SOLOMON, SONGS OF 03474.

Son of God

The plural, "sons of God," is used Gen 6:2,4 - to denote the pious
descendants of Seth. In Job 1:6 38:7 - this name is applied to the
angels. Hosea uses the phrase Hos 1:10 - to designate the gracious
relation in which men stand to God. In the New Testament this phrase
frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by
adoption Rom 8:14,19 2Co 6:18 Gal 4:5-6 Php 2:15 1Jo 3:1-2 - It occurs
thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the distinctive title of our
Saviour. He does not bear this title in consequence of his miraculous
birth, nor of his incarnation, his resurrection, and exaltation to the
Father's right hand. This is a title of nature and not of office. The
sonship of Christ denotes his equality with the Father. To call Christ
the Son of God is to assert his true and proper divinity. The second
Person of the Trinity, because of his eternal relation to the first
Person, is the Son of God. He is the Son of God as to his divine
nature, while as to his human nature he is the Son of David Rom 1:3-4.
Comp. Gal 4:4 Joh 1:1-14 5:18-25 - Joh 10:30-38 - which prove that
Christ was the Son of God before his incarnation, and that his claim to
this title is a claim of equality with God). When used with reference
to creatures, whether men or angels, this word is always in the plural.
In the singular it is always used of the second Person of the Trinity,
with the single exception of Luk 3:38 - where it is used of Adam.

Son of Man

1. Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their
weakness and frailty Job 25:6 Psa 8:4 144:3 146:3 Isa 51:12 - etc.
2. It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel, probably
to remind him of his human weakness.
3. In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a
distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is
used only in Psa 80:17 Dan 7:13 - with this application. It
denotes the true humanity of our Lord. He had a true body
Heb 2:14 Luk 24:39 - and a rational soul. He was perfect man.


One who pretends to prognosticate future events. Baalam is so called
Jos 13:22 - Heb. kosem, a "diviner," as rendered 1Sa 6:2 - rendered
"prudent," Isa 3:2 - In Isa 2:6 Mic 5:12 - (Heb. yonenim, i.e.,
"diviners of the clouds") the word is used of the Chaldean diviners
who studied the clouds. In Dan 2:27 5:7 - the word is the rendering of
the Chaldee gazrin, i.e., "deciders" or "determiners", here applied
to Chaldean astrologers, "who, by casting nativities from the place
of the stars at one's birth, and by various arts of computing and
divining, foretold the fortunes and destinies of individuals.",
Gesenius, Lex. Heb.

See SORCERER 03482.


A morsel of bread Joh 13:26 - comp. Rut 2:14 - Our Lord took a piece
of unleavened bread, and dipping it into the broth of bitter herbs at
the Paschal meal, gave it to Judas. (Comp.) Rut 2:14.


The father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of
Paul Rom 16:21 - a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul
into Asia Act 20:4-6.


From the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells the
lot of others.
In Dan 2:2 - it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim, i.e.,
mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil spirits. The
practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment
Mal 3:5 Rev 21:8 22:15.


Choice vine, the name of a valley, i.e., a torrent-bed, now the Wady
Surar, "valley of the fertile spot," which drains the western Judean
hills, and flowing by Makkedah and Jabneel, falls into the sea some
eight miles south of Joppa. This was the home of Deliah, whom Samson
loved Jud 16:4.


See SOPATER 03481.


Safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was
seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman
governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation
of the Jews Act 18:12-17 - The motives of this assault against
Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made
by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient
grounds, with one whom Paul calls "Sosthenes our brother," a convert
to the faith 1Co 1:1.


Heb. Negeb, that arid district to the south of Palestine through which
lay the caravan route from Central Palestine to Egypt Gen 12:9 13:1,3.
Gen 46:1-6 - "The Negeb comprised a considerable but irregularly-shaped
tract of country, its main portion stretching from the mountains and
lowlands of Judah in the north to the mountains of Azazemeh in the
south, and from the Dead Sea and southern Ghoron the east to the
Mediterranean on the west." In Eze 20:46 - (21:1 in Heb.) three
different Hebrew words are all rendered "south."
1. "Set thy face toward the south" (Teman, the region on the
2. "Drop thy word toward the south" (Negeb, the region of dryness,)
3. "Prophesy against the forest of the south field" (Darom, the
region of brightness,)
In Job 37:9 - the word "south" is literally "chamber," used here in
the sense of treasury (comp.) Job 38:22 Psa 135:7 - This verse is
rendered in the Revised Version "out of the chamber of the south."

Sovereignty of God

His absolute right to do all things according to his own good
pleasure Dan 4:25,35 Ro 9:15-23 1Ti 6:15 Rev 4:11.


Paul expresses his intention Rom 15:24,28 - to visit Spain. There is,
however, no evidence that he ever carried it into effect, although
some think that he probably did so between his first and second

See TARSHISH 03588.


Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two sparrows were
sold for a farthing Mat 10:29 - and five for two farthings Luk 12:6.
The Hebrew word thus rendered is - tsippor -, which properly denotes the
whole family of small birds which feed on grain Lev 14:4 Psa 84:3 102:7.
The Greek word of the New Testament is - strouthion - Mat 10:29-31.
which is thus correctly rendered.


Gen 37:25 - Heb. nechoth, identified with the Arabic naka'at, the gum
tragacanth, obtained from the astralagus, of which there are about
twenty species found in Palestine. The tragacanth of commerce is
obtained from the A. tragacantha. "The gum exudes plentifully under the
heat of the sun on the leaves, thorns, and exteremity of the twigs."


Aromatic substances, of which several are named in Exo 30:1 - They
were used in the sacred anointing oil Exo 25:6 35:8 1Ch 9:29 - and in
embalming the dead 2Ch 16:14 Luk 23:56 24:1 Joh 19:39-40 - Spices were
stored by Hezekiah in his treasure-house 2Ki 20:13 Isa 39:2.


The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or house
Job 8:14 - It is said of the wicked by Isaiah that they "weave the
spider's web" Isa 59:5 - i.e., their works and designs are, like the
spider's web, vain and useless. The Hebrew word here used is
- 'akkabish -, "a swift weaver." In Pro 30:28 - a different Hebrew word
(semamith) is used. It is rendered in the Vulgate by stellio, and in
the Revised Version by "lizard." It may, however, represent the
spider, of which there are, it is said, about seven hundred species
in Palestine.


When the Israelites reached Kadesh for the first time, and were
encamped there, Moses selected twelve spies from among the chiefs of
the divisions of the tribes, and sent them forth to spy the land of
Canaan Num 13:1 - and to bring back to him a report of its actual
condition. They at once proceeded on their important errand, and went
through the land as far north as the district round Lake Merom. After
about six weeks' absence they returned. Their report was very
discouraging, and the people were greatly alarmed, and in a
rebellious spirit proposed to elect a new leader and return to Egypt.
Only two of the spies, Caleb and Joshua, showed themselves on this
occasion stout-hearted and faithful. All their appeals and
remonstrances were in vain. Moses announced that as a punishment for
their rebellion they must now wander in the wilderness till a new
generation should arise which would go up and posses the land. The
spies had been forty days absent on their expedition, and for each
day the Israelites were to be wanderers for a year in the desert.
See ESHCOL 01248.
Two spies were sent by Joshua "secretly" i.e., unknown to the people
Jos 2:1 - "to view the land and Jericho" after the death of Moses,
and just before the tribes under his leadership were about to cross
the Jordan. They learned from Rahab (q.v.), in whose house they found
a hiding-place, that terror had fallen on all the inhabitants of the
land because of the great things they had heard that Jehovah had done
for them Exo 15:14-16 - comp. Exo 23:27 Deu 2:25 11:25 - As the result
of their mission they reported: "Truly Jehovah hath delivered into our
hands all the land; for even all the inhabitants of the country do
faint because of us."


(Heb. nerd), a much-valued perfume Son 1:12 4:13-14 - It was "very
precious", i.e., very costly Mar 14:3 Joh 12:3,5 - It is the root of an
Indian plant, the Nardostachys jatamansi, of the family of
Valeriance, growing on the Himalaya mountains. It is distinguished by
its having many hairy spikes shooting out from one root. It is called
by the Arabs sunbul Hindi, "the Indian spike." In the New Testament
this word is the rendering of the Greek nardos pistike. The margin of
the Revised Version in these passages has "pistic nard," pistic being
perhaps a local name. Some take it to mean genuine, and others
liquid. The most probable opinion is that the word pistike designates
the nard as genuine or faithfully prepared.


(Heb. ruah; Gr. pneuma), properly wind or breath.
1. In 2Th 2:8 - it means "breath,"
2. in Ecc 8:8 - the vital principle in man.
3. It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is
distinguished Act 7:59 1Co 5:5 6:20 7:34.
4. the soul in its separate state Heb 12:23.
5. an apparition Job 4:15 Luk 24:37,39.
6. an angel Heb 1:14.
7. a demon Luk 4:36 10:20.
8. This word is used also metaphorically as denoting a tendency
Zec 12:10 Luk 13:11.
9. In Rom 1:4 1Ti 3:16 2Co 3:17 1Pe 3:18 - it designates the divine

Spirit, Holy

See HOLY GHOST 01805.


Occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion Mat 27:48 Mar 15:36.
Joh 19:29 - It is ranked as a zoophyte. It is found attached to
rocks at the bottom of the sea.


Son 4:8-12 Hos 4:13-14 - may denote either husband or wife, but in the
Scriptures it denotes only the latter.


1. (Heb. 'ain, "the bright open source, the eye of the landscape").
To be carefully distinguished from "well" (q.v.).
2. "Springs" mentioned in Jos 10:40 - (Heb. 'ashdoth) should rather
be "declivities" or "slopes" (R.V.), i.e., the undulating ground
lying between the lowlands (the shephelah) and the central range
of hills.


Spike; an ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes Rom 16:9.


(Heb. nataph), one of the components of the perfume which was offered
on the golden altar Exo 30:34 - R.V. marg., "opobalsamum"). The Hebrew
word is from a root meaning "to distil," and it has been by some
interpreted as distilled myrrh. Others regard it as the gum of the
storax tree, or rather shrub, the Styrax officinale. "The Syrians
value this gum highly, and use it medicinally as an emulcent in
pectoral complaints, and also in perfumery."


Isa 47:13 - those who pretend to tell what will occur by looking upon
the stars. The Chaldean astrologers "divined by the rising and
setting, the motions, aspects, colour, degree of light, etc., of the

Star, Morning

A name figuratively given to Christ Rev 22:16 - comp.2Pe 1:19.
When Christ promises that he will give the "morning star" to his
faithful ones, he "promises that he will give to them himself, that
he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own
glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore
the symbol of royalty Mat 2:2 - being therefore linked with the sceptre
Num 24:17 - All the glory of the world shall end in being the glory of
the Church." Trench's Comm.


1. The eleven stars Gen 37:9.
2. the seven Amo 5:8.
3. wandering Jude 1:13.
4. seen in the east at the birth of Christ, probably some luminous
meteors miraculously formed for this specific purpose Mat 2:2-10.
5. stars worshipped Deu 4:19 2Ki 17:16 21:3 Jer 19:13.
6. spoken of symbolically Num 24:17 Rev 1:16,20 12:1.



Greek word rendered "piece of money" Mat 17:27 - A.V.; and "shekel" in
R.V.). It was equal to two didrachmas ("tribute money,") Mat 17:24 - or
four drachmas, and to about 2s. 6d. of our money.

See SHEKEL 03336.


See THEFT 03632.


The "bow of steel" in (A.V.) 2Sa 22:35 Job 20:24 Psa 18:34 - is in the
Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb. kesheth-nehushah). In Jer 15:12.
the same word is used, and is also rendered in the Revised Version
"brass." But more correctly it is copper (q.v.), as brass in the
ordinary sense of the word (an alloy of copper and zinc) was not
known to the ancients.


Crown, a member of the church at Corinth, whose family were among
those the apostle had baptized 1Co 1:16 16:15,17 - He has been
supposed by some to have been the "jailer of Philippi" (comp.)
Act 16:33 - The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from
Philippi some six years after the jailer's conversion, and he was with
the apostle there at that time.


One of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel. He was
the first Christian martyr. His personal character and history are
recorded in Act 6:1-7:60 - "He fell asleep" with a prayer for his
persecutors on his lips Act 7:60 - Devout men carried him to his grave
Act 8:2 - It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus,
that those who stoned him laid their clothes (comp.) Deu 17:5-7.
before they began their cruel work. The scene which Saul then
witnessed and the words he heard appear to have made a deep and
lasting impression on his mind Act 22:19-20 - The speech of Stephen
before the Jewish ruler is the first apology for the universalism of
the gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as the Jews. It is
the longest speech contained in the Acts, a place of prominence being
given to it as a defence.


Act 17:18 - A sect of Greek philosophers at Athens, so called from the
Greek word stoa i.e., a "porch" or "portico," where they have been
called "the Pharisees of Greek paganism." The founder of the Stoics was
Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300 He taught his disciples that a
man's happiness consisted in bringing himself into harmony with the
course of the universe. They were trained to bear evils with
indifference, and so to be independent of externals. Materialism,
pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the leading features of this


Isa 3:24 - an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle
around the breast.


1. Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of
important events Gen 28:18 Jos 24:26-27 1Sa 7:12 - etc. They were
gathered out of cultivated fields Isa 5:2 - comp. 2Ki 3:19.
2. This word is also used figuratively of believers 1Pe 2:4,5.
3. and of the Messiah Psa 118:22 Isa 28:16 Mat 21:42 Act 4:11 - etc.
4. In Dan 2:45 - it refers also to the Messiah. He is there described
as "cut out of the mountain."
See ROCK 03148.
5. A "heart of stone" denotes great insensibility 1Sa 25:37.
6. Stones were set up to commemorate remarkable events, as
a. by Jacob
1. at Bethel Gen 28:18.
2. at Padan-aram Gen 35:4.
3. on the occasion of parting with Laban Gen 31:45-47.
b. by Joshua
1. at the place on the banks of the Jordan where the people
first "lodged" after crossing the river Jos 4:7-8.
2. also in "the midst of Jordan," where he erected another set
of twelve stones Jos 4:9.
c. by Samuel at "Ebenezer" 1Sa 7:12.

Stones, Precious

Frequently referred to 1Ki 10:2 2Ch 3:6 9:10 Rev 18:16 21:19.
There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible.
They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability
Son 5:14 Isa 54:11-12 La 4:7.


A form of punishment Lev 20:2 24:14 Deu 13:10 17:5 22:21 - prescribed for
certain offences. Of
1. Achan Jos 7:25.
2. Naboth 1Ki 21:9-14 .
3. Stephen Act 7:59.
4. Paul Act 14:19 2Co 11:25.


Heb. hasidah, meaning "kindness," indicating thus the character of the
bird, which is noted for its affection for its young. It is in the
list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical law Lev 11:19.
Deu 14:18 - It is like the crane, but larger in size. Two species are
found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs over the
whole country; and the black, which live in marshy places and in great
flocks. They migrate to Palestine periodically (about the 22nd of
March). Jeremiah alludes to this Jer 8:7 - At the appointed time
they return with unerring sagacity to their old haunts, and re-occupy
their old nests. "There is a well-authenticated account of the
devotion of a stork which, at the burning of the town of Delft, after
repeated and unsuccessful attempts to carry off her young, chose
rather to remain and perish with them than leave them to their fate.
Well might the Romans call it the pia avis!" In Job 39:13 - (A.V.),
instead of the expression "or wings and feathers unto the ostrich"
(marg., "the feathers of the stork and ostrich"), the Revised Version
has "are her pinions and feathers kindly" (marg., instead of "kindly,"
reads "like the stork's"). The object of this somewhat obscure verse
seems to be to point out a contrast between the stork, as
distinguished for her affection for her young, and the ostrich, as
distinguished for her indifference. Zechariah Zec 5:9 - alludes to
the beauty and power of the stork's wings.

Strain at

Simply a misprint for "strain out" Mat 23:24.


This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land residing in
Palestine. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the
Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to
strangers was regulated by special laws Deu 23:3 24:14-21 25:5.
Deu 26:10-13 - A special signification is also sometimes attached to
this word.
1. In Gen 23:4 - it denotes one resident in a foreign land;
2. Exo 23:9 - one who is not a Jew;
3. Num 3:10 - one who is not of the family of Aaron;
4. Psa 69:8 - an alien or an unknown person.

The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves Lev 25:44,45.
and to take usury from them Deu 23:20.


1. Used in brick-making Exo 5:7-18.
2. Used figuratively in Job 41:27 Isa 11:7 25:10 65:25.

Stream of Egypt

Isa 27:12 - the Wady el-'Arish, called also "the river of Egypt,"
R.V., "brook of Egypt" Num 34:5 Jos 15:4 2Ki 24:7 - It is the
natural boundary of Egypt. Occasionally in winter, when heavy rains
have fallen among the mountains inland, it becomes a turbulent rushing
torrent. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about
midway between el-'Arish and Gaza.


The street called "Straight" at Damascus Act 9:11 - is "a long broad
street, running from east to west, about a mile in length, and
forming the principal thoroughfare in the city." In Oriental towns
streets are usually narrow and irregular and filthy Psa 18:42.
Isa 10:6 - "It is remarkable," says Porter, "that all the important
cities of Palestine and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah,
Damascus, Palmyra, had their 'straight streets' running through the
centre of the city, and lined with stately rows of columns. The most
perfect now remaining are those of Palmyra and Gerasa, where long
ranges of the columns still stand.", Through Samaria, etc.


As a punishment were not to exceed forty Deu 25:1-3 - and hence arose
the custom of limiting them to thirty-nine 2Co 11:24 - Paul claimed
the privilege of a Roman citizen in regard to the infliction of
stripes Act 16:37-38 22:25-29 - Our Lord was beaten with stripes
Mat 27:26.


The subscriptions to Paul's epistles are no part of the original. In
their present form they are ascribed to Euthalius, a bishop of the
fifth century. Some of them are obviously incorrect.


The immediate vicinity of a city or town Num 35:3,7 Eze 45:2 - In
2Ki 23:11 - the Hebrew word there used (parvarim) occurs nowhere
else. The Revised Version renders it "precincts." The singular form of
this Hebrew word (parvar) is supposed by some to be the same as Parbar
(q.v.), which occurs twice in 1Ch 26:18.


1. The first encampment of the Israelites after leaving Ramesses
Exo 12:37 - the civil name of Pithom (q.v.).
2. A city on the east of Jordan, identified with Tell Dar'ala, a
high mound, a mass of debris, in the plain north of Jabbok and
about one mile from it Jos 13:27 - Here Jacob Gen 32:17,30.
Gen 33:17 - on his return from Padan-aram after his interview
with Esau, built a house for himself and made booths for his
cattle. The princes of this city churlishly refused to afford
help to Gideon and his 300 men when "faint yet pursuing" they
followed one of the bands of the fugitive Midianites after the
great victory at Gilboa. After overtaking and routing this band
at Karkor, Gideon on his return visited the rulers of the city
with severe punishment. "He took the elders of the city, and
thorns of the wilderness and briers, and with them he taught the
men of Succoth" Jud 8:13-16 - At this place were erected the
foundries for casting the metal-work for the temple
1Ki 7:46.


Tents of daughters, supposed to be the name of a Babylonian deity, the
goddess Zir-banit, the wife of Merodach, worshipped by the colonists
in Samaria 2Ki 17:30.


Dwellers in tents, (Vulg. and LXX., "troglodites;" i.e., cave-dwellers
in the hills along the Red Sea). Shiskak's army, with which he
marched against Jerusalem, was composed partly of this tribe
2Ch 12:3.


(Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along with the moon as the two great
luminaries of heaven Gen 1:14-18 - By their motions and influence they
were intended to mark and divide times and seasons. The worship of
the sun was one of the oldest forms of false religion Job 31:26,27.
and was common among the Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan
nations. The Jews were warned against this form of idolatry
Deu 4:19 17:3 - comp. 2Ki 23:11 Jer 19:13.


Deu 1:1 - R.V.; marg., "some ancient versions have the Red Sea," as in
the A.V. Some identify it with Suphah Num 21:14 - marg., A.V. as
probably the name of a place. Others identify it with es-Sufah
Maaleh-acrabbim Jos 15:3 - and others again with Zuph 1Sa 9:5 - It
is most probable, however, that, in accordance with the ancient
versions, this word is to be regarded as simply an abbreviation of
Yam-suph, i.e., the "Red Sea."


Num 21:14 - marg.; also R.V., a place at the south-eastern corner of
the Dead Sea, the Ghor es-Safieh. This name is found in an ode quoted
from the "Book of the Wars of the Lord," probably a collection of
odes commemorating the triumphs of God's people (comp.)
Num 21:14,17-18,27-30.


The principal meal of the day among the Jews. It was partaken of in
the early part of the evening Mar 6:21 Joh 12:2 1Co 11:21.

See LORD'S SUPPER 02318.


One who becomes responsible for another. Christ is the surety of the
better covenant Heb 7:22 - In him we have the assurance that all its
provisions will be fully and faithfully carried out. Solomon warns
against incautiously becoming security for another
Pro 6:1-5 11:15 17:18 20:16.


The inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the
Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple Ezr 4:9.


Lily, with other pious women, ministered to Jesus Luk 8:3.


The father of Gaddi, who was one of the twelve spies Num 13:11.


1. Heb. sis Isa 38:14 Jer 8:7 - the Arabic for the swift, which
"is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so
suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the
country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and
fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is
ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its
flight, habits, and migration.
2. Heb. deror, i.e., "the bird of freedom" Psa 84:3 Pr 26:2.
properly rendered swallow, distinguished for its swiftness of
flight, its love of freedom, and the impossibility of retaining
it in captivity. In Isa 38:14 Jer 8:7 - the word thus
rendered ('augr) properly means "crane" (as in the R.V.).


Mentioned in the list of unclean birds Lev 11:18 Deu 14:16 - is sometimes
met with in the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee.

Swelling of Jordan

Jer 12:5 - literally the "pride" of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the
luxuriant thickets of tamarisks, poplars, reeds, etc., which were the
lair of lions and other beasts of prey. The reference is not to the
overflowing of the river banks. (Comp.) Jer 49:19 50:44 Zec 11:3.


(Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of
all animals Lev 11:7 Isa 65:4 66:3,17 Luk 15:15-16 - A herd of swine
were drowned in the Sea of Galilee Luk 8:32-33 - Spoken of figuratively
in Mat 7:6 Pr 11:22 - It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal,
and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which was common
among the marshes of the Jordan valley Psa 80:13.


1. Of the Hebrew was pointed, sometimes two-edged, was worn in a
sheath, and suspended from the girdle Exo 32:27 1Sa 31:4.
1Ch 21:27 Psa 149:6 Pr 5:4 Eze 16:40 21:3-5.
2. It is a symbol of divine chastisement Deu 32:25 Psa 7:12 78:62.
3. and of a slanderous tongue Psa 57:4 64:3 Pr 12:18.
4. The word of God is likened also to a sword Heb 4:12 Eph 6:17.
Rev 1:16 - Gideon's watchword was, "The sword of the Lord"
Jud 7:20.

Sycamine Tree

Mentioned only in Luk 17:6 - It is rendered by Luther "mulberry tree"
(q.v.), which is most probably the correct rendering. It is found of
two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry
(Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The silk-worm feeds on their
leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the
peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It is of the order
of the fig-tree. Some contend, however, that this name denotes the
sycamore-fig of Luk 19:4.


More properly sycomore (Heb. shikmoth and shikmim, Gr. sycomoros), a
tree which in its general character resembles the fig-tree, while its
leaves resemble those of the mulberry; hence it is called the
fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). At Jericho, Zacchaeus climbed a
sycomore-tree to see Jesus as he passed by Luk 19:4 - This tree was
easily destroyed by frost Psa 78:47 - and therefore it is found mostly
in the "vale" 1Ki 10:27 2Ch 1:15 - in both passages the R.V. has
properly "lowland"), i.e., the "low country," the shephelah, where
the climate is mild. Amos Amo 7:14 - refers to its fruit, which is of
an inferior character; so also probably Jeremiah Jer 24:2 - It is to
be distinguished from our sycamore (the Acer pseudo-platanus), which
is a species of maple often called a plane-tree.


Liar or drunkard (see) Isa 28:1,7 - has been from the time of the
Crusaders usually identified with Sychem or Shechem Joh 4:5 - It has
now, however, as the result of recent explorations, been identified
with 'Askar, a small Samaritan town on the southern base of Ebal,
about a mile to the north of Jacob's well.


See SHECHEM 03330.


Opening Eze 29:10 30:6 - a town of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia,
now called Assouan, on the right bank of the Nile, notable for its
quarries of beautiful red granite called "syenite." It was the
frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east.


(Gr. sunagoge, i.e., "an assembly"), found only once in the Authorized
Version of Psa 74:8 - where the margin of Revised Version has "places
of assembly," which is probably correct; for while the origin of
synagogues is unknown, it may well be supposed that buildings or
tents for the accommodation of worshippers may have existed in the
land from an early time, and thus the system of synagogues would be
gradually developed. Some, however, are of opinion that it was
specially during the Babylonian captivity that the system of
synagogue worship, if not actually introduced, was at least
reorganized on a systematic plan Eze 8:1 14:1 - The exiles gathered
together for the reading of the law and the prophets as they had
opportunity, and after their return synagogues were established all
over the land Ezr 8:15 Neh 8:2 - In after years, when the Jews were
dispersed abroad, wherever they went they erected synagogues and kept
up the stated services of worship Act 9:20 13:5 17:1 17:17 18:4 - The
form and internal arrangements of the synagogue would greatly depend
on the wealth of the Jews who erected it, and on the place where it
was built. "Yet there are certain traditional pecularities which have
doubtless united together by a common resemblance the Jewish
synagogues of all ages and countries. The arrangements for the
women's place in a separate gallery or behind a partition of
lattice-work; the desk in the centre, where the reader, like Ezra in
ancient days, from his 'pulpit of wood,' may 'open the book in the
sight of all of people and read in the book of the law of God
distinctly, and give the sense, and cause them to understand the
reading' Neh 8:4,8 - the carefully closed ark on the side of the
building nearest to Jerusalem, for the preservation of the rolls or
manuscripts of the law; the seats all round the building, whence 'the
eyes of all them that are in the synagogue' may 'be fastened' on him
who speaks Luk 4:20 - the 'chief seats' Mat 23:6 - which were
appropriated to the 'ruler' or 'rulers' of the synagogue, according
as its organization may have been more or less complete;", these were
features common to all the synagogues. Where perfected into a system,
the services of the synagogue, which were at the same hours as those
of the temple, consisted,
1. of prayer, which formed a kind of liturgy, there were in all
eighteen prayers;
2. the reading of the Scriptures in certain definite portions; and
3. the exposition of the portions read. Luk 4:15,22 Act 13:14.
The synagogue was also sometimes used as a court of judicature,
in which the rulers presided Mat 10:17 Mar 5:22 Luk 12:11 21:12.
Act 13:15 22:19 - also as public schools. The establishment of
synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient numbers
helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the
Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in
other lands. The worship of the Christian Church was afterwards
modelled after that of the synagogue. Christ and his disciples
frequently taught in the synagogues Mat 13:54 Mar 6:2 Joh 18:20.
Act 13:5,15,44 14:1 17:2-4,10,17 18:4,26 19:8 - To be "put out
of the synagogue," a phrase used by John Joh 9:22 12:42 16:2.
means to be excommunicated.


Fortunate; affable, a female member of the church at Philippi, whom
Paul beseeches to be of one mind with Euodias Php 4:2-3.


A city on the south-east coast of Sicily, where Paul landed and
remained three days when on his way to Rome Act 28:12 - It was
distinguished for its magnitude and splendour. It is now a small town
of some 13,000 inhabitants.


(Heb. Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country
which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the
Euphrates and the Tigris. Mesopotamia is called Gen 24:10 Deu 23:4.
Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-aram Gen 25:20.
Other portions of Syria were also known by separate names, as
Aram-maahah 1Ch 19:6 - Aram-beth-rehob 2Sa 10:6 - Aram-zobah
2Sa 10:6,8 - All these separate little kingdoms afterwards became
subject to Damascus. In the time of the Romans, Syria included also a
part of Palestine and Asia Minor. "From the historic annals now
accessible to us, the history of Syria may be divided into three
1. The first, the period when the power of the Pharaohs was dominant
over the fertile fields or plains of Syria and the merchant cities
of Tyre and Sidon, and when such mighty conquerors as Thothmes III.
and Rameses II. could claim dominion and levy tribute from the
nations from the banks of the Euphrates to the borders of the
Libyan desert.
2. Second, this was followed by a short period of independence, when
the Jewish nation in the south was growing in power, until it
reached its early zenith in the golden days of Solomon; and when
Tyre and Sidon were rich cities, sending their traders far and
wide, over land and sea, as missionaries of civilization, while in
the north the confederate tribes of the Hittites held back the
armies of the kings of Assyria.
3. The third, and to us most interesting, period is that during which
the kings of Assyria were dominant over the plains of Syria; when
Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering
armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib; and when at last
Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power of the rulers of Nineveh
and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed with terrible
fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold by
the Hebrew prophets.", Boscawen.


2Ki 18:26 Ezr 4:7 Dan 2:4 - more correctly rendered "Aramaic," including
both the Syriac and the Chaldee languages. In the New Testament there
are several Syriac words, such as
1. "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" Mar 15:34 Mat 27:46.
gives the Heb. form, "Eli, Eli"),
2. "Raca" Mat 5:22.
3. "Ephphatha" Mar 7:34.
4. "Maran-atha" 1Co 16:22.

A Syriac version of the Old Testament, containing all the canonical
books, along with some apocryphal books (called the Peshitto, i.e.,
simple translation, and not a paraphrase), was made early in the second
century, and is therefore the first Christian translation of the Old
Testament. It was made directly from the original, and not from the
LXX. Version. The New Testament was also translated from Greek into
Syriac about the same time. It is noticeable that this version does not
contain the Second and Third Epistles of John, 2 Peter, Jude, and the
Apocalypse. These were, however, translated subsequently and placed in
the version.

See VERSION 03768.


"a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation" Mar 7:26 - i.e., a Gentile born in
the Phoenician part of Syria.
See PHENICIA 02930.
When our Lord retired into the borderland of Tyre and Sidon Mat 15:21.
a Syro-phoenician woman came to him, and earnestly besought him, in
behalf of her daughter, who was grievously afflicted with a demon.
Her faith in him was severely tested by his silence Mat 15:23.
refusal Mat 15:24 - and seeming reproach that it was not meet to cast
the children's bread to dogs Mat 15:26 - But it stood the test, and
her petition was graciously granted, because of the greatness of her
faith Mat 15:28.

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