Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - M

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Ascent of the scorpions; i.e., "scorpion-hill", a pass on the
south-eastern border of Palestine Num 34:4 Jos 15:3 - It is identified
with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the great Wady
el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea.

See AKRABBIM 00163.


Desolation, a place in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:59 - probably the
modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles north of Hebron.


The work of Jehovah.
1. One of the Levites whom David appointed as porter for the ark
1Ch 15:18,20.
2. One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in
restoring king Jehoash to the throne 2Ch 23:1.
3. The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed
by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel
2Ch 28:7.
4. One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple 2Ch 34:8.
He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the Authorized
Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of Jerusalem.
5. The father of the priest Zephaniah Jer 21:1 37:3.
6. The father of the false prophet Zedekiah Jer 29:21 - Maase'iah,
refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah
Jer 32:12 51:59.


Work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the
Captivity 1Ch 9:12.


Small, a person named in our Lord's ancestry Luk 3:26.


Strength or consolation of Jehovah.
1. The head of the twenty-fourth priestly course 1Ch 24:18 - in
David's reign.
2. A priest Neh 10:8.


Clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite heroes who
joined David in the wilderness 1Ch 12:13.


Middle land, the third "son" of Japheth Gen 10:2 - the name by which the
Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.


Dunghill, the modern el-Minyay, 15 miles south-south-west of Gaza
Jos 15:31 1Ch 2:49 - in the south of Judah. The Pal. Mem., however,
suggest Umm Deimneh, 12 miles north-east of Beersheba, as the site.


Ibid., a Moabite town threatened with the sword of the Babylonians
Jer 48:2.


Ibid., a town in Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem, towards the north
Isa 10:31 - The same Hebrew word occurs in Isa 25:10 - where it is
rendered "dunghill." This verse has, however, been interpreted as
meaning "that Moab will be trodden down by Jehovah as teben [broken
straw] is trodden to fragments on the threshing-floors of Madmenah."


This word is used in its proper sense in Deu 28:34 Joh 10:20 1Co 14:23.
It also denotes a reckless state of mind arising from various causes,
as over-study Ecc 1:17 2:12 - blind rage Luk 6:11 - or a depraved temper
Ecc 7:25 9:3 2Pe 2:16 - David feigned madness 1Sa 21:13 - at Gath
because he "was sore afraid of Achish."


Strife, a Canaanitish city in the north of Palestine Jos 11:1 12:19.
whose king was slain by Joshua; perhaps the ruin Madin, near Hattin,
some 5 miles west of Tiberias.


A tower, a town in Galilee, mentioned only in Mat 15:39 - In the
parallel passage in Mar 8:10 - this place is called Dalmanutha. It was
the birthplace of Mary called the Magdalen, or Mary Magdalene. It was
on the west shore of the Lake of Tiberias, and is now probably the
small obscure village called el-Mejdel, about 3 miles north-west
of Tiberias. In the Talmud this city is called "the city of colour,"
and a particular district of it was called "the tower of dyers." The
indigo plant was much cultivated here.


A surname derived from Magdala, the place of her nativity, given to
one of the Marys of the Gospels to distinguish her from the other
Marys Mat 27:56,61 28:1 - etc. A mistaken notion has prevailed that
this Mary was a woman of bad character, that she was the woman who is
emphatically called "a sinner" Luk 7:36-50.

See MARY 02428.


Heb. hartumim, Dan 1:20 - were sacred scribes who acted as interpreters
of omens, or "revealers of secret things."


Region of Gog, the second of the "sons" of Japheth Gen 10:2 1Ch 1:5 - In
Ezekiel Eze 38:2 39:6 - it is the name of a nation, probably some
Scythian or Tartar tribe descended from Japheth. They are described
as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of the bow. The Latin
father Jerome says that this word denotes "Scythian nations, fierce
and innumerable, who live beyond the Caucasus and the Lake Maeotis,
and near the Caspian Sea, and spread out even onward to India."
Perhaps the name "represents the Assyrian Mat Gugi, or 'country of
Gugu,' the Gyges of the Greeks" (Sayce's Races, etc.).


Fear on every side, Jer 20:3 - a symbolical name given to the priest
Pashur, expressive of the fate announced by the prophet as about to
come upon him. Pashur was to be carried to Babylon, and there die.


Praise of God.
1. The son of Cainan, of the line of Seth Gen 5:12-17 - called
Maleleel Luk 3:37.
2. Neh 11:4 - a descendant of Perez.


A lute; lyre.
1. The daughter of Ishmael, and third wife of Esau Gen 28:9 - called
also Bashemath Gen 36:3.
2. The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons. She was
one of Rehoboam's wives 2Ch 11:18.

Mahalath Leannoth, Maschil

This word leannoth seems to point to some kind of instrument unknown
Psa 88:1 - title). The whole phrase has by others been rendered, "On
the sickness of affliction: a lesson;" or, "Concerning afflictive
sickness: a didactic psalm."

Mahalath Maschil

In the title of Psa 53:1 - denoting that this was a didactic psalm,
to be sung to the accompaniment of the lute or guitar. Others regard
this word "mahalath" as the name simply of an old air to which the
psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the word as meaning
"sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of the psalm.


Jud 18:12 - "camp of Dan" Jud 13:25 - (R.V., "Mahaneh-dan"), a place
behind (i.e., west of) Kirjath-jearim, where the six hundred Danites
from Zorah and Eshtaol encamped on their way to capture the city of
Laish, which they rebuilt and called "Dan, after the name of their
father" Jud 18:11-31 - The Palestine Explorers point to a ruin called
'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great corn valley on the
east of Samson's home.


1. A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah 1Ch 6:35.
2. Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah 2Ch 29:12.


Visions, a Kohathite Levite, chief of the twenty-third course of
musicians 1Ch 25:4,30.


Plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, Isa 8:1-3 - comp. Zep 1:14 - a name
Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters on a tablet,
and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a son that was to be
born to him Isa 8:1,3 - as denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and
Syria by the Assyrian army.


Disease, one of the five daughters of Zelophehad Num 27:1-11 - who had
their father's inheritance, the law of inheritance having been
altered in their favour.


Sickly, the elder of Elimelech the Bethlehemite's two sons by Naomi.
He married Ruth and died childless Rut 1:2,5 4:9-10 - in the land of


Dance, the father of four sons 1Ki 4:31 - who were inferior in wisdom
only to Solomon.

Mail, Coat of

"A corselet of scales," a cuirass formed of pieces of metal overlapping
each other, like fish-scales 1Sa 17:5 38 - a corselet or garment
thus encased.


(Gr. artemon), answering to the modern "mizzen-sail," as some suppose.
Others understand the "jib," near the prow, or the "fore-sail," as
likely to be most useful in bringing a ship's head to the wind in the
circumstances described Act 27:40.


Assemblies, a station of the Israelites in the desert Num 33:25-26.


Mortar, a place in or near Jerusalem inhabited by silver merchants
Zep 1:11 - It has been conjectured that it was the "Phoenician
quarter" of the city, where the traders of that nation resided, after
the Oriental custom.


2Sa 12:30 - Heb., R.V., "their king;" Jer 49:1,3 - R.V.; Zep 1:5.
("Malcham) the national idol of the Ammonites. When Rabbah was taken by
David, the crown of this idol was among the spoils. The weight is said
to have been "a talent of gold" (above 100 lbs.). The expression
probably denotes its value rather than its weight. It was adorned with
precious stones.


Jehovah's king.
1. The head of the fifth division of the priests in the time of
David 1Ch 24:9.
2. A priest, the father of Pashur 1Ch 9:12 Jer 38:1.
3. One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate the
completion of the walls of Jerusalem Neh 12:42.
4. A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of the law
of God" Neh 8:4.
5. The son of Harim Neh 3:11.
6. Son of the goldsmith. Repaired the wall at Jerusalem Neh 3:31.
7. Son of Rechab who repaired the dung gate Neh 3:14.


King of help, one of the four sons of Saul 1Ch 8:33 - He perished along
with his father in the battle of Gilboa 1Sa 31:2.


Reigning, the personal servant or slave of the high priest Caiaphas.
He is mentioned only by John. Peter cut off his right ear in the
garden of Gethsemane Joh 18:10 - But our Lord cured it with a touch
Mat 26:51 Mar 14:47 Luk 22:51 - This was the last miracle of bodily cure
wrought by our Lord. It is not mentioned by John.


My fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite
1Ch 25:4 - and chief of the nineteenth division of the temple
musicians 1Ch 25:26|.


Occurs only in Job 30:4 - (R.V., "saltwort"). The word so rendered
(malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex
halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the shores of
the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes. It
is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of 10 feet.
Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eaten by
the poor in Palestine.


Reigned over, or reigning.
1. A Levite of the family of Merari 1Ch 6:44.
2. A priest who returned from Babylon Neh 12:2.
3. Ezr 10:29.
4. Ezr 10:32.


A Chaldee or Syriac word meaning "wealth" or "riches" Luk 16:9-11.
also, by personification, the god of riches Mat 6:24 Luk 16:9-11.


1. Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The name
is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the first
man was called Adam because he was formed from the red earth. It
is also the generic name of the human race Gen 1:26-27 5:2.
Gen 8:21 Deu 8:3 - Its equivalents are the Latin homo and the
Greek anthropos Mat 5:13,16 - It denotes also man in opposition
to woman Gen 3:12 Mat 19:10.
2. Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes properly a
man in opposition to a woman 1Sa 17:33 Mat 14:21 - a husband
Gen 3:16 Hos 2:16 - man with reference to excellent mental
3. Heb. 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable 2Ch 14:11.
Isa 8:1 Job 15:14 Psa 8:4 9:19-20 103:15 - It is applied to women
Jos 8:25.
4. Heb. geber, man with reference to his strength, as distinguished
from women Deu 22:5 - and from children Exo 12:37 - a husband
Pro 6:34.
5. Heb. methim, men as mortal Isa 41:14 - and as opposed to women
and children Deu 3:6 Job 11:3 Isa 3:25.

Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is generically
different from all other creatures Gen 1:26-27 2:7 - His complex
nature is composed of two elements, two distinct substances, viz., body
and soul Gen 2:7 Ec 12:7 2Co 5:1-8 - The words translated "spirit"
and "soul," in 1Th 5:23 Heb 4:12 - are habitually used interchangeably
Mat 10:28 16:26 1Pe 1:22 - The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as
rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche) is the same, considered as the
animating and vital principle of the body. Man was created in the
likeness of God as to the perfection of his nature,
1. in knowledge Col 3:10.
2. righteousness, and holiness Eph 4:24.
3. as having dominion over all the inferior creatures Gen 1:28.

He had in his original state God's law written on his heart, and had
power to obey it, and yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the
freedom of his own will. He was created with holy dispositions,
prompting him to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from
his integrity Gen 3:1-6.

See FALL 01304.


Consoler, a Christian teacher at Antioch. Nothing else is known of him
beyond what is stated in Act 13:1 - where he is spoken of as having
been brought up with (Gr. syntrophos; rendered in R.V. "foster
brother" of) Herod, i.e., Herod Antipas, the tetrach, who, with his
brother Archelaus, was educated at Rome.


Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Gen 30:14-16.
Son 7:13 - Many interpretations have been given of this word - dudaim -.
It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies," "jasmines," "truffles or
mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron," etc. The weight of authority is
in favour of its being regarded as the Mandragora officinalis of
botanists, "a near relative of the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodom'
and the potato plant." It possesses stimulating and narcotic
properties Gen 30:14-16 - The fruit of this plant resembles the
potato-apple in size, and is of a pale orange colour. It has been
called the "love-apple." The Arabs call it "Satan's apple." It still
grows near Jerusalem, and in other parts of Palestine.


Portion Eze 45:12 - rendered "pound" 1Ki 10:17 Ezr 2:69 Neh 7:71,72 - a
weight variously estimated, probably about 2 1/2 or 3 lbs. A maneh of
gold consisted of a hundred common shekels (q.v.). (Comp.)
1Ki 10:17 2Ch 9:16.


Luk 2:7,12,16 - the name (Gr. phatne, rendered "stall" in) Luk 13:15.
given to the place where the infant Redeemer was laid. It seems to
have been a stall or crib for feeding cattle. Stables and mangers in
our modern sense were in ancient times unknown in the East. The word
here properly denotes "the ledge or projection in the end of the room
used as a stall on which the hay or other food of the animals of
travellers was placed."

See INN 01883.


Rest, a Danite, the father of Samson Jud 13:1-22 14:2-4.

Man of sin

A designation of Antichrist given in 2Th 2:3-10 - usually regarded as
descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive
features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any
degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as
wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a
distinct type of Antichrist."


One who was guilty of accidental homicide, and was entitled to flee to
a city of refuge Num 35:6,12,22,23 - his compulsory residence in which
terminated with the death of the high priest.



Compressed, the father of Achish, king of Gath 1Sa 27:2 - Called also
Maachah 1Ki 2:39.


Habitation, a town in the tribe of Judah, about 7 miles south of
Hebron, which gave its name to the wilderness, the district round the
conical hill on which the town stood. Here David hid from Saul, and
here Nabal had his possessions and his home 1Sa 23:24-25 25:2 - "Only
some small foundations of hewn stone, a square enclosure, and several
cisterns are now to be seen at Maon. Are they the remains of Nabal's
great establishment?" The hill is now called Tell M'ain.


Bitter; sad, a symbolical name which Naomi gave to herself because of
her misfortunes Rut 1:20.


Bitterness, a fountain at the sixth station of the Israelites
Exo 15:23-24 Num 33:8 - whose waters were so bitter that they could
not drink them. On this account they murmured against Moses, who,
under divine direction, cast into the fountain "a certain tree" which
took away its bitterness, so that the people drank of it. This was
probably the 'Ain Hawarah, where there are still several springs of
water that are very "bitter," distant some 47 miles from 'Ayun Mousa.


Trembling, a place on the southern boundary of Zebulun Jos 19:11 - It
has been identified with the modern M'alul, about 4 miles south-west
of Nazareth.


1Co 16:22 - consists of two Aramean words, Maran'athah, meaning, "our
Lord comes," or is "coming." If the latter interpretation is adopted,
the meaning of the phrase is, "Our Lord is coming, and he will judge
those who have set him at nought." (Comp.) Php 4:5 Jas 5:8,9.


The post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the sacred
and the second of the civil year of the Jews. It began with the new
moon of our November. It is once called Bul 1Ki 6:38 - Assyrian, Arah
Samna, "eighth month,"


Col 4:10 Phm 1:24 1Pe 5:13 - R.V., "Mark" (q.v.).


Possession, a city in the plain of Judah Jos 15:44 - Here Asa defeated
Zerah the Ethiopian 2Ch 14:9-10 - It is identified with the ruin
el-Mer'ash, about 1 1/2 mile south of Beit Jibrin.


Bitterness; i.e., "perfect grief", a place not far from Jerusalem;
mentioned in connection with the invasion of the Assyrian army
Mic 1:12.

Mars Hill

The Areopagus or rocky hill in Athens, north-west of the Acropolis,
where the Athenian supreme tribunal and court of morals was held. From
some part of this hill Paul delivered the address recorded in
Act 17:22-31.

See AREOPAGUS 00300.


One who bears witness of the truth, and suffers death in the cause of
Christ Act 22:20 Rev 2:13 17:6 - In this sense Stephen was the first
martyr. The Greek word so rendered in all other cases is translated
1. In a court of justice Mat 18:16 26:65 Act 6:13 7:58 Heb 10:28.
1Ti 5:19.
2. As of one bearing testimony to the truth of what he has seen or
known Luk 24:48 Act 1:8,22 Ro 1:9 1Th 2:5,10 1Jo 1:2.


Instructing, occurs in the title of thirteen Psalms (32,42,44 etc.).
It denotes a song enforcing some lesson of wisdom or piety, a didactic
song. In Psa 47:7 - it is rendered, Authorized Version, "with
understanding;" Revised Version, marg., "in a skilful psalm."


(= Meshech 1Ch 1:17 - one of the four sons of Aram, and the name of a
tribe descended from him Gen 10:23 - inhabiting some part probably of
Mesopotamia. Some have supposed that they were the inhabitants of
Mount Masius, the present Karja Baghlar, which forms part of the
chain of Taurus.


Entreaty, a levitical town in the tribe of Asher 1Ch 6:74 - called
Mishal Jos 21:30.


An artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially skilled
in architecture 1Ki 5:17-18 2Sa 5:11 - This art the Hebrews no doubt
learned in Egypt Exo 1:11,14 - where ruins of temples and palaces fill
the traveller with wonder at the present day.


Vineyard of noble vines, a place in Idumea, the native place of
Samlah, one of the Edomitish kings Gen 36:36 1Ch 1:47.


A lifting up, gift, one of the sons of Ishmael, the founder of an
Arabian tribe Gen 25:14 - a nomad tribe inhabiting the Arabian desert
toward Babylonia.


Trial, temptation, a name given to the place where the Israelites, by
their murmuring for want of water, provoked Jehovah to anger against
them. It is also called Meribah Exo 17:7 Deu 6:16 Psa 95:8-9 Heb 3:8.


1. A priest of Baal, slain before his altar during the reformation
under Jehoiada 2Ki 11:18.
2. The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob, who was the father of
Joseph, the husband of the Virgin Mary Mat 1:15.
3. The father of Shephatiah Jer 38:1.


A gift, a station of the Israelites Num 21:18-19 - between the desert
and the borders of Moab, in the Wady Waleh.


Gift of Jehovah.
1. A Levite, son of Heman, the chief of the ninth class of temple
singers 1Ch 25:4,16.
2. A Levite who assisted in purifying the temple at the reformation
under Hezekiah 2Ch 29:13.
3. The original name of Zedekiah (q.v.), the last of the kings of
Judah 2Ki 24:17 - He was the third son of Josiah, who fell at
Megiddo. He succeeded his nephew Jehoiakin.


1. The son of Amos, in the genealogy of our Lord Luk 3:25.
2. The son of Semei, in the same genealogy Luk 3:26.


Gift, one of our Lord's ancestry Mat 1:15.


Gift of God.
1. The son of Levi, and father of Heli Luk 3:24.
2. Son of another Levi Luk 3:29.

Matthew, Gospel according to

1. The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle
of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ
according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of
view, as did also the other "evangelists."
2. As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel
itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction
of Jerusalem Mat 24:1 - and some time after the events it
records. The probability is that it was written between the years
A.D. 60 and 65
3. The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the
writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of
Palestine. His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was
the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had
their fulfilment. The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages
of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed.
The one aim prevading the whole book is to show that Jesus is he
"of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write." This Gospel
contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament,
forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly
outnumbering those found in the other Gospels. The main feature of
this Gospel may be expressed in the motto, "I am not come to
destroy, but to fulfil."
4. As to the language in which this Gospel was written there is much
controversy. Many hold, in accordance with old tradition, that it
was originally written in Hebrew (i.e., the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee
dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Palestine), and
afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by
some person unknown. This theory, though earnestly maintained by
able critics, we cannot see any ground for adopting. From the first
this Gospel in Greek was received as of authority in the Church.
There is nothing in it to show that it is a translation. Though
Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere
familiar with the Greek language. The same reasons which would have
suggested the necessity of a translation into Greek would have led
the evangelist to write in Greek at first. It is confessed that
this Gospel has never been found in any other form than that in
which we now possess it.
5. The leading characteristic of this Gospel is that it sets forth the
kingly glory of Christ, and shows him to be the true heir to
David's throne. It is the Gospel of the kingdom. Matthew uses the
expression "kingdom of heaven" (thirty-two times), while Luke uses
the expression "kingdom of God" (thirty-three times). Some
Latinized forms occur in this Gospel, as kodrantes Mat 5:26 - for
the Latin quadrans, and phragello Mat 27:26 - for the Latin
flagello. It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer
for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the
Latin language.
6. As to the relation of the Gospels to each other, we must maintain
that each writer of the synoptics (the first three) wrote
independently of the other two, Matthew being probably first in
point of time. "Out of a total of 1071 verses, Matthew has

387 in common with Mark and Luke,
130 with Mark,
184 with Luke
387 being peculiar to itself."
See MARK 02419.
See LUKE 02331.
See GOSPELS 01532.

7. The book is fitly divided into these four parts:
a. Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus
Mat 1:1-2:23.
b. The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to
Christ's public ministry Mat 3:1-4:11.
c. The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee Mat 4:12-20:16.
d. The sufferings, death and resurrection of our Lord Mat 20:17-28.


Gift of God. Act 1:23.


Gift of Jehovah.
1. One of the sons of Jeduthun 1Ch 25:3,21.
2. The eldest son of Shallum, of the family of Korah 1Ch 9:31.
3. One who stood by Ezra while reading the law Neh 8:4.
4. The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy of our
Lord Luk 3:25.


1. Heb. ma'eder, an instrument for dressing or pruning a vineyard
Isa 7:25 - a weeding-hoe.
2. Heb. mahareshah 1Sa 13:20 - perhaps the ploughshare or coulter.
3. Heb. herebh, marg. of text 2Ch 34:6 - Authorized Version, "with
their mattocks," marg. "mauls." The Revised Version renders "in
their ruins," marg. "with their axes." The Hebrew text is
probably corrupt.


An old name for a mallet, the rendering of the Hebrew mephits
Pro 25:18 - properly a war-club.


Prognostications, found only Job 38:32 - probably meaning "the twelve
signs" (of the zodiac), as in the margin (comp.) 2Ki 23:5.


1. Heb. ha'ahu Gen 41:2,18 - probably an Egyptain word
transferred to the Hebrew; some kind of reed or water-plant. In
the Revised Version it is rendered "reed-grass", i.e., the sedge
or rank grass by the river side.
2. Heb. ma'areh Jud 20:33 - pl., "meadows of Gibeah" (R.V., after
the LXX., "Maareh-geba"). Some have adopted the rendering "after
Gibeah had been left open." The Vulgate translates the word
"from the west."


An hundred, a tower in Jersalem on the east wall Neh 3:1 - in the time
of Nehemiah.


Are at the present day "eaten from a round table little higher than a
stool, guests sitting cross-legged on mats or small carpets in a
circle, and dipping their fingers into one large dish heaped with a
mixture of boiled rice and other grain and meat. But in the time of
our Lord, and perhaps even from the days of Amos Amo 6:4,7 - the
foreign custom had been largely introduced of having broad couches,
forming three sides of a small square, the guests reclining at ease
on their elbows during meals, with their faces to the space within,
up and down which servants passed offering various dishes, or in the
absence of servants, helping themselves from dishes laid on a table
set between the couches." Geikie's Life of Christ. (Comp.)
Luk 7:36-50.

See BANQUET 00434.
See FEAST 01318.


A cave, a place in the northern boundary of Palestine Jos 13:4 - This
may be the cave of Jezzin in Lebanon, 10 miles east of Sidon, on the
Damascus road; or probably, as others think, Mogheirizeh, north-east
of Sidon.


(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came
latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a "bloody"
sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it. The law
regarding it is given in Lev 2:1 - Lev 6:14-23 - It was a recognition
of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly
blessings 1Ch 29:10-14 Deu 26:5-11 - It was an offering which took
for granted and was based on the offering for sin. It followed the
sacrifice of blood. It was presented every day with the burnt-offering
Exo 29:40,41 - and consisted of flour or of cakes prepared in a
special way with oil and frankincense.


Construction, building of Jehovah, one of David's bodyguard 2Sa 23:27.
comp. 2Sa 21:18 - called Sibbechai and Sibbecai 1Ch 11:29 27:11.


Love, one of the elders nominated to assist Moses in the government of
the people. He and Eldad "prophesied in the camp" Num 11:24-29.


Contention, the third son of Abraham by Keturah Gen 25:2.


(Heb. Madai), a Median or inhabitant of Media Dan 11:1 - In Gen 10:2.
the Hebrew word occurs in the list of the sons of Japheth. But
probably this is an ethnic and not a personal name, and denotes simply
the Medes as descended from Japheth.


Waters of quiet, an ancient Moabite town Num 21:30 - It was assigned to
the tribe of Reuben Jos 13:16 - Here was fought the great battle in
which Joab defeated the Ammonites and their allies 1Ch 19:7-15 - comp.
2Sa 10:6-14 - In the time of Isaiah Isa 15:2 - the Moabites regained
possession of it from the Ammonites.
See HANUN 01632.
The ruins of this important city, now Madeba or Madiyabah, are seen
about 8 miles south-west of Heshbon, and 14 east of the Dead Sea.
Among these are the ruins of what must have been a large temple, and
of three cisterns of considerable extent, which are now dry. These
cisterns may have originated the name Medeba, "waters of quiet."

See OMRI 02785.


A calm temper of mind, not easily provoked Jas 3:13.
1. Peculiar promises are made to the meek Mat 5:5 Isa 66:2.
2. The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined Col 3:12 1Ti 6:11.
Zep 2:3.
3. Is exemplified
a. in Christ Mat 11:29.
b. Abraham Gen 13:1 - Gen 16:5-6.
c. Moses Num 12:3.
d. David - 2Sa 16:10,12.

e. Paul 1Co 9:19.


Whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather of
Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah Neh 6:10.


Wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom Gen 36:39.


Smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael Gen 4:18.


Faithful, one of the eunchs whom Ahasuerus (Xerxes) commanded to bring
in Vashti Est 1:10.


Habitations, 2Ch 26:7 - R.V. "Meunim," Vulg. Ammonitae), a people
against whom Uzziah waged a successful war. This word is in Hebrew
the plural of Ma'on, and thus denotes the Maonites who inhabited the
country on the eastern side of the Wady el-Arabah. They are again
mentioned in 1Ch 4:41 - (R.V.), in the reign of King Hezekiah, as a
Hamite people, settled in the eastern end of the valley of Gedor, in
the wilderness south of Palestine. In this passage the Authorized
Version has "habitation," erroneously following the translation of
Luther. They are mentioned in the list of those from whom the
Nethinim were made up Ezr 2:50 Neh 7:52.


Waters of yellowness, or clear waters, a river in the tribe of Dan
Jos 19:46 - It has been identified with the river 'Aujeh, which rises
at Antipatris.


A base or foundation, a town in the south of Judah Neh 11:28 - near


My king.
1. The son of Addi, and father of Neri Luk 3:28.
2. Luk 3:24.


Fulness, the son of Menan and father of Eliakim, in the genealogy of
our Lord Luk 3:31.


King, the second of Micah's four sons 1Ch 8:35 - and thus grandson of


Only in Num 11:5 - the translation of the Hebrew abattihim, the LXX. and
Vulgate pepones, Arabic britikh. Of this plant there are various
kinds, the Egyptian melon, the Cucumus chate, which has been called
"the queen of cucumbers;" the water melon, the Cucurbita citrullus;
and the common or flesh melon, the Cucumus melo. "A traveller in the
East who recollects the intense gratitude which a gift of a slice of
melon inspired while journeying over the hot and dry plains, will
readily comprehend the regret with which the Hebrews in the Arabian
desert looked back upon the melons of Egypt" (Kitto).


Probably a Persian word meaning master of wine, i.e., chief butler;
the title of an officer at the Babylonian court Dan 1:11,16 - who had
charge of the diet of the Hebrew youths.


Dignified, one of the royal counsellors at the court of Ahasuerus, by
whose suggestion Vashti was divorced Est 1:14,16,21.


Conforting, the son of Gadi, and successor of Shallum, king of Israel,
whom he slew. After a reign of about ten years (B.C. 771) he died,
leaving the throne to his son Pekahiah. His reign was one of cruelty
and oppression 2Ki 15:14-22 - During his reign, Pul (q.v.), king of
Assyria, came with a powerful force against Israel, but was induced
to retire by a gift from Menahem of 1,000 talents of silver.


Dan 5:25-26 - numbered, one of the words of the mysterious inscription
written "upon the plaister of the wall" in Belshazzar's palace at
Babylon. The writing was explained by Daniel.



Isa 65:11 - marg. (A.V., "that number;" R.V., "destiny"), probably an
idol which the captive Israelites worshipped after the example of the
Babylonians. It may have been a symbol of destiny. LXX., tuche.


Jud 9:37 - A.V., "the plain of Meonenim;" R.V., "the oak of Meonenim")
means properly "soothsayers" or "sorcerers," "wizards" Deu 18:10,14.
2Ki 21:6 Mic 5:12 - This may be the oak at Shechem under which Abram
pitched his tent
See SHECHEM 03330.
the "enchanter's oak," so called, perhaps, from Jacob's hiding the
"strange gods" under it Gen 35:4.


Splendour, a Levitical city Jos 21:37 - of the tribe of Reuben
Jos 13:18.


Increase, the eldest of Saul's two daughters 1Sa 14:49 - She was
betrothed to David after his victory over Goliath, but does not seem
to have entered heartily into this arrangement 1Sa 18:2,17,19 - She
was at length, however, married to Adriel of Abel-Meholah, a town in
the Jordan valley, about 10 miles south of Bethshean, with whom the
house of Saul maintained alliance. She had five sons, who were all put
to death by the Gibeonites on the hill of Gibeah 2Sa 21:8.


Resistance, a chief priest, a contemporary of the high priest Joiakim
Neh 12:12.


1. Father of Amariah, a high priest of the line of Eleazar
1Ch 6:6-7,52.
2. Neh 12:15 - a priest who went to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel. He is
called Meremoth in Neh 12:3.


Sad; bitter, the youngest son of Levi, born before the descent of
Jacob into Egypt, and one of the seventy who accompanied him thither
Gen 46:11 Ex 6:16 - He became the head of one of the great divisions of
the Levites Exo 6:19.

See MERARITES 02490.


Double rebellion, probably a symbolical name given to Babylon
Jer 50:21 - denoting rebellion exceeding that of other nations.


The Hermes (i.e., "the speaker") of the Greeks Act 14:12 - a heathen God
represented as the constant attendant of Jupiter, and the god of
eloquence. The inhabitants of Lystra took Paul for this god because
he was the "chief speaker."


Compassion for the miserable. Its object is misery. By the atoning
sacrifice of Christ a way is open for the exercise of mercy towards
the sons of men, in harmony with the demands of truth and
righteousness Gen 19:19 Ex 20:6 34:6-7 Psa 85:10 86:15-16 - In Christ
mercy and truth meet together. Mercy is also a Christian grace
Mat 5:7 18:33-35.


Rebellion, one of the sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah 1Ch 4:17.


Exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with
Zerubbabel Neh 12:3 - to whom were sent the sacred vessels Ezr 8:33.
belonging to the temple. He took part in rebuilding the walls of
Jerusalem Neh 3:4.


Quarrel or strife.
1. One of the names given by Moses to the fountain in the desert of
Sin, near Rephidim, which issued from the rock in Horeb, which
he smote by the divine command, "because of the chiding of the
children of Israel" Exo 17:1-7 - It was also called Massah (q.v.).
It was probably in Wady Feiran, near Mount Serbal.
2. Another fountain having a similar origin in the desert of Zin,
near to Kadesh Num 27:14 - The two places are mentioned together
in Deu 33:8 - Some think the one place is called by the two names
Psa 81:7 - In smiting the rock at this place Moses showed the same
impatience as the people Num 20:10-12 - This took place near the
close of the wanderings in the desert Num 20:1-24 Deu 32:51.


Contender with Baal, 1Ch 8:34 9:40 - elsewhere called Mephibosheth
2Sa 4:4 - the son of Jonathan.


Death; slaughter, the name of a Babylonian god, probably the planet
Mars Jer 50:2 - or it may be another name of Bel, the guardian
divinity of Babylon. This name frequently occurs as a surname to the
kings of Assyria and Babylon.


Merodach has given a son, Isa 39:1 - "the hereditary chief of the
Chaldeans, a small tribe at that time settled in the marshes at the
mouth of the Euphrates, but in consequence of his conquest of Babylon
afterwards, they became the dominant caste in Babylonia itself." One
bearing this name sent ambassadors to Hezekiah (B.C. 721) He is also
called Berodach-baladan 2Ki 20:12 Isa 39:1.

See HEZEKIAH 01771.


A name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time
of David and Solomon 1Ch 27:30 - probably as one being a native of
some unknown town called Meronoth.


A plain in the north of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were
severely condemned because they came not to help Barak against Sisera
Jud 5:23 - comp. Jud 21:8-10 1Sa 11:7 - It has been identified with
Marassus, on a knoll to the north of Wady Jalud, but nothing
certainly is known of it. Like Chorazin, it is only mentioned in
Scripture in connection with the curse pronounced upon it.


The title given to Mishael, one of the three Hebrew youths who were
under training at the Babylonian court for the rank of Magi Dan 1:7.
Dan 2:49 3:12-30 - This was probably the name of some Chaldean god.


Drawing out, The sixth son of Japheth Gen 10:2 - The founder of a
tribe 1Ch 1:5 Eze 27:13 38:2-3 - They were in all probability the
Moschi, a people inhabiting the Moschian Mountains, between the Black
and the Caspian Seas. In Psa 120:5 - the name occurs as simply a
synonym for foreigners or barbarians. "During the ascendency of the
Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi were subdued; but
it seems probable that a large number of them crossed the Caucasus
range and spread over the northern steppes, mingling with the
Scythians. There they became known as Muscovs, and gave that name to
the Russian nation and its ancient capital by which they are still
generally known throughout the East"


Friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites, called
also Shelemiah 1Ch 9:21 26:1-2,9,14 - He was a temple gate-keeper in
the time of David.


1. The father of Berechiah 2Ch 28:12.
2. A priest, the son of Immer Neh 11:13.


1. One of the chief Gadites in Bashan in the time of Jotham
1Ch 5:13.
2. Grandfather of Shaphan, "the scribe," in the reign of Josiah
2Ki 22:3.
3. A priest, father of Hilkiah 1Ch 9:11 Neh 11:11 - in the reign of
Ammon; called Shallum in 1Ch 6:12.
4. A Levite of the family of Kohath 2Ch 34:12 - in the reign of
5. 1Ch 8:17.
6. 1Ch 3:19.
7. Neh 12:13.
8. A chief priest Neh 12:16.
9. One of the leading Levites in the time of Ezra Ezr 8:16.
10. A priest 1Ch 9:12.
11. One of the principal Israelites who supported Ezra when
expounding the law to the people Neh 8:4.


Friend, the wife of Manasseh, and the mother of Amon 2Ki 21:19 - Kings
of Judah.


A portion of food given to a guest Gen 43:34 2Sa 11:8.


(Heb. mal'ak, Gr. angelos), an angel, a messenger who runs on foot,
the bearer of despatches Job 1:14 1Sa 11:7 2Ch 36:22 - swift of foot
2Ki 9:18.


Bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in
2Sa 8:1 - "David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the
Philistines" (R.V., "took the bridle of the mother-city"); i.e.,
subdued their capital or strongest city, viz., Gath 1Ch 18:1.


Champion of El; man of God, a descendant of Cain Gen 4:18 - so called,
perhaps, to denote that even among the descendants of Cain God had
not left himself without a witness.


Man of the dart, the son of Enoch, and grandfather of Noah. He was the
oldest man of whom we have any record, dying at the age of nine
hundred and sixty-nine years, in the year of the Flood Gen 5:21-27.

1Ch 1:3


Water of gold, the father of Matred Gen 36:39 1Ch 1:50 - and grandfather
of Mehetabel, wife of Hadar, the last king of Edom.


=Mijamin, from the right hand.
1. The head of one of the divisions of the priests (Mijamin)
1Ch 24:9.
2. A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Neh 12:5 - called Mijamin Neh 10:7 - and Miniamin Neh 12:17.


Choice, a Hagarene, one of David's warriors 1Ch 11:38 - called also
Bani the Gadite 2Sa 23:36.


1. One of Ishmael's twelve sons, and head of an Arab tribe
Gen 25:13.
2. A son of Simeon 1Ch 4:25.


Fortress, one of the Edomitish "dukes" descended from Esau
Gen 36:42 1Ch 1:53.


1. 2Sa 9:12.
See MICAH 02524 - No 2
2. The son of Zabdi, a Levite of the family of Asaph Neh 11:17,22.


1. The queen-mother of King Abijah 2Ch 13:2.
See MAACAH 02343.
2. One of those sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in
the law 2Ch 17:7.
3. 2Ki 22:12.
4. The son of Gemariah. He reported to the king's officers Jeremiah's
prediction, which he had heard Baruch read Jer 36:11,13 - from his
father Gemariah's chamber in the temple.
5. A Levite Neh 12:35.
6. A priest Neh 12:41.


Hiding-place, a town in the northern border of Ephraim and Manasseh,
and not far west of Jordan Jos 16:6 17:7.


Prize of Jehovah, a Benjamite, the father of Uzzi 1Ch 9:8.


Writing; i.e., a poem or song found in the titles of Psa 16:1 56:1.
Some translate the word "golden", i.e., precious. It is rendered in
the LXX. by a word meaning "tablet inscription" or a "stelograph."
The root of the word means to stamp or grave, and hence it is
regarded as denoting a composition so precious as to be worthy to be
engraven on a durable tablet for preservation; or, as others render,
"a psalm precious as stamped gold," from the word - kethem -, "fine or
stamped gold."


Measures, one of the six cities "in the wilderness," on the west of
the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi Jos 15:61.


Strife, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah, the father of the
Midianites Gen 25:2 1Ch 1:32.


The two midwives mentioned in Exo 1:15 - were probably the
superintendents of the whole class.


Tower of the flock, a place 2 miles south of Jerusalem, near the
Bethlehem road Gen 35:21.

See EDAR 01126.


Tower of God, a fortified city of Naphtali Jos 19:38 - supposed by some
to be identical with Magdala (q.v.).


Tower of fortune, a town in the plains of Judah, probably the modern
el-Mejdel, a little to the north-east of Ascalon Jos 15:37.


1. A strongly-fortified place 12 miles from Pelusium, in the
north of Egypt Jer 44:1 46:14 - This word is rendered "tower" in
Eze 29:10 - but the margin correctly retains the name Migdol,
"from Migdol to Syene;" i.e., from Migdol in the north to Syene
in the south, in other words, the whole of Egypt.
2. A place mentioned in the passage of the Red Sea Exo 14:2.
Num 33:7-8 - It is probably to be identified with Bir Suweis,
about 2 miles from Suez.


Precipice or landslip, a place between Aiath and Michmash Isa 10:28.
The town of the same name mentioned in 1Sa 14:2 - was to the south of


1. An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and Solomon
1Ch 27:4.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:32 9:37,38.


Eloquent, a Levitical musician Neh 12:36 - who took part in the
dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.


(the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "to be yellow," yellowness),
the result of cutting east winds blighting and thus rendering the
grain unproductive Deu 28:22 1Ki 8:37 2Ch 6:28.


(from Lat. mille, "a thousand;" Mat 5:41 - a Roman measure of 1,000
paces of 5 feet each. Thus the Roman mile has 1618 yards, being 142
yards shorter than the English mile.


(Miletum,) 2Ti 4:20 - a seaport town and the ancient capital of Ionia,
about 36 miles south of Ephesus. On his voyage from Greece to Syria,
Paul touched at this port, and delivered that noble and pathetic
address to the elders ("presbyters," Act 4:28 - of Ephesus recorded
in Act 20:15-35 - The site of Miletus is now some 10 miles from the



1. Hebrew halabh, "new milk", milk in its fresh state Jud 4:19.
It is frequently mentioned in connection with honey Exo 3:8,
Jos 5:6 Isa 7:15,22 Jer 11:5; Sheep Deu 32:14 - and
goats Pro 27:27 - and camels Gen 32:15 - as well as cows,
are made to give their milk for the use of man. Milk is used
figuratively as a sign of abundance Gen 49:12 Eze 25:4.
Joe 3:18 - It is also a symbol of the rudiments of doctrine
1Co 3:2 Heb 5:12-13 - and of the unadulterated word of God
1Pe 2:2.
2. Heb. hem'ah, always rendered "butter" in the Authorized Version.
It means "butter," but also more frequently "cream," or perhaps,
as some think, "curdled milk," such as that which Abraham set
before the angels Gen 18:8 - and which Jael gave to Sisera
Jud 5:25 - In this state milk was used by travellers
2Sa 17:29 - If kept long enough, it acquired a slightly
intoxicating or soporific power. This Hebrew word is also
sometimes used for milk in general Deu 32:14 Job 20:17.


(Heb. dohan; only in) Eze 4:9 - a small grain, the produce of the
Panicum miliaceum of botanists. It is universally cultivated in the
East as one of the smaller corn-grasses. This seed is the cenchros of
the Greeks. It is called in India warree, and by the Arabs dukhan,
and is extensively used for food, being often mixed with other grain.
In this country it is only used for feeding birds.


(Heb. always with the article, "the" Millo).
1. Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of
walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem
on the north as its outermost defence. It is always rendered
Akra i.e., "the citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing
when David conquered Jerusalem 2Sa 5:9 - He extended it to the
right and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was
rebuilt by Solomon 1Ki 9:15,24 11:27 - and repaired by Hezekiah
2Ch 32:5.
2. In Jud 9:6,20 - it is the name of a rampart in Shechem, probably
the "tower of Shechem" Jud 9:46,49.


(Heb. taphoph,) Isa 3:16 - taking affectedly short and quick steps.
Luther renders the word by "wag" or "waggle," thus representing "the
affected gait of coquettish females."


The process of mining is described in Job 28:1-11 - Moses speaks of the
mineral wealth of Palestine Deu 8:9 Job 28:4 - is rightly thus rendered
in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open a shaft away from where men
sojourn; they are forgotten of the foot [that passeth by]; they hang
afar from men, they swing to and fro." These words illustrate ancient
mining operations.


Only in Jer 51:27 - as the name of a province in Armenia, which was at
this time under the Median kings. Armenia is regarded by some as
Har-minni i.e., the mountainous country of Minni.

See ARMENIA 00313.


Distribution, an Ammonitish town Jud 11:33 - from which wheat was
exported to Tyre Eze 27:17 - It was probably somewhere in the Mishor
or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a gentle valley running
for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of
Dibon." Tristram supposes that this may be the "vineyards" mentioned
in Judg. (l.c.).


Mat 9:23 - a flute-player. Such music was a usual accompaniment of
funerals. In 2Ki 3:15 - it denotes a player on a stringed instrument.


(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden herbs
of which the Pharisees paid tithes Mat 23:23 Luk 11:42 - It belongs to
the labiate family of plants. The species most common in Syria is the
Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint, which grows much larger than the
garden mint (M. sativa). It was much used in domestic economy as a
condiment, and also as a medicine. The paying of tithes of mint was
in accordance with the Mosiac law Deu 14:22 - but the error of the
Pharisees lay in their being more careful about this little matter of
the mint than about weightier matters.


Their rebellion.
1. The sister of Moses and Aaron Exo 2:4-10 1Ch 6:3 - Her name is
prominent in the history of the Exodus. She is called "the
prophetess" Exo 15:20 - She took the lead in the song of triumph
after the passage of the Red Sea. She died at Kadesh during the
second encampment at that place, toward the close of the
wanderings in the wilderness, and was buried there Num 20:1.
See AARON 00002.
See MOSES 02602.
2. 1Ch 4:17 - one of the descendants of Judah.


Deu 32:27 - R.V. The Authorized Version reads, "should behave themselves
strangely;" i.e., not recognize the truth, misunderstand or mistake
the cause of Israel's ruin, which was due to the fact that God had
forsaken them on account of their apostasy.


Height, a town of Moab, or simply, the height=the citadel, some
fortress so called; or perhaps a general name for the highlands of
Moab, as some think Jer 48:1 - In Isa 25:12 - the word is rendered
"high fort."


Who is like God!
1. A Levite; the eldest of the three sons of Uzziel Exo 6:22.
2. One of the three Hebrew youths who were trained with Daniel in
Babylon Dan 1:11,19 - and promoted to the rank of Magi. He and his
companions were afterwards cast into the burning fiery furnace
for refusing to worship the idol the king had set up, from which
they were miraculously delivered Dan 3:13-30 - His Chaldean name
was Meshach (q.v.).


A city of the tribe of Asher Jos 21:30 1Ch 6:74 - It is probably the
modern Misalli, on the shore near Carmel.


Their cleansing or their beholding, a Benjamite, one of the sons of
Elpaal 1Ch 8:12.


Jos 19:26 - a town of Asher, probably the same as Mishal.


1. One of the sons of Ishmael Gen 25:14 - and founder of an Arab
2. A Simeonite 1Ch 4:25-26.


Fatness, one of the Gadite heroes who gathered to David at Ziklag
1Ch 12:10.


Burning of waters, supposed to be salt-pans, or lime-kilns, or
glass-factories, a place to which Joshua pursued a party of
Canaanites after the defeat of Jabin Jos 11:8 - It is identified with
the ruin Musheirifeh, at the promontory of en-Nakhurah, some 11
miles north of Acre.


Contraction of minute, from the Latin minutum, the translation of the
Greek word lepton, the very smallest bronze of copper coin
Luk 12:59 21:2 - Two mites made one quadrans, i.e., the fourth part
of a Roman as, which was in value nearly a halfpenny.

See FARTHING 01311.


Sweetness, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
Num 33:28-29.


Given by Mithra, or dedicated to Mithra, i.e., the sun, the Hebrew
form of the Greek name Mithridates.
1. The "treasurer" of King Cyrus Ezr 1:8.
2. Ezr 4:7 - a Persian officer in Samaria.


(Heb. mitsnepheth), something rolled round the head; the turban or
head-dress of the high priest Exo 28:4,37,39 29:6 - etc. In the
Authorized Version of Eze 21:26 - this Hebrew word is rendered
"diadem," but in the Revised Version, "mitre." It was a twisted band
of fine linen, 8 yards in length, coiled into the form of a cap,
and worn on official occasions Lev 8:9 16:4 Zec 3:5 - On the front of
it was a golden plate with the inscription, "Holiness to the Lord."
The mitsnepheth differed from the mitre or head-dress (migba'ah) of
the common priest.

See BONNET 00621.


The chief city of the island of Lesbos, on its east coast, in the
AEgean Sea. Paul, during his third missionary journey, touched at
this place on his way from Corinth to Judea Act 20:14 - and here
tarried for a night. It lies between Assos and Chios. It is now under
the Turkish rule, and bears the name of Metelin.

Mixed Multitude

Exo 12:38 - a class who accompanied the Israelites as they journeyed
from Rameses to Succoth, the first stage of the Exodus. These were
probably miscellaneous hangers-on to the Hebrews, whether Egyptians of
the lower orders, or the remains of the Hyksos
See EGYPT 01137.
See MOSES 02602.
as some think. The same thing happened on the return of the Jews from
Babylon Neh 13:3 - a "mixed multitude" accompanied them so far.


Smallness, a summit on the eastern ridge of Lebanon, near which David
lay after escaping from Absalom Psa 42:6 - It may, perhaps, be the
present Jebel Ajlun, thus named, "the little", in contrast with the
greater elevation of Lebanon and Hermon.


Number, one of the Jews who accompanied Zerubbabel from Babylon
Ezr 2:2 - called also Mispereth Neh 7:7.


The dual form of matzor, meaning a "mound" or "fortress," the name of
a people descended from Ham Gen 10:6,13 1Ch 1:8,11 - It was the name
generally given by the Hebrews to the land of Egypt (q.v.), and may
denote the two Egypts, the Upper and the Lower. The modern Arabic
name for Egypt is Muzr.


Despair, one of the four sons of Reuel, the son of Esau Gen 36:13,17.


Reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom Paul
lodged Act 21:16 - He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas
Act 11:19-20 - and was well known to the Christians of Caesarea
He was an "old disciple" (R.V., "early disciple"), i.e., he had become
a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in


Birth, a city in the south of Judah which fell to Simeon
Jos 15:21-26 19:2 - It has been identified with the modern el-Milh,
10 miles east of Beersheba.


King, the name of the national god of the Ammonites, to whom children
were sacrificed by fire. He was the consuming and destroying and also
at the same time the purifying fire. In Amo 5:26 - "your Moloch" of the
Authorized Version is "your king" in the Revised Version (comp.)
Act 7:43 - Solomon 1Ki 11:7 - erected a high place for this idol on
the Mount of Olives, and from that time till the days of Josiah his
worship continued 2Ki 23:10,13 - In the days of Jehoahaz it was
partially restored, but after the Captivity wholly disappeared. He is
also called Molech Lev 18:21 20:2-5 - etc., Milcom 1Ki 11:5,33.
etc., and Malcham Zep 1:5 - This god became Chemosh among the


Mat 21:12 Mar 11:15 Joh 2:15 - Every Israelite from twenty years and
upwards had to pay Exo 30:13-15 - into the sacred treasury half a
shekel every year as an offering to Jehovah, and that in the exact
Hebrew half-shekel piece. There was a class of men, who frequented
the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys
for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all
parts of the world. When our Lord drove the traffickers out of the
temple, these money-changers fared worst. Their tables were overturned
and they themselves were expelled.

See PASSOVER 02864.


An archer, teacher; fruitful.
1. A Canaanite probably who inhabited the district south of
Shechem, between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, and gave his name to
the "plain" there Gen 12:6 - Here at this "plain," or rather
(R.V.) "oak," of Moreh, Abraham built his first altar in the
land of Palestine; and here the Lord appeared unto him. He
afterwards left this plain and moved southward, and pitched his
tent between Bethel on the west and Hai on the east Gen 12:7,8.

Moreh, The Hill of

Probably identical with "little Hermon," the modern Jebel ed-Duhy, or
perhaps one of the lower spurs of this mountain. It is a gray ridge
parallel to Gilboa on the north; and between the two lay the
battle-field, the plain of Jezreel (q.v.), where Gideon overthrew the
Midianites Jud 7:1-12.


Possession of the wine-press, the birthplace of the prophet Micah
Mic 1:14 - who is called the "Morasthite" Jer 26:18 - This place
was probably a suburb of Gath.


The chosen of Jehovah. Some contend that Mount Gerizim is meant, but
most probably we are to regard this as one of the hills of Jerusalem.
Here Solomon's temple was built, on the spot that had been the
threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite 2Sa 24:24-25 2Ch 3:1 - It is
usually included in Zion, to the north-east of which it lay, and from
which it was separated by the Tyropoean valley. This was "the land of
Moriah" to which Abraham went to offer up his son Isaac Gen 22:2 - It
has been supposed that the highest point of the temple hill, which is
now covered by the Muslim Kubbetes-Sakhrah, or "Dome of the Rock," is
the actual site of Araunah's threshing-floor. Here also, one thousand
years after Abraham, David built an altar and offered sacrifices to

See JERUSALEM 02043.


(Heb. homer), cement of lime and sand Gen 11:3 Ex 1:14 - also potter's
clay Isa 41:25 Na 3:14 - Also Heb. 'aphar, usually rendered "dust,"
clay or mud used for cement in building Lev 14:42,45 - Mortar for
pulverizing Pro 27:22 - grain or other substances by means of a pestle
instead of a mill. Mortars were used in the wilderness for pounding
the manna Num 11:8 - It is commonly used in Palestine at the present
day to pound wheat, from which the Arabs make a favourite dish called


A bond, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
Deu 10:6 - at the foot of Mount Hor. (Comp.) Num 33:37-38 - It has
been identified with el-Tayibeh, a small fountain at the bottom of
the pass leading to the ascent of Mount Hor.


Bonds, one of the stations in the wilderness Num 33:30-31 - probably the
same as Mosera.


(Gr. karphos, something dry, hence a particle of wood or chaff, etc.).
A slight moral defect is likened to a mote Mat 7:3-5 Luk 6:41-42.


1. Heb. 'ash, from a root meaning "to fall away," as moth-eaten
garments fall to pieces Job 4:19 13:28 Isa 50:9 51:8 Hos 5:12.
2. Gr. ses, thus rendered in Mat 6:19-20 Luk 12:33 - Allusion is thus
made to the destruction of clothing by the larvae of the clothes-
moth. This is the only lepidopterous insect referred to in Scripture.


Of the Gibeonites it is said that "all the bread of their provision
was dry and mouldy" Jos 9:5,12 - The Hebrew word here rendered
"mouldy" (nikuddim) is rendered "cracknels" in 1Ki 14:3 - and denotes
a kind of crisp cake. The meaning is that the bread of the Gibeonites
had become dry and hard, hard as biscuits, and thus was an evidence
of the length of the journey they had travelled.

Mount of Beatitudes


Mount of Corruption

2Ki 23:13 - Vulg., "mount of offence"), the name given to a part of
the Mount of Olives, so called because idol temples were there erected
in the time of Solomon, temples to the Zidonian Ashtoreth and to the
"abominations" of Moab and Ammon.

Mount of the Amalekites

A place near Pirathon (q.v.), in the tribe of Ephraim Jud 12:15.

Mount of the Amorites

The range of hills which rises abruptly in the wilderness of et-Tih
("the wandering"), mentioned Deu 1:19-20 - "that great and terrible

Mount of the Congregation

Only in Isa 14:13 - a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded
by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the far north, and
in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a mountain called
Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head reaches heaven,
whose root is the holy deep." In their geography they are said to have
identified it with mount El-wend, near Ecbatana.

Mount of the Valley

Jos 13:19 - a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of
Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the
Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north
end of the Dead Sea.



(Heb. gez), rendered in Psa 72:6 - "mown grass." The expression "king's
mowings" Amo 7:1 - refers to some royal right of early pasturage, the
first crop of grass for the cavalry (comp.) 1Ki 18:5.


A going forth.
1. One of the sons of Caleb 1Ch 2:46.
2. The son of Zimri, of the posterity of Saul 1Ch 8:36-37 9:42,43.


An issuing of water, a city of Benjamin Jos 18:26.


Isa 3:19 - veils, light and tremulous. Margin, "spangled ornaments."


(Heb. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power
of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as
this was strictly forbidden in the law Lev 19:19 - although their use
was not forbidden. We find them in common use even by kings and
nobles 2Sa 18:9 1Ki 1:33 2Ki 5:17 Psa 32:9 - They are not mentioned,
however, till the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (R.V.
correctly, "hot springs") in Gen 36:24 - (yemim) properly denotes the
warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In
David's reign they became very common 2Sa 13:29 1Ki 10:25 - Mules are
not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had by that time
ceased to be used in Palestine.


Of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God,
which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses Num 11:33,34.
Num 12:1 14:27,30,31 16:3 21:4-6 Psa 106:25 - Forbidden by Paul
1Co 10:10.


Heb. deber, "destruction," a "great mortality", the fifth plague that
fell upon the Egyptians Exo 9:3 - It was some distemper that resulted
in the sudden and widespread death of the cattle. It was confined to
the cattle of the Egyptians that were in the field Exo 9:6.


Receding, the second of the two sons of Merari Exo 6:19 Num 3:20 - His
sons were called Mushites Num 3:33 26:58.

Musician, Chief

(Heb. menatstseah), the precentor of the Levitical choir or
orchestra in the temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five
psalms, and in Hab 3:19 - Revised Version. The first who held this
office was Jeduthun 1Ch 16:41 - and the office appears to have been
hereditary. Heman and Asaph were his two colleagues 2Ch 35:15.


A plant of the genus sinapis, a pod-bearing, shrub-like plant, growing
wild, and also cultivated in gardens. The little round seeds were an
emblem of any small insignificant object. It is not mentioned in the
Old Testament; and in each of the three instances of its occurrence
in the New Testament Mat 13:31-32 Mar 4:31-32 Luk 13:18-19 - it is spoken
of only with reference to the smallness of its seed. The common
mustard of Palestine is the Sinapis nigra. This garden herb sometimes
grows to a considerable height, so as to be spoken of as "a tree" as
compared with garden herbs.


Occurring only in the title of Psa 9:1 - Some interpret the words as
meaning "on the death of Labben," some unknown person. Others render
the word, "on the death of the son;" i.e., of Absalom 2Sa 18:33.
Others again have taken the word as the name of a musical instrument,
or as the name of an air to which the psalm was sung.


Grain in the East is usually thrashed by the sheaves being spread out
on a floor, over which oxen and cattle are driven to and fro, till
the grain is trodden out. Moses ordained that the ox was not to be
muzzled while thrashing. It was to be allowed to eat both the grain
and the straw Deu 25:4.



One of the chief towns of Lycia, in Asia Minor, about 2 1/2 miles
from the coast Act 27:5 - Here Paul removed from the Adramyttian
ship in which he had sailed from Caesarea, and entered into the
Alexandrian ship, which was afterwards wrecked at Melita
Act 27:39-44.


Isa 41:19 Neh 8:15 Zec 1:8 - Hebrew hadas, known in the East by the name
- as -, the Myrtus communis of the botanist. "Although no myrtles are
now found on the mount (of Olives), excepting in the gardens, yet
they still exist in many of the glens about Jerusalem, where we have
often seen its dark shining leaves and white flowers. There are many
near Bethlehem and about Hebron, especially near Dewir Dan, the
ancient Debir. It also sheds its fragrance on the sides of Carmel and
of Tabor, and fringes the clefts of the Leontes in its course through
Galilee. We meet with it all through Central Palestine" (Tristram).


A province in the north-west of Asia Minor. On his first voyage to
Europe Act 16:7-8 - Paul passed through this province and embarked at
its chief port Troas.


The calling of the Gentiles into the Christian Church, so designated
Eph 1:9-10 3:8-11 Col 1:25-27 - a truth undiscoverable except by
revelation, long hid, now made manifest. The resurrection of the dead
1Co 15:51 - and other doctrines which need to be explained but which
cannot be fully understood by finite intelligence Mat 13:11 Ro 11:25.
1Co 13:2 - the union between Christ and his people symbolized by the
marriage union Eph 5:31-32 - comp. Eph 6:19 - the seven stars and the
seven candlesticks Rev 1:20 - and the woman clothed in scarlet
Rev 17:7 - are also in this sense mysteries. The anti-Christian power
working in his day is called by the apostle 2Th 2:7 - the "mystery of

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