Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - H

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Embrace, the eighth of the twelve minor prophets. Of his personal
history we have no reliable information. He was probably a member of
the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with Jeremiah and Zephaniah.


An Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 - (Heb. shiryah) it
is properly a "coat of mail;" the Revised Version has "pointed
shaft." In Exo 28:32 39:23 - it denotes a military garment strongly and
thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such
linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these
verses is - tahra -, which is of Egyptian origin. The Revised Version,
however, renders it by "coat of mail."

See ARMOUR 00315.


God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him
Psa 71:3 91:9 - Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne
Psa 89:14 - Heb. mekhon, "foundation", because all his acts are founded
on justice and judgment. (See) Psa 132:5,13 Eph 2:22 - of Canaan,
Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity
Isa 57:15 - i.e., dwells not only among men, but in eternity, where
time is unknown; and "the praises of Israel" Psa 22:3 - i.e., he dwells
among those praises and is continually surrounded by them.


The united stream, or, according to others, with beautiful banks, the
name of a river in Assyria, and also of the district through which it
flowed 1Ch 5:26 - There is a river called Khabur which rises in the
central highlands of Kurdistan, and flows south-west till it falls
into the Tigris, about 70 miles above Mosul. This was not, however,
the Habor of Scripture. There is another river of the same name (the
Chaboras) which, after a course of about 200 miles, flows into the
Euphrates at Karkesia, the ancient Circesium. This was, there can be
little doubt, the ancient Habor.


Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god.
1. An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites Gen 36:35 1Ch 1:46.
2. Another Edomite king 1Ch 1:50,51 - called also Hadar
Gen 36:39 1Ch 1:51.
3. One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt, where he
married the sister of Pharaoh's wife 1Ki 11:14-22 - He became one
of Solomon's adversaries.
4. Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding), one
of the sons of Ishmael 1Ch 1:30 - Called also Hadar Gen 25:15.


(composed of the names of two Syrian idols), the name of a place in
the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded to by the prophet Zechariah
Zec 12:11 - in a proverbial expression derived from the lamentation
for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place 2Ch 35:22-25 - It
has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village "at the foot of
the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and a half south
of Tell Metzellim."


Adod, brave(?).
1. A son of Ishmael Gen 25:15 - in 1Ch 1:30 - written Hadad.
2. One of the Edomitish kings Gen 36:39 - about the time of Saul.
Called also Hadad 1Ch 1:50,51 - It is probable that in these
cases Hadar may be an error simply of transcription for Hadad.


Adod is his help, the name given to Hadadezer 2Sa 8:3-12 10:1.


New, a city in the valley of Judah Jos 15:37.


Myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q.v.), Est 2:7.


New, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah Jos 15:25.


Pointed, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Lydda, or Lod, and Ono
Ezr 2:33 Neh 7:37 - It is identified with the modern el-Haditheh, 3
miles east of Lydda.


Resting, an Ephraimite; the father of Amasa, mentioned in 2Ch 28:12.


Is exalted.
1. The son of Tou, king of Hamath, sent by his father to
congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Syria
1Ch 18:10 - called Joram 2Sa 8:10.
2. The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe Gen 10:27.
1Ch 1:21.
3. One who was "over the tribute;" i.e., "over the levy." He was
stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam
2Ch 10:18 - Called also Adoram 2Sa 20:24 - and Adoniram 1Ki 4:6.


The name of a country Zec 9:1 - which cannot be identified. Rawlinson
would identify it with Edessa. He mentions that in the Assyrian
inscriptions it is recorded that "Shalmanezer III. made two
expeditions, the first against Damascus B.C. 773 and the second
against Hadrach B.C. 772 and again that Asshurdanin-il II. made
expeditions against Hadrach in B.C. 765 and 755


Or Emerods, bleeding piles known to the ancient Romans as mariscae,
but more probably malignant boils of an infectious and fatal
character. With this loathsome and infectious disease the men of
Ashdod were smitten by the hand of the Lord. This calamity they
attributed to the presence of the ark in their midst, and therefore
they removed it to Gath 1Sa 5:6-8 - But the same consequences followed
from its presence in Gath, and therefore they had it removed to
Ekron, 11 miles distant. The Ekronites were afflicted with the
same dreadful malady, but more severely; and a panic seizing the
people, they demanded that the ark should be sent back to the land of
Israel 1Sa 5:9-12 6:1-9.


A handle as of a dagger Jud 3:22.


Festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah
2Sa 3:4 1Ki 1:5,11 2:13 1Ch 3:2 - who, like Absalom, was famed for
his beauty.


The holy writings, a term which came early into use in the Christian
church to denote the third division of the Old Testament scriptures,
called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e., "Writings." It consisted of five
books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, and the two books of
Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their sacred books as the
Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings. In the New
Testament Luk 24:44 - we find three corresponding divisions, viz.,
the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.

See BIBLE 00580.


A salutation expressive of a wish for the welfare of the person
addressed; the translation of the Greek - Chaire -, "Rejoice" Luk 1:28.
Used in mockery in Mat 27:29.


Frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt Exo 9:23 - It is
mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment Hag 2:17 - A hail-storm
destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought against Joshua
Jos 10:11 - Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar
as destroyed by great hail-stones Eze 13:11 - (See also)
Eze 38:22 Rev 8:7 11:19 16:21.


The thorn, the head of one of the courses of the priests 1Ch 24:10.


A district of Media to which captive Israelites were transported by
the Assyrian kings 2Ki 17:6 18:11 1Ch 5:26 - It lay along the banks of
the upper Khabur, from its source to its junction with the Jerujer.
Probably the district called by Ptolemy Chalcitis.


Smooth; bald, a hill at the southern extremity of Canaan Jos 11:17 - It
is referred to as if it were a landmark in that direction, being
prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It has by some been
identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier of
Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian.


Full of hollows, a town in the highlands of Judah Jos 15:58 - It is now
a small village of the same name, and is situated about 5 miles
north-east of Hebron on the way to Jerusalem. There is an old Jewish
tradition that Gad, David's seer 2Sa 24:11 - was buried here.


(Gr. aule, Luk 22:55 - R.V., "court")
1. The open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house.
In Mat 26:69 Mar 14:66 - this word is incorrectly rendered
"palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the
Revised Version.
2. In Joh 10:1,16 - it means a "sheep-fold."
3. In Mat 27:27 Mar 15:16 - (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it
refers to the proetorium or residence of the Roman governor at
Jerusalem. The "porch" in Mat 26:71 - is the entrance-hall or
passage leading into the central court, which is open to the sky.


Praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118 which are
preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel,"
because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were
being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at
Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The
Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse, the
people responding by repeating the verses or by intoned hallelujahs.
It was also chanted in private families at the feast of Passover.
This was probably the hymn which our Saviour and his disciples sung
at the conclusion of the Passover supper kept by them in the upper
room at Jerusalem Mat 26:30 Mar 14:26 - There is also another group
called "The Great Hallel," comprehending Psalms 118-136 which was
recited on the first evening at the Passover supper and on occasions
of great joy.


Praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at
the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150) hence
called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into
a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in
Rev 19:1,3-4,6.


To render sacred, to consecrate Exo 28:38 29:1 - This word is from the
Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is
"hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy Mat 6:9.


Lame on the feet Gen 32:31 Psa 38:17 - To "halt between two opinions"
1Ki 18:21 - is supposed by some to be an expression used in "allusion
to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards." The
LXX. render the expression "How long go ye lame on both knees?" The
Hebrew verb rendered "halt" is used of the irregular dance ("leaped
upon") around the altar 1Ki 18:26 - It indicates a lame, uncertain
gait, going now in one direction, now in another, in the frenzy of
wild leaping.


Warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black",
the youngest son of Noah Gen 5:32 - comp. Gen 9:22,24 - The curse
pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth
son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the
Canaanites. One of the most important facts recorded in Gen 10:1.
is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the
grandson of Ham Gen 10:6,8,10. The primitive Babylonian empire was
thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of
Arabia and of Ethiopia. The race of Ham were the most energetic of all
the descendants of Noah in the early times of the post-diluvian world.

See ACCAD 00060.


(of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e., the
prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus Est 3:1 - etc. He is
called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from
the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the
Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He or his
parents were brought to Persia as captives taken in war. He was
hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew
Est 7:10.

See ESTHER 01254.


Fortress of Zobah, 2Ch 8:3 - is supposed by some to be a different
place from the foregoing; but this is quite uncertain.


Warm springs, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali Jos 19:35 - It is
identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from
136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to
the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh ("Bath of


Father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" Est 3:1,10 8:5.


The king's, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jer 36:26 - Some take
this word as a common noun, "the king", and understand that Jerahmeel
was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper


The queen, the daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead 1Ch 7:17-18.
Abiezer was one of her three children.


Warm springs.
1. A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon Jos 19:28 - identified
with 'Ain Hamul.
2. A Levitical city of Naphtali 1Ch 6:76.


Warm springs, a Levitical city of Naphtali Jos 21:32 - probably Hammath
in Jos 19:35.


See BAAL-HAMON 00390.


Multitude, a name figuratively assigned to the place in which the
slaughter and burial of the forces of Gog were to take place
Eze 39:16.


Multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered
forces of Gog are to be buried Eze 39:11,15 - "the valley of the
passengers on the east of the sea."


He-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which
Joseph was afterwards buried Gen 33:19 - He is called "Emmor" in
Act 7:16 - His son Shechem founded the city of that name which Simeon
and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the matter of Dinah, Jacob's
daughter Gen 34:20 - Hamor and Shechem were also slain Gen 34:26.


Spared, one of the sons of Pharez, son of Judah 1Ch 2:5 - His
descendants are called Hamulites Num 26:21.


Kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of king
Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz 2Ki 23:31 - also of king Zedekiah
2Ki 24:18.


Whom God has graciously given, the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom he sold
the field he possessed in Anathoth, before the siege of Jerusalem
Jer 32:6-12.


1. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:23.
2. One of David's heroes 1Ch 11:43.
3. The son of Igdaliah Jer 35:4.
4. A descendant of Saul 1Ch 8:38.
5. One of the Nethinim Ezr 2:46.
6. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra Neh 8:7.
7. One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant Neh 10:22.


God has graciously given, a tower in the wall of Jerusalem
Neh 3:1 12:39 - It is mentioned also in Jer 31:38 Zec 14:10.


God has gratified me, or is gracious.
1. One of the sons of Heman 1Ch 25:4,25.
2. A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a
league with Benhadad I., king of Syria, against Judah
2Ch 16:1-10 - He was probably the father of the prophet Jehu
1Ki 16:7.
3. Probably a brother of Nehemiah Neh 1:2 7:2 - who reported to him
the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards
appointed him to have charge of the city gates.


Jehovah has given.
1. A chief of the tribe of Benjamin 1Ch 8:24.
2. One of the sons of Heman 1Ch 25:4,23.
3. One of Uzziah's military officers 2Ch 26:11.
4. Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah Jer 37:13.
5. Jer 36:12.
6. Neh 10:23.
7. Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew children" Dan 1:1 - Dan 6:7.
8. Son of Zerubbabel 1Ch 3:19,21.
9. Ezr 10:28.
10. The "ruler of the palace; he was a faithful man, and feared God
above many" Neh 7:2.
11. Neh 3:8.
12. Neh 3:30.
13. A priest, son of Jeremiah Neh 12:12.
14. A false prophet contemporary with Jeremiah Jer 28:3,17.


A measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches Exo 25:25 37:12.
Psa 39:5 - etc.


Only once in Authorized Version Act 19:12 - The Greek word (sudarion) so
rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is rendered "napkin" in
Joh 11:44 20:7 Luk 19:20.


Servant Gen 16:1 Ru 3:9 Luk 1:48 - It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's
personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was
among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.


Col 2:14 - The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the
grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had


A place in Egypt mentioned only in Isa 30:4 - in connection with a
reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt. It was considered
the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier, but
has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70 miles from Cairo.


Grace of God.
1. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh Num 34:23.
2. A chief of the tribe of Asher 1Ch 7:39.


Graciously given.
1. The son and successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David's
messengers, sent on an embassy of condolence to him to Rabbah
Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted that he proclaimed
war against Hanun. David's army, under the command of Joab,
forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over
the Moabites and their allies 2Sa 10:1-14 - at Medeba (q.v.).
2. Neh 3:13.
3. Neh 3:30.


Mountainous land, a province of Assyria 1Ch 5:26 - between the Tigris
and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to which some of
the Israelite captives were carried. It has not been identified. Some
think the word a variation of Haran.


Fright; fear, the twenty-fifth station of the Israelites in their
wanderings Num 33:24.


(A Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs or
chamberlains of king Ahasuerus Est 1:10 7:9.


(Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law
Lev 11:6 Deu 14:7 - "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the
hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its
jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it
is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel,
rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is
interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not
divide the hoof. There are two species in Syria,
1. The Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare, which is like the English
2. The Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare of the desert. No rabbits are
found in Syria.


Thicket, a wood in the mountains of Judah where David hid when pursued
by Saul 1Sa 22:5 - It was possibly while he was here that the
memorable incident narrated in 2Sa 23:14-17 1Ch 11:16-19 - occurred.
This place has not been identified, but perhaps it may be the modern
Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some 3 miles east
of Keilah.


Zeal of Jehovah, Neh 3:8 - "of the goldsmiths," one whose son helped to
repair the wall of Jerusalem.


Fever, one of the Nethinim Ezr 2:51.


1. The head of the second course of priests 1Ch 24:8.
2. Ezr 2:32,39 Neh 7:35,42.
3. Neh 3:11.
4. Neh 12:3.
5. Neh 10:5.


Autumnal rain.
1. Neh 7:24.
2. Neh 10:19.


A chief of the tribe of Asher 1Ch 7:36.


1. Heb. 'asar, "to bind;" hence the act of fastening animals to a
cart 1Sa 6:7,10 Jer 46:4 - etc.
2. An Old English word for "armour;" Heb. neshek 2Ch 9:24.
3. Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail 1Ki 22:34 2Ch 18:33 - rendered
"breastplate" in Isa 59:17.
4. The children of Israel passed out of Egypt "harnessed" Exo 13:18.
i.e., in an orderly manner, and as if to meet a foe. The word so
rendered is probably a derivative from Hebrew - hamesh - (i.e.,
"five"), and may denote that they went up in five divisions,
viz., the van, centre, two wings, and rear-guard.


Palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped on the
morning of the day when they encountered and routed the Midianites
Jud 7:1 - It was south of the hill Moreh. The present 'Ain Jalud
("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite Shunem,
is probably the fountain here referred to Jud 7:4,5.


An epithet applied to two of David's heroes 2Sa 23:25 - (Comp.)
1Ch 11:27.


(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented
by Jubal Gen 4:21 - Some think the word - kinnor - denotes the whole
class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to
songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God Gen 31:27 1Sa 16:23.
2Ch 20:28 Psa 33:2 137:2 - In Solomon's time harps were made of
almug-trees 1Ki 10:11-12 - In 1Ch 15:21 - mention is made of "harps
on the Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;"
better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of the
music of the harp is referred to 1Sa 16:16,23 18:10 19:9 - The church
in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer
"harping with their harps" Rev 14:2.


(Heb. harits), a tribulum or sharp threshing sledge; a frame armed on
the under side with rollers or sharp spikes 2Sa 12:31 1Ch 20:3 - Heb.
verb - sadad -, to harrow a field, break its clods Job 39:10 Isa 28:4.
Hos 10:11 - Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the instrument
still in use in Egypt.


Worker or enchanter, one of the Nethinim Ezr 2:52 Neh 7:54.


(Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean
animals Deu 12:15 14:5 15:22 - and was commonly killed for food
1Ki 4:23 - The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and
prophetical books Isa 35:6 So 2:8-9 La 1:6 Psa 42:1.


Elevated, 1Ch 4:8 - a descendant of Judah.


A native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who
joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:5.


Eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh
2Ki 21:19 - and mother of king Amon.


The season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or
April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a first-fruit
before the Lord, and immediately after this the harvest commenced
Lev 23:9-14 2Sa 21:9-10 Ru 2:23 - It began with the feast of Passover
and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting for seven weeks Exo 23:16 - The
harvest was a season of joy Psa 126:1-6 Isa 9:3 - This word is used
figuratively Mat 9:37 13:30 Luk 10:2 Joh 4:35.



Favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah 1Ch 3:20 - of the royal
line of David.


Bristling or hated, a Benjamite 1Ch 9:7.


Regarded by Jehovah.
1. Merarite Levite 1Ch 6:45 9:14.
2. A son of Jeduthun 1Ch 25:3,19.
3. Son of Kemuel 1Ch 26:30.
4. One of the chief Levites 2Ch 35:9.
5. A Levite Neh 11:22.
6. One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra Ezr 8:24.
7. A chief of the Levites Neh 12:24.
8. Ezr 8:19.
9. Neh 3:17.


1. Neh 3:10.
2. One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to
the people Neh 9:5.


Consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read the
law Neh 8:4.


Fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their
wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor Num 33:29,30.


1. A Levite of the family of Merari Neh 11:15 1Ch 9:14.
2. Neh 3:23 3:11.


Ibid., a descendant of David 1Ch 3:20.


1. Ezr 2:19 Neh 7:22.
2. Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law Neh 8:4.


Poverty, "keeper of the wardrobe," i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments
2Ch 34:22 - called Harhas 2Ki 22:14 - He was an ancestor of Shallum,
husband of the prophetess Huldah.


Uncovered, one of the Nethinim Ezr 2:43 Neh 7:46.


Chald. karb'ela, Dan 3:21 - properly mantle or pallium. The Revised
Version renders it "tunic."


Verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus
Est 4:5-6,9-10.


Terror, son of Othniel 1Ch 4:13.


Captured, one of the Nethinim Ezr 2:54.


Exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors Ezr 2:42 - He
returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.


Among the works of the flesh Gal 5:20 - Altogether different is the
meaning of the word in Deu 21:15 Mat 6:24 Luk 14:26 Ro 9:13 - where it
denotes only a less degree of love.


1. A priest who returned with Zerubbabel Neh 12:2.
2. Ezr 8:2.
3. Neh 3:10.
4. Neh 10:4.
5. 1Ch 3:22.


Cave-land, mentioned only in Eze 47:16,18 - It was one of the ancient
divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of Gaulanitis
or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending from the Arnon to
the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region in Syria, and to this
day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have stone doors and
massive walls. It retains its ancient name. It was known by the
Greeks and Romans as "Auranitis."


A harbour Psa 107:30 Act 27:12 - The most famous on the coast of
Palestine was that of Tyre Eze 27:3 - That of Crete, called "Fair
Havens," is mentioned Act 27:8.


Hamlets of the enlightener a district in the east of Jordan.
1. Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some villages of Gilead and
called them by this name Num 32:41.
2. Again, it is said that Jair "took all the tract of Argob," and
called it Bashanhavoth-jair Deu 3:14 Jos 13:30 1Ki 4:13.
1Ch 2:22,23.


(Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence
appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird Lev 11:16 Deu 14:15 - It
is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word
includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference
perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis
subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestrel
remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other
species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to
Palestine special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the
Falco lanarius.

See NIGHT-HAWK 02729.


Properly so called, was not in use among the Hebrews; straw was used
instead. They cut the grass green as it was needed. The word rendered
"hay" in Pro 27:25 - means the first shoots of the grass. In
Isa 15:6 - the Revised Version has correctly "grass," where the
Authorized Version has "hay."


Village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine
Num 34:4 - in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea. It is called
Adar in Jos 15:3.


Village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine
Num 34:9-10 - Some have identified it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of
the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has
been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of
Damascus. (Comp.) Eze 47:17 48:1.


Village of fortune, a city on the south border of Judah Jos 15:27.
midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.


Village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran
Eze 47:16 - probably on the north brow of Hermon.


Court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix
settled by him Gen 10:26 1Ch 1:20 - It is probably the modern province
of Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.


Village or enclosure of the jackal, a city on the south border of
Judah Jos 15:28 Neh 11:27 - It has been identified with the ruins of
Saweh, half-way between Beersheba and Moladah.


Village of the horse, the same as Sansannah, one of Solomon's "chariot
cities" Jos 15:31 2Ch 1:14 - a depot in the south border of Judah.


Heb. luz, Gen 30:37 - a nutbearing tree. The Hebrew word is rendered in
the Vulgate by amygdalinus, "the almond-tree," which is probably
correct. That tree flourishes in Syria.


Villages, probably the name of the temporary villages in which the
nomad Avites resided Deu 2:23.


Pruning of the palm, the original name of the place afterwards called
ENGEDI (q.v.), Gen 14:7 - called also HAZAZON-TAMAR 2Ch 20:2.


Vision, one of the sons of Nahor Gen 22:22.


New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah Jos 15:25 - It is probably
identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.


(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist Isa 3:20.
R.V., "sashes;" Jer 2:32 - rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the


When Joshua took the city of Ai Jos 8:1 - he burned it and "made it
an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" Jos 8:28 - The ruins of this city were
for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however,
identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel."
"There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel
with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But the
site of Ai has no other name 'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel,
'the heap' par excellence."


According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual
activity, but of all the operations of human life. "Heart" and "soul"
are often used interchangeably Deu 6:5 26:16 - comp. Mat 22:37.
Mar 12:30,33 - but this is not generally the case. The heart is the
"home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated, according
to his heart, wise 1Ki 3:12 - etc., pure Psa 24:4 Mat 5:8 - etc.,
upright and righteous Gen 20:5-6 Psa 11:2 78:72 - pious and good
Luk 8:15 - etc. In these and such passages the word "soul" could not
be substituted for "heart." The heart is also the seat of the
conscience Rom 2:15 - It is naturally wicked Gen 8:21 - and hence
it contaminates the whole life and character Mat 12:34 15:18 - comp.
Ecc 8:11 Psa 73:7 - Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated
Eze 36:26 11:19 Psa 51:10-14 - before a man can willingly obey God.
The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing
reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that
testimony hardens the heart Psa 95:8 Pr 28:14 2Ch 36:13 - "Hardness
of heart evidences itself by light views of sin; partial
acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and conceit; ingratitude;
unconcern about the word and ordinances of God; inattention to divine
providences; stifling convictions of conscience; shunning reproof;
presumption, and general ignorance of divine things."


1. Heb. ah Jer 36:22-23 - R.V., "brazier", meaning a large pot like a
brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's
winter apartment.
2. Heb. kiyor Zec 12:6 - R.V., "pan", a fire-pan.
3. Heb. moqed Psa 102:3 - R.V., "fire-brand", properly a fagot.
4. Heb. yaqud Isa 30:14 - a burning mass on a hearth.


Heb. hamor, Gen 12:16 - the general designation of the donkey used for
carrying burdens Gen 42:26 - and for ploughing Isa 30:24 - It is
described in Gen 49:14 2Sa 19:26.

See ASS 00349.


Heb. 'arar, Jer 17:6 48:6 - a species of juniper called by the Arabs by
the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. "Its gloomy,
stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its
gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to
the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by
the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute,
and the man that trusteth in the Lord, flourishing as a tree planted
by the waters" (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible).

Heave offering

Heb. terumah, Exo 29:27 - means simply an offering, a present,
including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This
Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the
word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering,
which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down,
distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repeated
movement in a horizontal direction, a "wave offering to the Lord as
ruler of earth, a heave offering to the Lord as ruler of heaven." The
right shoulder, which fell to the priests in presenting thank
offerings, was called the heave shoulder Lev 7:34 Num 6:20 - The first
fruits offered in harvest-time Num 15:20-21 - were heave offerings.


Passing over.
1. Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher Gen 46:17 1Ch 7:31,32.
2. The Kenite Jud 4:11,17 5:24 - a descendant of Hobab. His wife
Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him.
3. 1Ch 4:18.
4. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:17.
5. A Gadite 1Ch 5:13.

See EBER 01119.

Hebrew of the Hebrews

One whose parents are both Hebrews Php 3:5 2Co 11:22 - a genuine


Act 6:1 - were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those
who spoke Greek.

See GREEKS 01552.


Eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus Est 2:8.


1. Heb. 'eglah, Deu 21:4,6 Jer 46:20.
a. Untrained to the yoke Hos 10:11.
b. Giving milk Isa 7:21.
c. Ploughing Jud 14:18.
d. Treading out grain Jer 50:11.
e. Unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah Isa 15:5 Jer 48:34.
2. Heb. parah Gen 41:2 Num 19:2.
a. Bearing the yoke
b. "heifers of Bashan" Amo 4:1 - metaphorical for the voluptuous
females of Samaria.
c. The ordinance of sacrifice of the "red heifer" described in
Num 19:1-10 - comp. Heb 9:13.


Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the
sons of his legitimate wives Gen 21:10 24:36 25:5 - the eldest son
getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific
regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are
given in detail in Deu 21:17 Num 27:8 36:6 27:9-11 - Succession to
property was a matter of right and not of favour. Christ is the "heir
of all things" Heb 1:2 Col 1:15 - Believers are heirs of the
"promise," "of righteousness," "of the kingdom," "of the world," "of
God," "joint heirs" with Christ Gal 3:29 Heb 6:17 11:7 Jas 2:5.
Rom 4:13 8:17.


Rust, 1Ch 4:5,7 - one of the wives of Ashur.


Place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the
Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army
2Sa 10:16 - which was under the command of Shobach. Some would
identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium.


Fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher Jud 1:31 - in the plain of


Fat; i.e., "fertile", Eze 27:18 - only, a place whence wine was brought
to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the
modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably
to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is
celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north
of the river Barada (Abana).


1. 1Ch 27:15 - called also Heleb 2Sa 23:29 - one of David's
2. Zec 6:10 - one who returned from Babylon.


Fatness, one of David's warriors 2Sa 23:29.


This world, 1Ch 11:30 - called Heleb 2Sa 23:29.


A portion, Jos 17:2 - descended from Manasseh.


A stroke, great-grandson of Asher 1Ch 7:35.


Exchange, a city on the north border of Naphtali Jos 19:33.


Strong, or loin
1. One of Judah's posterity 1Ch 2:39.
2. One of David's warriors 2Sa 23:26.


Elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord's ancestry
Luk 3:23.


Smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim
Neh 12:15.


Smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border Jos 19:25 21:31.
called also Hukok 1Ch 6:75.


(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head 1Sa 17:5,38 - In the
New Testament the Greek equivalent is used Eph 6:17 1Th 5:8.

See ARMOUR 00315.


Strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun"
Num 1:9 2:7.


(Heb. 'ezer ke-negdo; i.e., "a help as his counterpart" a help
suitable to him), a wife Gen 2:18-20.


1Co 12:28 - may refer to help (i.e., by interpretation) given to him
who speaks with tongues, or more probably simply help which
Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and
needy, etc.


Of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much
importance to these, because of the regulations in Num 15:38-39 - These
borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so as to attract
special notice Mat 23:5 - The hem of Christ's garment touched
Mat 9:20 14:36 Luk 8:44.


1. 1Ki 4:31 1Ch 2:6 - a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom.
2. Grandson of Samuel 1Ch 6:33 15:17 - to whom the 88th Psalm
probably was inscribed. He was one of the "seers" named in
2Ch 29:14,30 - and took a leading part in the administration
of the sacred services.


A Kenite 1Ch 2:55 - the father of the house of Rechab.


Common in later times among the Jews in Palestine Mat 23:37 Luk 13:34.
It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these
passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the
impenitence of Jerusalem.


One of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib 2Ki 18:34.
2Ki 19:13 - It is identified with the modern Anah, lying on the right
bank of the Euphrates, not far from Sepharvaim.


Favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity Ezr 3:9.


See ENOCH 01212.


A well or stream.
1. A royal city of the Canaanites taken by Joshua Jos 12:17.
2. The youngest son of Gilead Num 26:32 27:1.
3. The second son of Asher 1Ch 4:6.
4. One of David's heroes 1Ch 11:36.


My delight is in her.
1. The wife of Hezekiah and mother of king Manasseh 2Ki 21:1.
2. A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's favour
toward her Isa 62:4.


1. Heb. 'eseb, any green plant; herbage Gen 1:11-12,29,30 2:5 3:18.
etc.; comprehending vegetables and all green herbage Amo 7:1-2.
2. - Yarak -, green; any green thing; foliage of trees 2Ki 19:26.
Psa 37:2 - a plant; herb Deu 11:10.
3. - Or -, meaning "light" In Isa 26:19 - it means "green herbs;" in
2Ki 4:39 - probably the fruit of some plant.
4. - Merorim -, plural, "bitter herbs," eaten by the Israelites at
the Passover Exo 12:8 Num 9:11 - They were bitter plants of various
sorts, and referred symbolically to the oppression in Egypt.


Gen 13:5 Deu 7:14.

See CATTLE 00740.


In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph's
brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh's cattle Gen 47:6,17 - The
Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they
left it they took their flocks and herds with them Exo 12:38 - Both
David and Saul came from "following the herd" to occupy the throne
1Sa 9:1 - 1Sa 11:5 Psa 78:70 - David's herd-masters were among his
chief officers of state. The daughters also of wealthy chiefs were
wont to tend the flocks of the family Gen 29:9 Ex 2:16 - The "chief of
the herdsmen" was in the time of the monarchy an officer of high rank
1Sa 21:7 - comp. 1Ch 27:29 - The herdsmen lived in tents
Isa 38:12 Jer 6:3 - and there were folds for the cattle Num 32:16.
and watch-towers for the herdsmen, that he might therefrom observe
any coming danger Mic 4:8 Na 3:8.


1. "Mount Heres" Jud 1:35 - Heb. Har-heres, i.e., "sun-mountain;"
probably identical with Irshemesh in Jos 19:41.
2. Isa 19:18 - marg.

See ON 02786.


From a Greek word signifying
1. a choice,
2. the opinion chosen, and
3. the sect holding the opinion.
In the Acts of the Apostles Act 5:17 15:5 24:5,14 26:5 - it denotes a
sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the
New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks
"heresies" with crimes and seditions Gal 5:20 - This word also denotes
divisions or schisms in the church 1Co 11:19 - In Tit 3:10 - a
"heretical person" is one who follows his own self-willed "questions,"
and who is to be avoided. Heresies thus came to signify self-chosen
doctrines not emanating from God 2Pe 2:1.


Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings Rom 16:14 - Some
suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious
romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work
is the production of a later generation.


Mercury, a Roman Christian Rom 16:14.


Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who,
however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably
on account of the perils by which they were beset 2Ti 1:15.

Hermonites, The

Psa 42:6-7 - = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of
Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.

Herod Antipas

Herod's son by Malthace Mat 14:1 Luk 3:1,19 9:7 Act 13:1.

See ANTIPAS 00252.

Herod Archelaus

Mat 2:22 - the brother of Antipas (q.v.).

Herod Agrippa II

The son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius made him
tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of
king Act 25:13 26:2,7 - He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi,
and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It was before him and his
sister that Paul made his defence at Caesarea Act 25:12-27 - He died
at Rome A.D. 100 in the third year of the emperor Trajan.


A Jewish political party who sympathized with Mar 3:6 12:13 Mat 22:16.
Luk 20:20 - the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government,
and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were
at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome,
and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Comp.) Mar 8:15 Mat 16:6.


Mat 14:3-11 Mar 6:17-28 Luk 3:19 - the daughter of Aristobulus and
Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and
her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his
journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become
his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly
declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into
prison," in the castle probably of Machaerus (q.v.), and was there
subsequently beheaded.


A Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman"
Rom 16:11.

Herod Philip I

Mar 6:17 - the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of
Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from another Philip called
"the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a private person with his wife
Herodias and his daughter Salome.

Herod Philip II

The son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was
"tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt
the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to
distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat
of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias
Mat 16:13 Mar 8:27 Luk 3:1.


Lev 11:19 Deu 14:18 - ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is
- 'anaphah -, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for
its angry disposition. "The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly
irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and
oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East." The Ardea
russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in Asia.


Intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites
Jos 3:10 13:17 - It was taken by Moses Num 21:23-26 - and became
afterwards a Levitical city Jos 21:39 - in the tribe of Reuben
Num 32:37 - After the Exile it was taken possession of by the
Moabites Isa 15:4 Jer 48:2,34,45 - The ruins of this town are still
seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of the Dead Sea.
There are reservoirs in this district, which are probably the
"fishpools" referred to in Son 7:4.


Fatness, a town in the south of Judah Jos 15:27.


Dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites
Gen 10:18 Deu 7:1 - who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron
Gen 23:3,7 - The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the
sons of Heth" Gen 23:3,5,7,10,16,18,20.


Wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The "way of
Hethlon" Eze 47:15 48:1 - is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon
from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the
"entrance of Hamath."


Vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of
Syria 1Ki 15:18.


Swine or strong.
1. The head of the seventeenth course of the priests 1Ch 24:15.
2. Neh 10:20 - one who sealed Nehemiah's covenant.


A Carmelite, one of David's warriors 1Ch 11:37.


1. One of the sons of Reuben Gen 46:9 Ex 6:14.
2. The older of the two sons of Pharez Gen 46:12.
3. A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea Jos 15:3.


Rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David's thirty-seven guards 2Sa 23:30.


Called by the Accadians id Idikla; i.e., "the river of Idikla", the
third of the four rivers of Paradise Gen 2:14 - Gesenius interprets the
word as meaning "the rapid Tigris." The Tigris rises in the mountains
of Armenia, 15 miles south of the source of the Euphrates, which,
after pursuing a south-east course, it joins at Kurnah, about 50 miles
above Bassorah. Its whole length is about 1,150 miles.


Life of (i.e., from) God, a native of Bethel, who built (i.e.,
fortified) Jericho some seven hundred years after its destruction by
the Israelites. There fell on him for such an act the imprecation of
Joshua Jos 6:26 - He laid the foundation in his first-born, and set up
the gates in his youngest son 1Ki 16:34 - i.e., during the progress of
the work all his children died.


Sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the
care of Epaphras Col 4:12-13 - This church was founded at the same
time as that of Colosse. It now bears the name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e.,
"Cotton Castle", from the white appearance of the cliffs at the base
of which the ruins are found.


In Psa 92:3 - means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Psa 9:16 - it is a
musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental
interlude. In Psa 19:14 - the word is rendered "meditation;" and in
Lam 3:62 - "device" (R.V., "imagination").


A raised road for public use. Such roads were not found in Palestine;
hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the
captives and the advent of the Messiah Isa 11:16 35:8 40:3 62:10.
under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their
march. During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed
several important highways, as they did in all countries which they


1. Heb. gib'eah, a curved or rounded hill, such as are common to
Palestine Psa 65:12 72:3 114:4,6.
2. Heb. har, properly a mountain range rather than an individual
eminence Exo 24:4,12-13,18 Num 14:40,44-45 - In Deu 1:7 Jos 9:1.
Jos 10:40 11:16 - it denotes the elevated district of Judah,
Benjamin, and Ephraim, which forms the watershed between the
Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
3. Heb. ma'aleh in 1Sa 9:11 - Authorized Version "hill" is correctly
rendered in the Revised Version "ascent."
4. In Luk 9:37 - the "hill" is the Mount of Transfiguration.


Praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon Jud 12:13,15.

Hill of Evil Counsel

On the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a tradition
that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the rulers of the
Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.


Heb. 'ayalah 2Sa 22:34 Psa 18:33 - etc. and 'ayeleth Psa 22:1 - (title),
the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as:
1. an emblem of activity Gen 49:21.
2. gentleness Pro 5:19.
3. feminine modesty Son 2:7 3:5.
4. earnest longing Psa 42:1.
5. timidity Psa 29:9.
In the title of Psa 22:1 - the word probably refers to some tune bearing
that name.


(Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. "Doors in the East turn
rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and
especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of
stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in
sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house"
Pro 26:14.


A labourer employed on hire for a limited time Job 7:1 14:6 Mar 1:20.
His wages were paid as soon as his work was over Lev 19:13 - In the
time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny" (q.v.) i.e., a Roman
denarius Mat 20:1-14.


To express contempt Job 27:23 - The destruction of the temple is thus
spoken of 1Ki 9:8 - Zechariah Zec 10:8 - speaks of the Lord gathering
the house of Judah as it were with a hiss: "I will hiss for them."
This expression may be "derived from the noise made to attract bees
in hiving, or from the sound naturally made to attract a person's


Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three
different tribes.
1. The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They
were nomadic and pastoral tribes.
2. The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and
3. the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation
of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates
and Damascus, their chief cities being Carchemish on the
Euphrates, and Kadesh, now Tell Neby Mendeh, in the Orontes
valley, about six miles south of the Lake of Homs. These
Hittites seem to have risen to great power as a nation, as for a
long time they were formidable rivals of the Egyptian and
Assyrian empires. In the book of Joshua they always appear as
the dominant race to the north of Galilee. Somewhere about the
twenty-third century B.C. the Syrian confederation, led probably
by the Hittites, arched against Lower Egypt, which they took
possession of, making Zoan their capital. Their rulers were the
Hyksos, or shepherd kings. They were at length finally driven
out of Egypt. Rameses II. sought vengeance against the "vile
Kheta," as he called them, and encountered and defeated them in
the great battle of Kadesh, four centuries after Abraham.
See JOSHUA 02114.
They are first referred to in Scripture in the history of
Abraham, who bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and the
cave of Machpelah Gen 15:20 23:3-18 - They were then settled
at Kirjath-arba. From this tribe Esau took his first two wives
Gen 26:34 36:2 - They are afterwards mentioned in the usual
way among the inhabitants of the Promised Land Exo 23:28.
They were closely allied to the Amorites, and are frequently
mentioned along with them as inhabiting the mountains of
Palestine. When the spies entered the land they seem to have
occupied with the Amorites the mountain region of Judah
Num 13:29 - They took part with the other Canaanites against
the Israelites Jos 9:1 11:3 - After this there are few
references to them in Scripture. Mention is made of "Ahimelech
the Hittite" 1Sa 26:6 - and of "Uriah the Hittite," one of
David's chief officers 2Sa 23:39 1Ch 11:41 - In the days of
Solomon they were a powerful confederation in the north of
Syria, and were ruled by "kings." They are met with after the
Exile still a distinct people Ezr 9:1 - comp. Neh 13:23-28.
The Hebrew merchants exported horses from Egypt not only for the
kings of Israel, but also for the Hittites 1Ki 10:28-29.
From the Egyptian monuments we learn that "the Hittites were a
people with yellow skins and 'Mongoloid' features, whose
receding foreheads, oblique eyes, and protruding upper jaws are
represented as faithfully on their own monuments as they are on
those of Egypt, so that we cannot accuse the Egyptian artists of
caricaturing their enemies. The Amorites, on the contrary, were
a tall and handsome people. They are depicted with white skins,
blue eyes, and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact,
of the white race" (Sayce's The Hittites). The original seat of
the Hittite tribes was the mountain ranges of Taurus. They
belonged to Asia Minor, and not to Syria.


One of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to
Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as "midlanders" or
"villagers" Gen 10:17 1Ch 1:15 - They were probably a branch of the
Hittites. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite
was the "prince of the land" Gen 24:2-28 - They are next mentioned
during the Conquest Jos 9:7 11:19 - They principally inhabited the
northern confines of Western Palestine Jos 11:3 Jud 3:3 - A remnant of
them still existed in the time of Solomon 1Ki 9:20.


An ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah Zep 1:1.


Neh 10:17 - one who sealed the covenant.


Beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro (q.v.),
Exo 18:5,27 - comp. Num 10:29-30 - In Jud 4:11 - the word rendered
"father-in-law" means properly any male relative by marriage (comp.)
Gen 19:14 - ("son-in-law," A.V.), and should be rendered
"brother-in-law," as in the R.V. His descendants followed Israel to
Canaan Num 10:29 - and at first pitched their tents near Jericho, but
afterwards settled in the south in the borders of Arad Jud 1:8-11,16.


Hiding-place, a place to the north of Damascus, to which Abraham
pursued Chedorlaomer and his confederates Gen 14:15.


Majesty of Jehovah.
1. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law
Neh 8:7 9:5.
2. Neh 10:18 - a Levite who sealed the covenant.


Partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom
portions were assigned by Moses Num 26:33 27:1 36:11.


Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against
Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated Jos 10:3,5,16-27.


A fortress, the name given to David's lurking-places 1Sa 22:4-5 24:22.


In the highest sense belongs to God Isa 6:3 Rev 15:4 - and to Christians
as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as they are conformed
in all things to the will of God Rom 6:19,22 Eph 1:4 Ti 1:8 1Pe 1:15.
Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on
under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to
watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance 1Co 1:30 2Co 7:1 Eph 4:23,24.


Holy of Holies

The second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total
darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high priest, and
that only once a year. It contained the ark of the covenant only
Exo 25:10-16 - It was in the form of a perfect cube of 20 cubits.



Heap, the largest of dry measures, containing about 8 bushels or 1
quarter English 10 ephahs Lev 27:16 Num 11:32 - = a COR. "Half a
homer," a grain measure mentioned only in Hos 3:2.

See OMER 02784.


(Heb. tsaniph) a tiara round the head Isa 3:23 - (R.V., pl.,
"turbans"). Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14 - high priest's "mitre,"
Zec 3:5 - "royal diadem," Isa 62:3.


A cleft hoof as of neat cattle Exo 10:26 Eze 32:13 - hence also of the
horse, though not cloven Isa 5:28 - The "parting of the hoof" is one
of the distinctions between clean and unclean animals
Lev 11:3 Deu 14:7.


Pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest
1Sa 1:3 2:34 - who, because he was "very old," resigned to them the
active duties of his office. By their scandalous conduct they brought
down a curse on their father's house 1Sa 2:22,12-27,27-36 3:11-14.
For their wickedness they were called "sons of Belial," i.e.,
worthless men 1Sa 2:12 - They both perished in the disastrous
battle with the Philistines at Aphek 1Sa 4:11.

See PHINEHAS 02941.


i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus)
king of Egypt (B.C. 591) in the time of Zedekiah, king of Judah
Jer 37:5 44:30 Eze 29:6,7.


Desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the
whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits
Exo 3:1 17:6 33:6 Psa 106:19 - etc. The modern name of the whole
range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long
by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east
end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped for nearly
a whole year.

See SINAI 03442.


Consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali Jos 19:38.


Cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which
abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably gave his
name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the
Hivites Gen 14:6 36:20-30 1Ch 1:38-39 - They were dispossessed by the
descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct
Deu 2:12-22.


Two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built,
apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance
Isa 15:5 Jer 48:3,5,34.


1. The designation of Sanballat Neh 2:10,19 - a native of Horonaim
2. One of the two Beth-horons, the "upper" or the "nether," mentioned
in Jos 16:3,5.


Always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations,
except Isa 28:28 - The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25 - For a long
period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of
horses, according to the prohibition, Deu 17:16 - David was the first
to form a force of cavalry 2Sa 8:4 - But Solomon, from his connection
with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number 1Ki 4:26 10:26,29 - After
this, horses were freely used in Israel 1Ki 22:4 2Ki 3:7 9:21,33.
2Ki 11:16 - The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle
Isa 30:28 - and a curb Psa 32:9.


A gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge,
leading from Zion to the temple Neh 3:28 Jer 31:40.

Horse-leech (Horseleach)

Occurs only in Pro 30:15 - (Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for any
blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the marshes and
pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the Hoemopis, is
remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore not used
for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings of
aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the
tongue and nostrils of horses when they come to drink out of the
pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), besides other
species of leeches, are common in the waters of Syria.


Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned
Exo 14:9 - were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The
army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find
that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry
2Ch 12:3.

See HORSE 01825.


1. A place on the border of the tribe of Asher Jos 19:29 - a little
to the south of Zidon.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari 1Ch 16:38.


Save now! or Save, we beseech, Mat 21:9 - This was a customary form of
acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles. (Comp.) Psa 118:25.


Dan 3:21 - a tunic or undergarment.


Salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies
bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. "His
Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing
diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate
acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim Hos 5:1 6:8,9.
Hos 12:12 14:6 - etc. by passages like Hos 1:2 - where the kingdom
is styled 'the land', and Hos 7:5 - where the Israelitish king is
designated as 'our' king." The period of his ministry (extending to
some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription Hos 1:1-2 - He
is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.


1. An entertainer Rom 16:23.
2. a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a caravansary Luk 10:35.
3. In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only
of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry 1Ki 4:26 10:26.
Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound
by the law to bear arms when necessary Num 1:3 26:2 2Ch 25:5 - Saul
was the first to form a standing army 1Sa 13:2 24:2 - This example
was followed by David 1Ch 27:1 - and Solomon 1Ki 4:26 - and by
the kings of Israel and Judah 2Ch 17:14 26:11 2Ki 11:4 - etc.


A person delivered into the hands of another as a security for the
performance of some promise, etc. 2Ki 14:14 2Ch 25:24.

Host of heaven

The sun, moon, and stars are so designated Gen 2:1 - When the Jews
fell into idolatry they worshipped these Deu 4:19 2Ki 17:16 21:3,5.
2Ki 23:5 Jer 19:13 Zep 1:5 Act 7:42.


To hamstring, i.e., sever the "tendon of Achilles" of the hinder legs
of captured horses Jos 11:6 2Sa 8:4 1Ch 18:4 - so as to render them


1. Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then
for the first time inhabited cities Gen 47:3 Ex 12:7 Heb 11:9.
From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were
builders of cities.
2. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured
cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had
been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to
a. the stone 1Ki 7:9 Isa 9:10.
b. and marble 1Ch 29:2 - used in building,
c. and to the internal wood-work of the houses 1Ki 6:15 7:2.
1Ki 10:11-12 2Ch 3:5 Jer 22:14.
d. "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to
which wainscotting was fastened Ezr 6:4 Jer 22:14 Hag 1:4.
e. "Ivory houses" had the upper parts of the walls adorned with
figures in stucco with gold and ivory 1Ki 22:39 2Ch 3:6 Psa 45:8.
3. The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded
to in Scripture 2Sa 11:2 Isa 22:1 Mat 24:17.
a. Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them 2Sa 16:22.
b. They were protected by parapets or low walls Deu 22:8.
c. On the house-tops grass sometimes grew Pro 19:13 27:15.
Psa 129:6,7.
d. They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening,
but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night 1Sa 9:25-26.
2Sa 11:2 16:22 Dan 4:29 Job 27:18 Pr 21:9.
e. and as places of devotion Jer 32:29 19:13.


Decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border of
Naphtali Jos 19:34.

See HELKATH 01729.


Circle, the second son of Aram Gen 10:23 - and grandson of Shem.


Weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding
the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest Hilkiah
2Ki 22:14-20 2Ch 34:22-28 - She resided in that part of Jerusalem
called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V., "the second quarter"),
supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer
wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam Exo 15:20 - and Deborah
Jud 4:4 - are the only others who bear the title of "prophetess,"
for the word in Isa 8:3 - means only the prophet's wife.

Humiliation of Christ

Php 2:8 - seen in
1. His birth Gal 4:4 Luk 2:7 Joh 1:46 Heb 2:9.
2. His circumstances,
3. His reputation Isa 53:1 - Mat 26:59,67 Psa 22:6 Mat 26:68.
4. His soul Psa 22:1 Mat 4:1-11 Luk 22:44 Heb 2:17-18 4:15.
5. His death Luk 23:1 - Joh 19:1 - Mar 15:24,25.
6. His burial Isa 53:9 Mat 27:57,58,60.
His humiliation was necessary
1. To execute the purpose of God Act 2:23-24 Psa 40:6-8.
2. Fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies
3. Satisfy the law in the room of the guilty Isa 53:1-12 Heb 9:12,15.
procure for them eternal redemption,
4. And to show us an example.


1. A prominent Christian grace Rom 12:3 15:17-18 1Co 3:5-7 2Co 3:5.
Php 4:11-13.
2. It is a state of mind well pleasing to God 1Pe 3:4.
3. It preserves the soul in tranquillity Psa 69:32-33.
4. It makes us patient under trials Job 1:22.

Christ has set us an example of humility Php 2:6-8 - We should be led
thereto by a remembrance of our sins Lam 3:39 - and by the thought that
it is the way to honour Pro 16:18 - and that the greatest promises are
made to the humble Psa 147:6 Isa 57:15 66:2 1Pe 5:5 - It is a "great
paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory."


1. Mentioned first in Gen 10:9 - in connection with Nimrod. Esau was
"a cunning hunter" Gen 25:27.
2. Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the
"Land of Promise" Lev 17:15 Pr 12:27.
3. The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine
1Sa 17:34 2Sa 23:20 1Ki 13:24 Eze 19:3-8 - and it must have been
necessary to hunt and destroy them.
4. Various snares and gins were used in hunting Psa 91:3 Amo 3:5.
2Sa 23:20.
5. War is referred to under the idea of hunting Jer 16:16 Eze 32:30.


A hole, as of a viper, etc.
1. A son of Caleb 1Ch 2:19, 4:1,4 - comp. 2Ch 1:5.
2. The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister Exo 17:10-12 - He was
associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was
absent on Sinai Exo 24:14 - He was probably of the tribe of Judah,
and grandfather of Bezaleel Exo 31:2 35:30 1Ch 2:19.
3. One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by
the Israelites under the command of Phinehas Num 31:8.


Linen-worker, one of David's heroes, a native of the valley of Mount
Gaash 1Ch 11:32.


i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the whole
family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband
Mat 1:16,20 Luk 2:5 - A recently married man was exempt from going to
war for "one year" Deu 20:7 24:5.


One whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the
first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable Gen 9:20 26:12,14.
Gen 37:7 - etc. All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious
services, were husbandmen.



Quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" 1Ch 27:33 - When David fled
from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had
reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back
to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of
Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom 2Sa 15:32,37.
2Sa 16:16-18 - It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from
immediately pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom
was ruined, for it gave David time to muster his forces.


Occurs only Eph 5:19 Col 3:16 - The verb to "sing an hymn" occurs
Mat 26:30 Mar 14:26 - The same Greek word is rendered to "sing
praises" Act 16:25 - (R.V., "sing hymns") and Heb 2:12 - The "hymn"
which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper is
generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel,
comprehending (Ps 113-118) It was thus a name given to a number of
psalms taken together and forming a devotional exercise. The noun
hymn is used only with reference to the services of the Greeks, and
was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek tunes required Greek
hymns. Our information regarding the hymnology of the early
Christians is very limited.


One who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a
dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and
Pharisees for their hypocrisy Mat 6:2,5,16 - "The hypocrite's hope
shall perish" Job 8:13 - The Hebrew word here rendered "hypocrite"
rather means the "godless" or "profane," as it is rendered in
Jer 23:11 - i.e., polluted with crimes.

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