Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - I



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Ibhar


Chosen, one of David's sons 1Ch 3:6 2Sa 5:15.


Ibleam


People-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh Jos 17:11 - from which the
Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites Jud 1:27 - It is
also called Bileam 1Ch 6:70 - It was probably the modern Jelamah, a
village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin.


Ibzan


Illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel Jud 12:8-10 - He ruled seven
years.


Ice


Frequently mentioned Job 6:16 38:29 Psa 147:17 - etc.

See CRYSTAL 00933.


Ichabod


When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in the
battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried to Shiloh,
the wife of Phinehas "was near to be delivered. And when she heard
the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law
and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed"
1Sa 4:19-22 - In her great distress she regarded not "the women
that stood by her," but named the child that was born "Ichabod" i.e.,
no glory, saying, "The glory is departed from Isreal;" and with that
word on her lips she expired.


Iconium


The capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and
Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first
missionary journey Act 13:50,51 - Here they were persecuted by the
Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They
afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had
been founded there Act 14:21-22 - It was probably again visited by Paul
during his third missionary journey along with Silas Act 18:23 - It is
the modern Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles
inland from the Mediterranean.


Idalah


Snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun Jos 19:15 - It has
been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of Kishon.


Iddo


1. Timely 1Ch 6:21 - A Gershonite Levite.
2. Lovely. The son of Zechariah 1Ch 27:21 - the ruler of Manasseh in
David's time.
3. Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon's
purveyors 1Ki 4:14.
4. Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of Rehoboam and
Abijah 2Ch 12:15 - He has been identified with Oded 2Ch 15:1.
5. Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the prophet
Zechariah Zec 1:1,7 - He returned from Babylon Neh 12:4.


Idumaea


The Greek form of Edom Isa 34:5-6 Eze 35:15 36:5 - but in R.V. "Edom".

See EDOM 01129.


Igal


Avengers.
1. Num 13:7 - one of the spies of the tribe of Issachar.
2. Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David's warriors 2Sa 23:36.
3. 1Ch 3:22.


Iim


Ruins.
1. A city in the south of Judah Jos 15:29.
2. One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness Num 33:45.


Ije-abarim


Ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in the
wilderness, "in the border of Moab" Num 33:44.


Ijon


A ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the
instance of Asa 1Ki 15:20 - and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of
Assyria 2Ki 15:29 - in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam.


Ilai


An Ahohite, one of David's chief warriors 1Ch 11:29 - called also
Zalmon 2Sa 23:28.


Illyricum


A country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the
Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a name formerly
given to the southern part of Illyricum 2Ti 4:10 - It was traversed by
Paul in his third missionary journey Rom 15:19 - It was the farthest
district he had reached in preaching the gospel of Christ. This
reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Act 20:2 - inasmuch as the
apostle's journey over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the
borders of Illyricum.


Imagery


Only in the phrase "chambers of his imagery" Eze 8:12.

See CHAMBER 00761.


Imla


Replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet 2Ch 18:7,8.


Immanuel


God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa 7:14 8:8.
Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly
and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne
out by the words of the evangelist Matthew Mat 1:23.


Immer


Talkative.
1. The head of the sixteenth priestly order 1Ch 24:14.
2. Jer 20:1.
3. Ezr 2:37 Neh 7:40.
4. Ezr 2:59 Neh 7:61.
5. The father of Zadok Neh 3:29.


Immortality


Perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the
Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses
Gen 5:22,24 25:8 37:35 47:9 49:29 Heb 11:13-16 Ex 3:6 Mat 22:23.
It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books Isa 14:9.
Psa 17:15 49:15 73:24 - It was thus a doctrine obviously well known
to the Jews. With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was
"brought to light" 2Ti 1:10 1Co 15:1 - 2Co 5:1-6 1Th 4:13-18.


Imputation


Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a
person. Thus in doctrinal language
1. the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is
reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty;
See FALL OF MAN 01304.
2. the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in
him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and
3. our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our
"law-place," undertook to answer the demands of justice for our
sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same
Rom 5:12-19 - comp. Phm 1:18,19.


Incarnation


That act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with
his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human
attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are
predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature
Act 20:28 Ro 8:32 1Co 2:8 Heb 2:11-14 1Ti 3:16 Gal 4:4 - etc. The union
is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or
confounded, and it is perpetual.


Incense


A fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary." It
consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" Exo 30:34-36 - That which
was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" Exo 30:9 - It was
offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered
on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of
atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies
Exo 30:7-8 - It was the symbol of prayer Psa 141:1-2 Rev 5:8 8:3-4.


India


Occurs only in Est 1:1 8:9 - where the extent of the dominion of
the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not
the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus,
the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to
the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that
country Eze 27:15,24.


Inkhorn


The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for
containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle
Eze 9:2-3,11 - The word "inkhorn" was used by the translators, because
in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink.


Inn


In the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais,
which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old
Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Exo 4:24 - was just the halting-place
of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the
accommodation of travellers. In Luk 2:7 - the word there so rendered
denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is
rendered "guest-chamber" in Mar 14:14 Luk 22:11 - In Luk 10:34 - the
word so rendered is different. That inn had an "inn-keeper," who
attended to the wants of travellers.


Iphedeiah


Set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin 1Ch 8:25.


Ira


Citizen; wakeful.
1. A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors 2Sa 23:26.
2. An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes 2Sa 23:38.
3. A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain 2Sa 20:26 - or
confidential adviser (comp.) 2Sa 8:18 1Ch 18:17.


Irad


Runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father of
Mehujael Gen 4:18 - and grandson of Cain.


Iram


Citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir Gen 36:43.


Irha-heres


According to some MSS., meaning "city of destruction." Other MSS. read
- 'Irhahares -; rendered "city of the sun", Isa 19:18 - where alone the
word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy
here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there
as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in
the time of the Ptolemies.

See ON 02786.


Irrigation


As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in
winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous
rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot Deu 11:10.
For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by
water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile
to the present day.


Isaiah, the Book of


Consists of prophecies delivered Isa 1:1.
1. In the reign of Uzziah (1-5)
2. Of Jotham (6)
3. Ahaz (7:1-14:28)
4. the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35)
5. the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66).
Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762)
to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698) Isaiah's ministry extended
over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived
Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above. The book,
as a whole, has been divided into three main parts:
1. The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic,
Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler
and King.
2. Four chapters are historical (36-39) relating to the times of
Hezekiah.
3. Prophetical (40-66)

Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim,
meek and lowly. The genuineness of the section (Isa 40-66) has been
keenly opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the
production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the
Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a German
writer at the close of the last century. There are other portions of
the book also (e.g., ch. 13-24) and certain verses in ch. 14 and 21
which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say
that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in
the production of this book. The considerations which have led to such
a result are various:
1. They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah,
living in B.C. 700 could foretell the appearance and the
exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free
from captivity one hundred and seventy years after.
2. It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity
as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and
3. that there is such a difference between the style and language
of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding
chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to
the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs.
But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language,
this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from
it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the
prophet's position at the time the prophecies were uttered will
sufficiently account for this. The arguments in favour of the unity of
the book are quite conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about
B.C. 250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the
son of Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time
of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it. Many
prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as
the words of Isaiah Mat 3:3 Luk 3:4-6 4:16-41 Joh 12:38 Act 8:28.
Rom 10:16-21 - Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the
whole book to one author. Besides this, the internal evidence, the
similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and
rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local
colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian
origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much
less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The book, with
all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the
production of the great prophet whose name it bears.


Iscah


Spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot Gen 11:29,31.


Iscariot


See JUDAS 02129.


Ishbak


Leaving, one of Abraham's sons by Keturah Gen 25:2.


Ishbi-benob


My seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred
shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai 2Sa 21:16,17.


Ish-bosheth


Man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the
only one who survived him 2Sa 2:1-4:12 - His name was originally
Eshbaal 1Ch 8:33 9:39 - He was about forty years of age when his
father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the
influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to
the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the tribe of
Judah (over whom David was king), for two years, having Mahanaim, on
the east of Jordan, as his capital 2Sa 2:9 - After a troubled and
uncertain reign he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he
was asleep on his couch at mid-day 2Sa 4:5-7 - and having cut off
his head, presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them for this
cold-blooded murder, and ordered them to be immediately executed
2Sa 4:9-12.


Ishi


My husband, a symbolical name used in Hos 2:16.

See BAALI 00394.


Ishmaiah


Heard by Jehovah.
1. A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, "a hero among the thirty
and over the thirty" 1Ch 12:4.
2. Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon
1Ch 27:19.


Ishmeelites


Gen 37:28 39:1 - (A.V.) should be "Ishmaelites," as in the Revised
Version.


Ishtob


Man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together
constituted Aram 2Sa 10:6,8.


Island


(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual
signification Isa 42:4,10,12,15 - comp. Jer 47:4 - but more
frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast Isa 20:6.
R.V.," coastland;" Isa 23:2,6 Jer 2:10 Eze 27:6-7 - The shores of
the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" Isa 11:11.
or the "isles of the Gentiles" Gen 10:5 - and sometimes simply
"isles" Psa 72:10 Eze 26:15,18 27:3,35 Dan 11:18.

See CHITTIM 00811.


Italian Band the


Name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged Act 10:1 - so
called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy.


Italy


Act 18:2 27:1,6 Heb 13:24 - like most geographical names, was
differently used at different periods of history. As the power of
Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it
till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps.
There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the
time of the Romans.


Ithamar


Palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron 1Ch 6:3 - He was
consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers Exo 6:23 - and
after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged
the functions of that office Lev 10:6,12 Num 3:4 - He and his family
occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood
passed into his family in the person of Eli 1Ki 2:27 - the reasons for
which are not recorded.

See ZADOK 03864.


Ithrite


Two of David's warriors so designated 2Sa 23:38 1Ch 11:40.


Ittai


Near; timely; or, with the Lord.
1. A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes 2Sa 23:29.
2. A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command
of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his
wanderings 2Sa 15:19-22 - comp. 1Sa 23:13 27:2 30:9-10 - He is
afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal
rank with Joab and Abishai 2Sa 18:2,5,12 - He then passes from
view.


Ituraea


A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the
adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip Luk 3:1.
The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is
bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on
the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.


Ivah


Overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to
Samaria 2Ki 18:34 19:13 - It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim
and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra
Ezr 8:15.


Izhar


Oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi
Exo 6:18,21 Num 16:1.


Izrahite


The designation of one of David's officers 1Ch 27:8.


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