Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - F

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Applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations,
"cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions
1Ti 1:4 4:7 2Ti 4:4 Ti 1:14 2Pe 1:16 - In such passages the word means
anything false and unreal. But the word is used as almost equivalent
to parable. Thus we have
1. the fable of Jotham, in which the trees are spoken of as
choosing a king Jud 9:8-15.
2. that of the cedars of Lebanon and the thistle as Jehoash's
answer to Amaziah 2Ki 14:9.


Means simply presence, as when it is recorded that Adam and Eve hid
themselves from the "face [R.V., 'presence'] of the Lord God" Gen 3:8.
comp. Exo 33:14-15 - where the same Hebrew word is rendered
"presence"). The "light of God's countenance" is his favour Psa 44:3.
Dan 9:17 - "Face" signifies also anger, justice, severity Gen 16:6.
Gen 8:1 - Exo 2:15 Psa 68:1 Rev 6:16 - To "provoke God to his face"
Isa 65:3 - is to sin against him openly. The Jews prayed with their
faces toward the temple and Jerusalem 1Ki 8:38,44,48 Dan 6:10 - To "see
God's face" is to have access to him and to enjoy his favour
Psa 17:15 27:8 - This is the privilege of holy angels Mat 18:10.
Luk 1:19 - The "face of Jesus Christ" 2Co 4:6 - is the office and
person of Christ, the revealer of the glory of God Joh 1:14,18.

Fair Havens

A harbour in the south of Crete, some 5 miles to the east of which
was the town of Lasea Act 27:8 - Here the ship of Alexandria in which
Paul and his companions sailed was detained a considerable time
waiting for a favourable wind. Contrary to Paul's advice, the master
of the ship determined to prosecute the voyage, as the harbour was
deemed incommodious for wintering in Act 27:9 - The result was that,
after a stormy voyage, the vessel was finally wrecked on the coast of
Malta Act 27:40-44.


(Heb. 'izabhonim), found seven times in Eze 27:1 - and nowhere
else. The Authorized Version renders the word thus in all these
instances, except in Eze 27:33 - where "wares" is used. The Revised
Version uniformly renders by "wares," which is the correct rendering
of the Hebrew word. It never means "fairs" in the modern sense of the


Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain
statement is true Php 1:27 2Th 2:13 - Its primary idea is trust. A
thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust. It admits of many
degrees up to full assurance of faith, in accordance with the
evidence on which it rests. Faith is the result of teaching
Rom 10:14-17 - Knowledge is an essential element in all faith, and is
sometimes spoken of as an equivalent to faith Joh 10:38 1Jo 2:3 - Yet
the two are distinguished in this respect, that faith includes in it
assent, which is an act of the will in addition to the act of the
understanding. Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith, and
the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed truth rests
is the veracity of God. Historical faith is the apprehension of and
assent to certain statements which are regarded as mere facts of
history. Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in
men (e.g., Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the influence
of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled the common
operation of the Holy Spirit. Saving faith is so called because it
has eternal life inseparably connected with it. It cannot be better
defined than in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith
in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon
him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel." The
object of saving faith is the whole revealed Word of God. Faith
accepts and believes it as the very truth most sure. But the special
act of faith which unites to Christ has as its object the person and
the work of the Lord Jesus Christ Joh 7:38 Act 16:31 - This is the
specific act of faith by which a sinner is justified before God
Rom 3:22,25 Gal 2:16 Php 3:9 Joh 3:16-36 Act 10:43 16:31 - In this act of
faith the believer appropriates and rests on Christ alone as Mediator
in all his offices. This assent to or belief in the truth received
upon the divine testimony has always associated with it a deep sense
of sin, a distinct view of Christ, a consenting will, and a loving
heart, together with a reliance on, a trusting in, or resting in
Christ. It is that state of mind in which a poor sinner, conscious of
his sin, flees from his guilty self to Christ his Saviour, and rolls
over the burden of all his sins on him. It consists chiefly, not in
the assent given to the testimony of God in his Word, but in
embracing with fiducial reliance and trust the one and only Saviour
whom God reveals. This trust and reliance is of the essence of faith.
By faith the believer directly and immediately appropriates Christ as
his own. Faith in its direct act makes Christ ours. It is not a work
which God graciously accepts instead of perfect obedience, but is
only the hand by which we take hold of the person and work of our
Redeemer as the only ground of our salvation. Saving faith is a moral
act, as it proceeds from a renewed will, and a renewed will is
necessary to believing assent to the truth of God 1Co 2:14 2Co 4:4.
Faith, therefore, has its seat in the moral part of our nature fully
as much as in the intellectual. The mind must first be enlightened by
divine teaching Joh 6:44 Act 13:48 2Co 4:6 Eph 1:17-18 - before it can
discern the things of the Spirit. Faith is necessary to our salvation
Mar 16:16 - not because there is any merit in it, but simply because it
is the sinner's taking the place assigned him by God, his falling in
with what God is doing. The warrant or ground of faith is the divine
testimony, not the reasonableness of what God says, but the simple
fact that he says it. Faith rests immediately on, "Thus saith the
Lord." But in order to this faith the veracity, sincerity, and truth
of God must be owned and appreciated, together with his
unchangeableness. God's word encourages and emboldens the sinner
personally to transact with Christ as God's gift, to close with him,
embrace him, give himself to Christ, and take Christ as his. That
word comes with power, for it is the word of God who has revealed
himself in his works, and especially in the cross. God is to be
believed for his word's sake, but also for his name's sake. Faith in
Christ secures for the believer freedom from condemnation, or
justification before God; a participation in the life that is in
Christ, the divine life Joh 14:19 Ro 6:4-10 Eph 4:15-16 - etc.; "peace
with God" Rom 5:1 - and sanctification Act 26:18 Gal 5:6 Act 15:9 - All who
thus believe in Christ will certainly be saved Joh 6:37,40 10:27,28.
Rom 8:1 - The faith=the gospel Act 6:7 Ro 1:5 Gal 1:23 1Ti 3:9 Jude 1:3.


As a designation of Christians, means full of faith, trustful, and not
simply trustworthy Act 10:45 16:1 2Co 6:15 Col 1:2 1Ti 4:3,12 5:16.
1Ti 6:2 Ti 1:6 Eph 1:1 1Co 4:17 - etc. It is used also of God's word
or covenant as true and to be trusted Psa 119:86,138 Isa 25:1.
1Ti 1:15 Rev 21:5 22:6 - etc.

Fall of man

An expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of Wisdom,
to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents from
God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and all their
posterity were involved. The history of the Fall is recorded in
Gen 2:1-3:24 - That history is to be literally interpreted. It
records facts which underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It
is referred to by our Lord and his apostles not only as being true,
but as furnishing the ground of all God's subsequent dispensations
and dealings with the children of men. The record of Adam's
temptation and fall must be taken as a true historical account, if we
are to understand the Bible at all as a revelation of God's purpose
of mercy. The effects of this first sin upon our first parents
themselves were:
1. "shame, a sense of degradation and pollution;
2. dread of the displeasure of God, or a sense of guilt, and the
consequent desire to hide from his presence.
These effects were unavoidable. They prove the loss not only of
innocence but of original righteousness, and, with it, of the favour
and fellowship of God. The state therefore to which Adam was reduced
by his disobedience, so far as his subjective condition is concerned,
was analogous to that of the fallen angels. He was entirely and
absolutely ruined" (Hodge's Theology). But the unbelief and
disobedience of our first parents brought not only on themselves this
misery and ruin, it entailed also the same sad consequences on all
their descendants.
1. The guilt, i.e., liability to punishment, of that sin comes by
imputation upon all men, because all were represented by Adam in
the covenant of works (q.v.).
2. Hence, also, all his descendants inherit a corrupt nature. In
all by nature there is an inherent and prevailing tendency to
sin. This universal depravity is taught by universal experience.
All men sin as soon as they are capable of moral actions. The
testimony of the Scriptures to the same effect is most abundant
Rom 1:14-2:29 3:1-19|, etc..
3. This innate depravity is total: we are by nature "dead in
trespasses and sins," and must be "born again" before we can
enter into the kingdom Joh 3:7 - etc.
4. Resulting from this "corruption of our whole nature" is our
absolute moral inability to change our nature or to obey the law
of God. Commenting on Joh 9:3 - Ryle well remarks: "A deep and
instructive principle lies in these words. They surely throw
some light on that great question, the origin of evil. God has
thought fit to allow evil to exist in order that he may have a
platform for showing his mercy, grace, and compassion. If man
had never fallen there would have been no opportunity of showing
divine mercy. But by permitting evil, mysterious as it seems,
God's works of grace, mercy, and wisdom in saving sinners have
been wonderfully manifested to all his creatures. The redeeming
of the church of elect sinners is the means of 'showing to
principalities and powers the manifold wisdom of God' Eph 3:10.
Without the Fall we should have known nothing of the Cross and
the Gospel." On the monuments of Egypt are found representations
of a deity in human form, piercing with a spear the head of a
serpent. This is regarded as an illustration of the wide
dissemination of the tradition of the Fall. The story of the
"golden age," which gives place to the "iron age", the age of
purity and innocence, which is followed by a time when man
becomes a prey to sin and misery, as represented in the
mythology of Greece and Rome, has also been regarded as a
tradition of the Fall.


Deu 14:5 - (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1Ki 4:23 - (R.V., "roebucks"). This
animal, called in Hebrew - yahmur -, from a word meaning "to be red,"
is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the Cervus dama, which
is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It
is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some
interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the bubale,
Antelope bubale, the "wild cow" of North Africa, which is about the
size of a stag, like the hartebeest of South Africa. A species of
deer has been found at Mount Carmel which is called - yahmur - by the
Arabs. It is said to be similar to the European roebuck.


The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" Hos 10:12 Jer 4:3 - means,
"Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off all your evil
habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that they may be
prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was allowed to lie
fallow that it might become more fruitful; but when in this
condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and weeds. The
cultivator of the soil was careful to "break up" his fallow ground,
i.e., to clear the field of weeds, before sowing seed in it. So says
the prophet, "Break off your evil ways, repent of your sins, cease to
do evil, and then the good seed of the word will have room to grow
and bear fruit."

Familiar Spirit

Sorcerers or necormancers, who professed to call up the dead to
answer questions, were said to have a "familiar spirit" Deu 18:11.
2Ki 21:6 2Ch 33:6 Lev 19:31 20:6 Isa 8:19 29:4 - Such a person was
called by the Hebrews an - 'ob -, which properly means a leathern
bottle; for sorcerers were regarded as vessels containing the
inspiring demon. This Hebrew word was equivalent to the pytho of the
Greeks, and was used to denote both the person and the spirit which
possessed him Lev 20:27 1Sa 28:8 - comp. Act 16:16 - The word
"familiar" is from the Latin familiaris, meaning a "household
servant," and was intended to express the idea that sorcerers had
spirits as their servants ready to obey their commands.


The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham
to go down to the land of Egypt Gen 26:1 - Another is mentioned as
having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him to go to Gerar
Gen 26:1,17 - But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in
Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years Gen 41:1-45:28.
Famines were sent as an effect of God's anger against a guilty people
2Ki 8:1-2 Amo 8:11 Deu 28:22-42 2Sa 21:1 2Ki 6:25-28 25:3 Jer 14:15.
Jer 19:9 42:17 - etc. A famine was predicted by Agabus Act 11:28.
Josephus makes mention of the famine which occurred A.D. 45. Helena,
queen of Adiabene, being at Jerusalem at that time, procured corn
from Alexandria and figs from Cyprus for its poor inhabitants.


A winnowing shovel by which grain was thrown up against the wind that
it might be cleansed from broken straw and chaff Isa 30:24 Jer 15:7.
Mat 3:12.



Mat 22:5 - Every Hebrew had a certain portion of land assigned to him as
a possession Num 26:33-56 - In Egypt the lands all belonged to the
king, and the husbandmen were obliged to give him a fifth part of the
produce; so in Palestine Jehovah was the sole possessor of the soil,
and the people held it by direct tenure from him. By the enactment of
Moses, the Hebrews paid a tithe of the produce to Jehovah, which was
assigned to the priesthood. Military service when required was also
to be rendered by every Hebrew at his own expense. The occuptaion of
a husbandman was held in high honour 1Sa 11:5-7 1Ki 19:19 2Ch 26:10.

See TITHE 03681.


1. Mat 10:29 Luk 12:6 - Greek assarion, i.e., a small - as -, which was
a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or drachma, nearly
equal to a halfpenny of our money.
2. Mat 5:26 Mar 12:42 - (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the fourth of
an - as -, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite) was the
very smallest copper coin.


The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day
of Atonement (q.v.), Lev 23:26-32 - It is called "the fast" Act 27:9.
The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is
in Zec 7:1-7 8:19 - from which it appears that during their captivity
the Jews observed four annual fasts.
1. The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of
Tammuz, the anniversary of the capture of Jerusalem by the
Chaldeans; to commemorate also the incident recorded Exo 32:19.
(Comp.) Jer 52:6,7.
2. The fast of the fifth month, kept on the ninth of Ab (comp.)
Num 14:27 - to commemorate the burning of the city and temple
Jer 52:12-13.
3. The fast of the seventh month, kept on the third of Tisri
(comp.) 2Ki 25:1 - the anniversary of the murder of Gedaliah
Jer 41:1-2.
4. The fast of the tenth month (comp.) Jer 52:4 Eze 33:21 2Ki 25:1.
to commemorate the beginning of the siege of the holy city by

There was in addition to these the fast appointed by Esther Est 4:16.
Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate divine
favour were sometimes held.
1. 1Sa 7:6.
2. 2Ch 20:3.
3. Jer 36:6-10.
4. Neh 9:1.
There were also local fasts.
1. Jud 20:26.
2. 2Sa 1:12.
3. 1Sa 31:13.
4. 1Ki 21:9-12.
5. Ezr 8:21-23.
6. Jon 3:5-9.

There are many instances of private occasional fasting 1Sa 1:7.
1Sa 20:34 2Sa 3:35 12:16 1Ki 21:27 Ezr 10:6 Neh 1:4 Dan 10:2-3 - Moses
fasted forty days Exo 24:18 34:28 - and so also did Elijah
1Ki 19:8 - Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness Mat 4:2 - In the
lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably abused Isa 58:4.
Jer 14:12 Zec 7:5 - Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their
hypocritical pretences in fasting Mat 6:16 - He himself appointed no
fast. The early Christians, however, observed the ordinary fasts
according to the law of their fathers Act 13:3 14:23 2Co 6:5.


(Heb. heleb) denotes the richest part of the animal, or the fattest of
the flock, in the account of Abel's sacrifice Gen 4:4 - It sometimes
denotes the best of any production Gen 45:18 Num 18:12 Psa 81:16 - The fat
of sacrifices was to be burned Lev 3:9-11 4:8 7:3 8:25 Num 18:17 - Comp.
Exo 29:13-22 Lev 3:3-5 - It is used figuratively for a dull, stupid
state of mind Psa 17:10 - In Joe 2:24 - the word is equivalent to
"vat," a vessel. The hebrew word here thus rendered is elsewhere
rendered "wine-fat" and "press-fat" Hag 2:16 Isa 63:2.


A name applied
1. to any ancestor Deu 1:11 1Ki 15:11 Mat 3:9 23:30 - etc.; and
2. as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or elder, etc.
Jud 17:10 18:19 1Sa 10:12 2Ki 2:12 Mat 23:9 - etc.
3. The author or beginner of anything is also so called; e.g.,
Jabal and Jubal Gen 4:20-21 - comp. Job 38:28.
Applied to God Exo 4:22 Deu 32:6 2Sa 7:14 Psa 89:27-28 - etc.
1. As denoting his covenant relation to the Jews Jer 31:9.
Isa 63:16 64:8 Joh 8:41 - etc.
2. Believers are called God's "sons" Joh 1:12 Ro 8:16.
Mat 6:4,8,15,18 10:20,29 - They also call him "Father" Rom 1:7.
1Co 1:3 2Co 1:2 Gal 1:4.


(Old A.S. faethm, "bosom," or the outstretched arms), a span of six
feet Act 27:28 - Gr. orguia (from orego, "I stretch"), the distance
between the extremities of both arms fully stretched out.


1. A fatted animal for slaughter 2Sa 6:13 Isa 11:6 Eze 39:18.
Comp. Mat 22:4 - where the word used in the original, sitistos,
means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat).
2. Psa 66:15 - (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of
3. 1Sa 15:9 - (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the second," and hence
probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second
birth, i.e., autmnal lambs, and therfore of less value).

Fear of the Lord the

Is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety Pro 1:7.
Job 28:28 Psa 19:9 - It is a fear conjoined with love and hope, and is
therefore not a slavish dread, but rather filial reverence. (Comp.)
Deu 32:6 Hos 11:1 Isa 1:2 63:16 64:8 - God is called "the Fear of
Isaac" Gen 31:42,53 - i.e., the God whom Isaac feared. A holy fear
is enjoined also in the New Testament as a preventive of carelessness
in religion, and as an incentive to penitence Mat 10:28 2Co 5:11 7:1.
Php 2:12 Eph 5:21 Heb 12:28-29.


As a mark of hospitality Gen 19:3 2Sa 3:20 2Ki 6:23 - on occasions of
domestic joy Luk 15:23 Ge 21:8 - on birthdays Gen 40:20 Job 1:4 Mat 14:6.
and on the occasion of a marriage Jud 14:10 Ge 29:22 - Feasting was a
part of the observances connected with the offering up of sacrifices
Deu 12:6-7 1Sa 9:19 16:3,5 - and with the annual festivals Deu 16:11.
"It was one of the designs of the greater solemnities, which required
the attendance of the people at the sacred tent, that the oneness of
the nation might be maintained and cemented together, by statedly
congregating in one place, and with one soul taking part in the same
religious services. But that oneness was primarily and chiefly a
religious and not merely a political one; the people were not merely
to meet as among themselves, but with Jehovah, and to present
themselves before him as one body; the meeting was in its own nature
a binding of themselves in fellowship with Jehovah; so that it was
not politics and commerce that had here to do, but the soul of the
Mosaic dispensation, the foundation of the religious and political
existence of Israel, the covenant with Jehovah. To keep the people's
consciousness alive to this, to revive, strengthen, and perpetuate
it, nothing could be so well adapated as these annual feasts."

See FESTIVALS 01325.


Happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned"
Act 24:25 - He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and
therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds"
referred to in Act 24:2 - was his clearing the country of banditti
and impostors. At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was
appointed in the room of Felix (A.D. 60) who proceeded to Rome, and
was there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews of
Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the influence of his
brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant. xx. 8-9) Drusilla, the
daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced by Felix to desert her
husband, the king of Emesa, became his adulterous companion. She was
seated beside him when Paul "reasoned" before the judge. When Felix
gave place to Festus, being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he
left Paul bound.


1. With God, consisting in:
a. the knowledge of his will Job 22:21 Joh 17:3.
b. agreement with his designs Amo 3:3.
c. mutual affection Rom 8:38,39.
d. enjoyment of his presence Psa 4:6.
e. conformity to his image 1Jo 2:6 1:6.
f. participation of his felicity 1Jo 1:3-4 Eph 3:14-21.
2. Of saints with one another,
a. in duties Rom 12:5 1Co 12:1 1Th 5:17-18.
b. in ordinances Heb 10:25 Act 2:46.
c. in grace, love, joy, etc. Mal 3:16 2Co 8:4.
d. mutual interest, spiritual and temporal
Rom 12:4,13 Heb 13:16.
e. in sufferings Rom 15:1-2 Gal 6:1-2 Ro 12:15.
f. in glory Rev 7:9.


(Heb. gader), Num 22:24 - (R.V.). Fences were constructions of
unmortared stones, to protect gardens, vineyards, sheepfolds, etc.
From various causes they were apt to bulge out and fall Psa 62:3 - In
Psa 80:12 - R.V. (see) Isa 5:5 - the psalmist says, "Why hast thou
broken down her fences?" Serpents delight to lurk in the crevices of
such fences Ecc 10:8 - comp. Amo 5:19.

Fenced cities

There were in Palestine:
1. cities.
2. unwalled villages.
3. villages with castles or towers 1Ch 27:25.
Cities, so called, had walls, and were thus fenced. The fortifications
consisted of one or two walls, on which were towers or parapets at
regular intervals 2Ch 32:5 Jer 31:38 - Around ancient Jerusalem
were three walls, on one of which were ninety towers, on the second
fourteen, and on the third sixty. The tower of Hananeel, near the
north-east corner of the city wall, is frequently referred to
Neh 3:1 12:39 Zec 14:10 - The gateways of such cities were also
fortified Neh 2:8 3:3,6 Jud 16:2-3 1Sa 23:7 - The Hebrews found many
fenced cities when they entered the Promised Land Num 13:28.
Num 32:17,34-42 Jos 11:12-13 Jud 1:27-33 - and we may estimate the
strength of some of these cities from the fact that they were long
held in possession by the Canaanites. The Jebusites, e.g., were
enabled to hold possession of Jerusalem till the time of David
2Sa 5:6-7 1Ch 11:5 - Several of the kings of Israel and Judah
distinguished themselves as fortifiers or "builders" of cities.


Lev 11:30 - (R.V., "gecko"), one of the unclean creeping things. It was
perhaps the Lacerta gecko which was intended by the Hebrew word
(anakah, a cry, "mourning," the creature which groans) here used,
i.e., the "fan-footed" lizard, the gecko which makes a mournful wail.
The LXX. translate it by a word meaning "shrew-mouse," of which there
are three species in Palestine. The Rabbinical writers regard it as
the hedgehog. The translation of the Revised Version is to be

Ferry boat

2Sa 19:18 - some kind of boat for crossing the river which the men of
Judah placed at the service of the king. Floats or rafts for this
purpose were in use from remote times Isa 18:2.

Festivals, Religious

There were daily Lev 23:1 - weekly, monthly, and yearly festivals,
and great stress was laid on the regular observance of them in every
particular Num 28:1-8 Ex 29:38-42 Lev 6:8-23 Ex 30:7-9 27:20.
1. The septenary festivals were,
a. The weekly Sabbath Lev 23:1-3 Ex 20:8-11 31:12 - etc.
b. The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets
Num 28:11-15 29:1-6.
c. The Sabbatical year Exo 23:10-11 Lev 25:2-7.
d. The year of jubilee Lev 25:8-16 27:16-25.
2. The great feasts were,
a. The Passover.
b. The feast of Pentecost, or of weeks.
c. The feast of Tabernacles, or of ingathering.
On each of these occasions every male Israelite was commanded "to
appear before the Lord" Exo 34:23 Neh 8:9-12 - The attendance of
women was voluntary. Comp. Luk 2:41 1Sa 1:7 2:19 - The promise
that God would protect their homes while all the males were
absent in Jerusalem at these feasts was always fulfilled.
Deu 27:7 Ex 34:24 - "During the whole period between Moses and
Christ we never read of an enemy invading the land at the time of
the three festivals. The first instance on record is
thirty-three years after they had withdrawn from themselves the
divine protection by imbruing their hands in the Saviour's blood,
when Cestius, the Roman general, slew fifty of the people of
Lydda while all the rest had gone up to the feast of Tabernacles,
A.D. 66 These festivals, besides their religious purpose, had an
important bearing on the maintenance among the people of the
feeling of a national unity. The times fixed for their
observance were arranged so as to interfere as little as possible
with the industry of the people. The Passover was kept just
before the harvest commenced, Pentecost at the conclusion of the
corn harvest and before the vintage, the feast of Tabernacles
after all the fruits of the ground had been gathered in.
3. The Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month
Lev 16:1,34 23:26-32 Num 29:7-11.
4. Of the post-Exilian festivals reference is made to:
a. the feast of Dedication Joh 10:22 - This feast was
appointed by Judas Maccabaeus in commemoration of the
purification of the temple after it had been polluted by
Antiochus Epiphanes.
b. The "feast of Purim" (q.v.), Est 9:24-32 - was also
instituted after the Exile. (Cf.) Joh 5:1.

See FEAST 01318.

Festus, Porcius

The successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea Act 24:27 - A
few weeks after he had entered on his office the case of Paul, then a
prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The "next day," after he had
gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul defend himself in the presence of
Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Bernice, and not finding in him
anything worthy of death or of bonds, would have set him free had he
not appealed unto Caesar Act 25:11-12 - In consequence of this appeal
Paul was sent to Rome. Festus, after being in office less than two
years, died in Judea.

See AGRIPPA 00126.


Deu 28:22 Mat 8:14 Mar 1:30 Joh 4:52 Act 28:8 - a burning heat, as the word
so rendered denotes, which attends all febrile attacks. In all
Eastern countries such diseases are very common. Peter's wife's
mother is said to have suffered from a "great fever" Luk 4:38 - an
instance of Luke's professional exactitude in describing disease. He
adopts here the technical medical distinction, as in those times
fevers were divided into the "great" and the "less."


(Heb. sadeh), a cultivated field, but unenclosed. It is applied to any
cultivated ground or pasture Gen 29:2 31:4 34:7 - or tillage Gen 37:7.
Gen 47:24 - It is also applied to woodland Psa 132:6 - or mountain top
Jud 9:32,36 2Sa 1:21 - It denotes sometimes a cultivated region as
opposed to the wilderness Gen 33:19 36:35 - Unwalled villages or
scattered houses are spoken of as "in the fields" Deu 28:3,16.
Lev 25:31 Mar 6:36,56 - The "open field" is a place remote from a house
Gen 4:8 Lev 14:7,53 17:5 - Cultivated land of any extent was called a
field Gen 23:13,17 41:8 Lev 27:16 Ru 4:5 Neh 12:29.


First mentioned in Gen 3:7 - The fig-tree is mentioned Deu 8:8 - as one
of the valuable products of Palestine. It was a sign of peace and
prosperity 1Ki 4:25 Mic 4:4 Zec 3:10 - Figs were used medicinally
2Ki 20:7 - and pressed together and formed into "cakes" as articles
of diet 1Sa 30:12 Jer 24:2 - Our Lord's cursing the fig-tree near
Bethany Mar 11:13 - has occasioned much perplexity from the
circumstance, as mentioned by the evangelist, that "the time of figs
was not yet." The explanation of the words, however, lies in the
simple fact that the fruit of the fig-tree appears before the leaves,
and hence that if the tree produced leaves it ought also to have had
fruit. It ought to have had fruit if it had been true to its
"pretensions," in showing its leaves at this particular season. "This
tree, so to speak, vaunted itself to be in advance of all the other
trees, challenged the passer-by that he should come and refresh
himself with its fruit. Yet when the Lord accepted its challenge and
drew near, it proved to be but as the others, without fruit as they;
for indeed, as the evangelist observes, the time of figs had not yet
arrived. Its fault, if one may use the word, lay in its pretensions,
in its making a show to run before the rest when it did not so indeed"
(Trench, Miracles). The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces
two and sometimes three crops of figs in a year,
1. The bikkurah, or "early-ripe fig" Mic 7:1 Isa 28:4 Hos 9:10.
R.V., which is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon
as it is ripe Nah 3:12.
2. the kermus, or "summer fig," then begins to be formed, and is
ripe about August
3. the pag (plural "green figs," Son 2:13 - Gr. olynthos,
Rev 6:13 - "the untimely fig"), or "winter fig," which ripens
in sheltered spots in spring.



Heb. hashukum, plur., joinings Exo 27:17 38:17,28 - the rods by which
the tops of the columns around the tabernacle court were joined
together, and from which the curtains were suspended Exo 27:10,11.
Exo 36:38 - In Jer 52:21 - the rendering of a different word, - hut -,
meaning a "thread," and designating a measuring-line of 12 cubits in
length for the circumference of the copper pillars of Solomon's


A worker in silver and gold Pro 25:4 - In Jud 17:4 - the word
(tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa 41:7 - "goldsmith."

Fining pot

A crucible, melting-pot Pro 17:3 27:21.


The uniform rendering in the Authorized Version (marg. R.V.,
"cypress") of - berosh - 2Sa 6:5 1Ki 5:8,10 6:15,34 9:11 - etc., a lofty
tree Isa 55:13 - growing on Lebanon Isa 37:24. Its wood was used in
making musical instruments and doors of houses, and for ceilings
2Ch 3:5 - the decks of ships Eze 27:5 - floorings and spear-shafts
Nah 2:3 - R.V. The true fir (abies) is not found in Palestine, but the
pine tree, of which there are four species, is common. The precise
kind of tree meant by the "green fir tree" Hos 14:8 - is uncertain.
Some regard it as the sherbin tree, a cypress resembling the cedar;
others, the Aleppo or maritime pine (Pinus halepensis), which
resembles the Scotch fir; while others think that the "stone-pine"
(Pinus pinea) is probably meant.

See PINE 02956.


1. For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire
Gen 8:20 - The ever-burning fire on the altar was first
kindled from heaven Lev 6:9,13 9:24 - and afterwards rekindled
at the dedication of Solomon's temple 2Ch 7:1,3 - The
expressions "fire from heaven" and "fire of the Lord" generally
denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the altar was
so called Exo 29:18 Lev 1:9 2:3 3:5,9 - Fire for a sacred
purpose obtained otherwise than from the altar was called
"strange fire" Lev 10:1-2 Num 3:4 - The victims slain for sin
offerings were afterwards consumed by fire outside the camp
Lev 4:12, 21:1 - Lev 6:30 16:27 Heb 13:11.
2. For domestic purposes, such as baking, cooking, warmth, etc.
Jer 36:22 Mar 14:54 Joh 18:18 - But on Sabbath no fire for any
domestic purpose was to be kindled Exo 35:3 Num 15:32-36.
3. Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were guilty
of certain forms of unchastity and incest Lev 20:14 21:9 - The
burning of captives in war was not unknown among the Jews
2Sa 12:31 Jer 29:22 - The bodies of infamous persons who were
executed were also sometimes burned Jos 7:25 2Ki 23:16.
4. In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as Jericho
Jos 6:24 - Ai Jos 8:19 - Hazor Jos 11:11 - Laish Jud 18:27 - etc.
The war-chariots of the Canaanites were burnt Jos 11:6,9,13 - The
Israelites burned the images 2Ki 10:26 - (R.V., "pillars") of the
house of Baal. These objects of worship seem to have been of the
nature of obelisks, and were sometimes evidently made of wood.
Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle
Jud 7:16.
5. Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah's presence and the
instrument of his power Exo 14:19 Num 11:1,3 Jud 13:20 1Ki 18:38.
2Ki 1:10,12 2:11 Isa 6:4 Eze 1:4 Rev 1:14 - etc. God's word is
also likened unto fire Jer 23:29 - It is referred to as an emblem
of severe trials or misfortunes Zec 12:6 Luk 12:49 1Co 3:13,15.
1Pe 1:7 - and of eternal punishment Mat 5:22 Mar 9:44 Rev 14:10.
Rev 21:8 - The influence of the Holy Ghost is likened unto
fire Mat 3:11 - His descent was denoted by the appearance of
tongues as of fire Act 2:3.


Isa 7:4 Amo 4:11 Zec 3:2 - denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb. 'ud);
in Jud 15:4 - a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb. lappid); in Pro 26:18.
(comp.) Eph 6:16 - burning darts or arrows (Heb. zikkim).


Exo 27:3 38:3 - one of the vessels of the temple service (rendered
"snuff-dish") Exo 25:38 37:23 - and "censer" Lev 10:1 16:12 - It was
probably a metallic cinder-basin used for the purpose of carrying
live coal for burning incense, and of carrying away the snuff in
trimming the lamps.


Used only in Joh 2:6 - the Attic amphora, equivalent to the Hebrew bath
(q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8 gallons.


From the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the
Hebrew - raki'a -. This word means simply "expansion." It denotes the
space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately above us. They
who rendered - raki'a - by firmamentum regarded it as a solid body. The
language of Scripture is not scientific but popular, and hence we
read of the sun rising and setting, and also here the use of this
particular word. It is plain that it was used to denote solidity as
well as expansion. It formed a division between the waters above and
the waters below Gen 1:7 - The - raki'a - supported the upper reservoir
Psa 148:4 - It was the support also of the heavenly bodies Gen 1:14 - and
is spoken of as having "windows" and "doors" Gen 7:11 Isa 24:18.
Mal 3:10 - through which the rain and snow might descend.


Sons enjoyed certain special privileges Deu 21:17 Ge 25:23,31,34 49:3.
1Ch 5:1 Heb 12:16 Psa 89:27.
The "first-born of the poor" signifies the most miserable of the poor
Isa 14:30 - The "church of the first-born" signifies the church of
the redeemed. The destruction of the first-born was the last of the
ten plagues inflicted on the Egyptians Exo 11:1-8 12:29,30.
Menephtah is probably the Pharaoh whose first-born was slain. His son
did not succeed or survive his father, but died early. The son's tomb
has been found at Thebes unfinished, showing it was needed earlier
than was expected. Some of the records on the tomb are as follows:
"The son whom Menephtah loves; who draws towards him his father's
heart, the singer, the prince of archers, who governed Egypt on behalf
of his father. Dead."

First-born, Redemption of

From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family
belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of sacrificial
worship was introduced, requiring a company of men to be exclusively
devoted to this ministry, the primitive office of the first-born was
superseded by that of the Levites Num 3:11-13 - and it was ordained
that the first-born of man and of unclean animals should henceforth be
redeemed Num 18:15 - The laws concerning this redemption of the
first-born of man are recorded in Exo 13:12-15 22:29 34:20 Num 3:45.
Num 8:17 18:16 Lev 12:2,4 - The first-born male of every clean animal
was to be given up to the priest for sacrifice Deu 12:6 Ex 13:12.
Exo 34:20 Num 18:15-17 - But the first-born of unclean animals was
either to be redeemed or sold and the price given to the priest
Lev 27:11-13,27 - The first-born of an ass, if not redeemed, was to be
put to death Exo 13:13 34:20.

First-born, Sanctification of the

A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of
cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals
should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest representing the
family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in
sacrifice Gen 4:4.


The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the
first-born of man and animals. The law required,
1. That on the morrow after the Passover Sabbath a sheaf of new
corn should be waved by the priest before the altar
Lev 23:5-6,10,12 2:12.
2. That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened bread,
made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner
Lev 23:15,17 Num 28:26.
3. The feast of Tabernacles was an acknowledgement that the fruits
of the harvest were from the Lord Exo 23:16 34:22.
4. Every individual, besides, was required to consecrate to God a
portion of the first-fruits of the land Exo 22:29 23:19 34:26.
Num 15:20,21.
5. The law enjoined that no fruit was to be gathered from
newly-planted fruit-trees for the first three years, and that
the first-fruits of the fourth year were to be consecrated to
the Lord Lev 19:23-25 - Jeremiah Jer 2:3 - alludes to the ordinance
of "first-fruits," and hence he must have been acquainted with
the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, where the laws
regarding it are recorded.


Called - dag - by the Hebrews, a word denoting great fecundity

Gen 9:2 Num 11:22 Jon 2:1,10 - No fish is mentioned by name either in
the Old or in the New Testament. Fish abounded in the Mediterranean
and in the lakes of the Jordan, so that the Hebrews were no doubt
acquainted with many species. Two of the villages on the shores of the
Sea of Galilee derived their names from their fisheries, Bethsaida
(the "house of fish") on the east and on the west. There is probably
no other sheet of water in the world of equal dimensions that contains
such a variety and profusion of fish. About thirty-seven different
kinds have been found. Some of the fishes are of a European type, such
as the roach, the barbel, and the blenny; others are markedly African
and tropical, such as the eel-like silurus. There was a regular
fish-market apparently in Jerusalem 2Ch 33:14 Neh 3:3 12:39 Zep 1:10.
as there was a fish-gate which was probably contiguous to it. Sidon
is the oldest fishing establishment known in history.


Besides its literal sense Luk 5:2 - this word is also applied by our
Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense Mat 4:19 Mar 1:17.


Were used for catching fish Amo 4:2 - comp. Isa 37:29 Jer 16:16.
Eze 29:4 Job 41:1-2 Mat 17:27.

Fishing, The art of

Was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was
from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples Mar 1:16-20.
and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves
Mat 8:26 - and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded
in Mat 13:1 - He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and
bread Mat 14:19 15:36 - It was in the mouth of a fish that the
tribute-money was found Mat 17:27 - And he "ate a piece of broiled
fish" with his disciples after his resurrection Luk 24:42,43 - comp.
Act 1:3 - At the Sea of Tiberias Joh 21:1-14 - in obedience to his
direction, the disciples cast their net "on the right side of the
ship," and enclosed so many that "they were not able to draw it for
the multitude of fishes." Two kinds of fishing-nets are mentioned in
the New Testament:
1. The casting-net Mat 4:18 Mar 1:16.
2. The drag-net or seine Mat 13:48 - Fish were also caught by the
fishing-hook Mat 17:27.

See NET 02711.


Son 7:4 - should be simply "pools," as in the Revised Version. The
reservoirs near Heshbon (q.v.) were probably stocked with fish
2Sa 2:13 4:12 Isa 7:3 22:9,11.


Isa 28:25,27 - the rendering of the Hebrew - ketsah -, "without doubt
the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which
grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt
and Syria for its seed." It is rendered in margin of the Revised
Version "black cummin." The seeds are used as a condiment. In
Eze 4:9 - this word is the rendering of the Hebrew - kussemeth -
(incorrectly rendered "rye" in the Authorized Version of Exo 9:32.
Isa 28:25 - but "spelt" in the Revised Version). The reading
"fitches" here is an error; it should be "spelt."


(Heb., or rather Egyptian, ahu,) Job 8:11 - rendered "meadow" in
Gen 41:2,18 - probably the Cyperus esculentus, a species of rush eaten
by cattle, the Nile reed. It also grows in Palestine. In Exo 2:3,5.
Isa 19:6 - it is the rendering of the Hebrew - suph -, a word which
occurs frequently in connection with - yam -; as - yam suph -, to denote
the "Red Sea" (q.v.) or the sea of weeds (as this word is rendered,)
Jon 2:5 - It denotes some kind of sedge or reed which grows in
marshy places.

See PAPER 02840.
See REED 03087.


Heb. ashishah, 2Sa 6:19 1Ch 16:3 So 2:5 Hos 3:1 - meaning properly "a
cake of pressed raisins." "Flagons of wine" of the Authorized Version
should be, as in the Revised Version, "cakes of raisins" in all these
passages. In Isa 22:24 - it is the rendering of the Hebrew - nebel -,
which properly means a bottle or vessel of skin. (Comp.) 1Sa 1:24.
1Sa 10:3 25:18 2Sa 16:1 - where the same Hebrew word is used.)

Flame of fire

Is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God Exo 3:2 Rev 2:18 - as
indicating "the intense, all-consuming operation of his holiness in
relation to sin."


(Heb. pishtah, i.e., "peeled", in allusion to the fact that the stalks
of flax when dried were first split or peeled before being steeped in
water for the purpose of destroying the pulp). This plant was
cultivated from earliest times. The flax of Egypt was destroyed by
the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i.e., was forming pods for
seed Exo 9:31 - It was extensively cultivated both in Egypt and
Palestine. Reference is made in Jos 2:6 - to the custom of drying
flax-stalks by exposing them to the sun on the flat roofs of houses.
It was much used in forming articles of clothing such as girdles,
also cords and bands Lev 13:48,52,59 Deu 22:11.

See LINEN 02296.


David at the cave of Adullam thus addressed his persecutor Saul
1Sa 24:14 - "After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom
dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea?" He thus speaks of
himself as the poor, contemptible object of the monarch's pursuit, a
"worthy object truly for an expedition of the king of Israel with his
picked troops!" This insect is in Eastern language the popular emblem
of insignificance. In 1Sa 26:20 - the LXX. read "come out to seek
my life" instead of "to seek a flea."


The wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the skin
Deu 18:4 Job 31:20 - The miracle of Gideon's fleece Jud 6:37-40.
consisted in the dew having fallen at one time on the fleece without
any on the floor, and at another time in the fleece remaining dry
while the ground was wet with dew.


In the Old Testament denotes
1. A particular part of the body of man and animals Gen 2:21 41:2.
Psa 102:5 - marg.;
2. The whole body Psa 16:9.
3. All living things having flesh, and particularly humanity as a
whole Gen 6:12-13.
4. Mutability and weakness 2Ch 32:8 - comp. Isa 31:3 Psa 78:39.
5. As suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression
"heart of flesh" Eze 11:19.
6. The expression "my flesh and bone" Jud 9:2 Isa 58:7 - denotes

In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote:
1. the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit"
Rom 6:19 Mat 16:17.
2. Being "in the flesh" means being unrenewed Rom 7:5 8:8-9.
3. and to live "according to the flesh" is to live and act sinfully
Rom 8:4-5,7,12.
4. This word also denotes the human nature of Christ Joh 1:14.
"The Word was made flesh." Comp. also 1Ti 3:16 Ro 1:3.


A many-pronged fork used in the sacrificial services 1Sa 2:13-14.
Exo 27:3 38:3 - by the priest in drawing away the flesh. The fat of
the sacrifice, together with the breast and shoulder Lev 7:29-34 - were
presented by the worshipper to the priest. The fat was burned on the
alter Lev 3:3-5 - and the breast and shoulder became the portion of the
priests. But Hophni and Phinehas, not content with this, sent a
servant to seize with a flesh-hook a further portion.


Abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the forty
years' wanderings. In Isa 50:7 Eze 3:9 - the expressions, where
the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute
amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made
up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or
degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish the great
work in which he was engaged." (Comp.) Eze 3:8-9 - The words "like a
flint" are used with reference to the hoofs of horses Isa 5:28.


An event recorded in Gen 7:1-8:1.
See DELUGE 01011.
In Jos 24:2-3,14-15 - the word "flood" (R.V., "river") means the
river Euphrates. In Psa 66:6 - this word refers to the river Jordan.


Grain reduced to the form of meal is spoken of in the time of Abraham
Gen 18:6 - As baking was a daily necessity, grain was also ground daily
at the mills Jer 25:10 - The flour mingled with water was kneaded in
kneading-troughs, and sometimes leaven Exo 12:34 - was added and
sometimes omitted Gen 19:3 - The dough was then formed into thin cakes
nine or ten inches in diameter and baked in the oven. Fine flour was
offered by the poor as a sin-offering Lev 5:11-13 - and also in
connection with other sacrifices Num 15:3-12 28:7-29.


Very few species of flowers are mentioned in the Bible although they
abounded in Palestine. It has been calculated that in Western Syria
and Palestine from two thousand to two thousand five hundred plants
are found, of which about five hundred probably are British
wild-flowers. Their beauty is often alluded to Son 2:12 Mat 6:28 - They
are referred to as affording an emblem of the transitory nature of
human life Job 14:2 Psa 103:15 Isa 28:1 40:6 Jas 1:10 - Gardens
containing flowers and fragrant herbs are spoken of Son 4:16 6:2.


A musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes,
mentioned Dan 3:5,7,10,15 - In Mat 9:23-24 - notice is taken of players
on the flute, here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players").
Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.


Heb. zebub, Ecc 10:1 Isa 7:18 - This fly was so grievous a pest that the
Phoenicians invoked against it the aid of their god Baal-zebub
(q.v.). The prophet Isaiah Isa 7:18 - alludes to some poisonous fly
which was believed to be found on the confines of Egypt, and which
would be called by the Lord. Poisonous flies exist in many parts of
Africa, for instance, the different kinds of tsetse. Heb. 'arob, the
name given to the insects sent as a plague on the land of Egypt
Exo 8:21-31 Psa 78:45 105:31 - The LXX. render this by a word which
means the "dog-fly," the cynomuia. The Jewish commentators regarded
the Hebrew word here as connected with the word - 'arab -, which means
"mingled;" and they accordingly supposed the plague to consist of a
mixed multitude of animals, beasts, reptiles, and insects. But there
is no doubt that "the - 'arab -" denotes a single definite species.
Some interpreters regard it as the Blatta orientalis, the cockroach,
a species of beetle. These insects "inflict very painful bites with
their jaws; gnaw and destroy clothes, household furniture, leather,
and articles of every kind, and either consume or render unavailable
all eatables."

See BEELZEBUB 00499.


Hos 10:7 - the rendering of - ketseph -, which properly means twigs or
splinters (as rendered in the LXX. and marg. R.V.). The expression in
Hosea may therefore be read, "as a chip on the face of the water,"
denoting the helplessness of the piece of wood as compared with the
irresistable current.


Heb. belil, Job 6:5 - meaning properly a mixture or medley (Lat.
farrago), "made up of various kinds of grain, as wheat, barley,
vetches, and the like, all mixed together, and then sown or given to
cattle" Job 24:6 - A.V. "corn," R.V. "provender;" Isa 30:24.


An enclosure for flocks to rest together Isa 13:20 - Sheep-folds are
mentioned Num 32:16,24,36 2Sa 7:8 Zep 2:6 Joh 10:1 - etc. It was
prophesied of the cities of Ammon Eze 25:5 - Aroer Isa 17:2 - and
Judaea, that they would be folds or couching-places for flocks.
"Among the pots," of the Authorized Version Psa 68:13 - is rightly in
the Revised Version, "among the sheepfolds."

See SHEEP-FOLD 03333.


Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world for food
to man Gen 1:29 - with the exception mentioned Gen 2:17 - The use of
animal food was probably not unknown to the antediluvians. There is,
however, a distinct law on the subject given to Noah after the Deluge
Gen 9:2-5 - Various articles of food used in the patriarchal age are
mentioned in Gen 18:6-8 25:34 27:3-4 43:11 - Regarding the food of the
Israelites in Egypt, see Exo 16:3 Num 11:5 - In the wilderness their
ordinary food was miraculously supplied in the manna. They had also
quails Exo 16:11-13 Num 11:31 - In the law of Moses there are special
regulations as to the animals to be used for food Lev 11:1.
Deu 14:3-21 - The Jews were also forbidden to use as food anything that
had been consecrated to idols Exo 34:15 - or animals that had died of
disease or had been torn by wild beasts Exo 22:31 Lev 22:8 - (See also
for other restrictions) Exo 23:19 29:13-22 Lev 3:4-9 9:18-19 22:8.
Deu 14:21 - But beyond these restrictions they had a large grant from
God Deu 14:26 32:13-14 - Food was prepared for use in various ways.
The cereals were sometimes eaten without any preparation Lev 23:14.
Deu 23:25 2Ki 4:42 - Vegetables were cooked by boiling Gen 25:30,34.
2Ki 4:38-39 - and thus also other articles of food were prepared for
use Gen 27:4 Pr 23:3 Eze 24:10 Luk 24:42 Joh 21:9 - Food was also
prepared by roasting Exo 12:8 Lev 2:14.

See COOK 00892.


Connected with a throne 2Ch 9:18 - Jehovah symbolically dwelt in the
holy place between the cherubim above the ark of the covenant. The
ark was his footstool 1Ch 28:2 Psa 99:5 132:7 - And as heaven is God's
throne, so the earth is his footstool Psa 110:1 Isa 66:1 Mat 5:35.

Forces of the Gentiles

Isa 60:5, 11 - (R.V., "the wealth of the nations") denotes the
wealth of the heathen. The whole passage means that the wealth of the
Gentile world should be consecrated to the service of the church.


Mention is frequently made of the fords of the Jordan Jos 2:7.
Jud 3:28 12:5-6 - which must have been very numerous; about fifty
perhaps. The most notable was that of Bethabara. Mention is also made
of the ford of the Jabbok Gen 32:22 - and of the fords of Arnon
Isa 16:2.


The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the forehead
or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of devotion to
some deity is alluded to in Rev 13:16-17 14:9 17:5 20:4 - The "jewel on
thy forehead" mentioned in Eze 16:12 - (R.V., "a ring upon thy nose")
was in all probability the "nose-ring" Isa 3:21 - In Eze 3:7 - the word
"impudent" is rightly rendered in the Revised Version "an hard
forehead." (See also Eze 3:8-9)


A Gentile. Such as resided among the Hebrews were required by the law
to be treated with kindness Exo 22:21 23:9 Lev 19:33-34 23:22.
Deu 14:29 16:10-11 24:19 - They enjoyed in many things equal rights with
the native-born residents Exo 12:49 Lev 24:22 Num 15:15 35:15 - but were
not allowed to do anything which was an abomination according to the
Jewish law Exo 20:10 Lev 17:15-16 18:26 20:2 24:16 - etc.

Foreknowledge of God

Act 2:23 Ro 8:29 11:2 1Pe 1:2 - one of those high attributes
essentially appertaining to him the full import of which we cannot
comprehend. In the most absolute sense his knowledge is infinite
1Sa 23:9-13 Jer 38:17-23 42:9-22 Mat 11:21,23 Act 15:18.


John the Baptist went before our Lord in this character Mar 1:2-3.
Christ so called Heb 6:20 - as entering before his people into the
holy place as their head and guide.


1. Heb. ya'ar, meaning a dense wood, from its luxuriance. Thus all
the great primeval forests of Syria Ecc 2:6 Isa 44:14 Jer 5:6.
Mic 5:8 - The most extensive was the trans-Jordanic forest of
Ephraim 2Sa 18:6,8 Jos 17:15,18 - which is probably the same as
the wood of Ephratah Psa 132:6 - some part of the great forest
of Gilead. It was in this forest that Absalom was slain by Joab.
David withdrew to the forest of Hareth in the mountains of Judah
to avoid the fury of Saul 1Sa 22:5 - We read also of the forest
of Bethel 2Ki 2:23-24 - and of that which the Israelites passed
in their pursuit of the Philistines 1Sa 14:25 - and of the
forest of the cedars of Lebanon 1Ki 4:33 2Ki 19:23 Hos 14:5-6.
"The house of the forest of Lebanon 1Ki 7:2 10:17 2Ch 9:16 - was
probably Solomon's armoury, and was so called because the wood of
its many pillars came from Lebanon, and they had the appearance
of a forest.
See BAALBEC 00386.
2. Heb. horesh, denoting a thicket of trees, underwood, jungle,
bushes, or trees entangled, and therefore affording a safe
hiding-place. This word is rendered "forest" only in 2Ch 27:4.
It is also rendered "wood", the "wood" in the "wilderness of
Ziph," in which david concealed himself 1Sa 23:15 - which lay
south-east of Hebron. In Isa 17:9 - this word is in Authorized
Version rendered incorrectly "bough."
3. Heb. pardes, meaning an enclosed garden or plantation. Asaph is
Neh 2:8 - called the "keeper of the king's forest." The same
Hebrew word is used Ecc 2:5 - where it is rendered in the
plural "orchards" (R.V., "parks"), and Son 4:13 - rendered
"orchard" (R.V. marg., "a paradise"). "The forest of the vintage"
Zec 11:2 - "inaccessible forest," or R.V. "strong forest") is
probably a figurative allusion to Jerusalem, or the verse may
simply point to the devastation of the region referred to. The
forest is an image of unfruitfulness as contrasted with a
cultivated field Isa 10:19,33,34 29:17 32:15 Jer 26:18 Hos 2:12.
likens the Assyrian host under Sennacherib (q.v.) to the trees of
some huge forest, to be suddenly cut down by an unseen stroke.

Forgiveness of sin

One of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin, God
absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on
account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the guilt of sin, or
the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All
sins are forgiven freely Act 5:31 13:38 1Jo 1:6-9 - The sinner is by
this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and penalty of his
sins. This is the peculiar prerogative of God Psa 130:4 Mar 2:5 - It
is offered to all in the gospel.



In every form of it was sternly condemned by the Mosaic law Lev 21:9.
Lev 19:29 Deu 22:20-21 23-29 23:18 Ex 22:16.
See ADULTERY 00109.
But this word is more frequently used in a symbolical than in its
ordinary sense. It frequently means a forsaking of God or a following
after idols Isa 1:2 Jer 2:20 Eze 16:1 - Hos 1:2 2:1-5 Jer 3:8,9.


Fortunate, a disciple of Corinth who visited Paul at Ephesus, and
returned with Stephanas and Achaicus, the bearers of the apostle's
first letter to the Corinthians 1Co 16:17.


(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source of
living water. Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains,
and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" Deu 8:7 11:11 - These
fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are remarkable for
their abundance and their beauty, especially on the west of Jordan.
All the perennial rivers and streams of the country are supplied from
fountains, and depend comparatively little on surface water.
"Palestine is a country of mountains and hills, and it abounds in
fountains of water. The murmur of these waters is heard in every
dell, and the luxuriant foliage which surrounds them is seen in every
plain." Besides its rain-water, its cisterns and fountains, Jerusalem
had also an abundant supply of water in the magnificent reservoir
called "Solomon's Pools" (q.v.), at the head of the Urtas valley,
whence it was conveyed to the city by subterrean channels some 10
miles in length. These have all been long ago destroyed, so that no
water from the "Pools" now reaches Jerusalem. Only one fountain has
been discovered at Jerusalem, the so-called "Virgins's Fountains," in
the valley of Kidron; and only one well (Heb. beer), the Bir Eyub,
also in the valley of Kidron, south of the King's Gardens, which has
been dug through the solid rock. The inhabitants of Jerusalem are now
mainly dependent on the winter rains, which they store in cisterns.

See WELL 03803.

Fountain of the Virgin

The perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is supplied,
the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a tunnel cut
through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750 feet. The spring
rises in a cave 20 feet by 7 A serpentine tunnel 67 feet long runs
from it toward the left, off which the tunnel to the Pool of Siloam
branches. It is the only unfailing fountain in Jerusalem. The fountain
received its name from the "fantastic legend" that here the virgin
washed the swaddling-clothes of our Lord. This spring has the singular
characteristic of being intermittent, flowing from three to five times
daily in winter, twice daily in summer, and only once daily in autumn.
This peculiarity is accounted for by the supposition that the outlet
from the reservoir is by a passage in the form of a siphon.


The arts of, referred to Psa 91:3 124:7 Pr 6:5 Jer 5:26 Hos 9:8.
Eze 17:20 Ec 9:12 - Birds of all kinds abound in Palestine, and the
capture of these for the table and for other uses formed the
employment of many persons. The traps and snares used for this purpose
are mentioned Hos 5:1 Pr 7:23 22:5 Amo 3:5 Psa 69:22 - comp. Deu 22:6,7.


(Heb. shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under
ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this
animal indigenous to Palestine. It burrows, is silent and solitary in
its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a plunderer of ripe
grapes Son 2:15 - The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the
Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Palestine. The
proverbial cunning of the fox is alluded to in Eze 13:4 - and in
Luk 13:32 - where our Lord calls Herod "that fox." In Jud 15:4,5.
the reference is in all probability to the jackal. The Hebrew word
- shu'al - through the Persian - schagal - becomes our jackal (Canis
aureus), so that the word may bear that signification here. The reasons
for preferring the rendering "jackal" are
1. That it is more easily caught than the fox;
2. That the fox is shy and suspicious, and flies mankind, while
the jackal does not
3. That foxes are difficult, jackals comparatively easy, to treat
in the way here described. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and
are still very numerous in Southern Palestine.


(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., "white"), an odorous resin imported
from Arabia Isa 60:6 Jer 6:20 - yet also growing in Palestine Son 4:14.
It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary
Exo 30:34 - and was used as an accompaniment of the meat-offering
Lev 2:1,16 6:15 24:7 - When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and
hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine name Mal 1:11 So 1:3.
and an emblem of prayer Psa 141:2 Luk 1:10 Rev 5:8 8:3 - This frankincense,
or olibanum, used by the Jews in the temple services is not to be
confounded with the frankincense of modern commerce, which is an
exudation of the Norway spruce fir, the Pinus abies. It was probably a
resin from the Indian tree known to botanists by the name of Boswellia
serrata or thurifera, which grows to the height of forty feet.


The law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of the
Hebrews were to receive their freedom Exo 21:2-4,7,8.
Lev 25:39-42,47-55 Deu 15:12-18 - Under the Roman law the "freeman"
(ingenuus) was one born free; the "freedman" (libertinus) was a
manumitted slave, and had not equal rights with the freeman Act 22:28.
comp. Act 16:37-39 21:39 22:25 25:11,12.

Free-will offering

A spontaneous gift Exo 35:29 - a voluntary sacrifice Lev 22:23 Ezr 3:5.
as opposed to one in consequence of a vow, or in expiation of some


(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is
mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the
plagues which fell on the land of Egypt Exo 8:2-14 Psa 78:45 105:30 - In
the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev 16:13 - where it is
referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only species of frog
existing in Palestine is the green frog (Rana esculenta), the
well-known edible frog of the Continent.


Occurs only in Exo 13:16 Deu 6:8 Deu 11:18 - The meaning of the
injunction to the Israelites, with regard to the statues and precepts
given them, that they should "bind them for a sign upon their hand,
and have them as frontlets between their eyes," was that they should
keep them distinctly in view and carefully attend to them. But soon
after their return from Babylon they began to interpret this
injunction literally, and had accordingly portions of the law written
out and worn about their person. These they called tephillin, i.e.,
"prayers." The passages so written out on strips of parchment were
these, Exo 12:2-10 13:11-21 Deu 6:4-9 11:18-21 - They were then "rolled
up in a case of black calfskin, which was attached to a stiffer piece
of leather, having a thong one finger broad and one cubit and a half
long. Those worn on the forehead were written on four strips of
parchment, and put into four little cells within a square case, which
had on it the Hebrew letter called shin, the three points of which
were regarded as an emblem of God." This case tied around the
forehead in a particular way was called "the tephillah on the head."



(Heb. kerah, from its smoothness) Job 37:10 - (R.V., "ice");
Gen 31:40 Jer 36:30 - rendered "ice" in Job 6:16 38:29 - and "crystal"
in Eze 1:22 - "At the present day frost is entirely unknown in the
lower portions of the valley of the Jordan, but slight frosts are
sometimes felt on the sea-coast and near Lebanon." Throughout Western
Asia cold frosty nights are frequently succeeded by warm days. "Hoar
frost" (Heb. kephor, so called from its covering the ground) is
mentioned in Exo 16:14 Job 38:29 Psa 147:16 - In Psa 78:47 - the word
rendered "frost" (R.V. marg., "great hail-stones"), - hanamal -, occurs
only there. It is rendered by Gesenius, the Hebrew lexicographer,
"ant," and so also by others, but the usual interpretation derived from
the ancient versions may be maintained.


A word as used in Scripture denoting produce in general, whether
vegetable or animal. The Hebrews divided the fruits of the land into
three classes:,
1. The fruit of the field, "corn-fruit" (Heb. dagan); all kinds of
grain and pulse.
2. The fruit of the vine, "vintage-fruit" (Heb. tirosh); grapes,
whether moist or dried.
3. "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons, etc.
Injunctions concerning offerings and tithes were expressed by these
Hebrew terms alone Num 18:12 Deu 14:23 - This word "fruit" is also
used of:
1. Children or offspring Gen 30:2 Deu 7:13 Luk 1:42 Psa 21:10 132:11.
2. The progeny of beasts Deu 28:51 Isa 14:29.
It is used metaphorically in a variety of forms Psa 104:13 Pr 1:31.
Pro 11:30 31:16 Isa 3:10 10:12 Mat 3:8 21:41 26:29 Heb 13:15.
Rom 7:4-5 15:28 - The fruits of the Spirit Gal 5:22-23 Eph 5:9.
Jas 3:17-18 - are those gracious dispositions and habits which the
Spirit produces in those in whom he dwells and works.


(Heb. marhesheth, a "boiler"), a pot for boiling meat Lev 2:7 7:9.


Almost every kind of combustible matter was used for fuel, such as the
withered stalks of herbs Mat 6:30 - thorns Psa 58:9 Ec 7:6 - animal
excrements Eze 4:12-15 15:4,6 21:32 - Wood or charcoal is much used
still in all the towns of Syria and Egypt. It is largely brought from
the region of Hebron to Jerusalem.

See COAL 00851.


Gen 4:12,14 - a rover or wanderer (Heb. n'a); Jud 12:4 - a refugee, one
who has escaped (Heb. palit); 2Ki 25:11 - a deserter, one who has
fallen away to the enemy (Heb. nophel); Eze 17:21 - one who has broken
away in flight (Heb. mibrah); Isa 15:5 43:14 - a breaker away, a
fugitive (Heb. beriah), one who flees away.


The word "full" is from the Anglo-Saxon fullian, meaning "to whiten."
To full is to press or scour cloth in a mill. This art is one of
great antiquity. Mention is made of "fuller's soap" Mal 3:2 - and of
"the fuller's field" 2Ki 18:17 - At his transfiguration our Lord's
rainment is said to have been white "so as no fuller on earth could
white them" Mar 9:3 - En-rogel (q.v.), meaning literally
"foot-fountain," has been interpreted as the "fuller's fountain,"
because there the fullers trod the cloth with their feet.

Fuller's field

A spot near Jerusalem 2Ki 18:17 Isa 36:2 7:3 - on the side of the
highway west of the city, not far distant from the "upper pool" at
the head of the valley of Hinnom. Here the fullers pursued their

Fuller's soap

(Heb. borith mekabbeshim, i.e., "alkali of those treading cloth").
Mention is made Pro 25:20 Jer 2:22 - of nitre and also Mal 3:2.
of soap (Heb. borith) used by the fuller in his operations. Nitre is
found in Syria, and vegetable alkali was obtained from the ashes of
certain plants.

See SOAP 03467.


1. Of time Gal 4:4 - the time appointed by God, and foretold by the
prophets, when Messiah should appear.
2. Of Christ Joh 1:16 - the superabundance of grace with which he
was filled.
3. Of the Godhead bodily dwelling in Christ Col 2:9 - i.e., the
whole nature and attributes of God are in Christ.
4. Eph 1:23 - the church as the fulness of Christ, i.e., the church
makes Christ a complete and perfect head.


Burying was among the Jews the only mode of disposing of corpses
Gen 23:19 25:9 35:8-9 - etc. The first traces of burning the dead are
found in 1Sa 31:12 - The burning of the body was affixed by the law
of Moses as a penalty to certain crimes Lev 20:14 21:9 - To leave
the dead unburied was regarded with horror 1Ki 13:22 14:11 16:4 21:24.
etc. In the earliest times of which we have record kinsmen carried
their dead to the grave Gen 25:9 35:29 Jud 16:31 - but in later
times this was done by others Amo 6:10 - Immediately after decease
the body was washed, and then wrapped in a large cloth Act 9:37.
Mat 27:59 Mar 15:46 - In the case of persons of distinction, aromatics
were laid on the folds of the cloth Joh 19:39 - comp. Joh 12:7 - As
a rule the burial (q.v.) took place on the very day of the death
Act 5:6,10 - and the body was removed to the grave in an open coffin or
on a bier Luk 7:14 - After the burial a funeral meal was usually given
2Sa 3:35 Jer 16:5,7 Hos 9:4.


A stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9
inches Luk 24:13 Joh 6:19 11:18 Rev 14:20 21:16.


1. Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top
of which materials were cast in Dan 3:22-23 - comp. Jer 29:22.
This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the
Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the
Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
2. Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace Gen 19:28 - also a lime-kiln
Isa 33:12 Amo 2:1.
3. Heb. kur, a refining furnace Pro 17:3 27:21 Eze 22:18.
4. Heb. alil, a crucible; only used in Psa 12:6.
5. Heb. tannur, oven for baking bread Gen 15:17 Isa 31:9 Neh 3:11 - It
was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated
by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated
surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace and a burning
lamp" Gen 15:17 - the symbol of the presence of the Almighty,
passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's sacrifice in
ratification of the covenant God made with him.
See OVEN 02814.
6. Gr. kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven Mat 13:42,50 Rev 1:15 9:2.


An opening in the ground made by the plough Psa 65:10 Hos 10:4,10.


As attributed to God, is a figurative expression for dispensing
afflictive judgments Lev 26:28 Job 20:23 Isa 63:3 Jer 4:4 Eze 5:13.
Dan 9:16 Zec 8:2.

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