Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - G

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Loathing, the son of Ebed, in whom the Shechemites "placed their
confidence" when they became discontented with Abimelech. He headed
the revolution, and led out the men of Shechem against Abimelech; but
was defeated, and fled to his own home Jud 9:26-46 - We hear no more
of him after this battle.


A shaking, a hill, on the north side of which Joshua was buried
Jos 24:30 Jud 2:9 - in the territory of Ephraim.



Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" "the temple-mound," on a
part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound"
was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e.,
"stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement"
outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall
Joh 18:28 19:13.


Champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the angel who was
sent to Daniel Dan 8:16 - to explain the vision of the ram and the
he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the seventy weeks
Dan 9:21-27 - He announced also the birth of John the Baptist Luk 1:11.
and of the Messiah Luk 1:26. He describes himself in the words, "I
am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God" Luk 1:19.


Fortune; luck.
1. Jacob's seventh son, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and the brother
of Asher Gen 30:11-13 46:16,18 - In the Authorized Version of
Gen 30:11 - the words, "A troop cometh: and she called," etc.,
should rather be rendered, "In fortune [R.V., 'Fortunate']: and
she called," etc., or "Fortune cometh," etc. The tribe of Gad
during the march through the wilderness had their place with
Simeon and Reuben on the south side of the tabernacle Num 2:14.
The tribes of Reuben and Gad continued all through their history
to follow the pastoral pursuits of the patriarchs Num 32:1-5.
The portion allotted to the tribe of Gad was on the east of
Jordan, and comprehended the half of Gilead, a region of great
beauty and fertility Deu 3:12 - bounded on the east by the
Arabian desert, on the west by the Jordan Jos 13:27 - and on
the north by the river Jabbok. It thus included the whole of the
Jordan valley as far north as to the Sea of Galilee, where it
narrowed almost to a point. This tribe was fierce and warlike;
they were "strong men of might, men of war for the battle, that
could handle shield and buckler, their faces the faces of lions,
and like roes upon the mountains for swiftness" 1Ch 12:8.
1Ch 5:19-22 - Barzillai 2Sa 17:27 - and Elijah 1Ki 17:1.
were of this tribe. It was carried into captivity at the same
time as the other tribes of the northern kingdom by Tiglath-pileser
1Ch 5:26 - and in the time of Jeremiah Jer 49:1 - their cities
were inhabited by the Ammonites.
2. A prophet who joined David in the "hold," and at whose advice he
quitted it for the forest of Hareth 1Ch 29:29 2Ch 29:25 1Sa 22:5.
Many years after we find mention made of him in connection with the
punishment inflicted for numbering the people 2Sa 24:11-19.
1Ch 21:9-19 - He wrote a book called the "Acts of David"
1Ch 29:29 - and assisted in the arrangements for the musical
services of the "house of God" 2Ch 29:25 - He bore the title of
"the king's seer" 2Sa 24:11,13 1Ch 21:9.


The capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It stood on the summit of
a mountain about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee. Mark
Mar 5:1 - and Luke Luk 8:26-39 - describe the miracle of the healing of
the demoniac (Matthew Mat 8:28-34 - says two demoniacs) as having been
wrought "in the country of the Gadarenes," thus describing the scene
generally. The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself,
for between the lake and this town there is the deep, almost
impassable ravine of the Hieromax (Jarmuk). It is identified with the
modern village of Um-Keis, which is surrounded by very extensive
ruins, all bearing testimony to the splendour of ancient Gadara. "The
most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the
cliffs for a considerable distance round the city, chiefly on the
north-east declivity; but many beautifully sculptured sarcophagi are
scattered over the surrounding heights. They are excavated in the
limestone rock, and consist of chambers of various dimensions, some
more than 20 feet square, with recesses in the sides for bodies.
The present inhabitants of Um-Keis are all troglodytes, 'dwelling in
tombs,' like the poor maniacs of old, and occasionally they are almost
as dangerous to unprotected travellers."


The inhabitants of Gadara, in Revised Version "Gerasenes" Mar 5:1.
Luk 8:26,37 - In Mat 8:28 - they are called Gergesenes, Revised Version


Fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the
twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land Num 13:11.


Fortune (i.e., sent) of God, the representative of the tribe of
Zebulum among the twelve spies Num 13:10.


Lurking-place, one of the chief of the Nethinim, whose descendants
returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel Ezr 2:47.


1. A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at Corinth
when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans Rom 16:23 - He with his
household were baptized by Paul 1Co 1:14 - During a heathen
outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and
Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed with them
into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with No. 2.
2. A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last journey
to Jerusalem
3. A Christain of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his third epistle
3Jo 1:1.


Has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its
inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and
hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The
Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration
which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280 They were invited by the
king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him in his
wars. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh
accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia, and
supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. They were
great warriors, and hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers,
sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times.
They were at length brought under the power of Rome in B.C. 189 and
Galatia became a Roman province B.C. 25 This province of Galatia,
within the limits of which these Celtic tribes were confined, was the
central region of Asia Minor. During his second missionary journey
Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy Act 16:6 - visited the "region
of Galatia," where he was detained by sickness Gal 4:13 - and had thus
the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third
journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in
order" Act 18:23 - Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close
of his life 2Ti 4:10.

Galatians, Epistle to

The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline
origin is universally acknowledged.

1. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself
Act 16:6 Gal 1:8 4:13,19 - They seem to have been composed mainly
of converts from heathenism Gal 4:8 - but partly also of Jewish
converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers,
sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity, and
by their active zeal had succeeded in inducing the majority of the
churches to adopt their views Gal 1:6 3:1. This epistle was
written for the purpose of counteracting this Judaizing tendency,
and of recalling the Galatians to the simplicity of the gospel, and
at the same time also of vindicating Paul's claim to be a
divinely-commissioned apostle.
2. Time and place of writing. The epistle was probably written very
soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia Act 18:23 - The
references of the epistle appear to agree with this conclusion. The
visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Gal 2:1-10 - was identical with
that of Act 15:1-4 - and it is spoken of as a thing of the past,
and consequently the epistle was written subsequently to the
council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and that
to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written
at the same time, namely, in the winter of A.D. 57 during Paul's
stay in Corinth Act 20:2-3 - This to the Galatians is written on
the urgency of the occasion, tidings having reached him of the
state of matters; and that to the Romans in a more deliberate and
systematic way, in exposition of the same great doctrines of the
3. Contents of. The great question discussed is, Was the Jewish law
binding on Christians? The epistle is designed to prove against
the Jews that men are justified by faith without the works of the
law of Moses. After an introductory address Gal 1:1-10 - the
apostle discusses the subjects which had occasioned the epistle.
a. He defends his apostolic authority Gal 1:11-19 2:1-14.
b. Shows the evil influence of the Judaizers in destroying the
very essence of the gospel Gal 3:1-4:31.
c. Exhorts the Galatian believers to stand fast in the faith as it
is in Jesus, and to abound in the fruits of the Spirit, and in
a right use of their Christian freedom Gal 5:1-6:10.
d. Concludes with a summary of the topics discussed, and
with the benediction Gal 6:11-18|.
The Epistle to the Galatians and that to the Romans taken together
"form a complete proof that justification is not to be obtained
meritoriously either by works of morality or by rites and
ceremonies, though of divine appointment; but that it is a free
gift, proceeding entirely from the mercy of God, to those who
receive it by faith in Jesus our Lord." In the conclusion of the
epistle Gal 6:11 - Paul says, "Ye see how large a letter I have
written with mine own hand." It is implied that this was different
from his ordinary usage, which was simply to write the concluding
salutation with his own hand, indicating that the rest of the
epistle was written by another hand. Regarding this conclusion,
Lightfoot, in his Commentary on the epistle, says: "At this point
the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding
paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters
began to be forged in his name 2Th 2:2 3:17 - it seems to have
been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting,
as a precaution against such forgeries. In the present case he
writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the
epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too,
in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his
hand-writing may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."



Heb. helbenah, Exo 30:34 - one of the ingredients in the holy incense.
It is a gum, probably from the Galbanum officinale.


Heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob and
Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they entered with
each other Gen 31:47,48 - This was the name given to the "heap" by
Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by
Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or Syriac). Probably Nahor's family
originally spoke Aramaic, and Abraham and his descendants learned
Hebrew, a kindred dialect, in the land of Canaan.


An inhabitant or native of Galilee. This word was used as a name of
contempt as applied to our Lord's disciples Luk 22:59 Act 2:7 - All the
apostles, with the exception of Judas Iscariot Act 1:11 - were
Galileans. Peter was detected by his Galilean accent Mat 26:69.
Mar 14:70 - This was also one of the names of reproach given to the
early Christians. Julian the Apostate, as he is called, not only used
the epithet himself when referring to Christ and his apostles, but he
made it a law that no one should ever call the Christians by any other

Galilee Circuit

Solomon rewarded Hiram for certain services rendered him by the gift
of an upland plain among the mountains of Naphtali. Hiram was
dissatisfied with the gift, and called it "the land of Cabul" (q.v.).
The Jews called it Galil. It continued long to be occupied by the
original inhabitants, and hence came to be called "Galilee of the
Gentiles" Mat 4:15 - and also "Upper Galilee," to distinguish it
from the extensive addition afterwards made to it toward the south,
which was usually called "Lower Galilee." In the time of our Lord,
Galilee embraced more than one-third of Western Palestine, extending
"from Dan on the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, to the ridges of
Carmel and Gilboa on the south, and from the Jordan valley on the east
away across the splendid plains of Jezreel and Acre to the shores of
the Mediterranean on the west." Palestine was divided into three
provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, which comprehended the whole
northern section of the country Act 9:31 - and was the largest of
the three. It was the scene of some of the most memorable events of
Jewish history. Galilee also was the home of our Lord during at least
thirty years of his life. The first three Gospels are chiefly taken up
with our Lord's public ministry in this province. "The entire province
is encircled with a halo of holy associations connected with the life,
works, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth." "It is noteworthy that of
his thirty-two beautiful parables, no less than ninteen were spoken in
Galilee. And it is no less remarkable that of his entire thirty-three
great miracles, twenty-five were wrought in this province. His first
miracle was wrought at the wedding in Cana of Galilee, and his last,
after his resurrection, on the shore of Galilee's sea. In Galilee our
Lord delivered the Sermon on The Mount, and the discourses on 'The
Bread of Life,' on 'Purity,' on 'Forgiveness,' and on 'Humility.' In
Galilee he called his first disciples; and there occurred the sublime
scene of the Transfiguration" (Porter's Through Samaria). When the
Sanhedrin were about to proceed with some plan for the condemnation of
our Lord Joh 7:45-52 - Nicodemus interposed in his behalf. (Comp.)
Deu 1:16-17 17:8 - They replied, "Art thou also of Galilee?. Out
of Galilee ariseth no prophet." This saying of theirs was "not
historically true, for two prophets at least had arisen from Galilee,
Jonah of Gath-hepher, and the greatest of all the prophets, Elijah of
Thisbe, and perhaps also Nahum and Hosea. Their contempt for Galilee
made them lose sight of historical accuracy" (Alford, Com.). The
Galilean accent differed from that of Jerusalem in being broader and
more guttural Mar 14:70.

Galilee, Sea of

Mat 4:18 15:29 - is mentioned in the Bible under three other
1. In the Old Testament it is called the "sea of Chinnereth"
Num 34:11 Jos 12:3 13:27 - as is supposed from its harp-like
2. The "lake of Gennesareth" once by Luke Luk 5:1 - from the flat
district lying on its west coast.
3. John Joh 6:1 21:1 - calls it the "sea of Tiberias" (q.v.). The
modern Arabs retain this name, Bahr Tabariyeh.
This lake is 12 1/2 miles long, and from 4 to 7 1/2 broad. Its surface
is 682 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. Its depth is from 80
to 160 feet. The Jordan enters it 10 1/2 miles below the southern
extremity of the Huleh Lake, or about 26 1/2 miles from its source. In
this distance of 26 1/2 miles there is a fall in the river of 1,682
feet, or of more than 60 feet to the mile. It is 27 miles east of the
Mediterranean, and about 60 miles north-east of Jerusalem. It is of an
oval shape, and abounds in fish. Its present appearance is thus
described: "The utter loneliness and absolute stillness of the scene
are exceedingly impressive. It seems as if all nature had gone to
rest, languishing under the scorching heat. How different it was in
the days of our Lord! Then all was life and bustle along the shores;
the cities and villages that thickly studded them resounded with the
hum of a busy population; while from hill-side and corn-field came the
cheerful cry of shepherd and ploughman. The lake, too, was dotted with
dark fishing-boats and spangled with white sails. Now a mournful,
solitary silence reigns over sea and shore. The cities are in ruins!"
This sea is chiefly of interest as associated with the public ministry
of our Lord. Capernaum, "his own city" Mat 9:1 - stood on its
shores. From among the fishermen who plied their calling on its waters
he chose Peter and his brother Andrew, and James and John, to be
disciples, and sent them forth to be "fishers of men" Mat 4:18,22.
Mar 1:16-20 Luk 5:1-11 - He stilled its tempest, saying to the storm
that swept over it, "Peace, be still" Mat 8:23-27 Mar 7:31-35 - and
here also he showed himself after his resurrection to his disciples
Joh 21:1 - "The Sea of Galilee is indeed the cradle of the
gospel. The subterranean fires of nature prepared a lake basin,
through which a river afterwards ran, keeping its waters always fresh.
In this basin a vast quantity of shell-fish swarmed, and multiplied to
such an extent that they formed the food of an extraordinary profusion
of fish. The great variety and abundance of the fish in the lake
attracted to its shores a larger and more varied population than
existed elsewhere in Palestine, whereby this secluded district was
brought into contact with all parts of the world. And this large and
varied population, with access to all nations and countries, attracted
the Lord Jesus, and induced him to make this spot the centre of his
public ministry."


1. Heb. mererah, meaning "bitterness" Job 16:13 - i.e., the bile
secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of
asps Job 20:14 - and of the vitals, the seat of life Job 20:25.
2. Heb. rosh. In Deu 32:33 Job 20:16 - it denotes the poison of
serpents. In Hos 10:4 - the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The
original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most
probably the poppy, which grows up quickly, and is therefore
coupled with wormwood Deu 29:18 Jer 9:15 La 3:19 - Comp. Jer 8:14.
Jer 23:15 - "water of gall," Gesenius, "poppy juice;" others, "water
of hemlock," "bitter water."
3. Gr. chole Mat 27:34 - the LXX. translation of the Hebrew - rosh - in
Psa 69:21 - which foretells our Lord's sufferings. The drink
offered to our Lord was vinegar (made of light wine rendered
acid, the common drink of Roman soldiers) "mingled with gall,"
or, according to Mark Mar 15:23 - "mingled with myrrh;" both
expressions meaning the same thing, namely, that the vinegar was
made bitter by the infusion of wormwood or some other bitter
substance, usually given, according to a merciful custom, as an
anodyne to those who were crucified, to render them insensible
to pain. Our Lord, knowing this, refuses to drink it. He would
take nothing to cloud his faculties or blunt the pain of dying.
He chooses to suffer every element of woe in the bitter cup of
agony given him by the Father Joh 18:11.


1. Heb. 'attik Eze 41:15-16 - a terrace; a projection; ledge.
2. Heb. rahit Son 1:17 - translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;"
probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.


Heaps, 1Sa 25:44 Isa 10:30 - The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal
was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of


The elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for
some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e.,
proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor
Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth Act 18:12 - The word used here by
Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was
a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a
province was called a "proconsul." He is spoken of by his
contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is described as a most popular
and affectionate man. When the Jews brought Paul before his tribunal
on the charge of persuading "men to worship God contrary to the law"
Act 18:13 - he refused to listen to them, and "drave them from the
judgment seat" Act 18:16.


Heb. 'ets, meaning "a tree" Est 6:4 - a post or gibbet. In
Gen 40:19 Deu 21:22 - the word is rendered "tree."


Reward of God.
1. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh at the census at Sinai
Num 1:10 2:20 7:54,59.
2. The son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi
Hillel. He was a Pharisse, and therefore the opponent of the
party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his learning, and was
president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius,
Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen
years before the destruction of Jerusalem. When the apostles
were brought before the council, charged with preaching the
resurrection of Jesus, as a zealous Pharisee Gamaliel councelled
moderation and calmness. By a reference to well-known events, he
advised them to "refrain from these men." If their work or
counsel was of man, it would come to nothing; but if it was of
God, they could not destroy it, and therefore ought to be on
their guard lest they should be "found fighting against God"
Act 5:34-40 - Paul was one of his disciples Act 22:3.


1. Of children Zec 8:5 Mat 11:16 - The Jewish youth were also
apparently instructed in the use of the bow and the sling
Jud 20:16 1Ch 12:2.
2. Public games, such as were common among the Greeks and Romans,
were foreign to the Jewish institutions and customs. Reference,
however, is made to such games in two passages Psa 19:5 Ec 9:11.
3. Among the Greeks and Romans games entered largely into their
social life.
a. Reference in the New Testament is made to gladiatorial
shows and fights with wild beasts 1Co 15:32 - These were
common among the Romans, and sometimes on a large scale.
b. Allusion is frequently made to the Grecian gymnastic
contests Gal 2:2 5:7 Php 2:16 3:14 1Ti 6:12 2Ti 2:5.
Heb 12:1,4,12 - These were very numerous. The Olympic,
Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games were esteemed as of
great national importance, and the victors at any of these
games of wrestling, racing, etc., were esteemed as the
noblest and the happiest of mortals.


Eze 27:11 - brave warriors; R.V. marg., "valorous men;" others
interpret this word as meaning "short-swordsmen," or "daring ones",
the name of a class of men who were defenders of the towers of Tyre.


Weaned the leader of one of the priestly courses 1Ch 24:17.


A rent or opening in a wall Eze 13:5 - comp. Amo 4:3 - The false prophets
did not stand in the gap Eze 22:30 - i.e., they did nothing to stop
the outbreak of wickedness.


Mentioned in Scripture,
1. Of Eden Gen 2:8,9.
2. Ahab's garden of herbs 1Ki 21:2.
3. The royal garden 2Ki 21:18.
4. The royal garden at Susa Est 1:5.
5. The garden of Joseph of Arimathea Joh 19:41.
6. Of Gethsemane Joh 18:1.
7. The "king's garden" mentioned 2Ki 25:4 Neh 3:15 - was near the
Pool of Siloam.
Gardens were surrounded by hedges of thorns Isa 5:5 - or by walls of
stone Pro 24:31 - "Watch-towers" or "lodges" were also built in them
Isa 1:8 Mar 12:1 - in which their keepers sat. On account of their
retirement they were frequently used as places for secret prayer and
communion with God Gen 24:63 Mat 26:30-36 Joh 1:48 18:1-2 - The dead
were sometimes buried in gardens Gen 23:19-20 2Ki 21:18,26 1Sa 25:1.
Mar 15:46 Joh 19:41.

See PARADISE 02843.


Scabby; itch.
1. One of David's warriors 2Sa 23:38 - an Ithrite.
2. A hill near Jerusalem Jer 31:39 - probably the hill of lepers,
and consequently a place outside the boundary of the city.


Act 14:13 - In heathen sacrifices the victims were adorned with fillets
and garlands made of wool, with leaves and flowers interwoven. The
altar and the priests and attendants were also in like manner


(Heb. shum, from its strong odour), mentioned only once Num 11:5 - The
garlic common in Eastern countries is the Allium sativum or Allium
Ascalonicum, so called from its having been brought into Europe from
Ascalon by the Crusaders. It is now known by the name of "shallot" or


1. Heb. 'otsar, a treasure; a store of goods laid up, and hence
also the place where they are deposited Joe 1:17 2Ch 32:27.
rendered "treasury".
2. Heb. mezev, a cell, storeroom Psa 144:13 - Gr. apotheke, a place
for storing anything, a granary Mat 3:12 Luk 3:17.


1. Overlay with stones 2Ch 3:6.
2. Adorn Rev 21:19.
3. Deck with garlands Mat 23:29.
4. Furnish Mat 12:44.
5. In Job 26:13 - (Heb. shiphrah, meaning "brightness"), "By his
spirit the heavens are brightness" i.e., are bright, splendid,


1. Heb. matstsab, a station; a place where one stands 1Sa 14:12 - a
military or fortified post 1Sa 13:23 14:1,4,6 - etc.
2. Heb. netsib, a prefect, superintendent; hence a military post
1Sa 10:5 13:3-4 2Sa 8:6 - This word has also been explained to
denote a pillar set up to mark the Philistine conquest, or an
officer appointed to collect taxes; but the idea of a military
post seems to be the correct one.
3. Heb. matstsebah, properly a monumental column; improperly
rendered pl. "garrisons" in Eze 26:11 - correctly in Revised
Version "pillars," marg. "obelisks," probably an idolatrous


1. Of cities, as of Jerusalem Jer 37:13 Neh 1:3 2:3 3:3 - of Sodom
Gen 19:1 - of Gaza Jud 16:3.
2. Of royal palaces Neh 2:8.
3. Of the temple of Solomon 1Ki 6:34-35 2Ki 18:16.
4. Of the holy place 1Ki 6:31-32 Eze 41:23,24.
5. Of the outer courts of the temple, the beautiful gate Act 3:2.
6. Tombs Mat 27:60.
7. Prisons Act 12:10 16:27.
8. Caverns 1Ki 19:13.
9. Camps Exo 32:26-27 Heb 13:12 - The materials of which gates were
made were,
a. Iron and brass Psa 107:16 Isa 45:2 Act 12:10.
b. Stones and pearls Isa 54:12 Rev 21:21.
c. Wood Jud 16:3 - probably.
At the gates of cities courts of justice were frequently held, and
hence "judges of the gate" are spoken of Deu 16:18 17:8 21:19 25:6,7.
etc. At the gates prophets also frequently delivered their messages
Pro 1:21 8:3 Isa 29:21 Jer 17:19-20 26:10 - Criminals were punished
without the gates 1Ki 21:13 Act 7:59 - By the "gates of righteousness"
we are probably to understand those of the temple Psa 118:19 - "The
gates of hell" (R.V., "gates of Hades") Mat 16:18 - are generally
interpreted as meaning the power of Satan, but probably they may mean
the power of death, denoting that the Church of Christ shall never die.


A wine-vat, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines Jos 13:3.
on which the ark brought calamity 1Sa 5:8-9 6:17 - It was famous also
as being the birthplace or residence of Goliath 1Sa 17:4 - David fled
from Saul to Achish, king of Gath 1Sa 21:10 27:2-4 Psa 56:1 - and his
connection with it will account for the words in 2Sa 1:20 - It was
afterwards conquered by David 2Sa 8:1 - It occupied a strong position
on the borders of Judah and Philistia 1Sa 21:10 1Ch 18:1 - Its site
has been identified with the hill called Tell esSafieh, the Alba
Specula of the Middle Ages, which rises 695 feet above the plain on
its east edge. It is noticed on monuments about B.C. 1500



Wine-press of the well, a town of Lower Galilee, about 5 miles
from Nazareth; the birthplace of Jonah 2Ki 14:25 - the same as
Gittah-hepher Jos 19:13 - It has been identified with the modern
el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill. Here the supposed
tomb of Jonah, Neby Yunas, is still pointed out.


Press of the pomegranate.
1. A Levitical city in the tribe of Dan Jos 19:45 21:24 1Ch 6:69.
2. Another city of the same name in Manasseh, west of the Jordan
Jos 21:25 - called also Bileam 1Ch 6:70.


A name derived from "Golan" (q.v.), one of the cities of refuge in the
territory of Manasseh Jos 20:8 21:27 Deu 4:43 - This was one of the
provinces ruled by Herod Antipas. It lay to the east of the Lake of
Galilee, and included among its towns Bethsaida-Julias Mar 8:22 - and


Called also Azzah, which is its Hebrew name Deu 2:23 1Ki 4:24.
Jer 25:20 - strong, a city on the Mediterranean shore, remarkable
for its early importance as the chief centre of a great commercial
traffic with Egypt. It is one of the oldest cities of the world
Gen 10:19 Jos 15:47 - Its earliest inhabitants were the Avims, who
were conquered and displaced by the Caphtorims Deu 2:23 Jos 13:2-3.
a Philistine tribe. In the division of the land it fell to the lot of
Judah Jos 15:47 Jud 1:18 - It was the southernmost of the five
great Philistine cities which gave each a golden emerod as a
trespass-offering unto the Lord 1Sa 6:17 - Its gates were carried
away by Samson Jud 16:1-3 - Here he was afterwards a prisoner, and
"did grind in the prison house." Here he also pulled down the temple
of Dagon, and slew "all the lords of the Philistines," himself also
perishing in the ruin Jud 16:21-30 - The prophets denounce the
judgments of God against it Jer 25:20 47:5 Amo 1:6-7 Zep 2:4 - It is
referred to in Act 8:26 - Philip is here told to take the road from
Jerusalem to Gaza (about 6 miles south-west of Jerusalem), "which is
desert", i.e., the "desert road," probably by Hebron, through the
desert hills of Southern Judea.
See SAMSON 03208.
It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1600 Its small port is
now called el-Mineh.


The hill, 2Sa 5:25 1Ch 14:16 - ["Gibeon"]; 2Ki 23:8 Neh 11:31 - a
Levitical city of Benjamin 1Ki 15:22 1Sa 13:16 14:5 - wrongly "Gibeah"
in the A.V.), on the north border of Judah near Gibeah Isa 10:29.
Jos 18:24,28 - "From Geba to Beersheba" expressed the whole extent of
the kingdom of Judah, just as "from Dan to Beersheba" described the
whole length of Palestine 2Ki 23:8 - It has been identified with
Gaba Jos 18:24 Ezr 2:26 Neh 7:30 - now Jeb'a, about 5 1/2 miles
north of Jerusalem.


A line (or natural boundary, as a mountain range).
1. A tract in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea Psa 83:7 - now
called Djebal.
2. A Phoenician city, not far from the sea coast, to the north of
Beyrout Eze 27:9 - called by the Greeks Byblos. Now Jibeil.
Mentioned in the Amarna tablets. An important Phoenician text,
referring to the temple of Baalath, on a monument of Yehu-melek,
its king (probably B.C. 600) has been discovered.


1Ki 5:18 - R.V., in A.V. incorrectly rendered, after the Targum,
"stone-squarers," but marg. "Giblites"), the inhabitants of Gebal.


A valiant man, 1Ki 4:19 - one of Solomon's purveyors, having
jurisdiction over a part of Gilead, comprising all the kingdom of
Sihon and part of the kingdom of Og Deu 2:1 - Deu 31:1.


Cisterns, (rendered "pits,") Jer 14:3 - "locusts," Isa 33:4 - a small
place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the approach of
the Assyrian army Isa 10:31 - It is probably the modern el-Isawiyeh.


Made great by Jehovah.
1. the son of Jeduthum 1Ch 25:3,9.
2. The grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah, and the father of
Cushi Zep 1:1.
3. One of the Jewish nobles who conspired against Jeremiah
Jer 38:1.
4. The son of Ahikam, and grandson of Shaphan, secretary of king
Josiah Jer 26:24 - After the destruction of Jerusalem
See ZEDEKIAH 03894.
Nebuchadnezzar left him to govern the country as tributary to
him 2Ki 25:22 Jer 40:5 52:16 - Ishmael, however, at the head
of a party of the royal family, "Jewish irreconcilables", rose
against him, and slew him and "all the Jews that were with him"
Jer 41:2-3 - at Mizpah about three months after the
destruction of Jerusalem. He and his band also plundered the
town of Mizpah, and carried off many captives. He was, however,
overtaken by Johanan and routed. He fled with such of his
followers as escaped to the Ammonites Jer 41:15 - The little
remnant of the Jews now fled to Egypt.


A walled place, Jos 12:13 - perhaps the same as Gederah or Gedor
Jos 15:58.


The fortress; a fortified place, a town in the plain (shephelah) of
Judah Jos 15:36 - This is a very common Canaanite and Phoenician name.
It is the feminine form of Geder Jos 12:13 - the plural form is
Gederoth Jos 15:41 - This place has by some been identified with
Jedireh, a ruin 9 miles from Lydda, toward Eleutheropolis, and 4
miles north of Sur'ah (Zorah), in the valley of Elah.


An epithet applied to Josabad, one of David's warriors at Ziklag
1Ch 12:4 - a native of Gederah.


A wall.
1. A city in the mountains or hill country of Judah Jos 15:58.
identified with Jedar, between Jerusalem and Hebron.
2. 1Ch 4:39 - the Gederah of Jos 15:36 - or the well-known Gerar, as
the LXX. read, where the patriarchs of old had sojourned and fed
their flocks Gen 20:1,14,15 26:1,6,14.
3. A town apparently in Benjamin 1Ch 12:7 - the same probably as
Geder Jos 12:13.


Valley of vision, Elisha's trusted servant 2Ki 4:31 5:25 8:4-5 - He
appears in connection with the history of the Shunammite 2Ki 4:14,31.
and of Naaman the Syrian. On this latter occasion he was guilty of
duplicity and dishonesty of conduct, causing Elisha to denounce his
crime with righteous sternness, and pass on him the terrible doom
that the leprosy of Naaman would cleave to him and his for ever
2Ki 5:20-27 - He afterwards appeared before king Joram, to whom he
recounted the great deeds of his master 2Ki 8:1-6.


(originally Ge bene Hinnom; i.e., "the valley of the sons of Hinnom"),
a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous
Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech 2Ch 28:3 33:6.
Jer 7:31 19:2-6 - This valley afterwards became the common
receptacle for all the refuse of the city. Here the dead bodies of
animals and of criminals, and all kinds of filth, were cast and
consumed by fire kept always burning. It thus in process of time
became the image of the place of everlasting destruction. In this
sense it is used by our Lord in Mat 5:22,29,30 10:28 18:9 23:15,33.
Mar 9:43,45,47 Luk 12:5 - In these passages, and also in Jas 3:6.
the word is uniformly rendered "hell," the Revised Version placing
"Gehenna" in the margin.

See HELL 01731.
See HINNOM 01790.


Circles; regions, a place in the border of Benjamin Jos 18:17 - called
Gilgal in Jos 15:7.


Jehovah has made perfect.
1. The son of Shaphan, and one of the Levites of the temple in the
time of Jehoiakim Jer 36:10 2Ki 22:12 - Baruch read aloud to the
people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of
Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah
Jer 36:11-20 - which filled him with terror. He joined with
others in entreating the king not to destroy the roll of the
prophecies which Baruch had read Jer 36:21-25.
2. The son of Hilkiah, who accompanied Shaphan with the
tribute-money from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and was the
bearer at the same time of a letter from Jeremiah to the Jewish
captives at Babylon Jer 29:3-4.


1. Gen 2:4 - "These are the generations," means the "history."
2. Gen 5:1 - "The book of the generations," means a family register,
or history of Adam.
3. Gen 37:2 - "The generations of Jacob" = the history of Jacob and his
4. Gen 7:1 - "In this generation" = in this age.
5. Psa 49:19 - "The generation of his fathers" = the dwelling of his
fathers, i.e., the grave.
6. Psa 73:15 - "The generation of thy children" = the contemporary race.
7. Isa 53:8 - "Who shall declare his generation?" = His manner of life
who shall declare? or rather His race, posterity, shall be so
numerous that no one shall be able to declare it.
8. In Mat 1:17 - the word means a succession or series of persons
from the same stock.
9. Mat 3:7 - "Generation of vipers" = brood of vipers.
10. Mat 24:34 - "This generation" = the persons then living contemporary
with Christ.
11. 1Pe 2:9 - "A chosen generation" = a chosen people.
12. The Hebrews seem to have reckoned time by the generation.
a.In the time of Abraham a generation was an hundred years, thus:
Gen 15:16 - "In the fourth generation" = in four hundred years
(comp. Gen 15:13 Ex 12:40)
b. In Deu 1:35 2:14 - a generation is a period of thirty-eight years.


A garden of riches.
1. A town of Naphtali, called Chinnereth Jos 19:35 - sometimes in
the plural form Chinneroth Jos 11:2 - In later times the name was
gradually changed to Genezar and Gennesaret Luk 5:1 - This city
stood on the western shore of the lake to which it gave its
name. No trace of it remains. The plain of Gennesaret has been
called, from its fertility and beauty, "the Paradise of
Galilee." It is now called el-Ghuweir.
2. The Lake of Gennesaret, the Grecized form of CHINNERETH (q.v.).

See GALILEE, SEA OF 01418.


(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations
except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and more
to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it acquired
unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of contempt. In the
New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning literally Greek (as
in) Act 16:1,3 18:17 Ro 1:14 - generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.


Theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was brought
up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, the
king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1Ki 11:20.


1. The son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin 1Ch 8:3,5,7.
2. The father of Ehud the judge Jud 3:15.
3. The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David
2Sa 16:5 19:16,18.


A bean, probably of the carob tree, the smallest weight, and also the
smallest piece of money, among the Hebrews, equal to the twentieth
part of a shekel Exo 30:13 Lev 27:25 Num 3:47 - This word came into use
in the same way as our word "grain," from a grain of wheat.


A region; lodging-place, a very ancient town and district in the south
border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech
Gen 10:19 20:1-2 - Abraham sojourned here, and perhaps Isaac was born
in this place. Both of these patriarchs were guilty of the sin of
here denying their wives, and both of them entered into a treaty with
the king before they departed to Beersheba Gen 21:23-34 26:1 - It
seems to have been a rich pastoral country 2Ch 14:12-15 - Isaac here
reaped an hundred-fold, and was blessed of God Gen 26:12 - The "valley
of Gerar" Gen 26:17 - was probably the modern Wady el-Jerdr.


=Gerasa, identified with the modern Khersa, "over against Galilee,"
close to the lake. This was probably the scene of the miracle,
Mar 5:1-20 - etc. "From the base of the great plateau of Bashan, 2,000
feet or more overhead, the ground slopes down steeply, in places
precipitously, to the shore. And at the foot of the declivity a bold
spur runs out to the water's edge. By it the frantic swine would rush
on headlong into the lake and perish." Porter's Through Samaria.

See GADARA 01406.


=Ger'shom expulsion, the eldest of Levi's three sons Gen 46:11 Ex 6:16.
In the wilderness the sons of Gershon had charge of the fabrics of
the tabernacle when it was moved from place to place, the curtains,
veils, tent-hangings Num 3:21-26 - Thirteen Levitical cities fell to
the lot of the Gershonites Jos 21:27-33.


Or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine,
one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon
Neh 2:19 6:1-2 - He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the
rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem.


Bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near Gilead,
between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias 2Sa 15:8 1Ch 2:23 - The
Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky fastness of Argob, the modern
Lejah, in the north-east corner of Bashan. In the time of David it
was ruled by Talmai, whose daughter he married, and who was the
mother of Absalom, who fled to Geshur after the murder of Amnon
2Sa 13:37.


1. The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly relations
with the Israelites on the east of Jordan Jos 12:5 13:11,13.
2. Another aboriginal people of Palestine who inhabited the
south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Jos 13:2 - should be
"the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in Jos 13:11-13.
but the tribe mentioned in 1Sa 27:8.


A precipice, an ancient royal Canaanitish city Jos 10:33 12:12 - It was
allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites Jos 21:21.
1Ch 6:67 - It stood between the lower Beth-horon and the sea
Jos 16:3 1Ki 9:17 - It was the last point to which David pursued
the Philistines 2Sa 5:25 1Ch 14:16 - after the battle of
Baal-perazim. The Canaanites retained possession of it till the time
of Solomon, when the king of Egypt took it and gave it to Solomon as a
part of the dowry of the Egyptian princess whom he married
1Ki 9:15-17 - It is identified with Tell el-Jezer, about 10 miles
south-west of Beth-horon. It is mentioned in the Amarna tablets.


An old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the translation
of the Hebrew - nephesh - and the Greek - pneuma -, both meaning
"breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" Job 11:20.
Jer 15:9 Mat 27:50 Joh 19:30 - The expression "to give up the ghost"
means to die Lam 1:19 Ge 25:17 35:29 49:33 Job 3:11.

See HOLY GHOST 01805.


A height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to
the Kohathites Jos 19:44 21:23 - Nadab the king of Israel, while
besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own
officers 1Ki 15:27 - It was in the possession of the Philistines after
the secession of the ten tribes 2Ch 11:13,14.


Jos 5:3 - marg., hill of the foreskins, a place at Gilgal where those
who had been born in the wilderness were circumcised. All the others,
i.e., those who were under twenty years old at the time of the
sentence at Kadesh, had already been circumcised.

Gibeah of Judah

Jos 15:57 - a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a
hill in the Wady Musurr, about 7 1/2 miles west-south-west of

Gibeah of Phinehas

Jos 15:57 - R.V. marg., a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to
Phinehas Jos 24:33 - "hill," A.V.; R.V. marg. and Heb., "Gibeah.").
Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with
the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem.

Gier Eagle

Heb. raham "parental affection," Lev 11:18 Deu 14:17 - R.V., "vulture",
a species of vulture living entirely on carrion. "It is about the size
of a raven; has an almost triangular, bald, and wrinkled head, a strong
pointed beak, black at the tip, large eyes and ears, the latter
entirely on the outside, and long feet." It is common in Egypt, where
it is popularly called "Pharaoh's chicken" (the Neophron percnopterus),
and is found in Palestine only during summer. Tristram thinks that the
Hebrew name, which is derived from a root meaning "to love," is given
to it from the fact that the male and female bird never part company.

Gifts, Spiritual

(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early
Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the
edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the
extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of Pentecost.
They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting out devils,
healing, etc. Mar 16:17-18 - usually communicated by the medium of
the laying on of the hands of the apostles Act 8:17 19:6 1Ti 4:14.
These charismata were enjoyed only for a time. They could not continue
always in the Church. They were suited to its infancy and to the
necessities of those times.


Boiling spring, a mountain range, now Jebel Fukua', memorable as the
scene of Saul's disastrous defeat by the Philistines. Here also his
three sons were slain, and he himself died by his own hand 1Sa 28:4.
1Sa 31:1-8 2Sa 1:6-21 21:12 1Ch 10:1,8 - It was a low barren range of
mountains bounding the valley of Esdraelon (Jezreel) on the east,
between it and the Jordan valley. When the tidings of this defeat
were conveyed to David, he gave utterance to those pathetic words in
the "Song of the Bow" 2Sa 1:19-27.


Exile, a city in the south-west part of the hill-country of Judah
Jos 15:51 - It was the native place or residence of the traitor
Ahithophel "the Gilonite" Jos 15:51 2Sa 15:12 - and where he committed
suicide 2Sa 17:23 - It has been identified with Kurbet Jala, about 7
miles north of Hebron.


A place fertile in sycamores, a city in the plain of Judah, the
villages of which were seized by the Philistines 2Ch 28:18 - It is now
called Jimzu, about 3 miles south-east of Ludd, i.e., Lydda.


A trap.
1. Psa 140:5 141:9 Amo 3:5 - the Hebrew word used, - mokesh -, means a
noose or "snare," as it is elsewhere rendered Psa 18:5 Pr 13:14.
2. Job 18:9 Isa 8:14 - Heb. pah, a plate or thin layer; and hence a
net, a snare, trap, especially of a fowler Psa 69:22 - "Let their
table before them become a net;" Amo 3:5 - "Doth a bird fall into
a net [pah] upon the ground where there is no trap-stick
[mokesh] for her? doth the net [pah] spring up from the ground
and take nothing at all?", Gesenius.)


1. Heb. hagor, a girdle of any kind worn by soldiers 1Sa 18:4.
2Sa 20:8 1Ki 2:5 2Ki 3:21 - or women Isa 3:24.
2. Heb. 'ezor, something "bound," worn by
(a) prophets 2Ki 1:8 Jer 13:1.
(b)soldiers Isa 5:27 2Sa 20:8 Eze 23:15.
(c) Kings Job 12:18.
3. Heb. mezah, a "band," a girdle worn by men alone Psa 109:19.
Isa 22:21.
4. Heb. 'abnet, the girdle of sacerdotal and state officers
Exo 28:4,39,40 29:9 39:29.
5. Heb. hesheb, the "curious girdle" Exo 28:8 - R.V., "cunningly
woven band") was attached to the ephod, and was made of the same

The common girdle was made of leather 2Ki 1:8 Mat 3:4 - a finer sort
of linen Jer 13:1 Eze 16:10 Dan 10:5 - Girdles of sackcloth were worn
in token of sorrow Isa 3:24 22:12 - They were variously fastened to
the wearer Mar 1:6 Jer 13:1 Eze 16:10 - The girdle was a symbol of
strength and power Job 12:18,21 30:11 Isa 22:21 45:5 - "Righteousness
and faithfulness" are the girdle of the Messiah Isa 11:5 - Girdles
were used as purses or pockets Mat 10:9 - A.V., "purses;" R.V.,
marg., "girdles." Also Mar 6:8.


Dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of Canaan
Gen 10:16 - one of the original tribes inhabiting the land of Canaan
before the time of the Israelites Gen 15:21 Deu 7:1 - They were a branch
of the great family of the Hivites. Of their geographical position
nothing is certainly known. Probably they lived somewhere in the
central part of Western Palestine.


Jos 19:13.

See GATH-HEPHER 01438.


Two wine-presses, 2Sa 4:3 Neh 11:33 - a town probably in Benjamin to
which the Beerothites fled.


A native of the Philistine city of Gath Jos 13:3 - Obed-edom, in whose
house the ark was placed, is so designated 2Sa 6:10 - Six hundred
Gittites came with David from Gath into Israel 2Sa 15:18,19.


A stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles of
Psa 8:1 81:1 84:1 - In these places the LXX. render the word by "on the
wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which David brought
from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument named in the titles of
the Psalms.


A name given to Hashem, an inhabitant of Gizoh, a place somewhere in
the mountains of Judah 1Ch 11:34 2Sa 23:32,34.


Was known to the Egyptians at a very early period of their national
history, at least B.C. 1500 Various articles both useful and
ornamental were made of it, as bottles, vases, etc. A glass bottle
with the name of Sargon on it was found among the ruins of the
north-west palace of Nimroud. The Hebrew word - zekukith - Job 28:17.
rendered in the Authorized Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in
the Revised Version "glass." This is the only allusion to glass found
in the Old Testament. It is referred to in the New Testament in
Rev 4:6 15:2 21:18,21 - In Job 37:18 - the word rendered
"looking-glass" is in the Revised Version properly rendered "mirror,"
formed, i.e., of some metal. (Comp.) Exo 38:8 - "looking-glasses"
are brazen mirrors, R.V.). A mirror is referred to also in
Jas 1:23.


The corners of fields were not to be reaped, and the sheaf accidentally
left behind was not to be fetched away, according to the law of Moses
Lev 19:9 23:22 Deu 24:21 - They were to be left for the poor to glean.
Similar laws were given regarding vineyards and oliveyards. (Comp.)
Rut 2:2.


An Old English name for the common kite, mentioned only in Deu 14:13.
(Heb. ra'ah), the Milvus ater or black kite. The Hebrew word does not
occur in the parallel passage in Leviticus Lev 11:14 - da'ah, rendered
"vulture;" in R.V., "kite". It was an unclean bird. The Hebrew name
is from a root meaning "to see," "to look," thus designating a bird
with a keen sight. The bird intended is probably the buzzard, of
which there are three species found in Palestine.

See VULTURE 03778.


1. To make glorious, or cause so to appear Joh 12:28 13:31,32.
Joh 17:4,5.
2. Spoken of God to "shew forth his praise" 1Co 6:20 10:31.


(Heb. kabhod; Gr. doxa).
1. Abundance, wealth, treasure, and hence honour Psa 49:12 - glory
Gen 31:1 Mat 4:8 Rev 21:24,26.
2. Honour, dignity 1Ki 3:13 Heb 2:7 1Pe 1:24 - of God Psa 19:1 29:1.
of the mind or heart Gen 49:6 Psa 7:5 Act 2:46.
3. Splendour, brightness, majesty Gen 45:13 Isa 4:5 Act 22:11.
2Co 3:7 - of Jehovah Isa 59:19 60:1 2Th 1:9.
4. The glorious moral attributes, the infinite perfections of God
Isa 40:5 Act 7:2 Ro 1:23 9:23 Eph 1:12 - Jesus is the "brightness
of the Father's glory" Heb 1:3 Joh 1:14 2:11.
5. The bliss of heaven Rom 2:7,10 5:2 8:18 Heb 2:10 1Pe 5:1,10.
6. The phrase "Give glory to God" Jos 7:19 Jer 13:16 - is a Hebrew
idiom meaning, "Confess your sins." The words of the Jews to the
blind man, "Give God the praise" Joh 9:24 - are an adjuration to
confess. They are equivalent to, "Confess that you are an
impostor," "Give God the glory by speaking the truth;" for they
denied that a miracle had been wrought.


Deu 21:20 - Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out," "to
squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his means by
indulgence. In Pro 23:21 - the word means debauchees or wasters of
their own body. In Pro 28:7 - the word (pl.) is rendered Authorized
Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Mat 11:19.
Luk 7:34 - Greek phagos, given to eating, gluttonous.


Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", Job 16:9 Psa 112:10 La 2:16.
denotes rage or sorrow. (See also) Act 7:54 Mar 9:18.


Only in Mat 23:24 - a small two-winged stinging fly of the genus Culex,
which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes here to the gnat in a
proverbial expression probably in common use, "who strain out the
gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version, "strain at a gnat," being
a mere typographical error, which has been corrected in the Revised
Version. The custom of filtering wine for this purpose was common
among the Jews. It was founded on Lev 11:23 - It is supposed that the
"lice," Exo 8:16 - (marg. R.V., "sand-flies"), were a species of gnat.


(Heb. malmad, only in) Jud 3:31 - an instrument used by ploughmen for
guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six hundred Philistines with an
ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It is sometimes ten feet
long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that the feat of
Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed to
think." In 1Sa 13:21 - a different Hebrew word is used, - dorban -,
meaning something pointed. The expression Act 9:5 - omitted in the
R.V., "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks", i.e., against
the goad, was proverbial for unavailing resistance to superior power.


1. Heb. 'ez, the she-goat Gen 15:9 30:35 31:38 - This Hebrew word is
also used for the he-goat Exo 12:5 Lev 4:23 Num 28:15 - and to
denote a kid Gen 38:17,20 - Hence it may be regarded as the
generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means
"strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as
compared with the sheep.
2. Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" Gen 31:10,12.
he-goats Num 7:17-88 Isa 1:11 - goats Deu 32:14 Psa 50:13 - They were
used in sacrifice Psa 66:15 - This word is used metaphorically for
princes or chiefs in Isa 14:9 - and in Zec 10:3 - as leaders.
(Comp.) Jer 50:8.
3. Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the
Hebrews Gen 27:9,14,17 Jud 6:19.
4. Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat
2Ch 29:23 - "a goat" Lev 4:24 - "satyr" Isa 13:21 - "devils"
Lev 17:7 - It is the goat of the sin-offering Lev 9:3,15 10:16.
5. Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats 2Ch 29:21 - In Dan 8:5,8 - it
is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
6. Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat"
Gen 30:35 32:14.
7. Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" Lev 16:8,10,26.
8. There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated
a. - Yael -, only in plural mountain goats 1Sa 24:2 Job 39:1.
Psa 104:18 - It is derived from a word meaning "to climb."
It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of
b. - 'akko -, only in Deu 14:5 - the wild goat. Goats are
mentioned in the New Testament in Mat 25:32-33.
Heb 9:12-13,19 10:4 - They represent oppressors and wicked
men Eze 34:17 39:18 Mat 25:33 - Several varieties of the
goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place
in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded
and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an
important part of pastoral wealth. Gen 31:10,12 32:14.
1Sa 25:2.


A lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jer 31:39.


A pit, a place mentioned in 2Sa 21:18-19 - called also Gezer, in
1Ch 20:4.


A laver or trough for washing garments. In Son 7:2 - a bowl or drinking
vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Exo 24:6 - a sacrificial basin.

See CUP 00938.


Act 17:29 Ro 1:20 Col 2:9 - the essential being or the nature of God.


The whole of practical piety 1Ti 4:8 2Pe 1:6 - "It supposes knowledge,
veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and
obedience." In 1Ti 3:16 - it denotes the substance of revealed


In Hebrew the participle of the verb - gaal -, "to redeem." It is
rendered in the Authorized Version "kinsman," Num 5:8 Ru 3:12 4:1,6,8.
"redeemer," Job 19:25 - "avenger," Num 35:12 Deu 19:6 - etc. The Jewish
law gave the right of redeeming and repurchasing, as well as of
avenging blood, to the next relative, who was accordingly called by
this name.

See REDEEMER 03083.


Exile, a city of Bashan Deu 4:43 - one of the three cities of refuge
east of Jordan, about 12 miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee
Jos 20:8 - There are no further notices of it in Scripture. It became
the head of the province of Gaulanitis, one of the four provinces
into which Bashan was divided after the Babylonish captivity, and
almost identical with the modern Jaulan, in Western Hauran, about
39 miles in length and 18 in breath.


1. Heb. zahab, so called from its yellow colour Exo 25:11.
1Ch 28:18 2Ch 3:5.
2. Heb. segor, from its compactness, or as being enclosed or
treasured up; thus precious or "fine gold" 1Ki 6:20 7:49.
3. Heb. paz, native or pure gold Job 28:17 Psa 19:10 21:3 - etc.
4. Heb. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine
Job 36:19 - where it means simply riches.
5. Heb. kethem, i.e., something concealed or separated
Job 28:16,19 Psa 45:9 Pr 25:12 - Rendered "golden wedge" in
Isa 13:12.
6. Heb. haruts, i.e., dug out; poetic for gold Pro 8:10 16:16.
Zec 9:3.

Gold was known from the earliest times Gen 2:11 - It was principally
used for ornaments Gen 24:22 - It was very abundant 1Ch 22:14.
Nah 2:9 Dan 3:1 - Many tons of it were used in connection with the
temple 2Ch 1:15 - It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir
1Ki 9:28 10:1 Job 28:16 - but not in Palestine. In Dan 2:38 - the
Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great
riches; and Babylon was called by Isaiah Isa 14:4 - the "golden
city" (R.V. marg., "exactress," adopting the reading - marhebah -,
instead of the usual word - madhebah -).

Golden Calf

Exo 32:4,8 Deu 9:16 Neh 9:18 - This was a molten image of a calf which
the idolatrous Israelites formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed
from the custom of the Egyptians. It was destroyed at the command of
Moses Exo 32:20.

See AARON 00002.
See MOSES 02602.


Neh 3:8,32 Isa 40:19 41:7 46:6 - The word so rendered means properly a
founder or finer.


Submersion, one of the five cities of the plain of Siddim (q.v.) which
were destroyed by fire Gen 10:19 13:10 19:24,28 - These cities probably
stood close together, and were near the northern extremity of what is
now the Dead Sea. This city is always mentioned next after Sodom,
both of which were types of impiety and wickedness Gen 18:20 Ro 9:29.
Their destruction is mentioned as an "ensample unto those that after
should live ungodly" 2Pe 2:6 Jude 1:4-7 - Their wickedness became
proverbial Deu 32:32 Isa 1:9-10 Jer 23:14 - But that wickedness may be
exceeded Mat 10:15 Mar 6:11.

See DEAD SEA 00991.

Goodly Trees boughs of

Were to be carried in festive procession on the first day of the feast
of Tabernacles Lev 23:40 - This was probably the olive tree
Neh 8:15 - although no special tree is mentioned.


In man is not a mere passive quality, but the deliberate preference of
right to wrong, the firm and persistent resistance of all moral evil,
and the choosing and following of all moral good.


A tree from the wood of which Noah was directed to build the ark
Gen 6:14 - It is mentioned only there. The LXX. render this word by
"squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood." Other versions
have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority is
in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows
abundantly in Chaldea and Armenia.

Government of God



1Co 12:28 - the powers which fit a man for a place of influence in the
church; "the steersman's art; the art of guiding aright the vessel of
church or state."


1. Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his
capacity: as,
a. Chief of the royal palace 2Ch 28:7 - comp. 1Ki 4:6.
b. Chief of the temple 1Ch 9:11 Jer 20:1.
c. The leader of the Aaronites 1Ch 12:27.
d. Keeper of the sacred treasury 1Ch 26:24.
e. Captain of the army 1Ch 13:1.
f. The king 1Sa 9:16.
g. The Messiah Dan 9:25.
2. Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of
a. Families Num 3:24,30,32,35.
b. Tribes Num 2:3 7:2 3:32.
These dignities appear to have been elective, not hereditary.
3. Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of
a. The delegate of the high priest 2Ch 24:11.
b. The Levites Neh 11:22.
c. A military commander 2Ki 25:19.
d. Joseph's officers in Egypt Gen 41:34.
4. Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules Gen 42:6 Ezr 4:20.
Ecc 8:8 Dan 2:15 5:29.
5. Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a clan or a
subdivision of a tribe. Used of
a. The "dukes" of Edom Gen 36:1.
b. The Jewish chiefs Zec 9:7.
6. Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of
a. Many classes of rulers Gen 3:16 24:2 45:8 Psa 105:20.
b. The Messiah Mic 5:2.
c. God 1Ch 29:12 Psa 103:19.
7. Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is
used of
a. The chief baker of Pharaoh Gen 40:16.
b. The chief butler Gen 40:2 - etc. See also Gen 47:6 Ex 1:11.
Dan 1:7 Jud 10:18 1Ki 22:26 20:15 2Ki 1:9 2Sa 24:2.
c. Angels, guardian angels Dan 10:13,20,21 12:1 10:13 8:25.
8. Pehah, whence - pasha -, i.e., friend of the king; adjutant;
a. Governor of a province 2Ki 18:24 Isa 36:9 Jer 51:57.
Eze 23:6,23 Dan 3:2 Es 3:12.
b. A perfect Neh 3:7 5:14 Ezr 5:3 Hag 1:1.
This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the
Hebrew idiom 1Ki 10:15.
9. The Chaldean word - segan - is applied to
a. The governors of the Babylonian satrapies Dan 3:2,27 6:7.
b. The prefects over the Magi Dan 2:48.
The corresponding Hebrew word - segan - is used of
a. Provincial rulers Jer 51:23,28,57.
b. Chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem Ezr 9:2.
Neh 2:16 4:14,19 5:7,17 7:5 12:40.
10. In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered
a. Meaning an ethnarch 2Co 11:32 - which was an office distinct
from military command, with considerable latitude of
b. The procurator of Judea under the Romans Mat 27:2 - (Comp.)
Luk 2:2 - (where the verb from which the Greek word so
rendered is derived is used.)
c. Steward Gal 4:2.
d. Governor of the feast Joh 2:9 - who appears here to have been
merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have
presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.
e. A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, Jas 3:4.


A region in Central Asia to which the Israelites were carried away
captive 2Ki 17:6 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 19:12 Isa 37:12 - It was situated in
Mesopotamia, on the river Habor 2Ki 17:6 18:11 - the Khabur, a
tributary of the Euphrates. The "river of Gozan" 1Ch 5:26 - is
probably the upper part of the river flowing through the province of
Gozan, now Kizzel-Ozan.


1. Of form or person Pro 1:9 3:22 Psa 45:2.
2. Favour, kindness, friendship Gen 6:8 18:3 19:19 2Ti 1:9.
3. God's forgiving mercy Rom 11:6 Eph 2:5.
4. The gospel as distinguished from the law Joh 1:17 Ro 6:14.
1Pe 5:12.
5. Gifts freely bestowed by God; as miracles, prophecy, tongues
Rom 15:15 1Co 15:10 Eph 3:8.
6. Christian virtues 2Co 8:7 2Pe 3:18 - The glory hereafter to be
revealed 1Pe 1:13.

Grace, means of

An expression not used in Scripture, but employed
1. to denote those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary
channels of grace to the souls of men. These are the Word and
2. But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense
to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of
obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the
Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian conversation, etc.


The process of inoculating fruit-trees Rom 11:17-24 - It is peculiarly
appropriate to olive-trees. The union thus of branches to a stem is
used to illustrate the union of true believers to the true Church.


Used, in Amo 9:9 - of a small stone or kernel; in Mat 13:31 - of an
individual seed of mustard; in Joh 12:24 1Co 15:37 - of wheat. The
Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not
mentioned in Scripture.


The fruit of the vine, which was extensively cultivated in Palestine.
Grapes are spoken of as
1. "tender" Son 2:13,15.
2. "unripe" Job 15:33.
3. "sour" Isa 18:5.
4. "wild" Isa 5:2,4.
5. (See) Rev 14:18 Mic 7:1 Jer 6:9 Eze 18:2 - for figurative use of
the word.

See VINE 03770.


1. Heb. hatsir, ripe grass fit for mowing 1Ki 18:5 Job 40:15.
Psa 104:14 - As the herbage rapidly fades under the scorching
sun, it is used as an image of the brevity of human life
Isa 40:6-7 Psa 90:5 - In Num 11:5 - this word is rendered "leeks."
2. Heb. deshe', green grass Gen 1:11-12 Isa 66:14 Deu 32:2 - "The
sickly and forced blades of grass which spring up on the flat
plastered roofs of houses in the East are used as an emblem of
speedy destruction, because they are small and weak, and
because, under the scorching rays of the sun, they soon wither
away" 2Ki 19:26 Psa 129:6 Isa 37:27 - The dry stalks of grass were
often used as fuel for the oven Mat 6:30 13:30 Luk 12:28.


Belongs to the class of neuropterous insects called Gryllidae. This
insect is not unknown in Palestine. In Jud 6:5 7:12 Job 39:30.
Jer 46:23 - where the Authorized Version has "grasshopper," the
Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word ('arbeh) by
"locust." This is the case also in Amo 7:1 Na 3:17 - where the
Hebrew word - gob - is used; and in Lev 11:22 Num 13:33 Ec 12:5.
Isa 40:22 - where - hagab - is used. In all these instances the proper
rendering is probably "locust" (q.v.).


A network of brass for the bottom of the great altar of sacrifice
Exo 27:4 35:16 38:4-5,30.


Among the ancient Hebrews graves were outside of cities in the open
field Luk 7:12 Joh 11:30 - Kings 1Ki 2:10 - and prophets 1Sa 25:1.
were generally buried within cities. Graves were generally grottoes or
caves, natural or hewn out in rocks Isa 22:16 Mat 27:60 - There were
family cemeteries Gen 47:29 50:5 2Sa 19:37 - Public burial-places were
assigned to the poor Jer 26:23 2Ki 23:6 - Graves were usually closed
with stones, which were whitewashed, to warn strangers against contact
with them Mat 23:27 - which caused ceremonial pollution Num 19:16.
There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings, and
according to tradition that of the prophetess Huldah.

Graven Image

Deu 27:15 Psa 97:7 - (Heb. pesel), refers to the household gods of
idolaters. "Every nation and city had its own gods. Yet every family
had its separate household or tutelary god."


1. Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24 - rendered "graven," but generally means
hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest.
2. Heb. harush. Jer 17:1 - rendered "graven," and indicates
generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by
fine instruments.
3. Heb. haqaq. Eze 4:1 - engraving a plan or map, rendered
"pourtray;" Job 19:23 - "written."
4. Heb. pasal points rather to the sculptor's or the carver's art
Isa 30:22 40:19 41:7 44:12-15.
5. Pathah refers to intaglio work, the cutting and engraving of
precious stones Exo 28:9-11,21 Zec 3:9 So 1:10,11.
6. Heret. In Exo 32:4 - rendered "graving tool;" and in Isa 8:1 - "a


Only in 1Sa 17:6 - a piece of defensive armour (q.v.) reaching from the
foot to the knee; from French greve, "the shin." They were the Roman


Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did
not speak Hebrew Act 6:1 9:29 - nor join in the Hebrew services of the
Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem.
Joe 3:6 - =Greeks.


Orginally consisted of the four provinces of Macedonia, Epirus,
Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Act 20:2 - it designates only the Roman
province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by the Romans B.C. 146
After passing through various changes it was erected into an
independent monarchy in 1831 Moses makes mention of Greece under the
name of Javan Gen 10:2-5 - and this name does not again occur in the
Old Testament till the time of Joel Joe 3:6 - Then the Greeks and
Hebrews first came into contact in the Tyrian slave-market. Prophetic
notice is taken of Greece in Dan 8:21 - The cities of Greece were the
special scenes of the labours of the apostle Paul.


Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed
between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is

1. a Greek by race Act 16:1-3 18:17 Ro 1:14 - or
2. a Gentile as opposed to a Jew Rom 2:9-10 - The latter, meaning
properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a
home Jew who dwelt in Palestine. The word "Grecians" in
Act 11:20 - should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen Greeks of
that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the
reading of the best manuscripts ("Hellenes").


Pro 30:31 - the rendering of the Hebrew - zarzir mothnayim -, meaning
literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V. marg.) render
it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions render it "cock." It
has been by some interpreters rendered also "stag" and "warrior," as
being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler." The greyhound,
however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears from
Egyptian monuments.


Exo 32:20 Deu 9:21 Jud 16:21 - to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress
the poor Isa 3:5 - The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews
Num 11:8 - It consisted of two stones, the upper Deu 24:6 2Sa 11:21.
being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The
grinders mentioned Ecc 12:3 - are the teeth.

See MILL 02550.


Party-coloured, as goats Gen 31:10,12 - horses Zec 6:3,6.


The spare room on the upper floor of an Eastern dwelling Mar 14:14.
Luk 22:11 - In Luk 2:7 - the word is translated "inn" (q.v.).


A whelp, a place near Ibleam where Jehu's servants overtook and
mortally wounded king Ahaziah 2Ki 9:27 - an ascent from the plain of


Sojourn of Baal, a place in Arabia 2Ch 26:7 - where there was probably
a temple of Baal.


1. Heb. tsinnor, 2Sa 5:8 - This Hebrew word occurs only elsewhere
in Psa 42:7 - in the plural, where it is rendered "waterspouts."
It denotes some passage through which water passed; a water-course.
2. In Gen 30:38,41 - the Hebrew word rendered "gutters" is - rahat -,
and denotes vessels overflowing with water for cattle Exo 2:16.

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