Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - O

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There are six Hebrew words rendered "oak."
1. 'El occurs only in the word El-paran Gen 14:6 - The LXX. renders
by "terebinth." In the plural form this word occurs in
Isa 1:29 57:5 - (A.V. marg. and R.V., "among the oaks");
Isa 61:3 - ("trees"). The word properly means strongly,
mighty, and hence a strong tree.
2. 'Elah, Gen 35:4 - "under the oak which was by Shechem" (R.V.
marg., "terebinth"). Isa 6:13 - A.V., "teil-tree;" R.V.,
"terebinth." Isa 1:30 - R.V. marg., "terebinth." Absalom in his
flight was caught in the branches of a "great oak" 2Sa 18:9.
R.V. marg., "terebinth").
3. 'Elon, Jud 4:11 9:6 - (R.V., "oak;" A.V., following the Targum,
"plain") properly the deciduous species of oak shedding its
foliage in autumn.
4. 'Elan, only in Dan 4:11,14,20 - rendered "tree" in
Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Probably some species of the oak is
5. 'Allah, Jos 24:26 - The place here referred to is called
Allon-moreh ("the oak of Moreh," as in R.V.) in Gen 12:6 35:4.
6. 'Allon, always rendered "oak." Probably the evergreen oak
(called also ilex and holm oak) is intended. The oak woods of
Bashan are frequently alluded to Isa 2:13 Eze 27:6.
Three species of oaks are found in Palestine, of which the "prickly
evergreen oak" (Quercus coccifera) is the most abundant. "It covers
the rocky hills of Palestine with a dense brushwood of trees from 8 to
12 feet high, branching from the base, thickly covered with small
evergreen rigid leaves, and bearing acorns copiously." The so-called
Abraham's oak at Hebron is of this species. Tristram says that this
oak near Hebron "has for several centuries taken the place of the once
renowned terebinth which marked the site of Mamre on the other side of
the city. The terebinth existed at Mamre in the time of Vespasian,
and under it the captive Jews were sold as slaves. It disappeared
about A.D. 330 and no tree now marks the grove of Mamre. The present
oak is the noblest tree in Southern Palestine, being 23 feet in girth,
and the diameter of the foliage, which is unsymmetrical, being about
90 feet."

See HEBRON 01712.
See TEIL-TREE 03597.


A solemn appeal to God, permitted on fitting occasions Deu 6:13.
Jer 4:2 - in various forms Gen 16:5 2Sa 12:5 Ru 1:17 Hos 4:15.
Rom 1:9 - and taken in different ways Gen 14:22 24:2 2Ch 6:22.
God is represented as taking an oath Heb 6:16-18 - so also Paul
Rom 9:1 Gal 1:20 Php 1:8 - The precept, "Swear not at all," refers
probably to ordinary conversation between man and man Mat 5:34,37.
But if the words are taken as referring to oaths, then their intention
may have been to show "that the proper state of Christians is to
require no oaths; that when evil is expelled from among them every yea
and nay will be as decisive as an oath, every promise as binding as a


Servant of the Lord.
1. An Israelite who was chief in the household of King Ahab
1Ki 18:3 - Amid great spiritual degeneracy he maintained his
fidelity to God, and interposed to protect The Lord's prophets,
an hundred of whom he hid at great personal risk in a cave
1Ki 18:4,13 - Ahab seems to have held Obadiah in great
honour, although he had no sympathy with his piety
1Ki 18:5-6,7 - The last notice of him is his bringing back
tidings to Ahab that Elijah, whom he had so long sought for, was
at hand 1Ki 18:9-16. "Go," said Elijah to him, when he met
him in the way, "go tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here."
2. A chief of the tribe of Issachar 1Ch 7:3.
3. A descendant of Saul 1Ch 8:38.
4. A Levite, after the Captivity 1Ch 9:16.
5. A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:9.
6. A prince of Zebulun in the time of David 1Ch 27:19.
7. One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in
the law 2Ch 17:7.
8. A Levite who superintended the repairs of the temple under
Josiah 2Ch 34:12.
9. One who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon Ezr 8:9.
10. A prophet, fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew canon, and
fifth in the LXX. He was probably contemporary with Jeremiah and
Ezekiel. Of his personal history nothing is known.

Obadiah, Book of

Consists of one chapter, "concerning Edom," its impending doom
Oba 1:1-16 - and the restoration of Israel Oba 1:17-21 - This is the
shortest book of the Old Testament. There are on record the account
of four captures of Jerusalem,
1. by Shishak in the reign of Rehoboam 1Ki 14:25.
2. by the Philistines and Arabians in the reign of Jehoram
2Ch 21:16.
3. by Joash, the king of Israel, in the reign of Amaziah
2Ki 14:13 - and
4. by the Babylonians, when Jerusalem was taken and
destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586) Obadiah Oba 1:11-14.
speaks of this capture as a thing past. He sees the calamity as
having already come on Jerusalem, and the Edomites as joining
their forces with those of the Chaldeans in bringing about the
degradation and ruin of Israel. We do not indeed read that the
Edomites actually took part with the Chaldeans, but the
probabilities are that they did so, and this explains the words
of Obadiah in denouncing against Edom the judgments of God.

The date of his prophecies was thus in or about the year of the
destruction of Jerusalem. Edom is the type of Israel's and of God's
last foe Isa 63:1-4 - These will finally all be vanquished, and the
kingdom will be the Lord's (comp.) Psa 22:28.


Stripped, the eight son of Joktan Gen 10:28 - called also Ebal
1Ch 1:22.


Serving; worshipping.
1. A son of Boaz and Ruth Rut 4:21-22 - and the grandfather of David
Mat 1:5.
2. 1Ch 2:34-38.
3. 1Ch 26:7.
4. 2Ch 23:1.


Servant of Edom.
1. "The Gittite" (probably so called because he was a native of
Gath-rimmon), a Levite of the family of the Korhites
1Ch 26:1,4-8 - to whom was specially intrusted the custody of
the ark 1Ch 15:18 - When David was bringing up the ark "from
the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill
or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's
threshing-floor, he became afraid because of the "breach upon
Uzzah," and carried it aside into the house of Obededom
2Sa 6:1-12 - There it remained for six months, and was to him
and his house the occasion of great blessing. David then removed
it with great rejoicing to Jerusalem, and set it in the midst of
the tabernacle he had pitched for it.
2. A Merarite Levite, a temple porter, who with his eight sons
guarded the southern gate 1Ch 15:18,21 26:4,8,15.
3. One who had charge of the temple treasures 2Ch 25:24.


Homage or reverence to any one Gen 37:7 43:28.


A keeper of camels, an Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in the
time of David 1Ch 27:30.


Bottles, an encampment of the Israelites during the wanderings in the
wilderness Num 33:43 - the first after the setting up of the brazen


Restoring, or setting up.
1. Father of the prophet Azariah 2Ch 15:1,8.
2. A prophet in the time of Ahaz and Pekah 2Ch 28:9-15.


1. An injury or wrong done to one 1Sa 25:31 Ro 5:15.
2. A stumbling-block or cause of temptation Isa 8:14 Mat 16:23 18:7.
Greek skandalon, properly that at which one stumbles or takes
offence. The "offence of the cross" Gal 5:11 - is the offence the
Jews took at the teaching that salvation was by the crucified
One, and by him alone. Salvation by the cross was a
stumbling-block to their national pride.


An oblation, dedicated to God. Thus Cain consecrated to God of the
first-fruits of the earth, and Abel of the firstlings of the flock
Gen 4:3-4 - Under the Levitical system different kinds of offerings are
specified, and laws laid down as to their presentation. These are
described under their distinctive names.

See SACRIFICE 03179.


Gigantic, the king of Bashan, who was defeated by Moses in a pitched
battle at Edrei, and was slain along with his sons Deu 1:4 - and whose
kingdom was given to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and half the tribe
of Manasseh Num 21:32-35 Deu 3:1-13 - His bedstead (or rather
sarcophagus) was of iron (or ironstone), 9 cubits in length and
4 cubits in breadth. His overthrow was afterwards celebrated in
song Psa 135:11 136:20.

See SIHON 03427.


United, or power, the third son of Simeon Gen 46:10.


A house; tent, the fourth son of Zerubbabel 1Ch 3:20.


Only olive oil seems to have been used among the Hebrews. It was used
for many purposes:
1. for anointing the body or the hair Exo 29:7 2Sa 14:2 Psa 23:5 92:10.
Psa 104:15 Luk 7:46.
2. in some of the offerings Exo 29:40 Lev 7:12 Num 6:15 15:4.
3. but was excluded from the sin-offering Lev 5:11 - and the
jealousy-offering Num 5:15.
4. for burning in lamps Exo 25:6 27:20 Mat 25:3.
5. for medicinal purposes Isa 1:6 Luk 10:34 Jas 5:14.
6. for anointing the dead Mat 26:12 Luk 23:56.

It was one of the most valuable products of the country Deu 32:13.
Eze 16:13 - and formed an article of extensive commerce with Tyre
Eze 27:17 - The use of it was a sign of gladness Psa 92:10 Isa 61:3.
and its omission a token of sorrow 2Sa 14:2 Mat 6:17 - It was very
abundant in Galilee.

See OLIVE 02778.


Isa 41:19 - R.V. marg., "oleaster"), Heb. 'etz shemen, rendered "olive
tree" in 1Ki 6:23,31,32-33 - (R.V., "olive wood") and "pine branches"
in Neh 8:15 - (R.V., "branches of wild olive"), was some tree distinct
from the olive. It was probably the oleaster (Eleagnus angustifolius),
which grows abundantly in almost all parts of Palestine, especially
about Hebron and Samaria. "It has a fine hard wood," says Tristram,
"and yields an inferior oil, but it has no relationship to the olive,
which, however, it resembles in general appearance."


Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes,
are so called Exo 30:25 Psa 133:2 Isa 1:6 Amo 6:6 Joh 12:3 Rev 18:13.

Old Gate

One of the gates in the north wall of Jerusalem, so called because
built by the Jebusites Neh 3:6 12:39.


The fruit of the olive-tree. This tree yielded oil which was highly
valued. The best oil was from olives that were plucked before being
fully ripe, and then beaten or squeezed Deu 24:20 Isa 17:6 24:13 - It
was called "beaten," or "fresh oil" Exo 27:20 - There were also
oil-presses, in which the oil was trodden out by the feet Mic 6:15.
James Jas 3:12 - calls the fruit "olive berries." The phrase
"vineyards and olives" Jud 15:5 - A.V. should be simply "olive-yard,"
or "olive-garden," as in the Revised Version.

See OIL 02774.


Is frequently mentioned in Scripture. The dove from the ark brought an
olive-branch to Noah Gen 8:11 - It is mentioned among the most notable
trees of Palestine, where it was cultivated long before the time of
the Hebrews Deu 6:11 8:8 - It is mentioned in the first Old Testament
parable, that of Jotham Jud 9:9 - and is named among the blessings of
the "good land," and is at the present day the one characteristic
tree of Palestine. The oldest olive-trees in the country are those
which are enclosed in the Garden of Gethsemane. It is referred to as
an emblem of prosperity and beauty and religious privilege Psa 52:8.
Jer 11:16 Hos 14:6 - The two "witnesses" mentioned in Rev 11:4 - are
spoken of as "two olive trees standing before the God of the earth."
(Comp.) Zec 4:3,11-14 - The "olive-tree, wild by nature" Rom 11:24.
is the shoot or cutting of the good olive-tree which, left ungrafted,
grows up to be a "wild olive." In Rom 11:17 - Paul refers to the
practice of grafting shoots of the wild olive into a "good" olive
which has become unfruitful. By such a process the sap of the good
olive, by pervading the branch which is "graffed in," makes it a good
branch, bearing good olives. Thus the Gentiles, being a "wild olive,"
but now "graffed in," yield fruit, but only through the sap of the
tree into which they have been graffed. This is a process "contrary to
nature" Rom 11:24.

Olives, Mount of

So called from the olive trees with which its sides are clothed, is a
mountain ridge on the east of Jerusalem 1Ki 11:7 Eze 11:23 Zec 14:4.
from which it is separated by the valley of Kidron. It is first
mentioned in connection with David's flight from Jerusalem through the
rebellion of Absalom 2Sa 15:30 - and is only once again mentioned
in the Old Testament, in Zec 14:4 - It is, however, frequently
alluded to 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 23:13 Neh 8:15 Eze 11:23 - It is frequently
mentioned in the New Testament Mat 21:1 26:30 - etc. It now bears
the name of Jebel et-Tur, i.e., "Mount of the Summit;" also sometimes
called Jebel ez-Zeitun, i.e., "Mount of Olives." It is about 200
feet above the level of the city. The road from Jerusalem to Bethany
runs as of old over this mount. It was on this mount that Jesus stood
when he wept over Jerusalem. "No name in Scripture," says Dr. Porter,
"calls up associations at once so sacred and so pleasing as that of
Olivet. The 'mount' is so intimately connected with the private, the
devotional life of the Saviour, that we read of it and look at it with
feelings of deepest interest and affection. Here he often sat with his
disciples, telling them of wondrous events yet to come, of the
destruction of the Holy City; of the sufferings, the persecution, and
the final triumph of his followers Mat 24:1 - Here he gave them
the beautiful parables of the ten virgins and the five talents
Mat 25:1-13 - here he was wont to retire on each evening for
meditation, and prayer, and rest of body, when weary and harassed by
the labours and trials of the day Luk 21:37 - and here he came on
the night of his betrayal to utter that wonderful prayer, 'O my
Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not
as I will, but as thou wilt' Mat 26:39 - And when the cup of God's
wrath had been drunk, and death and the grave conquered, he led his
disciples out again over Olivet as far as to Bethany, and after a
parting blessing ascended to heaven Luk 24:50,51 Act 1:12 - This
mount, or rather mountain range, has four summits or peaks:
1. the "Galilee" peak, so called from a tradition that the angels
stood here when they spoke to the disciples Act 1:11.
2. the "Mount of Ascension," the supposed site of that event, which
was, however, somewhere probably nearer Bethany Luk 24:51,52.
3. the "Prophets," from the catacombs on its side, called "the
prophets' tombs;" and
4. the "Mount of Corruption," so called because of the "high
places" erected there by Solomon for the idolatrous worship of
his foreign wives 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 23:13 - Vulg., "Mount of Offence".


A Roman Christian whom Paul salutes Rom 16:15.


Eloquent, the son of Eliphaz, who was Esau's eldest son Gen 36:11-15.


Rev 1:8 - the last letter in the Greek alphabet.

See A 00001.


A handful, one-tenth of an ephah=half a gallon dry measure
Exo 16:22,32,33,36 - ="tenth deal."


Servant of Jehovah. When Elah was murdered by Zimri at Tirzah
1Ki 16:15-27 - Omri, his captain, was made king (B.C. 931) For four
years there was continued opposition to his reign, Tibni, another
claimant to the throne, leading the opposing party; but at the close
of that period all his rivals were defeated, and he became king of
Israel, "Tibni died and Omri reigned" (B.C. 927) By his vigour and
power he gained great eminence and consolidated the kingdom. He fixed
his dynasty on the throne so firmly that it continued during four
succeeding reigns. Tirza was for six years the seat of his government.
He then removed the capital to Samaria (q.v.), where he died, and was
succeeded by his son Ahab. "He wrought evil in the eyes of the Lord,
and did worse than all that were before him." Beth-omri, "the house"
or "city of Omri," is the name usually found on Assyrian inscriptions
for Samaria. In the stele of Mesha (the "Moabite stone"), which was
erected in Moab about twenty or thirty years after Omri's death, it is
recorded that Omri oppressed Moab till Mesha delivered the land:
"Omri, king of Israel, oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry
with his land. His son succeeded him, and he also said, I will oppress
Moab" (comp.) 2Ki 1:1 3:4-5 - The "Moabite stone" also records that
"Omri took the land of Medeba, and occupied it in his day and in the
days of his son forty years."


Light; the sun, Gen 41:45,50 - the great seat of sun-worship, called
also Bethshemesh Jer 43:13 - and Aven Eze 30:17 - stood on the east
bank of the Nile, a few miles north of Memphis, and near Cairo, in
the north-east. The Vulgate and the LXX. Versions have "Heliopolis"
("city of the sun") instead of On in Genesis and of Aven in Ezekiel.
The "city of destruction" Isaiah speaks of Isa 19:18 - marg. "of
Heres;" Heb. 'Ir-ha-heres, which some MSS. read Ir-ha-heres, i.e.,
"city of the sun") may be the name given to On, the prophecy being
that the time will come when that city which was known as the "city
of the sun-god" shall become the "city of destruction" of the
sun-god, i.e., when idolatry shall cease, and the worship of the true
God be established. In ancient times this city was full of obelisks
dedicated to the sun. Of these only one now remains standing.
"Cleopatra's Needle" was one of those which stood in this city in
front of the Temple of Tum, i.e., "the sun." It is now erected on the
Thames Embankment, London. "It was at On that Joseph wooed and won
the dark-skinned Asenath, the daughter of the high priest of its
great temple." This was a noted university town, and here Moses
gained his acquaintance with "all the wisdom of the Egyptians."


Strong, the second son of Judah Gen 38:4-10 - comp. Deu 25:5.
Mat 22:24 - He died before the going down of Jacob and his family
into Egypt.


Useful, a slave who, after robbing his master Philemon (q.v.) at
Colosse, fled to Rome, where he was converted by the apostle Paul,
who sent him back to his master with the epistle which bears his
name. In it he beseeches Philemon to receive his slave as a "faithful
and beloved brother." Paul offers to pay to Philemon anything his
slave had taken, and to bear the wrong he had done him. He was
accompanied on his return by Tychicus, the bearer of the Epistle to
the Colossians Phm 1:16,18 - The story of this fugitive Colossian
slave is a remarkable evidence of the freedom of access to the
prisoner which was granted to all, and "a beautiful illustration both
of the character of St. Paul and the transfiguring power and
righteous principles of the gospel."


Bringing profit, an Ephesian Christian who showed great kindness to
Paul at Rome. He served him in many things, and had oft refreshed
him. Paul expresses a warm interest in him and his household
2Ti 1:16-18 4:19.


The Israelites in the wilderness longed for the "onions and garlick of
Egypt" Num 11:5 - This was the - betsel - of the Hebrews, the Allium cepe
of botanists, of which it is said that there are some thirty or forty
species now growing in Palestine. The onion is "the 'undivided' leek,
- unio -, - unus -, one."


A town of Benjamin, in the "plain of Ono" 1Ch 8:12 Ezr 2:33 - now
Kefr 'Ana, 5 miles north of Lydda, and about 30 miles north-west of
Jerusalem. Not succeeding in their attempts to deter Nehemiah from
rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, Sanballat and Tobiah resorted to
strategem, and pretending to wish a conference with him, they invited
him to meet them at Ono. Four times they made the request, and every
time Nehemiah refused to come. Their object was to take him prisoner.


A nail; claw; hoof, (Heb. sheheleth;) Exo 30:34 - a Latin word applied
to the operculum, i.e., the claw or nail of the strombus or
wing-shell, a univalve common in the Red Sea. The opercula of these
shell-fish when burned emit a strong odour "like castoreum." This was
an ingredient in the sacred incense.


A hail; claw; hoof, (Heb. shoham), a precious stone adorning the
breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod
Exo 28:9-12,20 35:27 Job 28:16 Eze 28:13 - It was found in the land
of Havilah Gen 2:11-12 - The LXX. translates the Hebrew word by
smaragdos, an emerald. Some think that the sardonyx is meant. But the
onyx differs from the sardonyx in this, that while the latter has two
layers (black and white) the former has three (black, white, and red).

Open Place

Gen 38:14,21 - mar. Enaim; the same probably as Enam Jos 15:34 - a
city in the lowland or Shephelah.


Hill; mound, the long, narrow, rounded promontory on the southern
slope of the temple hill, between the Tyropoeon and the Kedron valley
2Ch 27:3 33:14 Neh 3:26-27 - It was surrounded by a separate wall, and
was occupied by the Nethinim after the Captivity. This wall has been
discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund at the
south-eastern angle of the temple area. It is 4 feet below the present
surface. In 2Ki 5:24 - this word is translated "tower" (R.V.,
"hill"), denoting probably some eminence near Elisha's house.


1. One of the sons of Joktan Gen 10:29.
2. Some region famous for its gold 1Ki 9:28 10:11 22:48.
Job 22:24 28:16 Isa 13:12 - In the LXX. this word is rendered
"Sophir," and "Sofir" is the Coptic name for India, which is the
rendering of the Arabic version, as also of the Vulgate.
Josephus has identified it with the Golden Chersonese, i.e., the
Malay peninsula. It is now generally identified with Abhira, at
the mouth of the Indus. Much may be said, however, in favour of
the opinion that it was somewhere in Arabia.


Mouldy, a city of Benjamin Jos 18:24.


A fawn. 1Ch 4:14.
1. A city of Benjamin Jos 18:23 - probably identical with Ephron
2Ch 13:19 - and Ephraim Joh 11:54.
2. "Of the Abi-ezrites." A city of Manasseh, 6 miles south-west
of Shechem, the residence of Gideon Jud 6:11 8:27,32 - After his
great victory over the Midianites, he slew at this place the
captive kings Jud 8:18-21 - He then assumed the function of high
priest, and sought to make Ophrah what Shiloh should have been.
This thing "became a snare" to Gideon and his house. After
Gideon's death his family resided here till they were put to
death by Abimelech Jud 9:5 - It is identified with Ferata.


In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2Sa 16:23 - to denote
the most holy place in the temple 1Ki 6:5,19-23 8:6 - In 2Sa 16:23.
it means the Word of God. A man inquired "at the oracle of God" by
means of the Urim and Thummim in the breastplate on the high priest's
ephod. In the New Testament it is used only in the plural, and always
denotes the Word of God Rom 3:2 Heb 5:12 - etc. The Scriptures are
called "living oracles" (comp.) Heb 4:12 - because of their
quickening power Act 7:38.


Raven, a prince of Midian, who, being defeated by Gideon and put to
straits, was slain along with Zeeb Jud 7:20-25 - Many of the
Midianites perished along with him Psa 83:9 Isa 10:26.

Oreb, The Rock of

The place where Gideon slew Oreb after the defeat of the Midianites
Jud 7:25 Isa 10:26 - It was probably the place now called Orbo, on
the east of Jordan, near Bethshean.


Ash or pine, the son of Jerahmeel 1Ch 2:25.


Some kind of wind instrument, probably a kind of Pan's pipes
Gen 4:21 Job 21:12 Psa 150:4 - which consisted of seven or eight
reeds of unequal length.


Heb. Kesil; i.e., "the fool", the name of a constellation Job 9:9.
Job 38:31 Amo 5:8 - consisting of about eighty stars. The Vulgate
renders thus, but the LXX. renders by Hesperus, i.e., "the
evening-star," Venus. The Orientals "appear to have conceived of this
constellation under the figure of an impious giant bound upon the
sky." This giant was, according to tradition, Nimrod, the type of the
folly that contends against God. In Isa 13:10 - the plural form of
the Hebrew word is rendered "constellations."


1Ch 21:15.

See ARAUNAH 00285.


Forelock or fawn, a Moabitess, the wife of Chilion Rut 1:4,14 - On the
death of her husband she accompanied Naomi, her mother-in-law, part
of the way to Bethlehem, and then returned to Moab.


Lam 5:3 - i.e., desolate and without protectors. The word occurs only
here. In Joh 14:18 - the word there rendered "comfortless" (R.V.,
"desolate;" marg., "orphans") properly means "orphans." The same
Greek word is rendered "fatherless" in Jas 1:27.


Heb. 'ozniyyah, an unclean bird according to the Mosaic law
Lev 11:13 Deu 14:12 - the fish-eating eagle (Pandion haliaetus); one
of the lesser eagles. But the Hebrew word may be taken to denote the
short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus of Southern Europe), one of the
most abundant of the eagle tribe found in Palestine.


Lam 4:3 - the rendering of Hebrew pl. enim; so called from its
greediness and gluttony. The allusion here is to the habit of the
ostrich with reference to its eggs, which is thus described: "The
outer layer of eggs is generally so ill covered that they are
destroyed in quantities by jackals, wild-cats, etc., and that the
natives carry them away, only taking care not to leave the marks of
their footsteps, since, when the ostrich comes and finds that her
nest is discovered, she crushes the whole brood, and builds a nest
elsewhere." In Job 39:13 - this word in the Authorized Version is the
rendering of a Hebrew word (notsah) which means "feathers," as in the
Revised Version. In the same verse the word "peacocks" of the
Authorized Version is the rendering of the Hebrew pl. renanim,
properly meaning "ostriches," as in the Revised Version.

See OWL 02815.


A lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple porters in
the time of David 1Ch 26:7 - He was a "mighty man of valour."


Lion of God, the first of the judges. His wife Achsah was the daughter
of Caleb Jos 15:16-17 Jud 1:13 - He gained her hand as a reward for
his bravery in leading a successful expedition against Debir (q.v.).
Some thirty years after the death of Joshua, the Israelites fell
under the subjection of Chushan-rishathaim (q.v.), the king of
Mesopotamia. He oppressed them for full eight years, when they
"cried" unto Jehovah, and Othniel was raised up to be their
deliverer. He was the younger brother of Caleb Jud 3:8,9-11 - He is
the only judge mentioned connected with the tribe of Judah. Under him
the land had rest forty years.


An Old English word denoting cavities or sockets in which gems were
set Exo 28:11.


Heb. tannur, Hos 7:4 - In towns there appear to have been public ovens.
There was a street in Jerusalem Jer 37:21 - called "bakers' street"
(the only case in which the name of a street in Jerusalem is
preserved). The words "tower of the furnaces" Neh 3:11 12:38 - is more
properly "tower of the ovens" (Heb. tannurim). These resemble the
ovens in use among ourselves. There were other private ovens of
different kinds. Some were like large jars made of earthenware or
copper, which were heated inside with wood 1Ki 17:12 Isa 44:15.
Jer 7:18 - or grass Mat 6:30 - and when the fire had burned out,
small pieces of dough were placed inside or spread in thin layers on
the outside, and were thus baked.
See FURNACE 01398.
Pits were also formed for the same purposes, and lined with cement.
These were used after the same manner. Heated stones, or sand heated
by a fire heaped over it, and also flat irons pans, all served as
ovens for the preparation of bread. (See) Gen 18:6 1Ki 19:6.


Heb. bakar, "cattle;"
1. "neat cattle", Gen 12:16 34:28 Job 1:3,14 42:12 - etc.;
2. not to be muzzled when treading the corn Deu 25:4.
3. Referred to by our Lord in his reproof to the Pharisees
Luk 13:15 14:5.

Ox Goad

Mentioned only in Jud 3:31 - the weapon with which Shamgar (q.v.)
slew six hundred Philistines. "The ploughman still carries his goad,
a weapon apparently more fitted for the hand of the soldier than the
peaceful husbandman. The one I saw was of the 'oak of Bashan,' and
measured upwards of ten feet in length. At one end was an iron spear,
and at the other a piece of the same metal flattened. One can well
understand how a warrior might use such a weapon with effect in the
battle-field" (Porter's Syria, etc.).

See GOAD 01508.


1. One of David's brothers; the sixth son of Jesse 1Ch 2:15.
2. A son of Jerahmeel 1Ch 2:25.


Son of Joram Mat 1:8 - called also Uzziah 2Ki 15:32,34.


Hearing, one of the sons of Gad; also called Ezbon Gen 46:16 Num 26:16.

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