Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - L

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1. The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother.
He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's
wife Gen 24:1 - Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled
to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel
Gen 29:1-13 - he eventually married.
See JACOB 01945.
2. A city in the Arabian desert in the route of the Israelites
Deu 1:1 - probably identical with Libnah Num 33:20.


Occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision Gen 28:12.


A lion.
1. A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine
Jud 18:7,14 - called also Leshem Jos 19:47 - and Dan
Jud 18:7,29 Jer 8:16 - It lay near the sources of the Jordan,
about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan
(q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country
and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin
Tell-el-Kady, "the mound of the judge," to the north of the Waters
of Merom Jos 11:5.
2. A place mentioned in Isa 10:30 - It has been supposed to be the
modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem.
3. The father of Phalti 1Sa 25:44.


Mat 27:46 - a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Psa 22:1.


The strikerdown; the wild man.
1. The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the
primeval ordinance of marriage Gen 4:18-24 - His address to his
two wives, Adah and Zillah Gen 4:23-24 - is the only extant
example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called "Lamech's
sword-song." He was "rude and ruffianly," fearing neither God
nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know
nothing of his descendants.
2. The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of
Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons
Gen 5:25-31 Luk 3:36.


(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of
poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan 2Sa 1:17-27 - It
was a frequent accompaniment of mourning Amo 8:10 - In 2Sa 3:33,34.
is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form
of a lament when it predicted calamity Eze 27:2,32 28:12 32:2,16.


1. That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple
which bore the light Exo 25:37 1Ki 7:49 2Ch 4:20 13:11 Zec 4:2.
Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in
them Exo 27:20.
2. A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon Jud 7:16,20 - (R.V.,
3. Domestic lamps (A.V., "candles") were in common use among the
Hebrews Mat 5:15 Mar 4:21 - etc.
4. Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage
ceremonies Mat 25:1 - This word is also frequently metaphorically
used to denote life, welfare, guidance, etc. 2Sa 21:17.
Psa 119:105 Pr 6:23 13:9.


A boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. Deu 19:14 27:17.
Pro 22:28 23:10 Job 24:2 - Landmarks could not be removed without
incurring the severe displeasure of God.


The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of
Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus Rev 3:14 - on the
banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then
Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus
II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important
and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it
became one of the chief seats of Christianity Col 2:1 4:15 Rev 1:11.
etc. It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or
"old castle."

Laodicea, Epistle from

Col 4:16 - was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed
for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of


Torches. Deborah is called "the wife of Lapidoth" Jud 4:4 - Some have
rendered the expression "a woman of a fiery spirit," under the
supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a
torch-like spirit.

Lapping of water

Like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth.
The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the
form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into
his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed
their hands and lapped the water out of their hands Jud 7:7.


The name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev 11:19 Deu 14:18.
The Hebrew name of this bird, - dukiphath -, has been generally
regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word
derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a
bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English


A city in the island of Crete Act 27:8 - Its ruins are still found near
Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens."


Fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea Gen 10:19 - It was
afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs.


A thong Act 22:25 - cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot
Isa 5:27 Mar 1:7 Luk 3:16.


The vernacular language of the ancient Romans Joh 19:20.


1. Heb. 'eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze
passes Jud 5:28 - The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes
enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to
screen the women of the house from the gaze of the
2. Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window Son 2:9.
3. Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or
balcony 2Ki 1:2 - The lattice window is frequently used in
Eastern countries.


A rule of action.
1. The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct,
founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by
natural light Rom 1:20 2:14-15 - This law binds all men at all
times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the
capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things.
2. The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites
and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only till
Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his work
Heb 7:9,11 10:1 Eph 2:16 - It was fulfilled rather than abrogated
by the gospel.
3. The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy of the
Hebrew nation.
4. The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human conduct,
binding on all men to the end of time.
a. It was promulgated at Sinai.
b. It is perfect Psa 19:7.
c. Perpetual Mat 5:17-18.
d. Holy, just, good Rom 7:12.
e. Spiritual Rom 7:14.
f. Exceeding broad Psa 119:96.
g. Although binding on all, we are not under it as a covenant of
works Gal 3:17.
5. Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God. They
are right because God commands them.
6. Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are right.

Law of Moses

Is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation 1Ki 2:3 2Ki 23:25.
Ezr 3:2 - It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb.
Torah,) Deu 1:5 4:8,44 17:18-19 27:3,8 - As a written code it is
called the "book of the law of Moses" 2Ki 14:6 Isa 8:20 - the "book
of the law of God" Jos 24:26 - The great leading principle of the
Mosaic law is that it is essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at
once to the commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.


Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he
expounded in the schools and synagogues Mat 22:35 Luk 10:25 - The
functions of the "lawyer" and "scribe" were identical.

See DOCTOR 01050.


An abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps.
1. The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from
the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb Joh 11:1-44.
This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought
to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death.
2. A beggar named in the parable recorded Luk 16:19-31.


1. Of a tree
a. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen 8:11.
b. The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves
Mat 21:19 Mar 11:13.
See FIG 01329.
c. The oak-leaf is mentioned Isa 1:30 6:13.
d. There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing,
their decay, and their restoration Lev 26:36 Isa 34:4.
Jer 8:13 Dan 4:12,14,21 Mar 11:13 13:28.
e. The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity Psa 1:3 Jer 17:8.
Eze 47:12.
f. The faded leaf is a symbol of decay Job 13:25 Isa 1:30 64:6.
Jer 8:13.
2. Leaf of a door 1Ki 6:34 - the valve of a folding door.
3. Leaf of a book Jer 36:23 - perhaps a fold of a roll.


A treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an
alliance of any kind
1. with the Canaanites Exo 23:32-33 34:12-16.
2. with the Amalekites Exo 17:8,14 Deu 25:17-19.
3. with the Moabites and Ammonites Deu 2:9,19.
Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations.
Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and
Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt.


Weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel Gen 29:16.
1. Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father Gen 29:23.
2. She was "tender-eyed" Gen 29:17.
3. She bore to Jacob six sons Gen 29:32-35 - also one daughter, Dinah
Gen 30:21.
4. She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time
of the going down into Egypt Gen 31:1 - and was buried in the
cave of Machpelah Gen 49:31.


For answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Psa 88:1.
The title "Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth" may be rendered "concerning
sickness, to be sung" i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.


Psa 4:2 5:6 - an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew
word - kazabh - is generally rendered.

Leather a girdle of

Worn by Elijah 2Ki 1:8 - and John the Baptist Mat 3:4 - Leather
was employed both for clothing Num 31:20 Heb 11:37 - and for writing
upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned Act 9:43 10:6,32 - It was
probably learned in Egypt.


Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve Mat 10:3.
called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was
the brother of our Lord.


Frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel
Jud 21:19 - It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south
of Nablus.


(Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered
1. "grass" in 1Ki 18:5 2Ki 19:26 Job 40:15 - etc.;
2. "herb" in Job 8:12.
3. "hay" in Pro 27:25 Isa 15:6.
4. "leeks" only in Num 11:5.

This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs,
such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not
necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a favourite
vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in


(Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was
applied to:
1. "lees" from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that
it might thereby be better preserved Isa 25:6.
2. "Men settled on their lees" Zep 1:12 - are men "hardened or
crusted." The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom
of wines long left undisturbed Jer 48:11 - The effect of wealthy
undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They become stupidly
secure (comp.) Psa 55:19 Amo 6:1.
3. To drink the lees Psa 75:8 - denotes severe suffering.

Left Hand

Among the Hebrews, denoted the north Job 23:9 Ge 14:15 - the face of
the person being supposed to be toward the east.


Jud 3:15 20:16 - one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who
therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as
the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to
physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of


A regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which
differed at different times. It originally consisted of three
thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand,
exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men.
The word is used Mat 26:53 Mar 5:9 - to express simply a great


A jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a
victory over the Philistines Jud 15:9,14,16 - slaying a thousand of
them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in Jud 15:19|, "a hollow
place that was in the jaw" (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version,
"the hollow place that is in Lehi."


Dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed Pro 31:1-9 - Nothing
is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with


(Heb. 'adashim), a species of vetch Gen 25:34 2Sa 23:11 - common in
Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of
lentils Gen 25:29-34 - They were among the provisions brought to David
when he fled from Absalom 2Sa 17:28 - It is the Ervum lens of
Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a


(Heb. namer, so called because spotted,) Son 4:8 - was that great
spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more
appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness
Isa 11:6 - its watching for its prey Jer 5:6 - its swiftness
Hab 1:8 - and the spots of its skin Jer 13:23 - are noticed.
This word is used symbolically Dan 7:6 Rev 13:2.


In Rom 2:27,29 - means the outward form. The "oldness of the letter"
Rom 7:6 - is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward
obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct.
In 2Co 3:6 - "the letter" means the Mosaic law as a written law.

See WRITING 03841.


Peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and
head of an Arabian tribe Gen 25:3.


1. The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found
in Leah's words Gen 29:34 - "This time will my husband be joined
[Heb. yillaveh] unto me." He is mentioned as taking a prominent
part in avenging his sister Dinah Gen 34:25-31 - He and his three
sons went down with Jacob Gen 46:11 - into Egypt, where he died at
the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years Exo 6:16.
2. The father of Matthat, and son of Simeon, of the ancestors of
Christ Luk 3:29.
3. The father of Matthat, and son of Melchi, of the ancestors of
Christ Luk 3:24.
4. One of the apostles, the son of Alphaeus Mar 2:14 Luk 5:27,29.
called also Matthew Mat 9:9.

Levirate Law

From Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient
custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without
issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as
to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born
of that marriage Gen 38:8 Deu 25:5-10 - comp. Rut 3:1 4:10 - Its object
was "to raise up seed to the departed brother."


1Ki 4:6 - R.V.; 1Ki 5:13 - forced service. The service of tributaries
was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a "great levy" of
30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by
courses on Lebanon. Adoram 1Ki 12:18 - presided over this forced
labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).


Act 18:14 - villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of
the word. The word "lewd" is from the Saxon, and means properly
"ignorant," "unlearned," and hence low, vicious Act 17:5.


Found only Act 6:9 - one who once had been a slave, but who had been set
at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name
probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried
captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman
generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In
A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of
them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.


Transparency; whiteness.
1. One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
Num 33:20,21.
2. One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua
Jos 10:29-32 12:15 - It became one of the Levitical towns in
the tribe of Judah Jos 21:13 - and was strongly fortified.
Sennacherib laid siege to it 2Ki 19:8 Isa 37:8 - It was the
native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah 2Ki 23:31 - It
stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the modern Arak


White, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi
Exo 6:17 Num 3:18,21.


The country of the Ludim Gen 10:13 - Northern Africa, a large tract
lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt Act 2:10 - Cyrene
was one of its five cities.


(Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon
Egypt Exo 8:16-18 - They were miraculously produced from the dust of
the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but
disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict
injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of
the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests." The plague
of lice is referred to in Psa 105:31 - Some have supposed that the word
denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater
probability, take it to mean the "tick" which is much larger than


An intentional violation of the truth.
1. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture Joh 8:44 1Ti 1:9-10.
Rev 21:27 22:15.
2. Mention is made of the lies told by good men
a. Abraham Gen 12:12-13 20:2.
b. Isaac Gen 26:7.
c. Jacob Gen 27:24.
d. The Hebrew midwives Exo 1:15-19.
e. Michal 1Sa 19:14.
f. David 1Sa 20:6.

See ANANIAS 00230.


(only in A.V.) Est 3:12 8:9 9:3 Ezr 8:36 - a governor or viceroy of a
Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly
rendered in the Revised Version "satrap."


Generally of physical life Gen 2:7 Luk 16:25 - etc.; also used
1. For immortality Heb 7:16.
2. Conduct or manner of life Rom 6:4.
3. Spiritual life or salvation Joh 3:16,17-18,36.
4. Eternal life Mat 19:16-17 Joh 3:15.
5. Of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life
Joh 1:4 5:26,39 11:25 12:50.


Frequently referred to by the sacred writers Nah 1:3-6.
1. Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath
2Sa 22:15 Job 28:26 37:4 Psa 135:7 144:6 Zec 9:14.
2. They represent God's glorious and awful majesty Rev 4:5.
3. or some judgment of God on the world Rev 20:9.


(only in pl., Heb. 'ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree
Num 24:6 - probably the agallochum or aloe-wood.

See ALOES 00183.


(Heb. leshem) occurs only in Exo 28:19 39:12 - as the name of a
stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have
supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others
that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The
"ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.


The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing." From
Isa 33:12 - it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by
thorn-bushes. In Amo 2:1 - it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned
the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same Hebrew word is
used in Deu 27:2-4 - and is there rendered "plaster." Limestone is the
chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.


1. Heb., pishet, pishtah,
a. denotes
1. "flax," of which linen is made Isa 19:9.
2. wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev 13:47,48,52,59.
Deu 22:11.
b. Flax was early cultivated in
1. Egypt Exo 9:31.
2. Palestine Jos 2:6 Hos 2:9.
c. Various articles were made of it:
1. garments 2Sa 6:14.
2. girdles Jer 13:1.
3. ropes and thread Eze 40:3.
4. napkins Luk 24:12 Joh 20:7.
5. turbans Eze 44:18.
6. lamp-wicks Isa 42:3.
2. Heb. buts, "whiteness;" rendered "fine linen" in 1Ch 4:21.
1Ch 15:27 2Ch 2:14 3:14 Es 1:6 8:15 - and "white linen"
2Ch 5:12 - It is not certain whether this word means cotton
or linen.
3. Heb. bad; rendered "linen" Exo 28:42 39:28 Lev 6:10 16:4,23,32.
1Sa 2:18 2Sa 6:14 - etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred
vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root
signifying "separation."
4. Heb. shesh; rendered "fine linen" Exo 25:4 26:1,31,36 - etc. In
Pro 31:22 - it is rendered in Authorized Version "silk," and in
Revised Version "fine linen." The word denotes Egyptian linen of
peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian
linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads
of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had
sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in
the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest.
Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen Gen 41:42.
5. Heb. 'etun. Pro 7:16 - "fine linen of Egypt;" in Revised Version,
"the yarn of Egypt."
6. Heb. sadin. Pro 31:24 - "fine linen;" in Revised Version, "linen
garments" Jud 14:12-13 Isa 3:23 - From this Hebrew word is
probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered "linen" in
Mar 14:51,52 15:46 Mat 27:59 - The word "linen" is used as an
emblem of moral purity Rev 15:6 In Luk 16:19 - it is mentioned
as a mark of luxury.


See YARN 03842.


Were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to
denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession Psa 16:6.


1. Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover Exo 12:22,23,7 - "upper door
post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the
Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal
2. Heb. kaphtar. Amo 9:1 Zep 2:14 - (R.V. correctly "chapiters," as
in A.V. marg.).


The most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found
in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous
there. They had their lairs in the forests Jer 5:6 12:8 Amo 3:4 - in
the caves of the mountains Son 4:8 Na 2:12 - and in the canebrakes on
the banks of the Jordan Jer 49:19 50:44 Zec 11:3 - No fewer than at
least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion.

1. - Gor - (i.e., a "suckling"), the lion's whelp Gen 49:9.
Jer 51:38 - etc.
2. - Kephir - (i.e., "shaggy"), the young lion Jud 14:5 Job 4:10.
Psa 91:13 104:21 - a term which is also used figuratively of
cruel enemies Psa 34:10 35:17 58:6 Jer 2:15.
3. - 'Ari - (i.e., the "puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in
general, without reference to age or sex Num 23:24 2Sa 17:10.
4. - Shahal - (the "roarer"), the mature lion Job 4:10 Psa 91:13.
Pro 26:13 Hos 5:14.
5. - Laish -, so called from its strength and bravery Job 4:11.
Pro 30:30 Isa 30:6 - The capital of Northern Dan received its
name from this word.
6. - Labi -, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness
Gen 49:9 Num 23:24 24:9 Eze 19:2 Na 2:11.

The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety,
distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not
only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also:
1. Laid waste towns and villages 2Ki 17:25-26.
2. Devoured men 1Ki 13:24,25.
3. Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew
them 1Sa 17:34-35 Amo 3:12.
4. Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he
would have rent a kid" Jud 14:5-6.

The strength Jud 14:18 - courage 2Sa 17:10 - and ferocity
Gen 49:9 - of the lion were proverbial.


Besides its literal sense Isa 37:29 - etc., is used in the original
(saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border:
1. As of a cup 1Ki 7:26.
2. A garment Exo 28:32.
3. A curtain Exo 26:4.
4. The sea Gen 22:17.
5. The Jordan 2Ki 2:13.
6. To "open the lips" is to begin to speak Job 11:5.
7. To "refrain the lips" is to keep silence Psa 40:9 1Pe 3:10.
8. The "fruit of the lips" Heb 13:15 - is praise
9. The "calves of the lips" thank-offerings Hos 14:2.
10. To "shoot out the lip" is to manifest scorn and defiance Psa 22:7.

Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.


(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin
for the conveyance of persons of rank Isa 66:20 - In Num 7:3 - the
words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind."
There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and
fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.


(Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the
viscera,) Exo 29:13,22 Lev 3:4,1,10,15 - was burnt upon the altar, and
not used as sacrificial food. In Eze 21:21 - there is allusion, in the
statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of
the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded
instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By
the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood "the liver of goats."
By the "caul above the liver," in Lev 4:9 7:4 - etc., some understand
the great lobe of the liver itself.

Living Creatures

As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Re 4 etc.), are the
cherubim. They are distinguished from angels Rev 15:7 - they join
the elders in the "new song" Rev 5:8-9 - they warn of danger from
divine justice Isa 6:3-5 - and deliver the commission to those who
execute it Eze 10:2,7 - they associate with the elders in their
sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new
song Rev 14:3 - and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies
Rev 19:4 - They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished
from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially
as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."


Only in Lev 11:30 - as rendering of Hebrew - letaah -, so called from its
"hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from
the toes of which poison exudes.

See CHAMELEON 00764.


Not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's
second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people Hos 1:9-10.
his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is
rendered by "not my people" in Hos 1:10 2:23|.


1. The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron
Isa 45:2 - These were the locks originally used, and were opened
and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside
Jud 3:24.
2. Lock of hair Jud 16:13,19 Eze 8:3 Num 6:5 - etc.

See KEY 02181.


No pasture, 2Sa 17:27 - a town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north
of the Jabbok 2Sa 9:4-5 - It is probably identical with Debir
Jos 13:26.


A shed for a watchman in a garden Isa 1:8 - The Hebrew name - melunah -
is rendered "cottage" (q.v.) in Isa 24:20 - It also denotes a hammock
or hanging-bed.


The smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews
Lev 14:10,12,15,21,24 - called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the
Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of
six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.


The maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul for her
faith 2Ti 1:5.


A knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs in the
edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a
continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain Exo 26:4-5,10-11.

Lord's Day

Only once, in Rev 1:10 - was in the early Christian ages used to
denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's
resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used
the name.

See SABBATH 03170.

Lord's Prayer

The name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples
Mat 6:9-13 - The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke
Luk 11:2-4 - also in the R.V. of Mat 6:13 - This prayer contains no
allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy
Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its
spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the
prayer recorded Joh 17:1 - The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive
type of the simplest and most universal prayer."


Not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a type of
Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people Hos 1:6 2:23.


Coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite Gen 36:20,29.


In 1Co 13:1 - the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as
the word "charity" there is rendered in the Revised Version. Charity
better captures the biblical idea of love, for charity is love in
action for the glory of God not a mere warm mushy feeling as we use the
word today.


The inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African
nation under tribute to Egypt 2Ch 12:3 16:8 - Their territory was
apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim.


A friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke
(q.v.), the beloved physician Phm 1:24 Col 4:14.


Brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon Isa 14:12 - to
denote his glory.


Of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch Act 13:1 - and Paul's kinsman
Rom 16:21 - His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate
that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa.


From the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1Ti 3:3 - "not given to filthy lucre."
Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been
omitted in the Revised Version.


1. The fourth son of Shem Gen 10:22 1Ch 1:17 - ancestor of the
Lydians probably.
2. One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim Gen 10:13 - a
people of Africa Eze 27:10 30:5 - on the west of Egypt. The
people called Lud were noted archers Isa 66:19 - comp.
Jer 46:9.

See LUDIM 02329.


Probably the same as Lud (2.) (comp.) Gen 10:13 1Ch 1:11 - They are
associated Jer 46:9 - with African nations as mercenaries of the
king of Egypt.

See LUD 02328.


Made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim
Isa 15:5 Jer 48:5.


Probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were
supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Mat 4:24.
"lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. In Mat 17:15 - the name
"lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed.

See DAEMONIAC 00957.


Sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from
God Rom 1:21 - "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart,
not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces
and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mar 4:19 - "lusts" are
objects of desire.


A nut-bearing tree, the almond.
1. The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of
Bethel Gen 28:19 35:6 - on the border of Benjamin Jos 18:13.
Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision.
See BETHEL 00554.
2. A place in the land of the Hittites, founded Jud 1:26 - by "a man
who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is identified with
Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.


An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the
south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were
Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia" Act 14:11 - was
probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think,
a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this
region, and revisited it Act 16:1-6 18:23 19:1.


A wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the
island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It
was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul Act 21:1 27:5.
Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara Act 21:1-2 - and Myra Act 27:5.


A town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament
Act 9:32,35,38 - as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the
paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road
from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament 1Ch 8:12 - it is
called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt,
and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The
so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been
born here.


1. Eze 30:5 - (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor,
which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem Gen 10:22.
It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the
west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.
2. A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in Philippi
Act 16:14-15 - She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord
opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul
Act 16:13 - She thus became the first in Europe who embraced
Christianity. She was a person apparently of considerable
wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul and his

See THYATIRA 03650.


Tetrarch of Abilene Luk 3:1 - on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near
the city of Damascus.

Lysias, Claudius

The chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops
in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at
Caesarea Act 21:31-38 22:24-30 - His letter to his superior officer is
an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence Act 23:26-30.
He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore
probably a Greek.

See CLAUDIUS 00841.

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