Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - J



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Jaakan


He twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite
1Ch 1:42.


Jaakobah


Heel-catcher, a form of the name Jacob, one of the descendants of
Simeon 1Ch 4:36.


Jaala


A wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned from
the Captivity Neh 7:58.


Jaalam


Concealer, the second of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah Gen 36:5,14.


Jaanai


Mourner, one of the chief Gadites 1Ch 5:12.


Jaare-oregim


Forests of the weavers, a Bethlehemite 2Sa 21:19 - and the father of
Elhanan, who slew Goliath. In 1Ch 20:5 - called JAIR.


Jaasau


Fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the
Return Ezr 10:37.


Jaasiel


Made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner 1Ch 27:21.
called Jasiel in 1Ch 11:47.


Jaaz-aniah


Heard by Jehovah.
1. The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief Rechabites Jer 35:3.
2. The son of Shaphan Eze 8:11.
3. The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by Ezekiel
Eze 11:1 - at the east gate of the temple.
4. A Maachathite 2Ki 25:23 Jer 40:8 42:1 - He is also called Azariah
Jer 43:2.


Jaazer


He (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan, and
assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad Num 32:1,35.
Jos 13:25 - It was allotted to the Merarite Levites Jos 21:39.
In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the
descendants of Kohath 1Ch 26:31 - It is mentioned in the "burdens"
proclaimed over Moab Isa 16:8-9 Jer 48:32 - Its site is marked by
the modern ruin called Sar or Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and
12 from Heshbon. "The vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are
gone; and the wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of
any kind impossible."


Jaaziah


Comforted by Jehovah, a descendant of Merari the Levite 1Ch 24:26,27.


Jaaziel


Comforted by God, a Levitical musician 1Ch 15:18.


Jabal


A stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; "the father of
such as dwell in tents and have cattle" Gen 4:20 - This description
indicates that he led a wandering life.


Jabesh


Dry.
1. For Jabesh-Gilead 1Sa 11:3,9-10.
2. The father of Shallum 2Ki 15:10,13,14 - who usurped the throne of
Israel on the death of Zachariah.


Jabez


Affiction.
1. A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded that "God granted
him that which he requested" 1Ch 4:9-10.
2. A place inhabited by several families of the scribes 1Ch 2:55.


Jabneel


Built by God.
1. A town in the north boundary of Judah Jos 15:11 - called
afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern Yebna, 11 miles
south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) it
became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of
a celebrated school.
2. A town on the border of Naphtali Jos 19:33 - Its later name was
Kefr Yemmah, "the village by the sea," on the south shore of
Lake Merom.


Jabneh


Building, 2Ch 26:6 - identical with Jabneel Jos 15:11.


Jachan


Mourner, one of the chief Gadite "brothers" in Bashan 1Ch 5:13.


Jachin


Firm.
1. The fourth son of Simeon Gen 46:10 - called also Jarib
1Ch 4:24.
2. The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests
1Ch 24:17.
3. One of the priests who returned from the Exile 1Ch 9:10.


Jachin and Boaz


The names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple
1Ki 7:15-22 - Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in
circumference Jer 52:21,23 1Ki 7:17-21 - They had doubtless a
symbolical import.


Jacinth


Properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and
hence a precious stone of that colour Rev 21:20 - It has been supposed
to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in
Exo 28:19 - as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's
breast-plate. In Rev 9:17 - the word is simply descriptive of colour.


Jaddua


Known.
1. One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant Neh 10:21.
2. The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament Neh 12:11,22.
sons of Jonathan.


Jadon


Judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem
Neh 3:7.


Jael


Mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite Jud 4:17-22 - When the
Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's
army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe of Heber,
beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited him to
enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he fell
into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great
wooden pins ("nail") which fastened down the cords of the tent, and
in her right hand the mallet, or "hammer," used for driving it into
the ground, and stealthily approaching her sleeping guest, with one
well-directed blow drove the nail through his temples into the earth
Jud 5:27 - She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and
boastfully showed him what she had done.

See SISERA 03452.
See DEBORAH 00996.


Jagur


Place of sojourn, a city on the southern border of Judah Jos 15:21.


Jah


A contraction for Jehovah Psa 68:4.


Jahath


Union.
1. A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom 1Ch 23:10.
2. One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath 1Ch 24:22.
3. A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the
repairs of the temple under Josiah 2Ch 34:12.


Jahaz


Trodden down (called also Jahaza,) Jos 13:18 - Jahazah, Jos 21:36.
Jahzah, 1Ch 6:78 - a town where Sihon was defeated, in the borders of
Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan, and north of the
river Arnon Num 21:23 Deu 2:32 - It was situated in the tribe of Reuben,
and was assigned to the Merarite Levites Jos 13:18 21:36 - Here was
fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.) was completely
routed, and his territory (the modern Belka) came into the possession
of Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the
prophets against Moab Isa 15:4 Jer 48:34.


Jahaziel


Beheld by God.
1. The third son of Hebron 1Ch 23:19.
2. A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:4.
3. A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem
1Ch 16:6.
4. The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph
2Ch 20:14-17 - He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites
and Ammonites.


Jahdai


Grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron 1Ch 2:47.


Jahzeel


Allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali Gen 46:24.


Jahzerah


Returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel 1Ch 9:12.


Jailer


(of Philippi), Act 16:23 - The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man
belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and
also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the
message of the gospel," is one of those cases which illustrate its
universality and power.


Jairus


A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus
restored to life Mar 5:22 Luk 8:41 - Entering into the chamber of death,
accompanied by Peter and James and John and the father and mother of
the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the corpse lay, and
said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid, arise," and immediately the spirit
of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and "at
once to strengthen that life which had come back to her, and to prove
that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a
mortal existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" Mar 5:43.


Jakeh


Pious, the father of Agur Pro 30:1 - Nothing is known of him.


Jakim


Establisher.
1. Chief of the twelfth priestly order 1Ch 24:12.
2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:19.
3. Margin in Mat 1:11 - means Jehoiakim.


Jalon


Lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah
1Ch 4:17.


Jambres


One of those who opposed Moses in Egypt 2Ti 3:8.

See JANNES 01967.


Jannes


One of the Egyptians who "withstood Moses" 2Ti 3:8.

See JAMBRES 01964.


Janoah


Or Jano'hah, rest.
1. A town on the north-eastern border of Ephraim, in the Jordan
valley Jos 16:6-7 - Identified with the modern Yanun, 8 miles
south-east of Nablus.
2. A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of Naphtali.
It was taken by the king of Assyria 2Ki 15:29.


Janum


Slumber, a town in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:53.


Japheth


Wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim
le-Yephet, Gen 9:27 - Some, however, derive the name from - yaphah -, "to
be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last
in order Gen 5:32 6:10 7:13 - perhaps first by birth Gen 10:21 - comp.
Gen 9:24 - He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark
1Pe 3:20 - He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east
of Europe and the north of Asia Gen 10:2-5 - An act of filial piety
Gen 9:20-27 - was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension
of his posterity. After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the
descendants of Noah, "the sons of Japheth" Gen 10:2 - "the sons of
Ham" Gen 10:6 - and "the sons of Shem" Gen 10:22. It is important
to notice that modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful
analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a
three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a remarkable
way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of Genesis 10. The
three great races thus distinguished are called the Semitic, Aryan, and
Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where the ethnic names
employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably be
questioned that the author [of] Gen 10:1 - has in his account of
the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the
Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating
what has become known in modern times as the 'Indo-European Theory,' or
the essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal
races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can it be
doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of 'children of
Shem' the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber),
and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of the principal races which
modern ethnology recognizes under the heading of 'Semitic.' Again,
under the heading of 'sons of Ham,' the author has arranged 'Cush',
i.e., the Ethiopians; 'Mizraim,' the people of Egypt; 'Sheba and
Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and 'Nimrod,' or the ancient
people of Babylon, four races between which the latest linguistic
researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's Hist.
Illustrations).


Japhia


Splendid.
1. The king of Lachish, who joined in the confederacy against
Joshua Jos 10:3 - and was defeated and slain. In one of the
Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of Gezer. Called
also Horam Jos 10:33.
2. One of the sons of David 2Sa 5:15 - born in Jerusalem.
3. A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum Jos 19:12 - now Yafa,
2 miles south-west of Nazareth.


Japho


Beauty, a sea-port in Dan Jos 19:46 - called Joppa (q.v.) in
2Ch 2:16 Ezr 3:7 Jon 1:3 - and in New Testament.


Jared


Descent.
1. The fourth antediluvian patriarch in descent from Seth
Gen 5:15-20 Luk 3:37 - the father of Enoch; called Jered in
1Ch 1:2.
2. A son of Ezra probably 1Ch 4:18.


Jarib


An adversary.
1. A son of Simeon 1Ch 4:24.
2. One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to
Jerusalem Ezr 8:16.
3. Ezr 10:18.


Jarmuth


Height.
1. A town in the plain of Judah Jos 15:35 - originally the residence
of one of the Canaanitish kings Jos 10:3,5,23 - It has been
identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village about 7 miles
north-east of Beit-Jibrin.
2. A Levitical city of the tribe of Issachar Jos 21:29 - supposed by
some to be the Ramah of Samuel 1Sa 19:22.


Jashen


Sleeping, called also Hashem 1Ch 11:34 - a person, several of whose
sons were in David's body-guard 2Sa 23:32.


Jasher


Upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the
Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a
kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of
the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology.
We have only two specimens from the book,
1. the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of
the battle of Beth-horon Jos 10:12-13.
2. "the Song of the Bow," that beautiful and touching mournful
elegy which David composed on the occasion of the death of Saul
and Jonathan 2Sa 1:18-27.


Jashobeam


Dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite
1Ch 11:11 - one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag
1Ch 12:6 - He was the first of the three who broke through the host
of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem
2Sa 23:13-17 - He is also called Adino the Eznite 2Sa 23:8.


Jashub


Returner.
1. The third of Issachar's four sons 1Ch 7:1 - called also Job
Gen 46:13.
2. Ezr 10:29.


Jason


He that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The
Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find
him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city Act 17:5-9 - He
was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul Rom 16:21 - and accompanied
him from Thessalonica to Corinth.


Jasper


(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering")
1. A gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high
priest's breast-plate Exo 28:20.
2. It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem Rev 21:18,19.
3. It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" Rev 21:11.
4. It was emblematic of the glory of God Rev 4:3.


Jattir


Pre-eminent, a city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:48 21:14.


Javan


1. The fourth "son" of Japheth Gen 10:2 - whose descendants
settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan
in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan"
(rendered "Grecia," Dan 8:21 10:20 - comp. Dan 11:2 Zec 9:13.
This word was universally used by the nations of the East as
the generic name of the Greek race.
2. A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians
obtained iron, cassia, and calamus Eze 27:19.


Javelin


1. Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility
1Sa 18:10-11 19:9-10 20:33.
2. Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its
piercing Num 25:7.

See ARMOUR 00315.


Jaw-bone


Of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the
Philistines Jud 15:15 - in which he slew a thousand men. In verse
Jud 15:19 - the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow place
that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a
mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the
Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc.,
Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this conflict was waged,
possibly so called because it was in shape like a jaw-bone.


Jealousy


Suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions Num 5:14.
Pro 6:34 So 8:6 - also an intense interest for another's honour or
prosperity Psa 79:5 1Co 10:22 Zec 1:14.


Jealousy, Image of


An idolatrous object Seen in vision by Ezekiel Eze 8:3,5 - which stood
in the priests' or inner court of the temple. Probably identical with
the statue of Astarte 2Ki 21:7.


Jealousy Offering


The name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his
wife with adultery Num 5:11-15.


Jealousy, Waters of


Water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the
result might prove her guilt or innocence Num 5:12-17,27 - We have
no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to.


Jearim


Forests, a mountain on the border of Judah Jos 15:10.


Jebus


Trodden hard, or fastness, or "the waterless hill", the name of the
Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion Jos 15:8 18:16,28 - It is
identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Jud 19:10 - and with the castle or
city of David 1Ch 11:4-5 - It was a place of great natural strength,
and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements
2Sa 5:8.


Jebusites


The name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently
among the seven nations doomed to destruction Gen 10:16 15:21.
Exo 3:8,17 13:5 - etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites
in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek Jos 10:1-23 - They were
defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not
entirely driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it the
capital of his kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple
was afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it was
purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift
2Sa 24:16-25 1Ch 21:24,25.


Jecoliah


Able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of King
Uzziah 2Ch 26:3.


Jedaiah


1. Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite
1Ch 4:37.
2. One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the
return from Babylon Neh 3:10.
3. Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the priests
1Ch 24:7.
4. A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile 1Ch 9:10.


Jediael


Known by God.
1. One of the sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200
warriors 1Ch 7:6,10,11.
2. A Shimrite, one of David's bodyguard 1Ch 11:45 - Probably same as
in 1Ch 12:20.
3. A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers
to the temple 1Ch 26:2.


Jedidiah


Beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord
gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour
2Sa 12:25.


Jeduthun


Lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the
three masters of music appointed by David 1Ch 16:41-42 25:1-6 - He is
called in 2Ch 35:15 - "the king's seer." His descendants are mentioned
as singers and players on instruments Neh 11:17 - He was probably the
same as Ethan 1Ch 15:17,19 - In the superscriptions to Psa 39:1,
Ps 62:1 77:1 - the words "upon Jeduthun" probably denote a musical
instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented or
introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.


Jegar-sahadutha


Pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the
pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant between him and
Jacob Gen 31:47 - who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent
name, Galeed (q.v.).


Jehaleleel


Praiser of God.
1. A descendant of Judah 1Ch 4:16.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari 2Ch 29:12.


Jehdeiah


Rejoicer in Jehovah.
1. One of the Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of
Shubael 1Ch 24:20.
2. A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon
1Ch 27:30.


Jehizkiah


Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim 2Ch 28:12.


Jehoaddan


Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of King
Amaziah 2Ki 14:2.


Jehohanan


Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II.
1. A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple
porters 1Ch 26:3.
2. One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" 2Ch 17:15.
3. The father of Azariah 2Ch 28:12.
4. The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews Neh 6:18.
5. Neh 12:42.
6. Neh 12:13.


Jehoiarib


Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal
courses 1Ch 9:10 24:7 - His "course" went up from Babylon after the
Exile Ezr 2:36-39 Neh 7:39-42.


Jehonadab


Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels.
1. A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the
fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne 2Sa 13:3-6.
He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
2. A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by
a vow to abstain from wine Jer 35:6-19 - There were different
settlements of Rechabites Jud 1:16 4:11 1Ch 2:55.
His interview and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in
2Ki 10:15-23 - He went with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.

See RECHABITE 03080.


Jehonathan


Whom Jehovah gave.
1. One of the stewards of David's store-houses 1Ch 27:25.
2. A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah 2Ch 17:8.
3. Neh 12:18.


Jehosheba


Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is
called Jehoshabeath in 2Ch 22:11 - She was the only princess of the
royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada 2Ch 22:11.


Jehovah-jireh


Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham to the
scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on
Mount Moriah. The expression used in Gen 22:14 - "in the mount of the
Lord it shall be seen," has been regarded as equivalent to the
saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity."


Jehovah-nissi


Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he
erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands
while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites Exo 17:15.


Jehovah-shalom


Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected
on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him Jud 6:24.


Jehovah-shammah


Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem,
which was seen by him in vision Eze 48:35 - It was a type of the
gospel Church.


Jehovah-tsidkenu


Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, "The
LORD our righteousness," a title given to the Messiah Jer 23:6.
marg., and also to Jerusalem Jer 33:16 - marg.


Jehozabad


Jehovah-given.
1. The son of Obed-edom 1Ch 26:4 - one of the Levite porters.
2. The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king
Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem 2Ki 12:21.
3. 2Ch 17:18.


Jehozadak


Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of
the Babylonian exile 1Ch 6:14-15 - He was carried into captivity by
Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was the father of
Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.


Jehucal


Able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal Jer 38:1 - He was
one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the prophet
Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom Jer 37:3 - during the time of its
final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah
(q.v.).


Jehudi


A Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch
to read Jeremiah's roll to them Jer 36:14,21.


Jeiel


Snatched away by God.
1. A descendant of Benjamin 1Ch 9:35 8:29.
2. One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal
of the ark to Jerusalem 1Ch 16:5.
3. 2Ch 29:13 - A Levite of the sons of Asaph.
4. 2Ch 26:11 - A scribe.
5. 1Ch 5:7 - A Reubenite chief.
6. One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the
restoration of the Passover by Josiah 2Ch 35:9.
7. Ezr 8:13.
8. Ezr 10:43.


Jemima


Dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial
Job 42:14.


Jephunneh


Nimble, or a beholder.
1. The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring
Canaan Num 13:6 - a Kenezite Jos 14:14.
2. One of the descendants of Asher 1Ch 7:38.


Jerahmeel


Loving God.
1. The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb 1Ch 2:9,25-26 - etc.
2. The son of Kish, a Levite 1Ch 24:29.
3. Son of Hammelech Jer 36:26.


Jerimoth


Heights.
1. One of the sons of Bela 1Ch 7:7.
2. 1Ch 24:30 - a Merarite Levite.
3. A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:5.
4. A Levitical musician under Heman his father 1Ch 25:4.
5. 1Ch 27:19 - ruler of Naphtali.
6. One of David's sons 2Ch 11:18.
7. A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings
2Ch 31:13 - in the reign of Hezekiah.


Jeroham


Cherished; who finds mercy.
1. Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel 1Sa 1:1.
2. The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan 1Ch 27:22.
3. 1Ch 12:7 - a Benjamite.
4. 2Ch 23:1 - one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne.
5. 1Ch 9:8 - a Benjamite.
6. 1Ch 9:12 - a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh 11:12.


Jerubbaal


Contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name
given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal
Jud 6:32 7:1 8:29 1Sa 12:11.


Jerubbesheth


Contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon
2Sa 11:21.


Jeruel


Founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the Dead
Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of Tekoa, in the
direction of Engedi 2Ch 20:16,20 - It corresponds with the tract of
country now called el-Hasasah.


Jerusalem


Called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy city;"
by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once "the city of
Judah" 2Ch 25:28 - This name is in the original in the dual form, and
means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace." The dual form
probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz.,
Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts of the city,
the "upper" and the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city
enthroned on a mountain fastness" (comp.) Psa 68:15-16 87:1 125:2.
Psa 76:1-2 122:3 - It stands on the edge of one of the highest
table-lands in Palestine, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the
southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines. It is
first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem Gen 14:18 - comp.
Psa 76:2 - When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek
was its king Jos 10:1 - It is afterwards named among the cities of
Benjamin Jud 19:10 1Ch 11:4 - but in the time of David it was
divided between Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city
was taken and set on fire by the men of Judah Jud 1:1-8 - but the
Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. The city is not again
mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of Goliath
thither 1Sa 17:54 - David afterwards led his forces against the
Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, fixing
his own dwelling on Zion, which he called "the city of David"
2Sa 5:5-9 1Ch 11:4-8 - Here he built an altar to the Lord on the
threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite 2Sa 24:15-25 - and thither
he brought up the ark of the covenant and placed it in the new
tabernacle which he had prepared for it. Jerusalem now became the
capital of the kingdom. After the death of David, Solomon built the
temple, a house for the name of the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010)
He also greatly strengthened and adorned the city, and it became the
great centre of all the civil and religious affairs of the nation
Deu 12:5 - comp. Deu 12:14 14:23 16:11-16 Psa 122:1 - After the
disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of Rehoboam,
the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom of the
two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the
Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel 2Ki 14:13,14.
2Ki 18:15-16 23:33-35 24:14 2Ch 12:9 26:9 27:3-4 29:3 32:30 33:11.
till finally, for the abounding iniquities of the nation, after a
siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, its walls
razed to the ground, and its temple and palaces consumed by fire, by
Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon 2Ki 25:1 - 2Ch 36:1.
Jer 39:1 - B.C. 588. The desolation of the city and the land
was completed by the retreat of the principal Jews into Egypt
Jer 41:1-43:7 - and by the final carrying captive into Babylon of
all that still remained in the land Jer 52:3 - so that it was left
without an inhabitant (B.C. 582) Compare the predictions,
Deu 28:1 - Lev 26:14-39 - But the streets and walls of Jerusalem
were again to be built, in troublous times Dan 9:16,19,25 - after a
captivity of seventy years. This restoration was begun B.C. 536 "in
the first year of Cyrus" Ezr 1:2-3,5-11 - The Books of Ezra and
Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building of the city and
temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews, consisting of
a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus constituted was for two
centuries under the dominion of Persia, till B.C. 331 and thereafter,
for about a century and a half, under the rulers of the Greek empire
in Asia, till B.C. 167 For a century the Jews maintained their
independence under native rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close
of this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his
family, but practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction
of Jerusalem, A.D. 70 The city was then laid in ruins. The modern
Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds of rubbish
resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; and whilst it
occupies certainly the same site, there are no evidences that even the
lines of its streets are now what they were in the ancient city. Till
A.D. 131 the Jews who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted
to the Roman sway. But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to
hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The Jews,
however, took possession of it, having risen under the leadership of
one Bar-Chohaba (i.e., "the son of the star") in revolt against the
Romans. Some four years afterwards (A.D. 135) however, they were
driven out of it with great slaughter, and the city was again
destroyed; and over its ruins was built a Roman city called Aelia
Capitolina, a name which it retained till it fell under the dominion
of the Muslims, when it was called el-Khuds, i.e., "the holy." In
A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a pilgrimage
to Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places mentioned in the
life of our Lord. She caused a church to be built on what was then
supposed to be the place of the nativity at Bethlehem. Constantine,
animated by her example, searched for the holy sepulchre, and built
over the supposed site a magnificent church, which was completed and
dedicated A.D. 335 He relaxed the laws against the Jews till this time
in force, and permitted them once a year to visit the city and wail
over the desolation of "the holy and beautiful house." In A.D. 614 the
Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of the emperor Heraclius,
took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it till A.D. 637 when it was
taken by the Arabians under the Khalif Omar. It remained in their
possession till it passed, in A.D. 960 under the dominion of the
Fatimite khalifs of Egypt, and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In
A.D. 1099 the crusader Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from the
Moslems with great slaughter, and was elected king of Jerusalem. He
converted the Mosque of Omar into a Christian cathedral. During the
eighty-eight years which followed, many churches and convents were
erected in the holy city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt
during this period, and it alone remains to this day. In A.D. 1187
the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the Christians. From that
time to the present day, with few intervals, Jerusalem has remained in
the hands of the Moslems. It has, however, during that period been
again and again taken and retaken, demolished in great part and
rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many
vicissitudes. In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in
Jerusalem had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are
called the "holy places." In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of
Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of the
French, with the Latins. This led the Turkish authorities to settle
the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia. Out of this there
sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and sanguinary, but which
had important consequences in the way of breaking down the barriers of
Turkish exclusiveness. Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a
broad mountain-ridge, which extends without interruption from the
plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn between the southern end of the
Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean." This high,
uneven table-land is everywhere from 20 to 25 geographical miles in
breadth. It was anciently known as the mountains of Ephraim and Judah.
"Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from Damascus,
not merely because it is a stone town in mountains, whilst the latter
is a mud city in a plain, but because while in Damascus Moslem
religion and Oriental custom are unmixed with any foreign element, in
Jerusalem every form of religion, every nationality of East and West,
is represented at one time." Jerusalem is first mentioned under that
name in the Book of Joshua, and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of
tablets includes six letters from its Amorite king to Egypt, recording
the attack of the Abiri about B.C. 1480 The name is there spelt
Uru-Salim ("city of peace"). Another monumental record in which the
Holy City is named is that of Sennacherib's attack in B.C. 702 The
"camp of the Assyrians" was still shown about A.D. 70 on the flat
ground to the north-west, included in the new quarter of the city. The
city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and was
surrounded by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear to have
restored the original Jebusite fortifications. The name Zion (or Sion)
appears to have been, like Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical
term for Jerusalem, but in the Greek age was more specially used of
the Temple hill. The priests' quarter grew up on Ophel, south of the
Temple, where also was Solomon's Palace outside the original city of
David. The walls of the city were extended by Jotham and Manasseh to
include this suburb and the Temple 2Ch 27:3 33:14 - Jerusalem is
now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with ancient mediaeval walls,
partly on the old lines, but extending less far to the south. The
traditional sites, as a rule, were first shown in the 4th and later
centuries A.D., and have no authority. The results of excavation have,
however, settled most of the disputed questions, the limits of the
Temple area, and the course of the old walls having been traced.


Jerusha


Possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of Uzziah,
and mother of king Jotham 2Ki 15:33.


Jeshaiah


Deliverance of Jehovah.
1. A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of
Eliezer 1Ch 26:25 - called also Isshiah 1Ch 24:21.
2. One of the sons of Jeduthum 1Ch 25:3,15.
3. One of the three sons of Hananiah 1Ch 3:21.
4. Son of Athaliah Ezr 8:7.
5. A Levite of the family of Merari Ezr 8:19.


Jeshanah


A city of the kingdom of Israel 2Ch 13:19.


Jesharelah


Upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical
musicians 1Ch 25:14.


Jeshebeab


Seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests
1Ch 24:13.


Jesher


Uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah 1Ch 2:18.


Jeshimon


The waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea
Num 21:20 23:28 1Sa 23:19,24 - or rather not a proper name at all, but
simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district on which the plateau
of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.


Jeshua


1. Head of the ninth priestly order Ezr 2:36 - called also Jeshuah
1Ch 24:11.
2. A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the
priestly cities 2Ch 31:15.
3. Ezr 2:6 Neh 7:11.
4. Ezr 2:40 Neh 7:43.
5. The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel
Neh 7:7 12:1,7,10,26 - called Joshua Hag 1:1,12 2:2,4.
Zec 3:1,3,6,8,9.
6. A Levite Ezr 8:33.
7. The ruler of Mizpah Neh 3:19.
8. A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah
Neh 8:7 9:4,5.
9. Son of Kadmiel Neh 12:24.
10. A city of Judah Neh 11:26.
11. Neh 8:17 - Joshua, the son of Nun.


Jeshurun


A poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection,
meaning, "the dear upright people" Deu 32:15 33:5,26 Isa 44:2.


Jesse


Firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth Rut 4:17,22.
Mat 1:5-6 Luk 3:32 - He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of
whom was David 1Sa 17:12 - The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the
family of David Isa 11:1 - and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah
Isa 11:10 Rev 5:5 - Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and
position at Bethlehem 1Sa 17:17-18,20 Psa 78:71 - The last reference
to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab
1Sa 22:3.


Jether


Surplus; excellence.
1. Father-in-law of Moses Exo 4:18 - marg., called elsewhere Jethro
(q.v.).
2. The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons Jud 8:20.
3. The father of Amasa, David's general 1Ki 2:5,32 - called Ithra
2Sa 17:25.
4. 1Ch 7:38.
5. 1Ch 2:32 - one of Judah's posterity.
6. 1Ch 4:17.


Jetheth


A peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir Gen 36:40.


Jethlah


Suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan Jos 19:42.


Jetur


An enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael Gen 25:15.


Jeuel


Snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah 1Ch 9:6.


Jeush


Assembler.
1. The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah Gen 36:5,14,18.
2. A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin 1Ch 7:10.
3. A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei 1Ch 23:10,11.
4. One of the three sons of Rehoboam 2Ch 11:19.
5. 1Ch 8:39.


Jewess


A woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy Act 16:1.
2Ti 1:5 - and Drusilla Act 24:24 - wife of Felix, and daughter of
Herod Agrippa I.


Jeziel


Assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite
archers who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3.


Jezreel, Blood of


The murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu Hos 1:4 - comp.
1Ki 18:4 2Ki 9:6-10.


Jezreel, Day of


The time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds of
blood committed there Hos 1:5.


Jezreel, Ditch of


1Ki 21:23 - comp. 1Ki 21:13 - the fortification surrounding the
city, outside of which Naboth was executed.


Jezreel, Fountain of


Where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa 1Sa 29:1. In the
valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which,
perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in
the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The
water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads
out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty feet in diameter,
full of fish" (Robinson). This may be identical with the "well of
Harod" Jud 7:1 - comp. 2Sa 23:25 - probably the 'Ain Jalud, i.e.,
the "spring of Goliath."


Jezreel, Portion of


The field adjoining the city 2Ki 9:10,21,36,37 - Here Naboth was
stoned to death 1Ki 21:13.


Jezreel, Tower of


One of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city 2Ki 9:17.


Joah


Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper.
1. One of the sons of Obed-edom 1Ch 26:4 - a Korhite porter.
2. A Levite of the family of Gershom 1Ch 6:21 - probably the same as
Ethan 1Ch 6:42.
3. The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King
Hezekiah 2Ki 18:18,26,37.
4. Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state
archives under King Josiah 2Ch 34:8.


Joahaz


2Ch 34:8 - a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.).


Joanna


Whom Jehovah has graciously given.
1. The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ Luk 3:27.
the same as Hananiah 1Ch 3:19.
2. The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of
Galilee Luk 8:3 - She was one of the women who ministered to our
Lord, and to whom he appeared after his resurrection
Luk 8:3 24:10.


Joash


Whom Jehovah bestowed.
1. A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon
Jud 6:11,29 8:13,29,32.
2. One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag
1Ch 12:3.
3. One of King Ahab's sons 1Ki 22:26.
4. King of Judah 2Ki 11:2 12:19-20.
5. King of Israel 2Ki 13:9,12-13,25.
6. 1Ch 7:8.
7. One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and
Solomon 1Ch 27:28.

See JEHOASH 02005.


Job


Persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.).
While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly
overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all
his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him
with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than
he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one
hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to
succeeding generations of integrity Eze 14:14,20 - and of submissive
patience under the sorest calamities Jas 5:11 - His history, so far as
it is known, is recorded in his book.


Jobab


Dweller in the desert.
1. One of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe
Gen 10:29.
2. King of Edom, succeeded Bela Gen 36:33,34.
3. A Canaanitish king Jos 11:1 - who joined the confederacy against
Joshua.


Jochebed


Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam,
Aaron, and Moses Num 26:59 - She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath,
Amram's father Exo 6:20 - comp Exo 6:16,18 2:1-10.


Joel


Jehovah is his God.
1. The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in
Beersheba 1Sa 8:2.
2. A descendant of Reuben 1Ch 5:4,8.
3. One of David's famous warriors 1Ch 11:38.
4. A Levite of the family of Gershom 1Ch 15:7,11.
5. 1Ch 7:3.
6. 1Ch 27:20.
7. The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of
Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.


Joelah


A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:7.


Joezer


Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's
body-guard 1Ch 12:6.


John, Second Epistle of


Is addressed to "the elect lady," and closes with the words, "The
children of thy elect sister greet thee;" but some would read instead
of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this
epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is
commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers.


John The Baptist


The "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect
accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His
father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia 1Ch 24:10.
and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron Luk 1:5.
The mission of John was the subject of prophecy Mat 3:3 Isa 40:3.
Mal 3:1 - His birth, which took place six months before that of
Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of
speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity
with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech
restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision Luk 1:64 - After
this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is
mentioned in Luk 1:80 - John was a Nazarite from his birth
Luk 1:15 Num 6:1-12 - He spent his early years in the mountainous
tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea Mat 3:1-12.
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from
"every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was
the necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees
as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting
to external privileges Luk 3:8 - "As a preacher, John was eminently
practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the
prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined
charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned
against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His
doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and
the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the
banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto repentance. The
fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth Mat 3:5 - and he
came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special
ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" Mat 3:15.
John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now
"increase" as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for
a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him
out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public
ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a
close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for
the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip
Luk 3:19 - He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a
fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of
the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having
consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that
had occurred Mat 14:3-12 - John's death occurred apparently just
before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself
testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light"
Joh 5:35.


John, Third Epistle of


Is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that
name in Macedonia Act 19:29 - or in Corinth Rom 16:23 - or in
Derbe Act 20:4 - is uncertain. It was written for the purpose of
commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the place
where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching
the gospel 3Jo 1:7 - The Second and Third Epistles were probably
written soon after the First, and from Ephesus.


Joiada


(whom Jehovah favours) Jehoiada.
1. Neh 3:6.
2. One of the high priests Neh 12:10-11,22.


Joiakim


(whom Jehovah has set up) Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son and
successor of Jeshua Neh 12:10,12,26.


Joiarib


(whom Jehovah defends) Jehoiarib.
1. The founder of one of the courses of the priests Neh 11:10.
2. Neh 11:5 - a descendant of Judah.
3. Neh 12:6.
4. Ezr 8:16 - a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to "bring
ministers for the house of God."


Jokdeam


A city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:56.


Jokim


Whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah 1Ch 4:22.


Jokmeam


Gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with its
suburbs to the Levites 1Ch 6:68 - It lay somewhere in the Jordan
valley 1Ki 4:12 - R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly "Jokneam".


Jokneam


Gathered by the people, Jos 19:11 21:34 - a city "of Carmel" Jos 12:22.
i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite Levites.
It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth,
on the south of the river Kishon.


Jokshan


Snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah Gen 25:2-3 1Ch 1:32.


Joktan


Little, the second of the two sons of Eber Gen 10:25 1Ch 1:19 - There is
an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of
all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.


Joktheel


Subdued by God.
1. A city of Judah near Lachish Jos 15:38 - Perhaps the ruin
Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.
2. Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against
Edom 2Ch 25:5-10 - which was completely successful. He routed the
Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this
victory appear to him that he acknowledged that it could have
been achieved only by the special help of God, and therefore he
called Selah (q.v.), their great fortress city, by the name of
Joktheel 2Ki 14:7.


Jonadab


=Jehon'adab.
1. The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.),
2Ki 10:15 Jer 35:6,10.
2. The son of Shimeah, David's brother 2Sa 13:3 - He was "a very
subtil man."


Jonah


A dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel,
and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries 2Ki 14:25-27.
of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of
Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or
possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very
oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His personal
history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name.
It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he
appears,
1. as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and
2. as a type of the "Son of man."


Jonas


1. Greek form of Jonah Mat 12:39,40,41 - etc.
2. The father of the apostles Peter Joh 21:15-17 - and Andrew; but
the reading should be (also in) Joh 1:42 - as in the Revised
Version, "John," instead of Jonas.


Jonath-elem-rechokim


Dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in
distant places", title of Psa 56:1 - This was probably the name of
some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.


Joram


=Jeho'ram.
1. One of the kings of Israel 2Ki 8:16,25,28 - He was the son of
Ahab.
2. Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne of
Judah 2Ki 8:24.


Jot


Or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used
metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing Mat 5:18 - or it
may be yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.


Journey


1. A day's journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles Num 11:31.
2. A Sabbath-day's journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the city
walls Act 1:12 - According to Jewish tradition, it was the
distance one might travel without violating the law of Exo 16:29.

See SABBATH 03170.


Jozabad


Whom Jehovah bestows.
1. One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:4.
2. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh 1Ch 12:20.


Jozachar


Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated Jehoash,
the king of Judah, in Millo 2Ki 12:21 - He is called also Zabad
2Ch 24:26.


Jubal


Jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He
was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb. kinnor, properly "lyre") and
"the organ" (Heb. 'ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or Pan's pipe),
Gen 4:21.


Juda


1. The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob Luk 3:33 Heb 7:14|.
2. The tribe of Judah Luk 1:39 Heb 7:14 Rev 5:5 7:5|.
3. The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry Luk 3:30.
4. Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal
ancestry Luk 3:26 - probably identical with Abiud Mat 1:13.
and with Obadiah 1Ch 3:21.
5. One of the Lord's "brethren" Mar 6:3.


Judah Upon Jordan


The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in
Jos 19:34 - It has been suggested that, following the Masoretic
punctuation, the expression should read thus, "and Judah; the Jordan
was toward the sun-rising." The sixty cities (Havoth-jair,)
Num 32:41 - on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to
Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his
mother's side, but on his father's side of the tribe of Judah
1Ch 2:5,21-23.


Jude


= Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name,
1. Judas Jude 1:1 Mat 13:55 Joh 14:22 Act 1:13 - called also Lebbaeus
or Thaddaeus Mat 10:3 Mar 3:18.
2. Judas Iscariot Mat 10:4 Mar 3:19 - He who is called "the
brother of James" Luk 6:16 - may be the same with the Judas
surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in
Joh 14:22.


Judea


After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country
west of the Jordan Hag 1:1,14 2:2 - (Juda) But under the Romans, in the
time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of
Palestine Mat 2:1,5 3:1 4:25 - although it was also sometimes used for
Palestine generally Act 28:21 - The province of Judea, as distinguished
from Galilee and Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of
Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans
it was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a
procurator.


Judgement Hall


Gr. praitorion Joh 18:28,33 19:9 Mat 27:27 - "common hall." In all
these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mar 15:16 - the
word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning
literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's
residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels
the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp.) Act 23:35 - Pilate's
official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of
the fortress of Antonia. The trial of our Lord was carried on in a
room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were
gathered together in the palace court.


Judgment Seat


Mat 27:19 - a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed
according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was
pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement,
probably in front of the procurator's residence.

See GABBATHA 01403.


Judgments Of God



1. The secret decisions of God's will Psa 110:5 36:6.
2. The revelations of his will Exo 21:1 Deu 6:20 Psa 119:7-175.
3. The infliction of punishment on the wicked Exo 6:6 12:12.
Eze 25:11 Rev 16:7 - such as is mentioned in Gen 7:1.
Gen 19:24-25 Jud 1:6-7 Act 5:1-10 - etc.


Judith


Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives
Gen 26:34 - elsewhere called Aholibamah Gen 36:2-14.


Julia


A Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations Rom 16:15.
supposed to be the wife of Philologus.


Julius


The centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in
whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome Act 27:1,3,43 - He
entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many ways a friendly regard
for him.


Junia


Rom 16:7 - a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations along
with Andronicus.


Jupiter


The principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was
worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified
with this god by the Lycaonians Act 14:12 - because he was of stately
and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a
temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra Act 14:13.


Justice


Is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been
distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means
merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of
what is fair and right in every separate case.


Justus


1. Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias are
mentioned only in Act 1:23 - "They must have been among the
earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the
end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the
brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they
did, are entirely unknown" (Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles).
2. A Jewish proselyte at Corinth, in whose house, next door to the
synagogue, Paul held meetings and preached after he left the
synagogue Act 18:7.
3. A Jewish Christian, called Jesus, Paul's only fellow-labourer at
Rome, where he wrote his Epistle to the Colossians Col 4:11.


Juttah


Extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of Judah
Jos 15:55 21:16 - Its modern name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2
miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been the residence of
Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist, and
on this account is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims
belonging to the Greek Church Luk 1:39.

See MARY 02428.


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