Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - P



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Paarai


Opening of the Lord, "the Arbite," one of David's heroes 2Sa 23:35.
called also Naarai, 1Ch 11:37.


Padan


A plain, occurring only in Gen 48:7 - where it designates Padan-aram.


Padan-aram


The plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, Gen 25:20 28:2,5-7.
Gen 31:18 - etc., commonly regarded as the district of Mesopotamia
(q.v.) lying around Haran.


Pagiel


God allots, a prince of the tribe of Asher Num 1:13 - in the wilderness.


Pahath-moab


Governor of Moab, a person whose descendants returned from the
Captivity and assisted in rebuilding Jerusalem Ezr 2:6 8:4 10:30.


Paint


Jezebel "painted her face" 2Ki 9:30 - and the practice of painting the
face and the eyes seems to have been common Jer 4:30 Eze 23:40 - An
allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter
Job 42:14 - Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the
word were unknown to the ancient Jews.


Pallu


Separated, the second son of Reuben 1Ch 5:3 - called Phallu, Gen 46:9.
He was the father of the Phalluites Exo 6:14 Num 26:5,8.


Palmer-worm


(Heb. gazam). The English word may denote either a caterpillar (as
rendered by the LXX.), which wanders like a palmer or pilgrim, or
which travels like pilgrims in bands Joe 1:4 2:25 - the wingless
locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state.


Palm Tree


(Heb. tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. It is
described as
1. "flourishing" Psa 92:12.
2. tall Son 7:7.
3. "upright" Jer 10:5.

Its branches are a symbol of victory Rev 7:9 - "Rising with slender
stem 40 or 50 at times even 80 feet aloft, its only branches, the
feathery, snow-like, pale-green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending
from its top, the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen." The whole
land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e.,
"the land of palms." Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and
Romans Palmyra, i.e., "the city of palms." The finest specimens of this
tree grew at Jericho Deu 34:3 - and Engedi and along the banks of the
Jordan. Branches of the palm tree were carried at the feast of
Tabernacles Lev 23:40 - At our Lord's triumphal entrance into
Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth to meet him,
crying, "Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name
of the Lord" Mat 21:8 Joh 12:13.

See DATE 00979.


Palm Trees, The city of


The name given to Jericho (q.v.), Deu 34:3 Jud 1:16 3:13.


Palsy


A shorter form of "paralysis." Many persons thus afflicted were cured
by our Lord Mat 4:24 8:5-13 9:2-7 Mar 2:3-11 Luk 7:2-10 Joh 5:5-7 - and
the apostles Act 8:7 9:33,34.


Palti


Deliverance from the Lord, one of the spies representing the tribe of
Benjamin Num 13:9.


Paltiel


Deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted "to divide the
land by inheritance" Num 34:26.


Paltite


The designation of one of David's heroes 2Sa 23:26 - called also the
Pelonite 1Ch 11:27.


Pamphylia


Paul and his company, loosing from Paphos, sailed north-west and came
to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia Act 13:13-14 - a province about the
middle of the southern sea-board of Asia Minor. It lay between Lycia
on the west and Cilicia on the east. There were strangers from
Pamphylia at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost Act 2:10.


Pan


A vessel of metal or earthenware used in culinary operations; a
cooking-pan or frying-pan frequently referred to in the Old Testament
Lev 2:5 6:21 Num 11:8 1Sa 2:14 - etc. The "ash-pans" mentioned in
Exo 27:3 - were made of copper, and were used in connection with the
altar of burnt-offering. The "iron pan" mentioned in Eze 4:3.
(marg., "flat plate or "slice") was probably a mere plate of iron
used for baking. The "fire-pans" of Exo 27:3 - were fire-shovels
used for taking up coals. The same Hebrew word is rendered
"snuff-dishes" Exo 25:38 37:23 - and "censers" Lev 10:1 16:12.
Num 4:14 - etc. These were probably simply metal vessels employed
for carrying burning embers from the brazen altar to the altar of
incense. The "frying-pan" mentioned in Lev 2:7 7:9 - was a pot for
boiling.


Pannag


Eze 27:17 - (marg. R.V., "perhaps a kind of confection") the Jews
explain as the name of a kind of sweet pastry. Others take it as the
name of some place, identifying it with Pingi, on the road between
Damascus and Baalbec. "Pannaga" is the Sanscrit name of an aromatic
plant (comp.) Gen 43:11.


Paper


The expression in the Authorized Version Isa 19:7 - "the paper reeds by
the brooks," is in the Revised Version more correctly "the meadows by
the Nile." The words undoubtedly refer to a grassy place on the banks
of the Nile fit for pasturage. In 2Jo 1:12 - the word is used in its
proper sense. The material so referred to was manufactured from the
papyrus, and hence its name. The papyrus (Heb. gome) was a kind of
bulrush (q.v.). It is mentioned by Job Job 8:11 - and Isaiah
Isa 35:7 - It was used for many purposes. This plant (Papyrus
Nilotica) is now unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The
unaccountable disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by
Isaiah Isa 19:6-7 - as a part of the divine judgment on that land.
The most extensive papyrus growths now known are in the marshes at the
northern end of the lake of Merom.


Paphos


The capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence of
the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on their
first missionary tour Act 13:6 - It is new Paphos which is here meant.
It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8 miles north of old
Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.


Parable


(Gr. parabole), a placing beside; a comparison; equivalent to the Heb.
mashal, a similitude. In the Old Testament this is used to denote
1. a proverb 1Sa 10:12 24:13 2Ch 7:20.
2. a prophetic utterance Num 23:7 Eze 20:49.
3. an enigmatic saying Psa 78:2 Pr 1:6.
In the New Testament,
1. a proverb Mar 7:17 Luk 4:23.
2. a typical emblem Heb 9:9 11:19.
3. a similitude or allegory Mat 15:15 24:32 Mar 3:23 Luk 5:36 14:7.
4. ordinarily, in a more restricted sense, a comparison of earthly
with heavenly things, "an earthly story with a heavenly
meaning," as in the parables of our Lord.
Instruction by parables has been in use from the earliest times. A
large portion of our Lord's public teaching consisted of parables. He
himself explains his reasons for this in his answer to the inquiry of
the disciples, "Why speakest thou to them in parables?" Mat 13:13-15.
Mar 4:11-12 Luk 8:9-10 - He followed in so doing the rule of the divine
procedures, as recorded in Mat 13:13 - The parables uttered by our
Lord are all recorded in the synoptical (i.e., the first three)
Gospels. The fourth Gospel contains no parable properly so called,
although the illustration of the good shepherd Joh 10:1-16 - has
all the essential features of a parable.


Paradise


A Persian word (pardes), properly meaning a "pleasure-ground" or
"park" or "king's garden."
See EDEN 01127.
It came in course of time to be used as a name for the world of
happiness and rest hereafter Luk 23:43 2Co 12:4 Rev 2:7 - For
"garden" in Gen 2:8 - the LXX. has "paradise."


Parah


The heifer, a town in Benjamin Jos 18:23 - supposed to be identical
with the ruins called Far'ah, about 6 miles north-east of Jerusalem,
in the Wady Far'ah, which is a branch of the Wady Kelt.


Paran


Abounding in foliage, or abounding in caverns, Gen 21:21 - a desert
tract forming the north-eastern division of the peninsula of Sinai,
lying between the 'Arabah on the east and the wilderness of Shur on
the west. It is intersected in a north-western direction by the Wady
el-'Arish. It bears the modern name of Badiet et-Tih, i.e., "the
desert of the wanderings." This district, through which the children
of Israel wandered, lay three days' march from Sinai Num 10:12,33.
From Kadesh, in this wilderness, spies (q.v.) were sent to spy the
land Num 13:3,26 - Here, long afterwards, David found refuge from Saul
1Sa 25:1,4.


Paran, Mount


probably the hilly region or upland wilderness on the north of the
desert of Paran forming the southern boundary of the Promised Land
Deu 33:2 Hab 3:3.


Parbar


1Ch 26:18 - a place apparently connected with the temple, probably a
"suburb" (q.v.), as the word is rendered in 2Ki 23:11 - a space
between the temple wall and the wall of the court; an open portico
into which the chambers of the official persons opened 1Ch 26:18.


Parched Ground


Isa 35:7 - Heb. sharab, a "mirage", a phenomenon caused by the
refraction of the rays of the sun on the glowing sands of the desert,
causing them suddenly to assume the appearance of a beautiful lake.
It is called by the modern Arabs by the same Hebrew name - serab -.


Parchment


A skin prepared for writing on; so called from Pergamos (q.v.), where
this was first done 2Ti 4:13.


Pardon


The forgiveness of sins granted freely Isa 43:25 - readily
Neh 9:17 Psa 86:5 - abundantly Isa 55:7 Ro 5:20 - Pardon is an act
of a sovereign, in pure sovereignty, granting simply a remission of
the penalty due to sin, but securing neither honour nor reward to the
pardoned. Justification (q.v.), on the other hand, is the act of a
judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at the same
time, a title to all the rewards and blessings promised in the
covenant of life.


Parlour


(from the Fr. parler, "to speak") denotes an "audience chamber," but
that is not the import of the Hebrew word so rendered. It corresponds
to what the Turks call a kiosk, as in Jud 3:20 - (the "summer
parlour"), or as in the margin of the Revised Version ("the upper
chamber of cooling"), a small room built on the roof of the house,
with open windows to catch the breeze, and having a door
communicating with the outside by which persons seeking an audience
may be admitted. While Eglon was resting in such a parlour, Ehud,
under pretence of having a message from God to him, was admitted into
his presence, and murderously plunged his dagger into his body
Jud 3:21-22 - The "inner parlours" in 1Ch 28:11 - were the small
rooms or chambers which Solomon built all round two sides and one end
of the temple 1Ki 6:5 - "side chambers;" or they may have been, as
some think, the porch and the holy place. In 1Sa 9:22 - the Revised
Version reads "guest chamber," a chamber at the high place specially
used for sacrificial feasts.


Parmashta


Strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan Est 9:9.


Parmenas


Constant, one of the seven "deacons" Act 6:5.


Parshandatha


An interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in
Shushan Est 9:7.


Parthians


Were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost Act 2:9 - Parthia lay on the east
of Media and south of Hyrcania, which separated it from the Caspian
Sea. It corresponded with the western half of the modern Khorasan,
and now forms a part of Persia.


Paruah


Flourishing, the father of Jehoshaphat, appointed to provide monthly
supplies for Solomon from the tribe of Issachar 1Ki 4:17.


Parvaim


The name of a country from which Solomon obtained gold for the temple
2Ch 3:6 - Some have identified it with Ophir, but it is uncertain
whether it is even the name of a place. It may simply, as some think,
denote "Oriental regions."


Pasach


Clearing, one of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher 1Ch 7:33.


Pas-dammim


The border of blood Ephes-dammim (q.v.), between Shochoh and Azekah
1Sa 17:1 1Ch 11:13.


Passage


Denotes in Jos 22:11 - as is generally understood, the place where the
children of Israel passed over Jordan. The words "the passage of"
are, however, more correctly rendered "by the side of," or "at the
other side of," thus designating the position of the great altar
erected by the eastern tribes on their return home. This word also
designates the fords of the Jordan to the south of the Sea of Galilee
Jud 12:5-6 - and a pass or rocky defile 1Sa 13:23 14:4 - "Passages"
in Jer 22:20 - is in the Revised Version more correctly "Abarim"
(q.v.), a proper name.


Passion


Only once found, in Act 1:3 - meaning suffering, referring to the
sufferings of our Lord.


Patara


A city on the south-west coast of Lycia at which Paul landed on his
return from his third missionary journey Act 21:1-2 - Here he found a
larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open sea to the
coast of Phoenicia. In this vessel he set forth, and reached the city
of Tyre in perhaps two or three days.


Pathros


The name generally given to Upper Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks),
as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower Egypt Isa 11:11 Jer 44:1,15.
Eze 30:14 - the two forming Mizraim. After the destruction of Jerusalem
by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled "in the country of
Pathros" and other parts of Egypt.


Patmos


A small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the
"Sporades," in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only in
Rev 1:9 - It was on this island, to which John was banished by the
emperor Domitian (A.D. 95) that he received from God the wondrous
revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested it with
the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo.

See JOHN 02088.


Patrobas


A Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations Rom 16:14.


Pau


Gen 36:39 - or Pai 1Ch 1:50 - bleating, an Edomitish city ruled
over by Hadar.


Pavement


It was the custom of the Roman governors to erect their tribunals in
open places, as the market-place, the circus, or even the highway.
Pilate caused his seat of judgment to be set down in a place called
"the Pavement" Joh 19:13 - i.e., a place paved with a mosaic of
coloured stones. It was probably a place thus prepared in front of
the "judgment hall."

See GABBATHA 01403.


Pavilion


A tent or tabernacle 2Sa 22:12 1Ki 20:12-16 - or enclosure
Psa 18:11 27:5 - In Jer 43:10 - it probably denotes the canopy
suspended over the judgement-seat of the king.


Peace Offerings


(Heb. shelamim), detailed regulations regarding given in
Lev 3:1 - Lev 7:11-21,29-34 - They were of three kinds,
1. eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude
for blessings received;
2. in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also of thanks for
benefits recieved; and
3. free-will offerings, something spontaneously devoted to God.


Peacock


(Heb. tuk, apparently borrowed from the Tamil tokei). This bird is
indigenous to India. It was brought to Solomon by his ships from
Tarshish 1Ki 10:22 2Ch 9:21 - which in this case was probably a
district on the Malabar coast of India, or in Ceylon. The word so
rendered in Job 39:13 - literally means wild, tumultuous crying, and
properly denotes the female ostrich (q.v.).


Pearl


(Heb. gabish,) Job 28:18 - Gr. margarites, Mat 7:6 13:46 Rev 21:21.
The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Its
shell is the "mother of pearl," which is of great value for ornamental
purposes 1Ti 2:9 Rev 17:4 - Each shell contains eight or ten pearls
of various sizes.


Peculiar


As used in the phrase "peculiar people" in 1Pe 2:9 - is derived from
the Lat. peculium, and denotes, as rendered in the Revised Version
("a people for God's own possession"), a special possession or
property. The church is the "property" of God, his "purchased
possession" Eph 1:14 - R.V., "God's own possession".


Pedahel


Redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali Num 34:28.


Pedahzur


Rock of redemption, the father of Gamaliel and prince of Manasseh at
the time of the Exodus Num 1:10 2:20.


Pedaiah


Redemption of the Lord.
1. The father of Zebudah, who was the wife of Josiah and mother of
king Jehoiakim 2Ki 23:36.
2. The father of Zerubbabel 1Ch 3:17-19.
3. The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh
1Ch 27:20.
4. Neh 3:25.
5. A Levite Neh 8:4.
6. A Benjamite Neh 11:7.
7. A Levite Neh 13:13.


Pekah


Open-eyed, the son of Remaliah a captain in the army of Pekahiah, king
of Israel, whom he slew, with the aid of a band of Gileadites, and
succeeded (B.C. 758) on the throne 2Ki 15:25 - Seventeen years after
this he entered into an alliance with Rezin, king of Syria, and took
part with him in besieging Jerusalem 2Ki 15:37 16:5 - But
Tiglath-pilser, who was in alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah, came up
against Pekah, and carried away captive many of the inhabitants of
his kingdom 2Ki 15:29 - This was the beginning of the "Captivity."
Soon after this Pekah was put to death by Hoshea, the son of Elah,
who usurped the throne 2Ki 15:30 16:1-9 - Comp. Isa 7:16 8:4 9:12.
He is supposed by some to have been the "shephard" mentioned in
Zec 11:16.


Pekahiah


The Lord opened his eyes, the son and successor of Menahem on the
throne of Israel. He was murdered in the royal palace of Samaria by
Pekah, one of the captains of his army 2Ki 15:23-26 - after a reign of
two years (B.C. 761) He "did that which was evil in the sight of the
Lord."


Pekod


Probably a place in Babylonia Jer 50:21 Eze 23:23 - It is the opinion,
however, of some that this word signifies "visitation," "punishment,"
and allegorically "designates Babylon as the city which was to be
destroyed."


Pelaiah


Distinguished of the Lord.
1. One of David's posterity 1Ch 3:24.
2. A Levite who expounded the law Neh 8:7.


Pelatiah


Deliverance of the Lord.
1. A son of Hananiah and grandson of Zerubbabel 1Ch 3:21.
2. A captain of "the sons of Simeon" 1Ch 4:42.
3. Neh 10:22.
4. One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom
Ezekiel prophesied on account of their wicked counsel
Eze 11:1-13.


Peleg


Division, one of the sons of Eber; so called because "in his days was
the earth divided" Gen 10:25 - Possibly he may have lived at the time
of the dispersion from Babel. But more probably the reference is to
the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber, the one
spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward into
Arabia.


Pelet


Deliverance.
1. A descendant of Judah 1Ch 2:47.
2. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3.


Peleth


Swiftness.
1. A Reubenite whose son was one of the conspirators against Moses
and Aaron Num 16:1.
2. One of the sons of Jonathan 1Ch 2:33.


Pelethites


Mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the time of
David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers," and may
denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard, they were also
sometimes employed as couriers 2Sa 8:18 20:7,23 1Ki 1:38,44.
1Ch 18:17 - Some, however, think that these are the names simply of
two Philistine tribes from which David selected his body-guard. They
are mentioned along with the Gittites 2Sa 15:18 - another body of
foreign troops whom David gathered round him.


Pelicans


Are frequently met with at the waters of Merom and the Sea of Galilee.
The pelican is ranked among unclean birds Lev 11:18 Deu 14:17 - It is of
an enormous size, being about 6 feet long, with wings stretching out
over 12 feet. The Hebrew name (kaath, i.e., "vomiter") of this bird is
incorrectly rendered "cormorant" in the Authorized Version of
Isa 34:11 Zep 2:14 - but correctly in the Revised Version. It
receives its Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch large
quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young. Two
species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus onocrotalus, or
white pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or Dalmatian pelican.


See COMORANT 00903.


Penny


(Gr. denarion), a silver coin of the value of about 7 1/2 or 8d. of
our present money. It is thus rendered in the New Testament, and is
more frequently mentioned than any other coin Mat 18:28 20:2,9,13.
Mar 6:37 14:5 - etc. It was the daily pay of a Roman soldier in the
time of Christ. In the reign of Edward III. an English penny was a
labourer's day's wages. This was the "tribute money" with reference to
which our Lord said, "Whose image and superscription is this?" When
they answered, "Caesar's," he replied, "Render therefore to Caesar the
things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are God's"
Mat 22:19 Mar 12:15.


Pentecost


i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament Act 2:1 20:16.
1Co 16:8 - The festival so named is first spoken of in Exo 23:16.
as "the feast of harvest," and again in Exo 34:22 - as "the day of
the firstfruits" Num 28:26 - From the sixteenth of the month of
Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven complete weeks, i.e.,
forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and this feast was held on the
fiftieth day. The manner in which it was to be kept is described in
Lev 23:15-19 Num 28:27-29 - Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the
occasion, every one was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a
free-will offering" Deu 16:9-11 - The purpose of this feast was to
commemorate the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing
feature was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new
corn of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved
before the Lord as a thank offering. The day of Pentecost is noted in
the Christian Church as the day on which the Spirit descended upon the
apostles, and on which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands
were converted in Jerusalem Act 2:1.


Penuel


Face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the Jordan
and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called "Peniel." Here Jacob
wrestled Gen 32:24-32 - "with a man" ("the angel", Hos 12:4 - Jacob
says of him, "I have seen God face to face") "till the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there Jud 8:8 1Ki 12:25 - The men of
this place refused to succour Gideon and his little army when they
were in pursuit of the Midianites Jud 8:1-21 - On his return,
Gideon slew the men of this city and razed its lofty watch-tower to
the ground.


Peor


Opening.
1. A mountain peak Num 23:28 - to which Balak led Balaam as a last
effort to induce him to pronounce a curse upon Israel. When he
looked on the tribes encamped in the acacia groves below him, he
could not refrain from giving utterance to a remarkable
benediction Num 24:1-9 - Balak was more than ever enraged at
Balaam, and bade him flee for his life. But before he went he
gave expression to that wonderful prediction regarding the
future of this mysterious people, whose "goodly tents" were
spread out before him, and the coming of a "Star" out of Jacob
and a "Sceptre" out of Israel Num 24:14-17.
2. A Moabite divinity, called also "Baal-peor" Num 25:3,5,18 - comp.
Deu 3:29.


Perazim, Mount


Mount of breaches, only in Isa 28:21 - It is the same as
BAAL-PERAZIM (q.v.), where David gained a victory over the
Philistines 2Sa 5:20.


Peres


Divided, one of the mysterious words "written over against the
candlestick upon the plaster of the wall" of king Belshazzar's palace
Dan 5:28.

See MENE 02481.


Perez


=Pharez, (q.v.), breach, the son of Judah Neh 11:4 - "The chief of all
the captains of the host for the first month" in the reign of David
was taken from his family 1Ch 27:3 - Four hundred and sixty-eight of
his "sons" came back from captivity with Zerubbabel, who himself was
one of them 1Ch 9:4 Neh 11:6.


Perez-uzzah


The breach of Uzzah, a place where God "burst forth upon Uzzah, so
that he died," when he rashly "took hold" of the ark 2Sa 6:6-8 - It
was not far from Kirjath-jearim (q.v.).


Perfection


See SANCTIFICATION 03212.


Perfumes


1. Were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic
enjoyment Exo 30:35-37 Pr 7:17 So 3:6 Isa 57:9.
2. and also in embalming the dead,
3. and in other funeral ceremonies Mar 14:8 Luk 24:1 Joh 19:39.


Perga


The capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. Paul and his
companions landed at this place from Cyprus on their first missionary
journey Act 13:13-14 - and here Mark forsook the party and returned to
Jerusalem. Some time afterwards Paul and Barnabas again visited this
city and "preached the word" Act 14:25 - It stood on the banks of the
river Cestrus, some 7 miles from its mouth, and was a place of some
commercial importance. It is now a ruin, called Eski Kalessi.


Pergamos


The chief city of Mysia, in Asia Minor. One of the "seven churches"
was planted here Rev 1:11 2:17 - It was noted for its wickedness,
insomuch that our Lord says "Satan's seat" was there. The church of
Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the
doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes. Antipas, Christ's "faithful
martyr," here sealed his testimony with his blood. This city stood on
the banks of the river Caicus, about 20 miles from the sea. It is
now called Bergama, and has a population of some twenty thousand, of
whom about two thousand profess to be Christians. Parchment (q.v.)
was first made here, and was called by the Greeks pergamene, from the
name of the city.


Perida


Kernel, Neh 7:57.

See PERUDA 02910.


Perizzites


Villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Canaanitish nation
inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. "They
were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time." They were to
be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham Gen 15:20.
Exo 3:8,17 23:23 33:2 34:11 - They are afterwards named among the
conquered tribes Jos 24:11 - Still lingering in the land, however,
they were reduced to servitude by Solomon 1Ki 9:20.


Persecution


The first great persecution for religious opinion of which we have any
record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among
the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of
his wife Jezebel, "a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious
habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest
qualities inherent in the old Semitic race", sought in the most
relentless manner to extirpate the worship of Jehovah and substitute
in its place the worship of Ashtoreth and Baal. Ahab's example in
this respect was followed by Manasseh, who "shed innocent blood very
much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another"
2Ki 21:16 - comp. 2Ki 24:4 - In all ages, in one form or another,
the people of God have had to suffer persecution. In its earliest
history the Christian church passed through many bloody persecutions.
Of subsequent centuries in our own and in other lands the same sad
record may be made. Christians are forbidden to seek the propagation
of the gospel by force Luk 9:54-56 Ro 14:4 Jas 4:11-12 - The words of
Psa 7:13 - "He ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors," ought
rather to be, as in the Revised Version, "He maketh his arrows fiery
[shafts]."


Perseverance of the Saints


Their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and
regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away
from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting
life. This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages,
Joh 10:28-29 Ro 11:29 Php 1:6 1Pe 1:5 - It, moreover, follows from a
consideration of

1. the immutability of the divine decrees Jer 31:3 Mat 24:22-24.
Act 13:48 Ro 8:30.
2. the provisions of the covenant of grace Jer 32:40 Joh 10:29.
Joh 17:2-6.
3. the atonement and intercession of Christ Isa 53:6,11 Mat 20:28.
1Pe 2:24 Joh 11:42 17:11,15,20 Ro 8:34 - and
4. the indwelling of the Holy Ghost Joh 14:16 2Co 1:21-22 5:5.
Eph 1:14 1Jo 3:9 - This doctrine is not inconsistent with the
truth that the believer may nevertheless fall into grievous
sin, and continue therein for some time.

See BACKSLIDE 00414.


Persia


An ancient empire, extending from the Indus to Thrace, and from the
Caspian Sea to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Persians were
originally a Medic tribe which settled in Persia, on the eastern side
of the Persian Gulf. They were Aryans, their language belonging to
the eastern division of the Indo-European group. One of their chiefs,
Teispes, conquered Elam in the time of the decay of the Assyrian
Empire, and established himself in the district of Anzan. His
descendants branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anzan,
while the other remained in Persia. Cyrus II., king of Anzan, finally
united the divided power, conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylonia, and
carried his arms into the far East. His son, Cambyses, added Egypt to
the empire, which, however, fell to pieces after his death. It was
reconquered and thoroughly organized by Darius, the son of Hystaspes,
whose dominions extended from India to the Danube.


Persis


A female Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes Rom 16:12 - She is spoken
of as "beloved," and as having "laboured much in the Lord."


Peruda


One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel Ezr 2:55 - called also
Perida Neh 7:57.


Peter, First Epistle of


This epistle is addressed to "the strangers scattered abroad", i.e.,
to the Jews of the Dispersion (the Diaspora). Its object is to confirm
its readers in the doctrines they had been already taught. Peter has
been called "the apostle of hope," because this epistle abounds with
words of comfort and encouragement fitted to sustain a "lively hope."
It contains about thirty-five references to the Old Testament. It was
written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of
the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour
among the Jews. It has been noticed that in the beginning of his
epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which
they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon. He counsels
1. to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution 1Pe 1-2:10.
2. to the practical duties of a holy life 1Pe 2:11-3:13.
3. he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience
and holiness 1Pe 3:14-4:19 - and
4. concludes with counsels to pastors and people 1Pe 5:1-14.


Peter, Second Epistle of


The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much
discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim
to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears. It appears
to have been written shortly before the apostle's death 2Pe 1:14.
This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. It also
contains 2Pe 3:15-16 - a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles.
Some think this reference is to 1Th 4:13-18, 5:1-11.


Pethahiah


Loosed of the Lord.
1. The chief of one of the priestly courses (the nineteenth) in the
time of David 1Ch 24:16.
2. A Levite Ezr 10:23.
3. Neh 9:5.
4. A descendant of Judah who had some office at the court of Persia
Neh 11:24.


Pethor


Interpretation of dreams, identified with Pitru, on the west bank of
the Euphrates, a few miles south of the Hittite capital of Carchemish
Num 22:5 - "which is by the river of the land of the children of [the
god] Ammo").

See BALAAM 00421.


Pethuel


Vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet Joe 1:1.


Petra


Rock, Isa 16:1 - marg.

See SELA 03264.


Peulthai


Wages of the Lord, one of the sons of Obed-edom, a Levite porter
1Ch 26:5.


Phalec


Luk 3:35 - =Peleg (q.v.), Gen 11:16.


Phallu


Separated, the second son of Reuben Gen 46:9.


Phalti


Deliverance of the Lord, the son of Laish of Gallim 1Sa 25:44 - =
Phaltiel 2Sa 3:15 - Michal, David's wife, was given to him.


Phanuel


Face of God, father of the prophetess Anna (q.v.), Luk 2:36.


Pharaoh's Daughters


Three princesses are thus mentioned in Scripture:
1. The princess who adopted the infant Moses (q.v.), Exo 2:10 - She
is twice mentioned in the New Testament Act 7:21 Heb 11:24 - It
would seem that she was alive and in some position of influence
about the court when Moses was compelled to flee from Egypt, and
thus for forty years he had in some way been under her
influence. She was in all probability the sister of Rameses, and
the daughter of Seti I. Josephus calls her Thermuthis. It is
supposed by some that she was Nefert-ari, the wife as well as
sister of Rameses. The mummy of this queen was among the
treasures found at Deir-el-Bahari.
2. "Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, which Mered took 1Ch 4:18.
3. The wife of Solomon 1Ki 3:1 - This is the first reference since
the Exodus to any connection of Israel with Egypt.


Pharez


Breach, the elder of the twin sons of Judah Gen 38:29 - From him the
royal line of David sprang Rut 4:18-22 - "The chief of all the captains
of the host" was of the children of Perez 1Ch 27:3 Mat 1:3.


Pharisees


Separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, "to separate"). They were
probably the successors of the Assideans (i.e., the "pious"), a party
that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against
his heathenizing policy. The first mention of them is in a
description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the
Jews were divided (B.C. 145) The other two sects were the Essenes
and the Sadducees. In the time of our Lord they were the popular
party Joh 7:48 - They were extremely accurate and minute in all
matters appertaining to the law of Moses Mat 9:14 23:15 Luk 11:39.
Luk 18:12 - Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem,
professed himself a Pharisee Act 23:6-8 26:4-5 - There was much that
was sound in their creed, yet their system of religion was a form and
nothing more. Theirs was a very lax morality Mat 5:20 15:4,8.
Mat 23:3,14,23,25 Joh 8:7 - On the first notice of them in the New
Testament Mat 3:7 - they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees
as a "generation of vipers." They were noted for their
self-righteousness and their pride Mat 9:11 Luk 7:39 18:11-12 - They
were frequently rebuked by our Lord Mat 12:39 16:1-4 - From the very
beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and
persistent enemies of our Lord. They could not bear his doctrines, and
they sought by every means to destroy his influence among the people.


Pharpar


Swift, one of the rivers of Damascus 2Ki 5:12 - It has been identified
with the 'Awaj, "a small lively river." The whole of the district
watered by the 'Awaj is called the Wady el-'Ajam, i.e., "the valley
of the Persians", so called for some unknown reason. This river
empties itself into the lake or marsh Bahret Hijaneh, on the east of
Damascus. One of its branches bears the modern name of Wady Barbar,
which is probably a corruption of Pharpar.


Phebe


A "deaconess of the church at Cenchrea," the port of Corinth. She was
probably the bearer of Paul's epistle to the Romans. Paul commended
her to the Christians at Rome; "for she hath been," says he, "a
succourer of many, and of myself also" Rom 16:1-2.


Phenice


Properly Phoenix a palm-tree (as in the R.V.), a town with a harbour
on the southern side of Crete Act 27:12 - west of the Fair Havens. It
is now called Lutro.


Phicol


Great, the chief captain of the army of Abimelech, the Philistine king
of Gerar. He entered into an alliance with Abraham with reference to
a certain well which, from this circumstance, was called Beersheba
(q.v.), "the well of the oath" Gen 21:22,32 26:26.


Philadelphia


Brotherly love, a city of Lydia in Asia Minor, about 25 miles
south-east of Sardis. It was the seat of one of the "seven churches"
Rev 3:7-12 - It came into the possession of the Turks in A.D. 1392 It
has several times been nearly destroyed by earthquakes. It is still a
town of considerable size, called Allahshehr, "the city of God."


Philemon


An inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note among
the citizens Col 4:9 Phm 1:2 - He was brought to a knowledge of the
gospel through the instrumentality of Paul Phm 1:19 - and held a
prominent place in the Christian community for his piety and
beneficence Phm 1:4-7 - He is called in the epistle a
"fellow-labourer," and therefore probably held some office in the
church at Colosse; at all events, the title denotes that he took part
in the work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.


Philemon, Epistle to


Was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the
Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was
addressed to Philemon and the members of his family. It was written
for the purpose of interceding for Onesimus (q.v.), who had deserted
his master Philemon and been "unprofitable" to him. Paul had found
Onesimus at Rome, and had there been instrumental in his conversion,
and now he sends him back to his master with this letter. This epistle
has the character of a strictly private letter, and is the only one of
such epistles preserved to us. "It exhibits the apostle in a new
light. He throws off as far as possible his apostolic dignity and his
fatherly authority over his converts. He speaks simply as Christian to
Christian. He speaks, therefore, with that peculiar grace of humility
and courtesy which has, under the reign of Christianity, developed the
spirit of chivalry and what is called 'the character of a gentleman,'
certainly very little known in the old Greek and Roman civilization"
(Dr. Barry).

See SLAVE 03458.


Philetus


Amiable, with Hymenaeus, at Ephesus, said that the "resurrection was
past already" 2Ti 2:17-18 - This was a Gnostic heresy held by the
Nicolaitanes.

See ALEXANDER 00168.


Philistia


=Palestine (q.v.), "the land of the Philistines" Psa 60:8 87:4 108:9.
The word is supposed to mean "the land of wanderers" or "of
strangers."


Phinehas


Mouth of brass, or from old Egypt, the negro.
1. Son of Eleazar, the high priest Exo 6:25 - While yet a youth he
distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the
immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people
Num 25:1-9 - and thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out
among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them
perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion he received the
divine approbation Num 25:10-13 - He afterwards commanded the
army that went out against the Midianites Num 31:6-8 - When
representatives of the people were sent to expostulate with the
two and a half tribes who, just after crossing Jordan, built an
altar and departed without giving any explanation, Phinehas was
their leader, and addressed them in the words recorded in
Jos 22:13-20 - Their explanation follows. This great altar was
intended to be all ages only a witness that they still formed a
part of Israel. Phinehas was afterwards the chief adviser in the
war with the Benjamites. He is commemorated in Psa 106:30,31.
See ED 01125.
2. One of the sons of Eli, the high priest 1Sa 1:3 2:12 - He and his
brother Hophni were guilty of great crimes, for which
destruction came on the house of Eli 1Sa 31:1 - ff. He died in
battle with the Philistines 1Sa 4:4,11 - and his wife, on
hearing of his death, gave birth to a son, whom she called
"Ichabod," and then she died 1Sa 4:19-22|.

See HOPHNI 01814.


Phlegon


Burning, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sent salutations Rom 16:14.


Phoenicia


Act 21:2.

See PHENICIA 02930.


Phrygia


Dry, an irregular and ill-defined district in Asia Minor. It was
divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and the
Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that is spoken
of in the New Testament. The towns of Antioch in Pisidia Act 13:14.
Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it.


Phut


Phut is placed between Egypt and Canaan in Gen 10:6 - and elsewhere we
find the people of Phut described as mercenaries in the armies of
Egypt and Tyre Jer 46:9 Eze 30:5 27:10 - In a fragment of the annuals
of Nebuchadrezzar which records his invasion of Egypt, reference is
made to "Phut of the Ionians."


Phygellus


Fugitive, a Christian of Asia, who "turned away" from Paul during his
second imprisonment at Rome 2Ti 1:15 - Nothing more is known of him.


Phylacteries


(Gr. phulakteria; i.e., "defences" or "protections"), called by modern
Jews tephillin (i.e., "prayers") are mentioned only in Mat 23:5 - They
consisted of strips of parchment on which were inscribed these four
texts:
1. Exo 13:1-10.
2. Exo 13:11-16.
3. Deu 6:4-9.
4. Deu 11:18-21.

and which were enclosed in a square leather case, on one side of which
was inscribed the Hebrew letter shin, to which the rabbis attached some
significance. This case was fastened by certain straps to the forehead
just between the eyes. The "making broad the phylacteries" refers to
the enlarging of the case so as to make it conspicuous.
See FRONTLETS 01386.
Another form of the phylactery consisted of two rolls of parchment, on
which the same texts were written, enclosed in a case of black
calfskin. This was worn on the left arm near the elbow, to which it was
bound by a thong. It was called the "Tephillah on the arm."


Physician


Asa, afflicted with some bodily malady, "sought not to the Lord but to
the physicians" 2Ch 16:12 - The "physicians" were those who "practised
heathen arts of magic, disavowing recognized methods of cure, and
dissociating the healing art from dependence on the God of Israel.
The sin of Asa was not, therefore, in seeking medical advice, as we
understand the phrase, but in forgetting Jehovah."


Pi-beseth


Eze 30:17 - supposed to mean. "a cat," or a deity in the form of a
cat, worshipped by the Egyptians. It was called by the Greeks
Bubastis. The hieroglyphic name is "Pe-bast", i.e., the house of
Bast, the Artemis of the Egyptians. The town of Bubasts was situated
on the Pelusian branch, i.e., the easternmost branch, of the Delta. It
was the seat of one of the chief annual festivals of the Egyptians.
Its ruins bear the modern name of Tel-Basta.


Pieces


1. of silver. In Psa 68:30 - denotes "fragments," and not
properly money. In 1Sa 2:36 - (Heb. agorah), properly a
"small sum" as wages, weighed rather than coined. Jos 24:32.
(Heb. kesitah, q.v.), supposed by some to have been a piece of
money bearing the figure of a lamb, but rather simply a certain
amount. (Comp.) Gen 33:19.
2. The word pieces is omitted in many passages, as Gen 20:16 37:28.
Gen 45:22 - etc. The passage in Zec 11:12-13 - is quoted in
the Gospel Mat 26:15 - and from this we know that the word to
be supplied is "shekels." In all these omissions we may thus
warrantably supply this word.
3. The "piece of money" mentioned in Mat 17:27 - is a stater=a Hebrew
shekel, or four Greek drachmae; and that in Luk 15:8-9 Act 19:19.
a Greek drachma=a denarius.

See PENNY 02891.
See KESITAH 02178.


Piety


Lat. pietas, properly honour and respect toward parents 1Ti 5:4 - In
Act 17:23 - the Greek verb is rendered "ye worship," as applicable to
God.


Pigeon


Pigeons are mentioned as among the offerings which, by divine
appointment, Abram presented unto the Lord Gen 15:9 - They were
afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings Lev 1:14 12:6 - and the
law provided that those who could not offer a lamb might offer two
young pigeons Lev 5:7 - comp. Luk 2:24.

See DOVE 01065.


Pi-hahiroth


Place where the reeds grow (LXX. and Copt. read "farmstead"), the name
of a place in Egypt where the children of Israel encamped Exo 14:2,9.
how long is uncertain. Some have identified it with Ajrud, a fortress
between Etham and Suez. The condition of the Isthmus of Suez at the
time of the Exodus is not exactly known, and hence this, with the
other places mentioned as encampments of Israel in Egypt, cannot be
definitely ascertained. The isthmus has been formed by the Nile
deposits. This increase of deposit still goes on, and so rapidly that
within the last fifty years the mouth of the Nile has advanced
northward about four geographical miles. In the maps of Ptolemy (of
the second and third centuries A.D.) the mouths of the Nile are forty
miles further south than at present.

See EXODUS 01283.


Pillar


1. Used to support a building Jud 16:26,29.
2. as a trophy or memorial Gen 28:18 35:20 Ex 24:4 1Sa 15:12 - A.V.,
"place," more correctly "monument," or "trophy of victory," as in
2Sa 18:18.
3. of fire, by which the Divine Presence was manifested Exo 13:21.
4. The "plain of the pillar" in Jud 9:6 - ought to be, as in the
Revised Version, the "oak of the pillar", i.e.,
5. of the monument or stone set up by Joshua Jos 24:26.


Pine Tree


Heb. tidhar, mentioned along with the fir-tree in Isa 41:19 60:13.
This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is
common on the northern slopes of Lebanon. Some suppose that the elm,
others that the oak, or holm, or ilex, is meant by the Hebrew word. In
Neh 8:15 - the Revised Version has "wild olive" instead of "pine."

See FIR 01333.


Pinnacle


A little wing, Mat 4:5 Luk 4:9 - On the southern side of the temple court
was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades. At the
south-eastern corner the roof of this cloister was some 300 feet
above the Kidron valley. The pinnacle, some parapet or wing-like
projection, was above this roof, and hence at a great height,
probably 350 feet or more above the valley.


Pipe


1Sa 10:5 1Ki 1:40 Isa 5:12 30:29 - The Hebrew word halil, so rendered,
means "bored through," and is the name given to various kinds of wind
instruments, as the fife, flute, Pan-pipes, etc. In Amo 6:5 - this word
is rendered "instrument of music." This instrument is mentioned also
in the New Testament Mat 11:17 1Co 14:7 - It is still used in
Palestine, and is, as in ancient times, made of different materials,
as reed, copper, bronze, etc.


Piram


Like a wild ass, a king of Jarmuth, a royal city of the Canaanites,
who was conquered and put to death by Joshua Jos 10:3,23,26.


Pirathon


Prince, or summit, a place "in the land of Ephraim" Jud 12:15 - now
Fer'on, some 10 miles south-west of Shechem. This was the home of
Abdon the judge.


Pirathonite


1. Abdon, the son of Hillel, so called, Jud 12:13,15.
2. Benaiah the Ephraimite 2Sa 23:30 - one of David's thirty heroes.


Pisgah


A part, a mountain summit in the land of Moab, in the territory of
Reuben, where Balak offered up sacrifices Num 21:20 23:14 - and from
which Moses viewed the promised land Deu 3:27 - It is probably the
modern Jebel Siaghah.

See NEBO 02683.


Pisidia


A district in Asia Minor, to the north of Pamphylia. The Taurus range
of mountains extends through it. Antioch, one of its chief cities,
was twice visited by Paul Act 13:14 14:21-24.


Pison


Babylonian, the current, broad-flowing, one of the "four heads" into
which the river which watered the garden of Eden was divided Gen 2:11.
Some identify it with the modern Phasis, others with the Halys,
others the Jorak or Acampis, others the Jaab, the Indus, the Ganges,
etc.


Pit


1. A hole in the ground Exo 21:33,34.
2. a cistern for water Gen 37:24 Jer 14:3.
3. a vault Jer 41:9.
4. a grave Psa 30:3.
5. It is used as a figure for mischief Psa 9:15.
6. is the name given to the unseen place of woe Rev 20:1,3.
7. The slime-pits in the vale of Siddim were wells which yielded
asphalt Gen 14:10.


Pitch


Gen 6:14 - asphalt or bitumen in its soft state, called "slime"
Gen 11:3 14:10 Ex 2:3 - found in pits near the Dead Sea (q.v.). It
was used for various purposes, as the coating of the outside of
vessels and in building. Allusion is made in Isa 34:9 - to its
inflammable character.


See SLIME 03459.


Pitcher


A vessel for containing liquids. In the East pitchers were usually
carried on the head or shoulders Gen 24:15-20 Jud 7:16,19 Mar 14:13.


Pithom


Egyptian, Pa-Tum, "house of Tum," the sun-god, one of the "treasure"
cities built for Pharaoh Rameses II. by the Israelites Exo 1:11 - It
was probably the Patumos of the Greek historian Herodotus. It has now
been satisfactorily identified with Tell-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles
west of Ismailia, and 20 east of Tel-el-Kebir, on the southern bank of
the present Suez Canal. Here have recently (1883) been discovered the
ruins of supposed grain-chambers, and other evidences to show that
this was a great "store city." Its immense ruin-heaps show that it was
built of bricks, and partly also of bricks without straw. Succoth
Exo 12:37 - is supposed by some to be the secular name of this city,
Pithom being its sacred name. This was the first halting-place of the
Israelites in their exodus. It has been argued (Dr. Lansing) that
these "store" cities "were residence cities, royal dwellings, such as
the Pharaohs of old, the Kings of Israel, and our modern Khedives have
ever loved to build, thus giving employment to the superabundant
muscle of their enslaved peoples, and making a name for themselves."


Plain of Mamre


Gen 13:18 14:13 - R.V., "oaks of Mamre;" marg., "terebinths".

See MAMRE 02397.
See TEIL-TREE 03597.


Plane Tree


Heb. 'armon Gen 30:37 Eze 31:8 - rendered "chesnut" in the
Authorized Version, but correctly "plane tree" in the Revised Version
and the LXX. This tree is frequently found in Palestine, both on the
coast and in the north. It usually sheds its outer bark, and hence
its Hebrew name, which means "naked."

See CHESTNUT 00796.


Pledge


See LOAN 02307.


Pleiades


Heb. kimah, "a cluster" Job 9:9 38:31 Amo 5:8 - A.V., "seven stars;"
R.V., "Pleiades", a name given to the cluster of stars seen in the
shoulder of the constellation Taurus.


Plough


First referred to in Gen 45:6 - where the Authorized Version has
"earing," but the Revised Version "ploughing;" next in Exo 34:21.
Deu 21:4 - The plough was originally drawn by oxen, but sometimes also
by asses and by men.

See AGRICULTURE 00124.


Poison


1. Heb. hemah, "heat," the poison of certain venomous reptiles
Deu 32:24,33 Job 6:4 Psa 58:4 - causing inflammation.
2. Heb. rosh, "a head," a poisonous plant Deu 29:18 - growing
luxuriantly Hos 10:4 - of a bitter taste Psa 69:21 La 3:5 - and
coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy. This word is rendered
"gall", q.v., Deu 29:18 32:33 Psa 69:21 Jer 8:14 - etc., "hemlock"
Hos 10:4 Amo 6:12 - and "poison" Job 20:16 - "the poison of asps,"
showing that the - rosh - was not exclusively a vegetable poison.
3. In Rom 3:13 - (comp.) Job 20:16 Psa 140:3 Jas 3:8 - as the
rendering of the Greek ios.


Pomegranate


i.e., "grained apple" (pomum granatum), Heb. rimmon. Common in Egypt
Num 20:5 - and Palestine Num 13:23 Deu 8:8 - The Romans called it Punicum
malum, i.e., Carthaginian apple, because they received it from
Carthage. It belongs to the myrtle family of trees. The withering of
the pomegranate tree is mentioned among the judgments of God
Joe 1:12 - It is frequently mentioned in the Song of Solomon
Son 4:3,13 - etc. The skirt of the high priest's blue robe and ephod
was adorned with the representation of pomegranates, alternating with
golden bells Exo 28:33-34 - as also were the "chapiters upon the two
pillars" 1Ki 7:20 - which "stood before the house."


Pommels


2Ch 4:12-13 - or bowls 1Ki 7:41 - were balls or "rounded knobs" on
the top of the chapiters (q.v.).


Pontius Pilate


See PILATE 02954.


Pontus


A province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern coast of the
Euxine Sea, corresponding nearly to the modern province of Trebizond.
In the time of the apostles it was a Roman province. Strangers from
this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost Act 2:9 - and to
"strangers scattered throughout Pontus," among others, Peter
addresses his first epistle 1Pe 1:1 - It was evidently the resort of
many Jews of the Dispersion. Aquila was a native of Pontus Act 18:2.


Pool


A pond, or reservoir, for holding water (Heb. berekhah; modern Arabic,
birket), an artificial cistern or tank. Mention is made of
1. the pool of Gibeon 2Sa 2:13.
2. the pool of Hebron 2Sa 4:12.
3. the upper pool at Jerusalem 2Ki 18:17 20:20.
4. the pool of Samaria 1Ki 22:38.
5. the king's pool Neh 2:14.
6. the pool of Siloah Neh 3:15 Ec 2:6.
7. the fishpools of Heshbon Son 7:4.
8. the "lower pool," Isa 22:9.
9. the "old pool" Isa 22:11.
10. The "pool of Bethesda" Joh 5:2,4,7.
11. the "pool of Siloam" Joh 9:7,11.

Isaiah Isa 35:7 - says, "The parched ground shall become a pool."
This is rendered in the Revised Version "glowing sand," etc. (marg.,
"the mirage," etc.). The Arabs call the mirage "serab," plainly the
same as the Hebrew word - sarab -, here rendered "parched ground." "The
mirage shall become a pool", i.e., the mock-lake of the burning desert
shall become a real lake, "the pledge of refreshment and joy." The
"pools" spoken of in Isa 14:23 - are the marshes caused by the ruin
of the canals of the Euphrates in the neighbourhood of Babylon. The
cisterns or pools of the Holy City are for the most part excavations
beneath the surface. Such are the vast cisterns in the temple hill
that have recently been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine
Exploration Fund. These underground caverns are about thirty-five in
number, and are capable of storing about ten million gallons of water.
They are connected with one another by passages and tunnels.


Poor


The Mosaic legislation regarding the poor is specially important.
1. They had the right of gleaning the fields Lev 19:9-10.
Deu 24:19,21.
2. In the sabbatical year they were to have their share of the
produce of the fields and the vineyards Exo 23:11 Lev 25:6.
3. In the year of jubilee they recovered their property
Lev 25:25-30.
4. Usury was forbidden, and the pledged raiment was to be returned
before the sun went down Exo 22:25-27 Deu 24:10-13 - The rich were
to be generous to the poor Deu 15:7-11.
5. In the sabbatical and jubilee years the bond-servant was to go
free Deu 15:12-15 Lev 25:39-42,47-54.
6. Certain portions from the tithes were assigned to the poor
Deu 14:28-29 26:12-13.
7. They shared in the feasts Deu 16:11,14 Neh 8:10.
8. Wages were to be paid at the close of each day Lev 19:13.
9. In the New Testament Luk 3:11 14:13 Act 6:1 Gal 2:10 Jas 2:15,16.
we have similar injunctions given with reference to the poor.
10. Begging was not common under the Old Testament, while it was so in
the New Testament times Luk 16:20-21 - etc. But begging in the
case of those who are able to work is forbidden, and all such are
enjoined to "work with their own hands" as a Christian duty
1Th 4:11 2Th 3:7-13 Eph 4:28 - This word is used figuratively
in Mat 5:3 Luk 6:20 2Co 8:9 Rev 3:17.


Poplar


Heb. libneh, "white", Gen 30:37 Hos 4:13 - in all probability the storax
tree (Styrax officinalis) or white poplar, distinguished by its white
blossoms and pale leaves. It is common in the Anti-Libanus. Other
species of the poplar are found in Palestine, such as the white
poplar (P. alba) of our own country, the black poplar (P. nigra), and
the aspen (P. tremula).

See WILLOW 03812.


Porch, Solomon's


1. A colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a tradition
that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing after the
destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp.) 1Ki 7:6.
2.The word "porch" is in the New Testament the rendering of three
different Greek words:
a. Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda Joh 5:2 10:23 Act 3:11 5:12.
b. Pulon, a gateway Mat 26:71.
c. Proaulion, the entrance to the inner court Mar 14:68.


Porcius Festus


See FESTUS 01326.


Porter


A gate-keeper 2Sa 18:26 2Ki 7:10 1Ch 9:21 2Ch 8:14 - Of the Levites,
4,000 were appointed as porters by David 1Ch 23:5 - who were arranged
according to their families 1Ch 26:1-19 - to take charge of the doors
and gates of the temple. They were sometimes employed as musicians
1Ch 15:16-18.


Post


1. A runner, or courier, for the rapid transmission of letters,
etc. 2Ch 30:6 Es 3:13,15 8:10,14 Job 9:25 Jer 51:31 - Such
messengers were used from very early times. Those employed by
the Hebrew kings had a military character 1Sa 22:17 2Ki 10:25.
"guard," marg. "runners"). The modern system of postal
communication was first established by Louis XI. of France in
A.D. 1464
2. This word sometimes also is used for lintel or threshold
Isa 6:4.


Potiphar


Dedicated to Ra; i.e., to the sun-god, the Egyptian to whom the
Ishmaelites sold Joseph Gen 39:1 - He was "captain of the guard", i.e.,
chief, probably, of the state police, who, while they formed part of
the Egyptian army, were also largely employed in civil duties
Gen 37:36 - marg., "chief of the executioners"). Joseph, though a
foreigner, gradually gained his confidence, and became overseer over
all his possessions. Believing the false accusation which his
profligate wife brought against Joseph, Potiphar cast him into prison,
where he remained for some years.

See JOSEPH 02113.


Potipherah


A priest of On, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife Gen 41:45.


Potsherd


A "shred", i.e., anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware
Job 2:8 Pr 26:23 Isa 45:9.


Pottage


Heb. nazid, "boiled", a dish of boiled food, as of lentils
Gen 25:29 2Ki 4:38.


Potters Field


The name given to the piece of ground which was afterwards bought
with the money that had been given to Judas. It was called the "field
of blood" Mat 27:7-10 - Tradition places it in the valley of Hinnom.

See ACELDAMA 00063.


Pottery The art of


Was early practised among all nations. Various materials seem to have
been employed by the potter. Earthenware is mentioned in connection
with the history of
1. Melchizedek Gen 14:18.
2. Abraham Gen 18:4-8.
3. Rebekah Gen 24:15-17.
4. Rachel Gen 29:2-3,8,10.

The potter's wheel is mentioned by Jeremiah Jer 18:3 - See also
1Ch 4:23 Psa 2:9 Isa 45:9 64:8 Jer 19:1 La 4:2 Zec 11:13 Ro 9:21.


Pound


1. A weight. Heb. maneh, equal to 100 shekels 1Ki 10:17 Ezr 2:69.
Neh 7:71,72 - Gr. litra, equal to about 12 oz. avoirdupois
Joh 12:3 19:39.
2. A sum of money; the Gr. mna or mina Luk 19:13,16,18,20,24-25 - It
was equal to 100 drachmas, and was of the value of about 6s.
8d. of our money.

See MONEY 02590.


Praetorium


The Greek word (praitorion) thus rendered in Mar 15:16 - is rendered
"common hall" Mat 27:27 - marg., "governor's house"), "judgment hall,"
Joh 18:28,33 - marg., "Pilate's house", Joh 19:9 Act 23:35 - "palace"
Php 1:13 - This is properly a military word. It denotes
1. the general's tent or headquarters;
2. the governor's residence, as in Act 23:35 - (R.V., "palace"); and
3. the praetorian guard or the camp or quarters of the praetorian
cohorts Act 28:16 - the imperial guards in immediate attendance
on the emperor, who was "praetor" or commander-in-chief.
See PALACE 02827.


Predestination


This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or
purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found
only in these six passages, Act 4:28 Ro 8:29-30 1Co 2:7 Eph 1:5,11.
and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the
eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or
"determinate purpose" of God governs all events. This doctrine of
predestination or election is beset with many difficulties. It
belongs to the "secret things" of God. But if we take the revealed
word of God as our guide, we must accept this doctrine with all its
mysteriousness, and settle all our questionings in the humble, devout
acknowledgment, "Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy
sight." For the teaching of Scripture on this subject let the
following passages be examined in addition to those referred to
above; Gen 21:12 Ex 9:16 33:19 Deu 10:15 32:8 Jos 11:20 1Sa 12:22.
2Ch 6:6 Psa 33:12 65:4 78:68 135:4 Isa 41:1-10 Jer 1:5 Mar 13:20.
Luk 22:22 Joh 6:37 15:16 17:2,6,9 Act 2:28 3:18 4:28 Act 13:48 17:26.
Rom 9:11,18,21 11:5 Eph 3:11 1Th 1:4 2Th 2:13 2Ti 1:9 Ti 1:2 1Pe 1:2.
See DECREES OF GOD 01002.
See ELECTION 01149.
Hodge has well remarked that, "rightly understood, this doctrine
1. exalts the majesty and absolute sovereignty of God, while it
illustrates the riches of his free grace and his just
displeasure with sin.
2. It enforces upon us the essential truth that salvation is
entirely of grace. That no one can either complain if passed
over, or boast himself if saved.
3. It brings the inquirer to absolute self-despair and the cordial
embrace of the free offer of Christ.
4. In the case of the believer who has the witness in himself, this
doctrine at once deepens his humility and elevates his
confidence to the full assurance of hope" (Outlines).


Presidents


Three presidents are mentioned, of whom Daniel was the first Dan 6:2-7.
The name in the original is - sarkhin -, probably a Persian word
meaning perfects or ministers.


Priest


The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who
offers sacrifices.
1. At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own
sacrifices before God.
2. Afterwards that office devolved on the head of the family, as in
the cases of
a. Noah Gen 8:20.
b. Abraham Gen 12:7 13:4.
c. Isaac Gen 26:25.
d. Jacob Gen 31:54.
e. Job Job 1:5.
3. The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek Gen 14:18.
4. Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood was
limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that tribe,
the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the qualifications of
priests are given in Lev 21:16-23 - There are ordinances also
regarding the priests' dress Exo 28:40-43 - and the manner of
their consecration to the office Exo 29:1-37 - Their duties were
manifold Exo 27:20-21 29:38-44 Lev 6:12 10:11 24:8 Num 10:1-10.
Deu 17:8-13 33:10 Mal 2:7 - They represented the people before God,
and offered the various sacrifices prescribed in the law. In the
time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four courses or
classes 1Ch 24:7-18 - This number was retained after the Captivity
Ezr 2:36-39 Neh 7:39-42 - "The priests were not distributed over
the country, but lived together in certain cities [forty-eight in
number, of which six were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been
assigned to their use. From thence they went up by turns to
minister in the temple at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction
of the people in the country generally was left to the heads of
families, until the establishment of synagogues, an event which did
not take place till the return from the Captivity, and which was
the main source of the freedom from idolatry that became as marked
a feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had
been hitherto their great national sin."
5. The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a shadow
of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured the great
Priest who offered "one sacrifice for sins" "once for all"
Heb 10:10,12 - There is now no human priesthood. (See Epistle to
the Hebrews throughout.)
6. The term "priest" is indeed applied to believers 1Pe 2:9 Rev 1:6.
but in these cases it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true
believers are now "kings and priests unto God." As priests they
have free access into the holiest of all, and offer up the
sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of
grateful service from day to day.

See LEVITE 02278.


Prince


The title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The
"princes of the provinces" 1Ki 20:14 - were the governors or
lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes" mentioned in
Dan 6:1,3-4,6-7 - were the officers who administered the affairs of the
provinces; the "satraps" (as rendered in R.V.). These are also called
"lieutenants" Est 3:12 8:9 - R.V., "satraps". The promised Saviour is
called by Daniel Dan 9:25 - "Messiah the Prince" (Heb. nagid); compare
Act 3:15 5:31 - The angel Micheal is called Dan 12:1 - a "prince" (Heb.
sar, whence "Sarah," the "princes").


Priscilla


The wife of Aquila Act 18:2 - who is never mentioned without her. Her
name sometimes takes the precedence of his Rom 16:3 2Ti 4:19 - She took
part with Aquila (q.v.) in insturcting Apollos Act 18:26.


Prison


The first occasion on which we read of a prison is in the history of
Joseph in Egypt. Then Potiphar, "Joseph's master, took him, and put
him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound"
Gen 39:20-23 - The Heb. word here used (sohar) means properly a round
tower or fortress. It seems to have been a part of Potiphar's house,
a place in which state prisoners were kept. The Mosaic law made no
provision for imprisonment as a punishment. In the wilderness two
persons were "put in ward" Lev 24:12 Num 15:34 - but it was only till
the mind of God concerning them should be ascertained. Prisons and
prisoners are mentioned in the book of Psalms Psa 69:33 79:11 142:7.
Samson was confined in a Philistine prison Jud 16:21,25 - In the
subsequent history of Israel frequent references are made to prisons
1Ki 22:27 2Ki 17:4 25:27,29 2Ch 16:10 Isa 42:7 Jer 32:2 - Prisons
seem to have been common in New Testament times Mat 11:2 25:36,43 - The
apostles were put into the "common prison" at the instance of the
Jewish council Act 5:18,23 8:3 - and at Philippi Paul and Silas were
thrust into the "inner prison" Act 16:24 - comp. Act 4:3 12:4,5.


Prophecy


Or prediction, was one of the functions of the prophet. It has been
defined as a "miracle of knowledge, a declaration or description or
representation of something future, beyond the power of human
sagacity to foresee, discern, or conjecture."
See PROPHET 03006.
The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through the whole
contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the coming and work of
the Messiah; and the great use of prophecy was to perpetuate faith in
his coming, and to prepare the world for that event. But there are
many subordinate and intermediate prophecies also which hold an
important place in the great chain of events which illustrate the
sovereignty and all-wise overruling providence of God. Then there are
many prophecies regarding the Jewish nation, its founder Abraham
Gen 12:1-3 13:16 15:5 17:2,4-6 - etc., and his posterity, Isaac and
Jacob and their descendants Gen 12:7 13:14,15,17 15:18-21 Ex 3:8,17.
which have all been fulfilled. The twenty-eighth chapter of
Deuteronomy contains a series of predictions which are even now in the
present day being fulfilled. In the writings of the prophets Isaiah
Isa 2:18-21 - Jeremiah Jer 27:3-7 29:11-14 - Ezekiel Eze 5:12.
Eze 8:1 - Daniel Dan 8:1 - Dan 9:26-27 Hos 9:17 - there are
also many prophecies regarding the events which were to befall that
people.

There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating to
those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as
1. Tyre Eze 26:3-5,14-21.
2. Egypt Eze 29:10,15 30:6,12-13.
3. Ethiopia Nah 3:8-10.
4. Nineveh Nah 1:10 2:8-13 3:17-19.
5. Babylon Isa 13:4 Jer 51:7 Isa 44:27 Jer 50:38 51:36,39,57.
6. The land of the Philistines Jer 47:4-7 Eze 25:15-17 Amo 1:6-8,
Zep 2:4-7 Zec 9:5-8.

7. The four great monarchies Dan 2:39-40 7:17-24 8:9.

But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly to the
advent of the Messiah, beginning with Gen 3:15 - the first great
promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness and clearness all
through to the very close of the canon. The Messianic prophecies are
too numerous to be quoted. "To him gave all the prophets witness."
(Comp.) Mic 5:2 Hag 2:6-9 Isa 7:14 9:6-7 11:1-2 53:1.
Isa 60:10,13 Psa 16:11 68:18 - Many predictions also were delivered
by Jesus and his apostles. Those of Christ were very numerous. (Comp.)
Mat 10:23:24 11:23 19:28 21:43,44 24:1-25:46 26:17-35,46,64.
Mar 9:1 10:30 11:1-6,14 14:12-31,42,62 16:17 etc..


Propitiation


That by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it becomes
consistent with his character and government to pardon and bless the
sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love or make him
loving; it only renders it consistent for him to execise his love
towards sinners. In Rom 3:25 Heb 9:5 - (A.V., "mercy-seat") the
Greek word - hilasterion - is used. It is the word employed by the LXX.
translators in Exo 25:17 - and elsewhere as the equivalent for the
Hebrew - kapporeth -, which means "covering," and is used of the lid of
the ark of the covenant Exo 25:21 30:6 - This Greek word (hilasterion)
came to denote not only the mercy-seat or lid of the ark, but also
propitation or reconciliation by blood. On the great day of atonement
the high priest carried the blood of the sacrifice he offered for all
the people within the veil and sprinkled with it the "mercy-seat,"
and so made propitiation. In 1Jo 2:2 4:10 - Christ is called the
"propitiation for our sins." Here a different Greek word is used
(hilasmos). Christ is "the propitiation," because by his becoming our
substitute and assuming our obligations he expiated our guilt,
covered it, by the vicarious punishment which he endured. (Comp.)
Heb 2:17 - where the expression "make reconciliation" of the A.V. is
more correctly in the R.V. "make propitiation.")

See EXPIATION 01286.


Proportion of Faith


Rom 12:6 - Paul says here that each one was to exercise his gift of
prophecy, i.e., of teaching, "according to the proportion of faith."
The meaning is, that the utterances of the "prophet" were not to
fluctuate according to his own impulses or independent thoughts, but
were to be adjusted to the truth revealed to him as a beliver, i.e.,
were to be in accordance with it. In post-Reformation times this
phrase was used as meaning that all Scripture was to be interpreted
with reference to all other Scripture, i.e., that no words or
expressions were to be isolated or interpreted in a way contrary to
its general teaching. This was also called the "analogy of faith."


Proverb


A trite maxim; a similitude; a parable. The Hebrew word thus rendered
(mashal) has a wide signification. It comes from a root meaning "to
be like," "parable." Rendered "proverb" in Isa 14:4 Hab 2:6 - "dark
saying" in Psa 49:4 Num 12:8 - Ahab's defiant words in answer to the
insolent demands of Benhadad, "Let not him that girdeth on his
harness boast himself as he that putteth it off," is a well known
instance of a proverbial saying 1Ki 20:11.


Proverbs, Book of


A collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of
subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the
"philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible
does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in
the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and
of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of
the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths.
It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the
finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians,
but so necessary to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's
Jewish Church). As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that
Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human
experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide
of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material
of his own experience. Towards the close of the book, indeed, are
preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from
his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's
Laws from Heaven, etc.) This book is usually divided into three
parts:
1. Consisting of (ch. 1-9) which contain an exhibition of wisdom as
the highest good.
2. Consisting of ch. (10-24)
3. Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the
king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29)
These are followed by two supplements,
1. "The words of Agur" (ch. 30) and
2. "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31) Solomon is said to have
written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this
book may be a selection from these 1Ki 4:32 - In the New
Testament there are thirty-five direct quotations from this book
or allusions to it.


Providence


Literally means foresight, but is generally used to denote God's
preserving and governing all things by means of second causes
Psa 18:35 63:8 Act 17:28 Col 1:17 Heb 1:3 - God's providence extends
to:
1. The natural world Psa 104:14 135:5-7 Act 14:17.
2. The brute creation Psa 104:21-29 Mat 6:26 10:29.
3. The affairs of men 1Ch 16:31 Psa 47:7 Pr 21:1 Job 12:23.
Dan 2:21 4:25.
4. And of individuals 1Sa 2:6 Psa 18:30 Luk 1:53 Jas 4:13-15.
5. It extends also to the free actions of men Exo 12:36.
1Sa 24:9-15 Psa 33:14-15 Pr 16:1 19:21 20:24 21:1.
6. And things sinful 2Sa 16:10 24:1 Ro 11:32 Act 4:27,28.
7. As well as to their good actions Php 2:13 4:13 2Co 12:9-10.
Eph 2:10 Gal 5:22-25.

As regards sinful actions of men, they are represented as occurring by
God's permission Gen 45:5 50:20 - Comp. 1Sa 6:6 Ex 7:13 14:17.
Act 2:3 3:18 4:27-28 - and as controlled Psa 76:10 - and overruled
for good Gen 50:20 Act 3:13 - God does not cause or approve of sin,
but only limits, restrains, overrules it for good. The mode of God's
providential government is altogether unexplained. We only know that
it is a fact that God does govern all his creatures and all their
actions; that this government is
1. universal Psa 103:17-19.
2. particular Mat 10:29-31.
3. efficacious Psa 33:11 Job 23:13.
4. embraces events apparently contingent Pro 16:9,33 19:21 21:1.
5. is consistent with his own perfection 2Ti 2:13.
6. and to his own glory Rom 9:17 11:36.


Psalms


The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a portion of
the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets
in successive generations added now one now another contribution to
the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more
completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances
than it otherwise could." But it is specially to David and his
contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the "titles" of the
psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to
doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. Peter and John Act 4:25 - ascribe
to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are
anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been
ascribed to David. Psalms 39, 62 and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to
be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73 are
addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the
worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading part of the
Kohathite singers 2Ch 20:19 - were intrusted with the arranging and
singing of Psa 27,244 and 88. In Luk 24:44 - the word "psalms" means
the Hagiographa, i.e., the holy writings, one of the sections into
which the Jews divided the Old Testament.
See BIBLE 00580.
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the
time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a
period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New Testament 116 direct
quotations from the Psalter. The Psalter is divided, after the analogy
of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or
benediction:
1. The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of which
are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33 which, though
anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
2. Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42-72) 18 of which
are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The rest are
anonymous.
3. The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89) of which the 86th is
ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and the 89th
to Ethan the Ezrahite.
4. The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106) of which the
90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101 and 103 to David.
5. The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in number.
Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127 to Solomon.
Psa 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud
includes also Psa 120-135. Psa 113-118 inclusive, constitute the
"hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and
on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of
high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's
life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of
Jehoshaphat 2Ch 20:19 - the fourth by the men of Hezekiah
2Ch 20:29,30,31 - and the fifth in the days of Ezra." The Mosaic
ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of
God. David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord.
He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms.
1. Some bear the Hebrew designation - shir - (Gr. ode, a song).
Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it
were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title
includes secular as well as sacred song.
2. Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) - mitsmor - (Gr.
psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred
song accompanied with a musical instrument.
3. Psa 145 and many others, have the designation (Heb.) - tehillah -
(Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the
prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
4. Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) - michtam - (q.v.).
5. Psa 7 and Hab 3 bear the title (Heb.) - shiggaion - (q.v.).


Psaltery


A musical instrument, supposed to have been a kind of lyre, or a harp
with twelve strings. The Hebrew word nebhel, so rendered, is
translated "viol" in Isa 5:12 - (R.V., "lute"); Isa 14:11 - In
Dan 3:5,7,10,15 - the word thus rendered is Chaldaic, pesanterin,
which is supposed to be a word of Greek origin denoting an instrument
of the harp kind.


Ptolemais


A maritime city of Galilee Act 21:7 - It was originally called "Accho"
(q.v.), and received the name Ptolemais from Ptolemy Soter when he
was in possession of Coele-Syria.


Puah


Splendid.
1. One of the two midwives who feared God, and refused to kill the
Hebrew male children at their birth Exo 1:15-21.
2. A descendant of Issachar Jud 10:1.


Publican


One who farmed the taxes (e.g., Zacchaeus,) Luk 19:2 - to be levied from
a town or district, and thus undertook to pay to the supreme
government a certain amount. In order to collect the taxes, the
publicans employed subordinates Luk 5:27 15:1 18:10 - who, for their
own ends, were often guilty of extortion and peculation. In New
Testament times these taxes were paid to the Romans, and hence were
regarded by the Jews as a very heavy burden, and hence also the
collectors of taxes, who were frequently Jews, were hated, and were
usually spoken of in very opprobrious terms. Jesus was accused of
being a "friend of publicans and sinners" Luk 7:34.


Publius


"the chief man of the island" of Malta Act 28:7 - who courteously
entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for three days, till
they found a more permanent place of residence; for they remained on
the island for three months, till the stormy season had passed. The
word here rendered "chief man" (protos) is supposed by some to be
properly a Maltese term, the official title of the governor.


Pudens


Bashful, a Christian at Rome, who sent his greetings to Timothy
2Ti 4:21.

See CLAUDIA 00840.


Pul


1. An Assyrian king. It has been a question whether he was
identical with Tiglath-pileser III. (q.v.), or was his
predecessor. The weight of evidence is certainly in favour of
their identity. Pul was the throne-name he bore in Babylonia as
king of Babylon, and Tiglath-pileser the throne-name he bore as
king of Assyria. He was the founder of what is called the second
Assyrian empire. He consolidated and organized his conquests on
a large scale. He subdued Northern Syria and Hamath, and the
kings of Syria rendered him homage and paid him tribute. His
ambition was to found in Western Asia a kingdom which should
embrace the whole civilized world, having Nineveh as its centre.
Menahem, king of Israel, gave him the enormous tribute of a
thousand talents of silver, "that his hand might be with him"
2Ki 15:19 1Ch 5:26 - The fact that this tribute could be paid
showed the wealthy condition of the little kingdom of Israel
even in this age of disorder and misgovernment. Having reduced
Syria, he turned his arms against Babylon, which he subdued. The
Babylonian king was slain, and Babylon and other Chaldean cities
were taken, and Pul assumed the title of "King of Sumer [i.e.,
Shinar] and Accad." He was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV.
2. A geographical name in Isa 66:19 - Probably = Phut Gen 10:6.
R.V. "Put;" Eze 27:10.


Pulpit


Neh 8:4.

See EZRA 01294.


Pulse


Dan 1:12,16 - R.V. "herbs," vegetable food in general.


Punishment


The New Testament lays down the general principles of good government,
but contains no code of laws for the punishment of offenders.
Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an eternal
distinction between right and wrong, and that this distinction must
be maintained for its own sake. It is not primarily intended for the
reformation of criminals, nor for the purpose of deterring others
from sin. These results may be gained, but crime in itself demands
punishment.
See MURDER 02621.
See THEFT 03632.

ENDLESS, of the impenitent and unbelieving. The rejection of this
doctrine "cuts the ground from under the gospel...blots out the
attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into misfortune
instead of guilt; turns all suffering into chastisement; converts the
piacular work of Christ into moral influence...The attempt to retain
the evangelical theology in connection with it is futile" (Shedd).


Purification


The process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law,
and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was
restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges. The great annual
purification of the people was on the Day of Atonement (q.v.). But in
the details of daily life there were special causes of cermonial
uncleanness which were severally provided for by ceremonial laws
enacted for each separate case. For example,

1. The case of the leper Lev 13:1-14:1.
2. The house defiled by leprosy Lev 14:49-53 - see also
Mat 8:2-4.
3. Uncleanness from touching a dead body
Num 19:11 Hos 9:4 Hag 2:13 Mat 23:27 Luk 11:44.
a. The case of the high priest and of the Nazarite
Lev 21:1-4,10,11 Num 6:6-7 Eze 44:25.
5. Purification was effected by
a. bathing and washing the clothes Lev 14:8,9.
b. Washing the hands Deu 21:6 Mat 27:24.
c. Washing the hands and feet Exo 30:18-21 Heb 6:2.
d. Sprinkling with blood and water Exo 24:5-8 Heb 9:19 - etc.
Allusions to this rite are found in Psa 26:6 51:7 Eze 36:25.
Heb 10:22.


Pur, Purim


A lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews Est 9:24-32 - in ironical
commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for
the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel
plot against their nation. It became a national institution by the
common consent of the Jews, and is observed by them to the present day,
on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, a month before the Passover.


Purse


1. Gr. balantion, a bag Luk 10:4 22:35,36.
2. Gr. zone, properly a girdle Mat 10:9 Mar 6:8 - a money-belt. As to
our Lord's sending forth his disciples without money in their
purses, the remark has been made that in this "there was no
departure from the simple manners of the country. At this day
the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive without a
para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of Tarshisha thus
sends forth his apostles over this identical region. No
traveller in the East would hestitate to throw himself on the
hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and the Book.

See SCRIP 03242.


Puteoli


A city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running
north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on his way to
Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he tarried for
seven days Act 28:13-14 - This was the great emporium for the
Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his companions began their
journey, by the "Appian Way," to Rome. It is now called Pozzuoli. The
remains of a huge amphitheatre, and of the quay at which Paul landed,
may still be seen here.


Put, Phut


1. One of the sons of Ham Gen 10:6.
2. A land or people from among whom came a portion of the mercenary
troops of Egypt, Jer 46:9 - (A.V., "Libyans," but correctly,
R.V., "Put"); Eze 27:10 30:5 - (A.V., "Libya;" R.V., "Put");
Eze 38:5 Na 3:9.


Pygarg


Heb. dishon, "springing", Deu 14:5 - one of the animals permitted
for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It is described as
"a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the shoulder, and, with its
gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long. Its colour is pure white, with
the exception of a short black mane, and a tinge of tawny on the
shoulders and back.", Tristram's Natural History.


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