Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - E
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(Herb. nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so
called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for its
swiftness of flight Deu 28:49 2Sa 1:23 - its mounting high in the air
Job 39:27 - its strength Psa 103:5 - its setting its nest in high places
Jer 49:16 - and its power of vision Job 39:27-30 - This "ravenous bird"
is a symbol of those nations whom God employs and sends forth to do a
work of destruction, sweeping away whatever is decaying and
putrescent Mat 24:28 Isa 46:11 Eze 39:4 Deu 28:49 Jer 4:13 48:40 - It
is said that the eagle sheds his feathers in the beginning of spring,
and with fresh plumage assumes the appearance of youth. To this,
allusion is made in Psa 103:5 - and Isa 40:31 - God's care over his
people is likened to that of the eagle in training its young to fly
Exo 19:4 Deu 32:11-12 - An interesting illustration is thus recorded by
Sir Humphry Davy:, "I once saw a very interesting sight above the
crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent eagles were teaching their offspring,
two young birds, the maneuvers of flight. They began by rising from
the top of the mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about mid-day,
and bright for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the
young birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till
they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger
gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their circle of
flight so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The young ones
still and slowly followed, apparently flying better as they mounted;
and they continued this sublime exercise, always rising till they
became mere points in the air, and the young ones were lost, and
afterwards their parents, to our aching sight." (See) Isa 40:31.
There have been observed in Palestine four distinct species of
1. the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos);
2. the spotted eagle (Aquila naevia);
3. the common species, the imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); and
4. the Circaetos gallicus, which preys on reptiles.
The eagle was unclean by the Levitical law Lev 11:13 Deu 14:12.
Used frequently in a figurative sense Psa 34:15 - To "uncover the ear"
is to show respect to a person 1Sa 20:2 - marg. To have the "ear
heavy", or to have "uncircumcised ears" Isa 6:10 - is to be
inattentive and disobedient. To have the ear "bored" through with an
awl was a sign of perpetual servitude Exo 21:6.
An Old English word (from the Latin aro, I plough), meaning
"ploughing." It is used in the Authorized Version in Gen 45:6.
Exo 34:21 1Sa 8:12 Deu 21:4 Isa 30:24 - but the Revised Version has
rendered the original in these places by the ordinary word to plough
The Spirit is the earnest of the believer's destined inheritance
2Co 1:22 5:5 Eph 1:14 - The word thus rendered is the same as that
rendered "pledge" in Gen 38:17-20 - "indeed, the Hebrew word has
simply passed into the Greek and Latin languages, probably through
commercial dealings with the Phoenicians, the great trading people of
ancient days. Originally it meant no more than a pledge; but in
common usage it came to denote that particular kind of pledge which
is a part of the full price of an article paid in advance; and as it
is joined with the figure of a seal when applied to the Spirit, it
seems to be used by Paul in this specific sense." The Spirit's
gracious presence and working in believers is a foretaste to them of
the blessedness of heaven. God is graciously pleased to give not only
pledges but foretastes of future blessedness.
Rings properly for the ear Gen 35:4 Num 31:50 Eze 16:12 - In Gen 24:47.
the word means a nose-jewel, and is so rendered in the Revised
Version. In Isa 3:20 - the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the
Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the
original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus
remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the neck or
in the ears of females. Ear-rings were ornaments used by both sexes
1. In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word
- adamah' -. In Gen 9:20 - "husbandman" is literally "man of the
ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth Exo 20:24.
Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth 2Ki 5:17 - under
the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of the
heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own soil.
2. As the rendering of - 'erets -, it means the whole world Gen 1:2.
the land as opposed to the sea Gen 1:10 - - Erets - also denotes a
country Gen 21:32 - a plot of ground Gen 23:15 - the ground on
which a man stands Gen 33:3 - the inhabitants of the earth
Gen 6:1 11:1 - all the world except Israel 2Ch 13:9 - In the New
Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea Mat 23:35 - also
things carnal in contrast with things heavenly
Joh 3:31 Col 3:1-2.
Mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine Psa 18:7.
comp. Hab 3:6 Na 1:5 Isa 5:25 - The first earthquake in Palestine of
which we have any record happened in the reign of Ahab 1Ki 19:11,12.
Another took place in the days of Uzziah, King of Judah Zec 14:5 - The
most memorable earthquake taking place in New Testament times
happened at the crucifixion of our Lord Mat 27:54 - An earthquake at
Philippi shook the prison in which Paul and Silas were imprisoned
Act 16:26 - It is used figuratively as a token of the presence of the
Lord Jud 5:4 2Sa 22:8 Psa 77:18 97:4 104:32.
1. The orient (mizrah); the rising of the sun. Thus "the east
country" is the country lying to the east of Syria, the Elymais
2. Properly what is in front of one, or a country that is before or
in front of another; the rendering of the word - kedem -. In
pointing out the quarters, a Hebrew always looked with his face
toward the east. The word - kedem - is used when the four quarters
of the world are described Gen 13:14 28:14 - and - mizrah - when the
east only is distinguished from the west Jos 11:3 Psa 50:1.
Psa 103:12 - etc. In Gen 25:6 - "eastward" is literally "unto the
land of kedem;" i.e., the lands lying east of Palestine, namely,
Arabia, Mesopotamia, etc.
East, Children of the
The Arabs as a whole, known as the Nabateans or Kedarenes, nomad tribes
Jud 6:3,33 7:12 8:10.
Originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the Saxons, in
honour of whom sacrifices were offered about the time of the
Passover. Hence the name came to be given to the festival of the
Resurrection of Christ, which occured at the time of the Passover. In
the early English versions this word was frequently used as the
translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover). When the Authorized
Version (1611) was formed, the word "passover" was used in all
passages in which this word pascha occurred, except in Act 12:4.
In the Revised Version the proper word, "passover," is always used.
Jer 19:2 - properly the Potter's gate, the gate which led to the
potter's field, in the valley of Hinnom.
Joe 2:20 Eze 47:18 - the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of
the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west, was hence
called the "great sea for the west border" Num 34:6.
The wind coming from the east Job 27:21 Isa 27:8 - etc. Blight
caused by this wind, "thin ears" Gen 41:6 - the withered "gourd"
Jon 4:8 - It was the cause and also the emblem of evil Eze 17:10.
Eze 19:12 Hos 13:15 - In Palestine this wind blows from a burning
desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation.
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians Gen 43:32 - In the
time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans Joh 4:9 - and were
astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners Mat 9:11 - The
Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian
and Chaldean practice of reclining Luk 7:36-50 - Their principal meal
was at noon Gen 43:16 1Ki 20:16 Ru 2:14 Luk 14:12 - The word "eat" is
used metaphorically in Jer 15:16 Eze 3:1 Rev 10:9 - In Joh 6:53-58.
"eating and drinking" means believing in Christ. Women were never
present as guests at meals (q.v.).
1. A mountain 3,076 feet above the level of the sea, and 1,200
feet above the level of the valley, on the north side of which
stood the city of Shechem (q.v.). On this mountain six of the
tribes Deu 27:12-13 - were appointed to take their stand and
respond according to a prescribed form to the imprecations
uttered in the valley, where the law was read by the Levites
Deu 11:29 29:4,13 - This mountain was also the site of the first
great altar erected to Jehovah Deu 27:5-8 Jos 8:30-35 - After
this the name of Ebal does not again occur in Jewish history.
See GERIZIM 01465.
2. A descendant of Eber 1Ch 1:22 - called also Obal Gen 10:28.
3. A descendant of Seir the Horite Gen 36:23.
Slave, the father of Gaal, in whom the men of Shechem "put confidence"
in their conspiracy against Abimelech Jud 9:26,26,30,31.
A servant of the king; probably an official title, an Ethiopian, "one
of the eunuchs which was in the king's house;" i.e., in the palace of
Zedekiah, king of Judah. He interceded with the king in Jeremiah's
behalf, and was the means of saving him from death by famine
Jer 38:7-11 - comp. Jer 39:15-18.
Stone of help, the memorial stone set up by Samuel to commemorate the
divine assistance to Israel in their great battle against the
Philistines, whom they totally routed 1Sa 7:7-12 - at Aphek, in the
neighbourhood of Mizpeh, in Benjamin, near the western entrance of
the pass of Beth-horon. On this very battle-field, twenty years
before, the Philistines routed the Israelites, "and slew of the army
in the field about four thousand men" 1Sa 4:1-2 - here, and at
1Sa 5:1 - called "Eben-ezer" by anticipation). In this extremity the
Israelites fetched the ark out of Shiloh and carried it into their
camp. The Philistines a second time immediately attacked them, and
smote them with a very great slaughter, "for there fell of Israel
thirty thousand footmen. And the ark of God was taken" 1Sa 4:10 - And
now in the same place the Philistines are vanquished, and the
memorial stone is erected by Samuel (q.v.). The spot where the stone
was erected was somewhere "between Mizpeh and Shen." Some have
identified it with the modern Beit Iksa, a conspicuous and prominent
position, apparently answering all the necessary conditions; others
with Dier Aban, 3 miles east of 'Ain Shems.
1. The third post-duluvian patriach after Shem Gen 10:24 11:14 - He
is regarded as the founder of the Hebrew race Gen 10:21 Num 24:24.
In Luk 3:35 - he is called Heber.
2. One of the seven heads of the families of the Gadites 1Ch 5:13.
3. The oldest of the three sons of Elpaal the Benjamite 1Ch 8:12.
4. One of the heads of the familes of Benjamites in Jerusalem
5. The head of the priestly family of Amok in the time of
Zerubbabel Neh 12:20.
See HEBER 01706.
A black, hard wood, brought by the merchants from India to Tyre
Eze 27:15 - It is the heart-wood, brought by Diospyros ebenus, which
grows in Ceylon and Southern India.
Passage, one of the stations of the Israelites in their wanderings
Num 33:34-35 - It was near Ezion-geber.
Ezr 6:2 - marg.
See ACHMETHA 00069.
The Greek rendering of the Hebrew - Koheleth -, which means "Preacher."
The old and traditional view of the authorship of this book
attributes it to Solomon. This view can be satisfactorily maintained,
though others date it from the Captivity. The writer represents
himself implicitly as Solomon Ecc 1:12 - It has been appropriately
styled The Confession of King Solomon. "The writer is a man who has
sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the
penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has
through all this been under the discipline of a divine education, and
has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him." "The
writer concludes by pointing out that the secret of a true life is
that a man should consecrate the vigour of his youth to God." The
key-note of the book is sounded in ch. Ecc 1:2 - "Vanity of vanities!
saith the Preacher, Vanity of vanities! all is vanity!" i.e., all
man's efforts to find happiness apart from God are without result.
Eclipse of the Sun
Alluded to in Amo 8:9 Mic 3:6 Zec 14:6 Joe 2:10 - Eclipses were
regarded as tokens of God's anger Joe 3:15 Job 9:7 - The darkness at
the crucifixion has been ascribed to an eclipse Mat 27:45 - but on the
other hand it is argued that the great intensity of darkness caused
by an eclipse never lasts for more than six minutes, and this
darkness lasted for three hours. Moreover, at the time of the
Passover the moon was full, and therefore there could not be an
eclipse of the sun, which is caused by an interposition of the moon
between the sun and the earth.
Witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the LXX. and
Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also
in the Revised Version, of Jos 22:34 - The words are literally
rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named
the altar. It is a witness between us that Jehovah is God." This
great altar stood probably on the east side of the Jordan, in the
land of Gilead, "over against the land of Canaan." After the division
of the Promised Land, the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe
of Manasseh, on returning to their own settlements on the east of
Jordan Jos 22:1-6 - erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in
answer to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice,
but only as a witness ('Ed) or testimony to future generations that
they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other
Tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near which
Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem Gen 35:21 - In Mic 4:8 - the
word is rendered "tower of the flock" (marg., "Edar"), and is used as
a designation of Bethlehem, which figuratively represents the royal
line of David as sprung from Bethlehem.
1. The garden in which our first parents dewlt Gen 2:8-17 - No
geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing
on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west
of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in
Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be
sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the
Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of
Shinar" or Babylonia. The region from about lat. 33 degrees
30 to lat. 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile
tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as
the probable site of Eden. "It is a region where streams abound,
where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian
tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into
four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence."
Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive
innocence of our race in the garden of Eden. This was the
"golden age" to which the Greeks looked back. Men then lived a
"life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was
unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a
perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth
spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance."
2. One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly
embroidered stuffs Eze 27:23 - the same, probably, as that
mentioned in 2Ki 19:12 Isa 37:12 - as the name of a region
conquered by the Assyrians.
3. Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming
the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah
1. A city in the south of Judah, on the border of Idumea Jos 15:21.
2. The second of the three sons of Mushi, of the family of Merari,
appointed to the Levitical office 1Ch 23:23 24:30.
1. The name of Esau (q.v.), Gen 25:30 - "Feed me, I pray thee, with
that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., 'the red
pottage, the red pottage'] was his name called Edom", i.e.,
2. Idumea Isa 34:5-6 Eze 35:15 - "The field of Edom" Gen 32:3 - "the
land of Edom" Gen 36:16 - was mountainous Oba 1:8-9,19,21 - It was
called the land, or "the mountain of Seir," the rough hills on
the east side of the Arabah. It extended from the head of the
Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf, to the foot of the Dead Sea
1Ki 9:26 - and contained, among other cities, the rock-hewn Sela
(q.v.), generally known by the Greek name Petra 2Ki 14:7 - It is
a wild and rugged region, traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old
capital was Bozrah Isa 63:1 - The early inhabitants of the land
were Horites. They were destroyed by the Edomites Deu 2:12.
between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was
frequent war 2Ki 8:20 2Ch 28:17 - At the time of the Exodus they
churlishly refused permission to the Israelites to pass through
their land Num 20:14-21 - and ever afterwards maintained an
attitude of hostility toward them. They were conquered by David
2Sa 8:14 - comp. 1Ki 9:26 - and afterwards by Amaziah
2Ch 25:11-12 - But they regained again their independence, and
in later years, during the decline of the Jewish kingdom
2Ki 16:6 - R.V. marg., "Edomites"), made war against Israel.
They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured
Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of
the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. At length, however,
Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power Jer 27:3,6.
There are many prophecies concerning Edom Isa 34:5-6.
Jer 49:7-18 Eze 25:13 35:1-15 Joe 3:19 Amo 1:11 Obad 1:1-21.
Mal 1:3-4 - which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present
desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the
inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people
for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly
disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In
Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles
assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds,
and beasts, and reptiles." The Edomites were Semites, closely
related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They
dispossessed the Horites of Mount Seir; though it is clear,
from Gen 36:1 - that they afterwards intermarried with
the conquered population. Edomite tribes settled also in the
south of Judah, like the Kenizzites Gen 36:11 - to whom Caleb
and Othniel belonged Jos 15:17 - The southern part of Edom
was known as Teman.
1. One of the chief towns of the kingdom of Bashan Jos 12:4-5 - Here
Og was defeated by the Israelites, and the strength of the
Amorites broken Num 21:33-35 - It subsequently belonged to
Manasseh, for a short time apparently, and afterwards became the
abode of banditti and outlaws Jos 13:31 - It has been identified
with the modern Edr'a, which stands on a rocky promontory on the
south-west edge of the Lejah (the Argob of the Hebrews, and
Trachonitis of the Greeks). The ruins of Edr'a are the most
extensive in the Hauran. They are 3 miles in circumference.
A number of the ancient houses still remain; the walls, roofs,
and doors being all of stone. The wild region of which Edrei was
the capital is thus described in its modern aspect: "Elevated
about 20 feet above the plain, it is a labyrinth of clefts
and crevasses in the rock, formed by volcanic action; and owing
to its impenetrable condition, it has become a refuge for
outlaws and turbulent characters, who make it a sort of Cave of
Adullam. It is, in fact, an impregnable natural fortress, about
20 miles in length and 15 in breadth" (Porter's Syria, etc.).
Beneath this wonderful city there is also a subterranean city,
hollowed out probably as a refuge for the population of the
upper city in times of danger.
See BASHAN 00461.
2. A town of Naphtali Jos 19:37.
See CALL 00694.
Occurs in Authorized Version, Jas 5:16 - The Revised Version
renders appropriately: "The supplication of a righteous man availeth
much in its working", i.e., "it moves the hand of Him who moves the
(Heb. beytsah, "whiteness"). Eggs deserted Isa 10:14 - of a bird
Deu 22:6 - an ostrich Job 39:14 - the cockatrice Isa 59:5 - In
Luk 11:12 - an egg is contrasted with a scorpion, which is said to be
very like an egg in its appearance, so much so as to be with
difficulty at times distinguished from it. In Job 6:6 - ("the white
of an egg") the word for egg (hallamuth') occurs nowhere else. It
has been translated "purslain" (R.V. marg.), and the whole phrase
"purslain-broth", i.e., broth made of that herb, proverbial for its
insipidity; and hence an insipid discourse. Job applies this
expression to the speech of Eliphaz as being insipid and dull. But
the common rendering, "the white of an egg", may be satisfactorily
A heifer, one of David's wives, and mother of Ithream 2Sa 3:5 1Ch 3:3.
According to a Jewish tradition she was Michal.
Two ponds, Isa 15:8 - probably En-eglaim of Eze 47:10.
The bullock; place of heifers.
1. Chieftain or king of one of the Moabite tribes Jud 3:12-14.
Having entered into an alliance with Ammon and Amalek, he
overran the trans-Jordanic region, and then crossing the Jordan,
seized on Jericho, the "city of palm trees," which had been by
this time rebuilt, but not as a fortress. He made this city his
capital, and kept Israel in subjection for eighteen years. The
people at length "cried unto the Lord" in their distress, and he
"raised them up a deliverer" in Ehud (q.v.), the son of Gera, a
2. A city in Judah, near Lachish Jos 15:39 - It was destroyed by
Joshua Jos 10:5-6 - It has been identified with Tell Nejileh,
6 miles south of Tell Hesy or Ajlan, north-west of Lachish.
See LACHISH 02228.
The land of the Nile and the pyramids, the oldest kingdom of which we
have any record, holds a place of great significance in Scripture.
The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original home is
still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it was in
Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of
the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class population, perhaps
belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the Egyptians of history
entered it. The ancient Egyptian language, of which the latest form
is Coptic, is distantly connected with the Semitic family of speech.
Egypt consists geographically of two halves, the northern being the
Delta, and the southern Upper Egypt, between Cairo and the First
Cataract. In the Old Testament, Northern or Lower Egypt is called
Mazor, "the fortified land" Isa 19:6 37:25 - where the A.V.
mistranslates "defence" and "besieged places"); while Southern or
Upper Egypt is Pathros, the Egyptian Pa-to-Res, or "the land of the
south" Isa 11:11 - But the whole country is generally mentioned under
the dual name of Mizraim, "the two Mazors." The civilization of Egypt
goes back to a very remote antiquity. The two kingdoms of the north
and south were united by Menes, the founder of the first historical
dynasty of kings. The first six dynasties constitute what is known as
the Old Empire, which had its capital at Memphis, south of Cairo,
called in the Old Testament Moph Hos 9:6 - and Noph. The native name
was Mennofer, "the good place." The Pyramids were tombs of the
monarchs of the Old Empire, those of Gizeh being erected in the time
of the Fourth Dynasty. After the fall of the Old Empire came a period
of decline and obscurity. This was followed by the Middle Empire, the
most powerful dynasty of which was the Twelfth. The Fayyum was
rescued for agriculture by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty; and two
obelisks were erected in front of the temple of the sun-god at On or
Heliopolis (near Cairo), one of which is still standing. The capital
of the Middle Empire was Thebes, in Upper Egypt. The Middle Empire
was overthrown by the invasion of the Hyksos, or shepherd princes
from Asia, who ruled over Egypt, more especially in the north, for
several centuries, and of whom there were three dynasties of kings.
They had their capital at Zoan or Tanis (now San), in the
north-eastern part of the Delta. It was in the time of the Hyksos
that Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph entered Egypt. The Hyksos were
finally expelled about B.C. 1600 by the hereditary princes of
Thebes, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty, and carried the war into
Asia. Canaan and Syria were subdued, as well as Cyprus, and the
boundaries of the Egyptian Empire were fixed at the Euphrates. The
Soudan, which had been conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty,
was again annexed to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took
the title of "Prince of Cush." One of the later kings of the dynasty,
Amenophis IV., or Khu-n-Aten, endeavoured to supplant the ancient
state religion of Egypt by a new faith derived from Asia, which was a
sort of pantheistic monotheism, the one supreme god being adored
under the image of the solar disk. The attempt led to religious and
civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central Egypt,
where he built a new capital, on the site of the present
Tell-el-Amarna. The cuneiform tablets that have been found there
represent his foreign correspondence (about B.C. 1400 He surrounded
himself with officials and courtiers of Asiatic, and more especially
Canaanitish, extraction; but the native party succeeded eventually in
overthrowing the government, the capital of Khu-n-Aten was destroyed,
and the foreigners were driven out of the country, those that
remained being reduced to serfdom. The national triumph was marked by
the rise of the Nineteenth Dynasty, in the founder of which, Rameses
I., we must see the "new king, who knew not Joseph." His grandson,
Rameses II., reigned sixty-seven years (B.C. 1348 and was an
indefatigable builder. As Pithom, excavated by Dr. Naville in 1883
was one of the cities he built, he must have been the Pharaoh of the
Oppression. The Pharaoh of the Exodus may have been one of his
immediate successors, whose reigns were short. Under them Egypt lost
its empire in Asia, and was itself attacked by barbarians from Libya
and the north. The Nineteenth Dynasty soon afterwards came to an end;
Egypt was distracted by civil war; and for a short time a Canaanite,
Arisu, ruled over it. Then came the Twentieth Dynasty, the second
Pharaoh of which, Rameses III., restored the power of his country. In
one of his campaigns he overran the southern part of Palestine, where
the Israelites had not yet settled. They must at the time have been
still in the wilderness. But it was during the reign of Rameses III.
that Egypt finally lost Gaza and the adjoining cities, which were
seized by the Pulista, or Philistines. After Rameses III., Egypt fell
into decay. Solomon married the daughter of one of the last kings of
the Twenty-first Dynasty, which was overthrown by Shishak I., the
general of the Libyan mercenaries, who founded the Twenty-second
Dynasty 1Ki 11:40 14:25-26 - A list of the places he captured in
Palestine is engraved on the outside of the south wall of the temple
of Karnak. In the time of Hezekiah, Egypt was conquered by Ethiopians
from the Soudan, who constituted the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The third
of them was Tirhakah 2Ki 19:9 - In B.C. 674 it was conquered by the
Assyrians, who divided it into twenty satrapies, and Tirhakah was
driven back to his ancestral dominions. Fourteen years later it
successfully revolted under Psammetichus I. of Sais, the founder of
the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Among his successors were Necho 2Ki 23:29.
and Hophra, or Apries Jer 37:5,7,11 - The dynasty came to an end in
B.C. 525 when the country was subjugated by Cambyses. Soon
afterwards it was organized into a Persian satrapy. The title of
Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the Egyptian Per-aa, or
"Great House," which may be compared to that of "Sublime Porte." It
is found in very early Egyptian texts. The Egyptian religion was a
strange mixture of pantheism and animal worship, the gods being
adored in the form of animals. While the educated classes resolved
their manifold deities into manifestations of one omnipresent and
omnipotent divine power, the lower classes regarded the animals as
incarnations of the gods. Under the Old Empire, Ptah, the Creator,
the god of Memphis, was at the head of the Pantheon; afterwards Amon,
the god of Thebes, took his place. Amon, like most of the other gods,
was identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis. The Egyptians
believed in a resurrection and future life, as well as in a state of
rewards and punishments dependent on our conduct in this world. The
judge of the dead was Osiris, who had been slain by Set, the
representative of evil, and afterwards restored to life. His death
was avenged by his son Horus, whom the Egyptians invoked as their
"Redeemer." Osiris and Horus, along with Isis, formed a trinity, who
were regarded as representing the sun-god under different forms. Even
in the time of Abraham, Egypt was a flourishing and settled monarchy.
Its oldest capital, within the historic period, was Memphis, the
ruins of which may still be seen near the Pyramids and the Sphinx.
When the Old Empire of Menes came to an end, the seat of empire was
shifted to Thebes, some 300 miles farther up the Nile. A short time
after that, the Delta was conquered by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings,
who fixed their capital at Zoan, the Greek Tanis, now San, on the
Tanic arm of the Nile. All this occurred before the time of the new
king "which knew not Joseph" Exo 1:8 - In later times Egypt was
conquered by the Persians (B.C. 525) and by the Greeks under
Alexander the Great (B.C. 332) after whom the Ptolemies ruled the
country for three centuries. Subsequently it was for a time a
province of the Roman Empire; and at last, in A.D. 1517 it fell into
the hands of the Turks, of whose empire it still forms nominally a
part. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of the shepherd
kings. The exile of Joseph and the migration of Jacob to "the land of
Goshen" occurred about 200 years later. On the death of Solomon,
Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine 1Ki 14:25 - He left a list
of the cities he conquered. A number of remarkable clay tablets,
discovered at Tell-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, are the most important
historical records ever found in connection with the Bible. They most
fully confirm the historical statements of the Book of Joshua, and
prove the antiquity of civilization in Syria and Palestine. As the
clay in different parts of Palestine differs, it has been found
possible by the clay alone to decide where the tablets come from when
the name of the writer is lost. The inscriptions are cuneiform, and
in the Aramaic language, resembling Assyrian. The writers are
Phoenicians, Amorites, and Philistines, but in no instance Hittites,
though Hittites are mentioned. The tablets consist of official
dispatches and letters, dating from B.C. 1480 addressed to the two
Pharaohs, Amenophis III. and IV., the last of this dynasty, from the
kings and governors of Phoenicia and Palestine. There occur the names
of three kings killed by Joshua, Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem,
Japhia, king of Lachish Jos 10:3 - and Jabin, king of Hazor Jos 11:1.
also the Hebrews (Abiri) are said to have come from the desert. The
principal prophecies of Scripture regarding Egypt are these,
Isa 19:1 - Jer 43:8-13 44:30 46:1 - Eze 29-32, - and it might
be easily shown that they have all been remarkably fulfilled. For
example, the singular disappearance of Noph (i.e., Memphis) is a
fulfilment of Jer 46:19 Eze 30:13.
1. A descendant of Benjamin 1Ch 7:10 - his great-grandson.
2. The son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin Jud 3:15 - After the
death of Othniel the people again fell into idolatry, and Eglon,
the king of Moab, uniting his bands with those of the Ammonites
and the Amalekites, crossed the Jordan and took the city of
Jericho, and for eighteen years held that whole district in
subjection, exacting from it an annual tribute. At length Ehud,
by a stratagem, put Eglon to death with a two-edged dagger a
cubit long, and routed the Moabites at the fords of the Jordan,
putting 10,000 of them to death. Thenceforward the land, at
least Benjamin, enjoyed rest "for fourscore years" Jud 3:12-30.
See QUARRIES 03032.
But in the south-west the Philistines reduced the Israelites to
great straits Jud 5:6 - From this oppression Shamgar was raised
up to be their deliverer.
Firm-rooted, the most northerly of the five towns belonging to the
lords of the Philistines, about 11 miles north of Gath. It was
assigned to Judah Jos 13:3 - and afterwards to Dan Jos 19:43 - but came
again into the full possession of the Philistines 1Sa 5:10 - It was
the last place to which the Philistines carried the ark before they
sent it back to Israel 1Sa 5:10 6:1-8 - There was here a noted
sanctuary of Baal-zebub 2Ki 1:2-3,6,16 - Now the small village Akir.
It is mentioned on monuments in B.C. 702 when Sennacherib set free
its king, imprisoned by Hezekiah in Jerusalem, according to the
Terebinth or oak.
1. Valley of, where the Israelites were encamped when David killed
Goliath 1Sa 17:2,19 - It was near Shochoh of Judah and Azekah
1Sa 17:1 - It is the modern Wady es-Sunt, i.e., "valley of the
acacia." "The terebinths from which the valley of Elah takes its
name still cling to their ancient soil. On the west side of the
valley, near Shochoh, there is a very large and ancient tree of
this kind known as the 'terebinth of Wady Sur,' 55 feet in
height, its trunk 17 feet in circumference, and the breadth
of its shade no less than 75 feet. It marks the upper end of
the Elah valley, and forms a noted object, being one of the
largest terebinths in Palestine." Geikie's, The Holy Land, etc.
2. One of the Edomite chiefs or "dukes" of Mount Seir Gen 36:41.
3. The second of the three sons of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh
4. The son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel 1Ki 16:8-10 - He
was killed while drunk by Zimri, one of the captains of his
chariots, and was the last king of the line of Baasha. Thus was
fullfilled the prophecy of Jehu 1Ki 16:7-11.
5. The father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel 2Ki 15:30 17:1.
Highland, the son of Shem Gen 10:22 - and the name of the country
inhabited by his descendants Gen 14:1,9 Isa 11:11 21:2 - etc., lying to
the east of Babylonia, and extending to the shore of the
Mediterranean, a distance in a direct line of about 1,000 miles. The
name Elam is an Assyrian word meaning "high." "The inhabitants of
Elam, or 'the Highlands,' to the east of Babylon, were called
Elamites. They were divided into several branches, speaking different
dialects of the same agglutinative language. The race to which they
belonged was brachycephalic, or short-headed, like the pre-Semitic
Sumerians of Babylonia. "The earliest Elamite kingdom seems to have
been that of Anzan, the exact site of which is uncertain; but in the
time of Abraham, Shushan or Susa appears to have already become the
capital of the country. Babylonia was frequently invaded by the
Elamite kings, who at times asserted their supremacy over it (as in
the case of Chedorlaomer, the Kudur-Lagamar, or 'servant of the
goddess Lagamar,' of the cuneiform texts). "The later Assyrian
monarchs made several campaigns against Elam, and finally
Assur-bani-pal (about B.C. 650) succeeded in conquering the country,
which was ravaged with fire and sword. On the fall of the Assyrian
Empire, Elam passed into the hands of the Persians" (A.H. Sayce).
This country was called by the Greeks Cissia or Susiana.
1. One of the descendants of Judah, of the family of Hezron
1Ch 2:39 - "Eleasah".
2. A descendant of king Saul 1Ch 8:37 9:43.
3. The son of Shaphan, one of the two who were sent by Zedekiah to
Nebuchadnezzar, and also took charge of Jeremiah's letter to the
captives in Babylon Jer 29:3.
Grove; trees, Deu 2:8 - also in plural form Eloth 1Ki 9:26 - etc.; called
by the Greeks and Romans Elana; a city of Idumea, on the east, i.e.,
the Elanitic, gulf, or the Gulf of Akabah, of the Red Sea. It is
first mentioned in Deu 2:8 - It is also mentioned along with
Ezion-geber in 1Ki 9:26 - It was within the limits of Solomon's
dominion, but afterwards revolted. It was, however, recovered and
held for a time under king Uzziah 2Ki 14:22 - Now the ruin Aila.
God of Bethel, the name of the place where Jacob had the vision of the
ladder, and where he erected an altar Gen 31:13 35:7.
Whom God has loved, one of the seventy elders whom Moses appointed
Num 11:26-27 - to administer justice among the people. He, with Medad,
prophesied in the camp instead of going with the rest to the
tabernacle, as Moses had commanded. This incident was announced to
Moses by Joshua, who thought their conduct in this respect irregular.
Moses replied, "Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the
Lord's people were prophets" Num 11:24-30 - comp. Mar 9:38 Luk 9:49.
A name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person
clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence
Gen 50:7 - It also denoted a political office Num 22:7 - The "elders of
Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. Moses
opened his commission to them Exo 3:16 - They attended Moses on all
important occasions. Seventy of them attended on him at the giving of
the law Exo 24:1 - Seventy also were selected from the whole number to
bear with Moses the burden of the people Num 11:16-17 - The "elder" is
the keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the
patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case among
the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the highest
authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of Israel were the
representatives of the people from the very first, and were
recognized as such by Moses. All down through the history of the Jews
we find mention made of the elders as exercising authority among the
people. They appear as governors Deu 31:28 - as local magistrates
Deu 16:18 - administering justice Deu 19:12 - They were men of
extensive influence 1Sa 30:26-31 - In New Testament times they also
appear taking an active part in public affairs Mat 16:21 21:23 26:59.
The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation to the
new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere recorded in the
New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the
latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while
the former was transmitted from the earlies times. In other words, the
office of elder was the only permanent essential office of the church
under either dispensation." The "elders" of the New Testament church
were the "pastors" Eph 4:11 - "bishops or overseers" Act 20:28.
"leaders" and "rulers" Heb 13:7 1Th 5:12 - of the flock. Everywhere
in the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one and
the same officer of the Christian church. He who is called presbyter or
elder on account of his age or gravity is also called bishop or
overseer with reference to the duty that lay upon him
Tit 1:5-7 Act 20:17-28 Php 1:1.
God has ascended, a place in the pastoral country east of Jordan, in
the tribe of Reuben Num 32:3,37 - It is not again mentioned till the
time of Isaiah Isa 15:4 16:9 - and Jeremiah Jer 48:34 - It is now an
extensive ruin called el-A'al, about one mile north-east of Heshbon.
God has helped.
1. The third son of Aaron Exo 6:23 - His wife, a daughter of Putiel,
bore him Phinehas Exo 6:25 - After the death of Nadab and Abihu
Lev 10:12 Num 3:4 - he was appointed to the charge of the sanctuary
Num 3:32 - On Mount Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments,
which Moses took from off his brother Aaron and put upon him as
successor to his father in the high priest's office, which he
held for more than twenty years Num 20:25-29 - He took part with
Moses in numbering the people Num 26:3-4 - and assisted at the
inauguration of Joshua. He assisted in the distribution of the
land after the conquest Jos 14:1 - The high-priesthood remained
in his family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed,
till it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of
Zadok 1Sa 2:35 - comp. 1Ki 2:27 - "And Eleazar the son of Aaron
died; and they buried him in a hill that pertained to Phinehas
his son" Jos 24:33 - The word here rendered "hill" is Gibeah, the
name of several towns in Palestine which were generally on or
near a hill. The words may be more suitably rendered, "They
buried him in Gibeah of Phinehas", i.e., in the city of
Phinehas, which has been identified, in accordance with Jewish
and Samaritan traditions, with Kefr Ghuweirah='Awertah, about
7 miles north of Shiloh, and a few miles south-east of
Nablus. "His tomb is still shown there, overshadowed by
venerable terebinths." Others, however, have identified it with
the village of Gaba or Gebena of Eusebius, the modern Khurbet
Jibia, 05 miles north of Guphna towards Nablus.
2. An inhabitant of Kirjath-jearim who was "sanctified" to take
charge of the ark, although not allowed to touch it, while it
remained in the house of his father Abinadab 1Sa 7:1-2 - comp.
Num 3:31 4:15.
3. The son of Dodo the Ahohite, of the tribe of Benjamin, one of
the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven heroes 1Ch 11:12.
who broke through the Philistine host and brought him water from
the well of Bethlehem 2Sa 23:9,16.
4. A son of Phinehas associated with the priests in taking charge
of the sacred vessels brought back to Jerusalem after the Exile
5. A Levite of the family of Merari 1Ch 23:21-22.
Election of Grace
The Scripture speaks
1. of the election of individuals to office or to honour and
privilege, e.g., Abraham, Jacob, Saul, David, Solomon, were all
chosen by God for the positions they held; so also were the
2. There is also an election of nations to special privileges,
e.g., the Hebrews Deu 7:6 Ro 9:4.
3. But in addition there is an election of individuals to eternal
life 2Th 2:13 Eph 1:4 1Pe 1:2 Joh 13:18 - The ground of this
election to salvation is the good pleasure of God Eph 1:5,11.
Mat 11:25-26 Joh 15:16,19 - God claims the right so to do
Rom 9:16,21 - It is not conditioned on faith or repentance, but
is of soverign grace Rom 11:4-6 Eph 1:3-6 - All that pertain to
salvation, the means Eph 2:8 2Th 2:13 - as well as the end,
are of God Act 5:31 2Ti 2:25 1Co 1:30 Eph 2:5,10 - Faith and
repentance and all other graces are the exercises of a
regenerated soul; and regeneration is God's work, a "new
creature." Men are elected "to salvation," "to the adoption of
sons," "to be holy and without blame before him in love"
2Th 2:13 Gal 4:4-5 Eph 1:4 - The ultimate end of election is the
praise of God's grace Eph 1:6,12.
See PREDESTINATION 02999.
To whom the Second Epistle of John is addressed 2Jo 1:1 - Some
think that the word rendered "lady" is a proper name, and thus that
the expression should be "elect Kyria."
Mighty one; God of Israel, the name which Jacob gave to the alter
which he erected on the piece of land where he pitched his tent
before Shechem, and which he afterwards purchased from the sons of
Hamor Gen 33:20.
In its primary sense, as denoting the first principles or constituents
of things, it is used in 2Pe 3:10 - "The elements shall be dissolved."
In a secondary sense it denotes the first principles of any art or
science. In this sense it is used in Gal 4:3,9 Col 2:8,20 - where the
expressions, "elements of the world," "week and beggarly elements,"
denote that state of religious knowledge existing among the Jews
before the coming of Christ, the rudiments of religious teaching.
They are "of the world," because they are made up of types which
appeal to the senses. They are "weak," because insufficient; and
"beggarly," or "poor," because they are dry and barren, not being
accompanied by an outpouring of spiritual gifts and graces, as the
Not found in Scripture except indirectly in the original Greek word
(elephantinos) translated "of ivory" in Rev 18:12 - and in the Hebrew
word (shenhabim, meaning "elephant's tooth") rendered "ivory" in
1Ki 10:22 2Ch 9:21.
Whom God has graciously bestowed.
1. A warrior of the time of David famed for his exploits. In the
Authorized Version 2Sa 21:19 - it is recorded that "Elhanan the
son of Jaare-oregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of
Goliath." The Revised Version here rightly omits the words "the
brother of." They were introduced in the Authorized Version to
bring this passage into agreement with 1Ch 20:5 - where it is
said that he "slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath." Goliath the
Gittite was killed by David 1Sa 17:1 - The exploit of Elhanan
took place late in David's reign.
2. The son of Dodo, and one of David's warriors 2Sa 23:24.
1. Ascent, the high priest when the ark was at Shiloh 1Sa 1:3,9.
He was the first of the line of Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son
1Ch 24:3 - comp. 2Sa 8:17 - who held that office. The office
remained in his family till the time of Abiathar 1Ki 2:26,27.
whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of
Eleazar, in his stead 1Ki 2:35. He acted also as a civil
judge in Israel after the death of Samson 1Sa 4:18 - and
judged Israel for forty years. His sons Hophni and Phinehas
grossly misconducted themselves, to the great disgust of the
people 1Sa 2:27-36 - They were licentious reprobates. He
failed to reprove them so sternly as he ought to have done, and
so brought upon his house the judgment of God 1Sa 2:22-33 3:18.
The Israelites proclaimed war against the Philistines, whose
army was encamped at Aphek. The battle, fought a short way
beyond Mizpeh, ended in the total defeat of Israel. Four
thousand of them fell in "battle array". They now sought
safety in having the "ark of the covenant of the Lord" among
them. They fetched it from Shiloh, and Hophni and Phinehas
accompanied it. This was the first time since the settlement of
Israel in Canaan that the ark had been removed from the
sanctuary. The Philistines put themselves again in array
against Israel, and in the battle which ensued "Israel was
smitten, and there was a very great slaughter." The tidings of
this great disaster were speedily conveyed to Shiloh, about 20
miles distant, by a messenger, a Benjamite from the army.
There Eli sat outside the gate of the sanctuary by the wayside,
anxiously waiting for tidings from the battle-field. The full
extent of the national calamity was speedily made known to him:
"Israel is fled before the Philistines, there has also been a
great slaughter among the people, thy two sons Hophni and
Phinehas are dead, and the ark of God is taken" 1Sa 4:12-18.
When the old man, whose eyes were "stiffened" (i.e., fixed, as
of a blind eye unaffected by the light) with age, heard this
sad story of woe, he fell backward from off his seat and died,
being ninety and eight years old.
See ITHAMAR 01913.
2. Eli, Heb. eli, "my God", Mat 27:46 - an exclamation used by
Christ on the cross. Mark Mar 15:34 - as usual, gives the
original Aramaic form of the word, Eloi.
To whom God is father.
1. A Reubenite, son of Pallu Num 16:1,12 26:8-9 Deu 11:6.
2. A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of
the census in the wilderness Num 1:9 2:7.
3. The son of Jesse, and brother of David 1Sa 16:6 - It was he who
spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to fight Goliath
4. One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his stronghold in
the wilderness 1Ch 12:9.
Whom God cares for.
1. One of David's sons born after his establishment in Jerusalem
2. A mighty man of war, a Benjamite 2Ch 17:17.
3. An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that troubled
Solomon 1Ki 11:23.
Whom God will raise up.
1. The son of Melea Luk 3:30 - and probably grandson of Nathan.
2. The son of Abiud, of the posterity of Zerubbabel Mat 1:13.
3. The son of Hilkiah, who was sent to receive the message of the
invading Assyrians and report it to Isaiah 2Ki 18:18 19:2.
Isa 36:3 37:2 - In his office as governor of the palace of
Hezekiah he succeeded Shebna Isa 22:15-25 - He was a good man
Isa 22:20 2Ki 18:37 - and had a splendid and honourable career.
4. The original name of Jehoiakim, king of Judah 2Ki 23:34 - He was
the son of Josiah.
1. The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah 2Sa 11:3 - In 1Ch 3:5.
his name is Ammiel.
2. This name also occurs as that of a Gilonite, the son of
Ahithophel, and one of David's thirty warriors 2Sa 23:34.
perhaps these two were the same person.
The Greek form of Elijah Mat 11:14 16:14 - etc., which the Revised
Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament.
See ELIJAH 01167.
Whom God will restore.
1. A priest, head of one of the courses of the priests of the time
of David 1Ch 24:12.
2. A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah Neh 12:22-23 - He
rebuilt the eastern city wall Neh 3:1 - his own mansion being in
that quarter, on the ridge Ophel Neh 3:20-21 - His indulgence of
Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation of Nehemiah
To whom God will come, one of the fourteen sons of the Levite Heman,
and musician of the temple in the time of David 1Ch 25:4.
Whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of
Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised Land
among the tribes Num 34:21.
To whom God is might.
1. A chief of Manasseh, on the east of Jordan 1Ch 5:24.
2. A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag 1Ch 12:11.
3. One of the overseers of the offerings in the reign of Hezekiah
God his help.
1. "Of Damascus," the "steward" (R.V., "possessor") of Abraham's
house Gen 15:2-3 - It was probably he who headed the embassy sent
by Abraham to the old home of his family in Padan-aram to seek a
wife for his son Isaac. The account of this embassy is given at
length in Gen 24:1.
2. The son of Becher, and grandson of Benjamin 1Ch 7:8.
3. One of the two sons of Moses, born during his sojourn in Midian
Exo 18:4 1Ch 23:15,17 - He remained with his mother and brother
Gershom with Jethro when Moses returned to Egypt. Exo 18:4 - They
were restored to Moses when Jethro heard of his departure out of
4. One of the priests who blew the trumpet before the ark when it
was brought to Jerusalem 1Ch 15:24.
5. Son of Zichri, and chief of the Reubenites under David 1Ch 27:16.
6. A prophet in the time of Jehoshaphat 2Ch 20:37 - Others of this
name are mentioned Luk 3:29 Ezr 8:16 10:18,23,31.
Whose God is he.
1. "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" Job 32:2 - one of Job's friends.
When the debate between Job and his friends is brought to a
close, Elihu for the first time makes his appearance, and
delivers his opinion on the points at issue - Job 32:1.
2. The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah 1Sa 1:1 - He is
called also Eliel 1Ch 6:34 - and Eliab 1Ch 6:27.
3. One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined David at
Ziklag 1Ch 12:20.
4. One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed porters of
the temple under David 1Ch 26:7.
Whose God is Jehovah.
1. "The Tishbite," the "Elias" of the New Testament, is suddenly
introduced to our notice in 1Ki 17:1 - as delivering a message
from the Lord to Ahab. There is mention made of a town called
Thisbe, south of Kadesh, but it is impossible to say whether
this was the place referred to in the name given to the prophet.
Having delivered his message to Ahab, he retired at the command
of God to a hiding-place by the brook Cherith, beyond Jordan,
where he was fed by ravens. When the brook dried up God sent him
to the widow of Zarephath, a city of Zidon, from whose scanty
store he was supported for the space of two years. During this
period the widow's son died, and was restored to life by Elijah
1Ki 17:2-24 - During all these two years a famine prevailed in
the land. At the close of this period of retirement and of
preparation for his work (comp.) Gal 1:17-18 - Elijah met Obadiah,
one of Ahab's officers, whom he had sent out to seek for
pasturage for the cattle, and bade him go and tell his master
that Elijah was there. The king came and met Elijah, and
reproached him as the troubler of Israel. It was then proposed
that sacrifices should be publicly offered, for the purpose of
determining whether Baal or Jehovah were the true God. This was
done on Carmel, with the result that the people fell on their
faces, crying, "The Lord, he is the God." Thus was accomplished
the great work of Elijah's ministry. The prophets of Baal were
then put to death by the order of Elijah. Not one of them
escaped. Then immediately followed rain, according to the word
of Elijah, and in answer to his prayer Jas 5:18 - Jezebel,
enraged at the fate that had befallen her priests of Baal,
threatened to put Elijah to death 1Ki 19:1-13 - He therefore fled
in alarm to Beersheba, and thence went alone a day's journey
into the wilderness, and sat down in despondency under a juniper
tree. As he slept an angel touched him, and said unto him,
"Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee." He
arose and found a cake and a cruse of water. Having partaken of
the provision thus miraculously supplied, he went forward on his
solitary way for forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount
of God, where he took up his abode in a cave. Here the Lord
appeared unto him and said, "What dost thou here, Elijah?" In
answer to his despondent words God manifests to him his glory,
and then directs him to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael
king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and Elisha to be
prophet in his room 1Ki 19:13-21 - comp. 2Ki 8:7-15 9:1-10 - Some
six years after this he warned Ahab and Jezebel of the violent
deaths they would die 1Ki 21:19-24 22:38 - He also, four years
afterwards, warned Ahaziah (q.v.), who had succeeded his father
Ahab, of his approaching death 2Ki 1:1-16|.
See NABOTH 02645.
During these intervals he probably withdrew to some quiet
retirement, no one knew where. His interview with Ahaziah's
messengers on the way to Ekron, and the account of the
destruction of his captains with their fifties, suggest the idea
that he may have been in retirement at this time on Mount
Carmel. The time now drew near when he was to be taken up into
heaven 2Ki 2:1-12 - He had a presentiment of what was awaiting
him. He went down to Gilgal, where was a school of the prophets,
and where his successor Elisha, whom he had anointed some years
before, resided. Elisha was solemnized by the thought of his
master's leaving him, and refused to be parted from him. "They
two went on," and came to Bethel and Jericho, and crossed the
Jordan, the waters of which were "divided hither and thither"
when smitten with Elijah's mantle. Arrived at the borders of
Gilead, which Elijah had left many years before, it "came to
pass as they still went on and talked" they were suddenly
separated by a chariot and horses of fire; and "Elijah went up
by a whirlwind into heaven, "Elisha receiving his mantle, which
fell from him as he ascended. No one of the old prophets is so
frequently referred to in the New Testament. The priests and
Levites said to the Baptist Joh 1:25 - "Why baptizest thou, if
thou be not that Christ, nor Elias?" Paul Rom 11:2 - refers to an
incident in his history to illustrate his argument that God had
not cast away his people. James Jas 5:17 - finds in him an
illustration of the power of prayer. (See also) Luk 4:25 9:54 - He
was a type of John the Baptist in the sternness and power of his
reproofs Luk 9:8 - He was the Elijah that "must first come"
Mat 11:11,14 - the forerunner of our Lord announced by Malachi.
Even outwardly the Baptist corresponded so closely to the
earlier prophet that he might be styled a second Elijah. In him
we see "the same connection with a wild and wilderness country;
the same long retirement in the desert; the same sudden,
startling entrance on his work 1Ki 17:1 Luk 3:2 - even the
same dress, a hairy garment, and a leathern girdle about the
loins 2Ki 1:8 Mat 3:4 - How deep the impression was which
Elijah made "on the mind of the nation may be judged from the
fixed belief, which rested on the words of Malachi Mal 4:5-6.
which many centuries after prevailed that he would again appear
for the relief and restoration of the country. Each remarkable
person as he arrives on the scene, be his habits and
characteristics what they may, the stern John equally with his
gentle Successor, is proclaimed to be Elijah Mat 11:13-14 16:14.
Mat 17:10 Mar 9:11 15:35 Luk 9:7-8 Joh 1:21 - His appearance in
glory on the mount of transfiguration does not seem to have
startled the disciples. They were 'sore afraid,' but not
2. The Elijah spoken of in 2Ch 21:12-15 - is by some supposed to be
a different person from the foregoing. He lived in the time of
Jehoram, to whom he sent a letter of warning (comp.) 1Ch 28:19.
Jer 36:1 - and acted as a prophet in Judah; while the Tishbite
was a prophet of the northern kingdom. But there does not seem
any necessity for concluding that the writer of this letter was
some other Elijah than the Tishbite. It may be supposed either
that Elijah anticipated the character of Jehoram, and so wrote
the warning message, which was preserved in the schools of the
prophets till Jehoram ascended the throne after the Tishbite's
translation, or that the translation did not actually take place
till after the accession of Jehoram to the throne 2Ch 21:12.
God is his rejector, one of David's thirty-seven distinguished heros
Trees, Exo 15:27 Num 33:9 - the name of the second station where the
Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It had "twelve wells
of water and threescore and ten palm trees." It has been identified
with the Wady Ghurundel, the most noted of the four wadies which
descend from the range of et-Tih towards the sea. Here they probably
remained some considerable time. The form of expression in Exo 16:1.
seems to imply that the people proceeded in detachments or companies
from Elim, and only for the first time were assembled as a complete
host when they reached the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the
Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the days
of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with his wife
Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of Moab. There he
and his sons died Rut 1:2-3 2:1,3 4:3,9 - Naomi afterwards returned to
Palestine with her daughter Ruth.
Toward Jehovah are my eyes, the name of several men mentioned in the
Old Testament 1Ch 7:8 4:36 Ezr 10:22,27 - Among these was the eldest
son of Neariah, son of Shemaiah, of the descendants of Zerubbabel.
His family are the latest mentioned in the Old Testament 1Ch 3:23,24.
God his deliverance, one of David's sons 2Sa 5:16 - called also
Eliphelet 1Ch 3:8.
God his strength.
1. One of Job's "three friends" who visited him in his affliction
Job 4:1 - He was a "Temanite", i.e., a native of Teman, in
Idumea. He first enters into debate with Job. His language is
uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two,
although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his
present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of language
the infinite purity and majesty of God Job 4:12-21 15:12-16.
2. The son of Esau by his wife Adah, and father of several
Edomitish tribes Gen 36:4,10-11,16.
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the
Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city
of David 1Ch 15:18,21.
God his deliverance.
1. One of David's distinguished warriors 2Sa 23:34 - called also
Eliphal in 1Ch 11:35.
2. One of the sons of David born at Jerusalem 1Ch 3:6 14:5 - called
Elpalet in 1Ch 14:5.
3. Also another of David's sons 1Ch 3:8 - called Eliphalet in
2Sa 5:16 1Ch 14:7.
4. A descendant of king Saul through Jonathan 1Ch 8:39.
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist Luk 1:5 - She was a
descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.) "were both
righteous before God" Luk 1:5,13 - Mary's visit to Elisabeth is
described in Luk 1:39-63.
God his salvation, the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah, who became the
attendant and disciple of Elijah 1Ki 19:16-19 - His name first occurs
in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor
1Ki 19:16 - This was the only one of the three commands then given to
Elijah which he accomplished. On his way from Sinai to Damascus he
found Elisha at his native place engaged in the labours of the field,
ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen. He went over to him, threw over
his shoulders his rough mantle, and at once adopted him as a son, and
invested him with the prophetical office (comp.) Luk 9:61,62 - Elisha
accepted the call thus given (about four years before the death of
Ahab), and for some seven or eight years became the close attendant
on Elijah till he was parted from him and taken up into heaven.
During all these years we hear nothing of Elisha except in connection
with the closing scenes of Elijah's life. After Elijah, Elisha was
accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted
in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double
portion" of Elijah's spirit 2Ki 2:9 - and for the long period of about
sixty years (B.C. 892) held the office of "prophet in Israel"
2Ki 5:8 - After Elijah's departure, Elisha returned to Jericho, and
there healed the spring of water by casting salt into it 2Ki 2:21.
We next find him at Bethel 2Ki 2:23 - where, with the sternness of
his master, he cursed the youths who came out and scoffed at him as a
prophet of God: "Go up, thou bald head." The judgment at once took
effect, and God terribly visited the dishonour done to his prophet as
dishonour done to himself. We next read of his predicting a fall of
rain when the army of Jehoram was faint from thirst 2Ki 3:9-20.
of the multiplying of the poor widow's cruse of oil 2Ki 4:1-7.
the miracle of restoring to life the son of the woman of Shunem
2Ki 4:18-37 - the multiplication of the twenty loaves of new
barley into a sufficient supply for an hundred men 2Ki 4:42-44.
of the cure of Naaman the Syrian of his leprosy 2Ki 5:1-27 - of
the punishment of Gehazi for his falsehood and his covetousness; of
the recovery of the axe lost in the waters of the Jordan 2Ki 6:1-7.
of the miracle at Dothan, half-way on the road between Samaria and
Jezreel; of the siege of Samaria by the king of Syria, and of the
terrible sufferings of the people in connection with it, and Elisha's
prophecy as to the relief that would come 2Ki 6:24-33, 7:1-2 - We
then find Elisha at Damascus, to carry out the command given to his
master to anoint Hazael king over Syria 2Ki 8:7-15 - thereafter he
directs one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu, the son of
Jehoshaphat, king of Israel, instead of Ahab. Thus the three
commands given to Elijah 2Ki 9:1-10 - were at length carried out.
We do not again read of him till we find him on his death-bed in his
own house 2Ki 13:14-19 - Joash, the grandson of Jehu, comes to mourn
over his approaching departure, and utters the same words as those of
Elisha when Elijah was taken away: "My father, my father! the
chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof." Afterwards when a dead
body is laid in Elisha's grave a year after his burial, no sooner
does it touch the hallowed remains than the man "revived, and stood
up on his feet" 2Ki 13:20-21.
The oldest of the four sons of Javan Gen 10:4 - whose descendants
peopled Greece. It has been supposed that Elishah's descendants
peopled the Peloponnesus, which was known by the name of Elis. This
may be meant by "the isles of Elishah" Eze 27:7.
Whom God hears.
1. A prince of Benjamin, grandfather of Joshua Num 1:10 1Ch 7:26.
2. One of David's sons 2Sa 5:16.
3. Another of David's sons 1Ch 3:6.
4. A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people the law
Whom God has judged, one of the "captains of hundreds" associated with
Jehoiada in the league to overthrow the usurpation of Athaliah
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron
God his salvation, a son of David, 2Sa 5:15 - = Elishama, 1Ch 3:6.
1. The second son of Korah Exo 6:24 - or, according to 1Ch 6:22,23.
more correctly his grandson.
2. Another Levite of the line of Heman the singer, although he does
not seem to have performed any of the usual Levitical offices.
He was father of Samuel the prophet 1Ch 6:27,34 - He was "an
Ephrathite" 1Sa 1:1,4,8 - but lived at Ramah, a man of wealth and
high position. He had two wives, Hannah, who was the mother of
Samuel, and Peninnah.
God my bow, the birth-place of Nahum the prophet Nah 1:1 - It was
probably situated in Galilee, but nothing definite is known of it.
The oak or heap of Assyria, a territory in Asia of which Arioch was
king Gen 14:1,9 - It is supposed that the old Chaldean town of Larsa
was the metropolis of this kingdom, situated nearly half-way between
Ur (now Mugheir) and Erech, on the left bank of the Euphrates. This
town is represented by the mounds of Senkereh, a little to the east
Hos 4:13 - rendered "terebinth" in the Revised Version. It is the
Pistacia terebinthus of Linn., a tree common in Palestine,
long-lived, and therefore often employed for landmarks and in
designating places Gen 35:4 Jud 6:11,19 - Rendered "oak" in both A.V.
See TEIL TREE 03597.
Whom God has given.
1. An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father of Nehushta, who was the
mother of king Jehoiachin 2Ki 24:8 - Probably the same who tried
to prevent Jehoiakim from burning the roll of Jeremiah's
prophecies Jer 26:22 36:12.
2. Ezr 8:16.
1. A city of Dan Jos 19:43.
2. A Hittite, father of Bashemath, Esau's wife Gen 26:34.
3. One of the sons of Zebulun Gen 46:14.
4. The eleventh of the Hebrew judges. He held office for ten years
Jud 12:11-12 - He is called the Zebulonite.
Oak of Paran, a place on the edge of the wilderness bordering the
territory of the Horites Gen 14:6 - This was the farthest point to
which Chedorlaomer's expedition extended. It is identified with the
modern desert of et-Tih.
See PARAN 02845.
God is its fear, a city in the tribe of Dan. It was a city of refuge
and a Levitical city Jos 21:23 - It has been identified with
Beit-Likia, north-east of latrum.
Neh 6:15 - the name of the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year, and
the twelfth of the civil year. It began with the new moon of our
August and September, and consisted of twenty-nine days.
Magician or sorcerer, the Arabic name of the Jew Bar-jesus, who
withstood Paul and Barnabas in Cyprus. He was miraculously struck
with blindness Act 13:11.
The process of preserving a body by means of aromatics Gen 50:2-3,26.
This art was practised by the Egyptians from the earliest times, and
there brought to great perfection. This custom probably originated in
the belief in the future reunion of the soul with the body. The
process became more and more complicated, and to such perfection was
it carried that bodies embalmed thousands of years ago are preserved
to the present day in the numberless mummies that have been
discovered in Egypt. The embalming of Jacob and Joseph was according
to the Egyptian custom, which was partially followed by the Jews
2Ch 16:14 - as in the case of king Asa, and of our Lord
Joh 19:39-40 Luk 23:56 24:1.
See PHARAOH 02923.
The art of embroidery was known to the Jews Exo 26:36 35:35 38:23.
Jud 5:30 Psa 45:14 - The skill of the women in this art was seen in the
preparation of the sacerdotal robes of the high priest Exo 28:1.
It seems that the art became hereditary in certain families 1Ch 4:21.
The Assyrians were also noted for their embroidered robes Eze 27:24.
Heb. nophek Exo 28:18 39:11 - i.e., the "glowing stone", probably the
carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of the high priest. It
is mentioned Rev 21:19 - as one of the foundations of the New
Jerusalem. The name given to this stone in the New Testament Greek is
smaragdos, which means "live coal."
See HAEMORRHOIDS 01581.
Terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by Chedorlaomer
and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the time of Abraham
they occupied the country east of Jordan, afterwards the land of the
Moabites Gen 14:5 Deu 2:10 - They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among
the Rephaim, and were conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the
name of Emims, i.e., "terrible men" Deu 2:11 - The Ammonites called
them Zamzummims Deu 2:20.
God with us, Mat 1:23.
See IMMANUEL 01875.
Hot baths, a village "three-score furlongs" from jerusalem, where our
Lord had an interview with two of his disciples on the day of his
resurrection Luk 24:13 - This has been identified with the modern
el-Kubeibeh, lying over 7 miles north-west of Jerusalem. This name,
el-Kubeibeh, meaning "little dome," is derived from the remains of
the Crusaders' church yet to be found there. Others have identified
it with the modern Khurbet Khamasa i.e., "the ruins of Khamasa",
about 8 miles south-west of Jerusalem, where there are ruins also of
a Crusaders' church. Its site, however has been much disputed.
An ass, Act 7:16.
See HAMOR 01615.
An encampment was the resting-place for a longer or shorter period of
an army or company of travellers Exo 13:20 14:19 Jos 10:5 11:5 - The
manner in which the Israelites encamped during their march through
the wilderness is described in Num 2:1-3:51 - The order of the
See CAMP 00700.
was preserved in the march Num 2:17 - the signal for which was the
blast of two silver trumpets. Detailed regulations affecting the camp
for sanitary purposes are given Lev 4:11-12 6:11 8:17 10:4-5 13:46.
Lev 14:3 Num 12:14-15 31:19 Deu 23:10,12 - Criminals were executed
without the camp Lev 24:14 - comp. Joh 19:17,20 - and there also the
young bullock for a sin-offering was burnt comp. Lev 4:12 Heb 13:12.
In the subsequent history of Israel frequent mention is made of their
encampments in the time of war Jud 7:18 1Sa 13:2-3,16,23 17:3 29:1.
1Sa 30:9,24 - The temple was sometimes called "the camp of the Lord"
2Ch 31:2 - R.V.; comp. Psa 78:28 - The multitudes who flocked to
David are styled "a great host (i.e., "camp;" Heb. mahaneh), like the
host of God" 1Ch 12:22.
1. The rendering of Hebrew - latim - or - lehatim -, which means
"something covered," "muffled up;" secret arts, tricks
Exo 7:11,22 8:7,18 - by which the Egyptian magicians imposed on
the credulity of Pharaoh.
2. The rendering of the Hebrew - keshaphim -, "muttered spells" or
"incantations," rendered "sorceries" in Isa 47:9,12 - i.e., the
using of certain formulae under the belief that men could thus
3. Hebrew - lehashim -, "charming," as of serpents Jer 8:17 - comp.
4. Hebrew - nehashim -, the enchantments or omens used by Balaam
Num 24:1 - his endeavouring to gain omens favourable to his
5. Hebrew - heber - Isa 47:9,12 - "magical spells." All kinds of
enchantments were condemned by the Mosaic law Lev 19:26 Deu 18:10-12.
See DIVINATION 01047.
In Heb 13:7 - is the rendering of the unusual Greek word - ekbasin -,
meaning "outcome", i.e., death. It occurs only elsewhere in
1Co 10:13 - where it is rendered "escape."
Fountain of Dor; i.e., "of the age", a place in the territory of
Issachar Jos 17:11 - near the scene of the great victory which was
gained by Deborah and Barak over Sisera and Jabin (comp.) Psa 83:9-10.
To Endor, Saul resorted to consult one reputed to be a witch on the
eve of his last engagement with the Philistines 1Sa 28:7 - It is
identified with the modern village of Endur, "a dirty hamlet of some
twenty houses, or rather huts, most of them falling to ruin," on the
northern slope of Little Hermon, about 7 miles from Jezreel.
Fountain of two calves, a place mentioned only in Eze 47:10 - Somewhere
near the Dead Sea.
Fountain of gardens.
1. A town in the plains of Judah Jos 15:34 - north-west of
Jerusalem, between Zanoah and Tappuah. It is the modern Umm
2. A city on the border of Machar Jos 19:21 - allotted to the
Gershonite Levites Jos 21:29 - It is identified with the modern
Jenin, a large and prosperous town of about 4,000 inhabitants,
situated 15 miles south of Mount Tabor, through which the road
from Jezreel to Samaria and Jerusalem passes. When Ahaziah,
king of Judah, attempted to escape from Jehu, he "fled by the
way of the garden house" i.e., by way of En-gannim. Here he was
overtaken by Jehu and wounded in his chariot, and turned aside
and fled to Megiddo, a distance of about 20 miles, to die
Fountain of the kid, place in the wilderness of Judah Jos 15:62 - on
the western shore of the Dead Sea Eze 47:10 - and nearly equidistant
from both extremities. To the wilderness near this town David fled
for fear of Saul Jos 15:62 1Sa 23:29 - It was at first called
Hazezon-tamar Gen 14:7 - a city of the Amorites. The vineyards of
Engedi were celebrated in Solomon's time Son 1:4 - It is the modern
'Ain Jidy. The "fountain" from which it derives its name rises on the
mountain side about 600 feet above the sea, and in its rapid descent
spreads luxuriance all around it. Along its banks the osher grows
abundantly. That shrub is thus described by Porter: "The stem is
stout, measuring sometimes nearly a foot in diameter, and the plant
grows to the height of 15 feet or more. It has a grayish bark and long
oval leaves, which when broken off discharge a milky fluid. The fruit
resembles an apple, and hangs in clusters of two or three. When ripe
it is of a rich yellow colour, but on being pressed it explodes like a
puff-ball. It is chiefly filled with air. This is the so-called
'apple of Sodom.'" Through Samaria, etc.
See APPLE 00273.
1. Heb. hishalon i.e., "invention" (as in) Ecc 7:29.
contrivances indicating ingenuity. In 2Ch 26:15 - it refers
to inventions for the purpose of propelling missiles from the
walls of a town, such as stones (the Roman balista) and arrows
2. Heb. mechi kobollo, i.e., the beating of that which is in front
a battering-ram Eze 26:9 - the use of which was common among the
Egyptians and the Assyrians. Such an engine is mentioned in the
reign of David 2Sa 20:15.
Heb. harash Exo 35:35 38:23 - means properly an artificer in wood,
stone, or metal. The chief business of the engraver was cutting names
or devices on rings and seals and signets Exo 28:11,21,36 Ge 38:18.
Fountain of the crier, the name of the spring in Lehi which burst
forth in answer to Samson's prayer when he was exhausted with the
slaughter of the Philistines Jud 15:19 - It has been identified with
the spring 'Ayun Kara, near Zoreah.
Deep-rooted hatred. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman,
between thy seed and her seed" Gen 3:15 - The friendship of the world
is "enmity with God" Jas 4:4 1Jo 2:15-16 - The "carnal mind" is
"enmity against God" Rom 8:7 - By the abrogation of the Mosaic
institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed. They are
reconciled, are "made one" Eph 2:15,16.
1. The eldest son of Cain Gen 4:17 - who built a city east of Eden in
the land of Nod, and called it "after the name of his son
Enoch." This is the first "city" mentioned in Scripture.
2. The son of Jared, and father of Methuselah Gen 5:21 Luk 3:37 - His
father was one hundred and sixty-two years old when he was born.
After the birth of Methuselah, Enoch "walked with God three
hundred years" Gen 5:22-24 - when he was translated without
tasting death. His whole life on earth was three hundred and
sixty-five years. He was the "seventh from Adam" Jude 1:14 - as
distinguished from the son of Cain, the third from Adam. He is
spoken of in the catalogue of Old Testament worthies in the
Epistle to the Hebrews Heb 11:5 - When he was translated, only
Adam, so far as recorded, had as yet died a natural death, and
Noah was not yet born. Mention is made of Enoch's prophesying
only in Jude 1:14.
Man the son of Seth, and grandson of Adam Gen 5:6-11 Luk 3:38 - He lived
nine hundred and five years. In his time "men began to call upon the
name of the Lord" Gen 4:26 - meaning either
1. then began men to call themselves by the name of the Lord
(marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from idolaters;
2. then men in some public and earnest way began to call upon the
Lord, indicating a time of spiritual revival.
Fountain of the treaders; i.e., "foot-fountain;" also called the
"fullers' fountain," because fullers here trod the clothes in water.
It has been identified with the "fountain of the virgin" (q.v.), the
modern 'Ain Ummel-Daraj. Others identify it, with perhaps some
probability, with the Bir Eyub, to the south of the Pool of Siloam,
and below the junction of the valleys of Kidron and Hinnom.
See FOUNTAIN 01378.
It was at this fountain that Jonathan and Ahimaaz lay hid after the
flight of David 2Sa 17:17 - and here also Adonijah held the feast
when he aspired to the throne of his father 1Ki 1:9 - The Bir Eyub,
or "Joab's well," "is a singular work of ancient enterprise. The shaft
sunk through the solid rock in the bed of the Kidron is 125 feet
deep. The water is pure and entirely sweet, quite different from that
of Siloam; which proves that there is no connection between them."
Thomson's Land and the Book.
Fountain of the sun a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the
boundary between Judah and Benjamin Jos 15:7 18:17 - It was between
the "ascent of Adummim" and the spring of En-rogel, and hence was on
the east of Jerusalem and of the Mount of Olives. It is the modern
'Ain-Haud i.e., the "well of the apostles" about a mile east of
Bethany, the only spring on the road to Jericho. The sun shines on it
the whole day long.
1. Heb. 'oth, a military standard, especially of a single tribe
Num 2:2 - Each separate tribe had its own "sign" or "ensign."
2. Heb. nes, a lofty signal, as a column or high pole Num 21:8-9 - a
standard or signal or flag placed on high mountains to point out
to the people a place of rendezvous on the irruption of an enemy
Isa 5:26 11:12 18:3 62:10 Jer 4:6,21 Psa 60:4 - This was an
occasional signal, and not a military standard. Elevation and
conspicuity are implied in the word.
3. The Hebrew word - degel - denotes the standard given to each of
the four divisions of the host of the Israelites at the Exodus
Num 1:52 2:2 10:14. In Son 2:4 - it is rendered "banner." We have
no definite information as to the nature of these military
See BANNER 00433.
Entertainments, "feasts," were sometimes connected with a public
festival Deu 16:11,14 - and accompanied by offerings 1Sa 9:13 - in token
of alliances Gen 26:30 - sometimes in connection with domestic or
social events, as at the weaning of children Gen 21:8 - at weddings
Gen 29:22 Joh 2:1 - on birth-days Mat 14:6 - at the time of sheep-shearing
2Sa 13:23 - and of vintage Jud 9:27 - and at funerals 2Sa 3:35.
Jer 16:7 - The guests were invited by servants Pro 9:3 Mat 22:3 - who
assigned them their respective places 1Sa 9:22 Luk 14:8 Mar 12:39.
Like portions were sent by the master to each guest 1Sa 1:4 2Sa 6:19.
except when special honour was intended, when the portion was
increased Gen 43:34 - The Israelites were forbidden to attend
heathenish sacrificial entertainments Exo 34:15 - because these were
in honour of false gods, and because at such feast they would be
liable to partake of unclean flesh 1Co 10:28 - In the
entertainments common in apostolic times among the Gentiles were
frequent "revellings," against which Christians were warned
Rom 13:13 Gal 5:21 1Pe 4:3.
See BANQUET 00434.
Commendable, a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutation
Rom 16:5 - He is spoken of as "the first fruits of Achaia" (R.V., "of
Asia", i.e., of proconsular Asia, which is probably the correct
reading). As being the first convert in that region, he was
peculiarly dear to the apostle. He calls him his "well beloved."
Lovely, spoken of by Paul Col 1:7 4:12 - as "his dear fellow-servant,"
and "a faithful minister of Christ." He was thus evidently with him
at Rome when he wrote to the Colossians. He was a distinguished
disciple, and probably the founder of the Colossian church. He is
also mentioned in the Epistle to Philemon Phm 1:23 - where he is
called by Paul his "fellow-prisoner."
Fair, graceful; belonging to Aphrodite or Venus the messenger who came
from Phillipi to the apostle when he was a prisoner at Rome
Php 2:25-30 4:10-18 - Paul mentions him in words of esteem and
affection. On his return to Philippi he was the bearer of Paul's
letter to the church there.
1. One of the five sons of Midian, and grandson of Abraham Gen 25:4.
The city of Ephah, to which he gave his name, is mentioned
Isa 60:6-7 - This city, with its surrounding territory, formed
part of Midian, on the east shore of the Dead Sea. It abounded
in dromedaries and camels Jud 6:5.
2. 1Ch 2:46 - a concubine of Caleb.
3. 1Ch 2:47 - a descendant of Judah. Ephah, a word of Egyptian
origin, meaning measure; a grain measure containing "three seahs
or ten omers," and equivalent to the bath for liquids Exo 16:36.
1Sa 17:17 Zec 5:6 - The double ephah in Pro 20:10 - (marg.,
"an ephah and an ephah"), Deu 25:14 - means two ephahs, the one
false and the other just.
1. One of the sons of Midian, who was Abraham's son by Keturah
2. The head of one of the families of trans-Jordanic Manasseh who
were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser 1Ch 5:24.
Boundary of blood, a place in the tribe of Judah where the Philistines
encamped when David fought with Goliath 1Sa 17:1 - It was probably so
called as having been the scene of frequent sanguinary conflicts
between Israel and the Philistines. It is called Pas-dammim
1Ch 11:13 - It has been identified with the modern Beit Fased, i.e.,
"house of bleeding", near Shochoh (q.v.).
Ephesians, Epistle to
Was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the
Colossians, which in many points it resembles.
1. Contents of. The Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical,
designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into
the church there. That to the Ephesians does not seem to have
originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter
springing from Paul's love to the church there, and indicative of
his earnest desire that they should be fully instructed in the
profound doctrines of the gospel. It contains:
a. the salutation Eph 1:1-2.
b. a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals,
as to their source, means by which they are attained,
purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final
result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual
enrichment of the Ephesians Eph 1:3-23, 2:1-10.
c. a record of that marked change in spiritual position which
the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account
of the writer's selection to and qualification for the
apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep
them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for
enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers"
Eph 2:12-22, 3:1-21.
d. a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts
e. special injunctions bearing on ordinary life Eph 4:17-32.
Eph 5:1-33, 6:1-10.
f. the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus,
and valedictory blessing Eph 6:11-24.
2. Planting of the church at Ephesus. Paul's first and hurried visit
for the space of three months to Ephesus is recorded in
Act 18:19-21 - The work he began on this occasion was carried
forward by Apollos Act 18:24-26 - and Aquila and Priscilla. On
his second visit, early in the following year, he remained at
Ephesus "three years," for he found it was the key to the western
provinces of Asia Minor. Here "a great door and effectual" was
opened to him 1Co 16:9 - and the church was established and
strengthened by his assiduous labours there Act 20:20,31 - From
Ephesus as a centre the gospel spread abroad "almost throughout
all Asia" Act 19:26 - The word "mightily grew and prevailed"
despite all the opposition and persecution he encountered. On
his last journey to Jerusalem the apostle landed at Miletus, and
summoning together the elders of the church from Ephesus,
delivered to them his remarkable farewell charge Act 20:18-35.
expecting to see them no more. The following parallels between
this epistle and the Milesian charge may be traced:
a. Act 20:19 - = Eph 4:2 - The phrase "lowliness of mind"
occurs nowhere else.
b. Act 20:27 - = Eph 1:11 - The word "counsel," as denoting
the divine plan, occurs only here and Heb 6:17.
c. Act 20:32 - = Eph 3:20 - The divine ability.
d. Act 20:32 - = Eph 2:20 - The building upon the foundation.
e. Act 20:32 - = Eph 1:14,18 - "The inheritance of the
3. Place and date of the writing of the letter. It was evidently
written from Rome during Paul's first imprisonment Eph 3:1 4:1.
Eph 6:20 - and probably soon after his arrival there, about the
year 62, four years after he had parted with the Ephesian elders
at Miletus. The subscription of this epistle is correct. There
seems to have been no special occasion for the writing of this
letter, as already noted. Paul's object was plainly not
polemical. No errors had sprung up in the church which he sought
to point out and refute. The object of the apostle is "to set
forth the ground, the cause, and the aim and end of the church of
the faithful in Christ. He speaks to the Ephesians as a type or
sample of the church universal." The church's foundations, its
course, and its end, are his theme. "Everywhere the foundation of
the church is the will of the Father; the course of the church is
by the satisfaction of the Son; the end of the church is the life
in the Holy Spirit." In the Epistle to the Romans, Paul writes
from the point of view of justification by the imputed
righteousness of Christ; here he writes from the point of view
specially of union to the Redeemer, and hence of the oneness of
the true church of Christ. "This is perhaps the profoundest book
in existence." It is a book "which sounds the lowest depths of
Christian doctrine, and scales the loftiest heights of Christian
experience;" and the fact that the apostle evidently expected the
Ephesians to understand it is an evidence of the "proficiency
which Paul's converts had attained under his preaching at
4. Relation between this epistle and that to the Colossians (q.v.).
"The letters of the apostle are the fervent outburst of pastoral
zeal and attachment, written without reserve and in unaffected
simplicity; sentiments come warm from the heart, without the
shaping out, pruning, and punctilious arrangement of a formal
discourse. There is such a fresh and familiar transcription of
feeling, so frequent an introduction of coloquial idiom, and so
much of conversational frankness and vivacity, that the reader
associates the image of the writer with every paragraph, and the
ear seems to catch and recognize the very tones of living
address." "Is it then any matter of amazement that one letter
should resemble another, or that two written about the same time
should have so much in common and so much that is peculiar? The
close relation as to style and subject between the epistles to
Colosse and Ephesus must strike every reader. Their precise
relation to each other has given rise to much discussion. The
great probability is that the epistle to Colosse was first
written; the parallel passages in Ephesians, which amount to
about forty-two in number, having the appearance of being
expansions from the epistle to Colosse. Compare:
1. Eph 1:7 Col 1:14.
2. Eph 1:10 Col 1:20.
3. Eph 3:2 Col 1:25.
4. Eph 5:19 Col 3:16.
5. Eph 6:22 Col 4:8.
6. Eph 1:19-23, 2:1-5 Col 2:12-13.
7. Eph 4:2-4 Col 3:12-15.
8. Eph 4:16 Col 2:19.
9. Eph 4:32 Col 3:13.
10. Eph 4:22-24 Col 3:9-10.
11. Eph 5:6-8 Col 3:6-8.
12. Eph 5:15-16 Col 4:5.
13. Eph 6:19-20 Col 4:3-4.
14. Eph 5:22-33, 6:1-9 Col 3:18-25, 4:1.
"The style of this epistle is exceedingly animated, and corresponds
with the state of the apostle's mind at the time of writing. Overjoyed
with the account which their messenger had brought him of their faith
and holiness Eph 1:15 - and transported with the consideration of
the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's
redemption, and of his astonishing love towards the Gentiles in making
them partakers through faith of all the benefits of Christ's death, he
soars high in his sentiments on those grand subjects, and gives his
thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expression."
The capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia
Minor. It was colonized principally from Athens. In the time of the
Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of
Asia." It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (q.v.), who there
had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in
the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. It was, like all
ancient theatres, open to the sky. Here were exhibited the fights of
wild beasts and of men with beasts. (Comp.) 1Co 4:9 9:24-25 15:32.
Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of
the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost Act 2:9 6:9 - At the
close of his second missionary journey (about A.D. 51) when Paul
was returning from Greece to Syria Act 18:18-21 - he first visited this
city. He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was
hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but
he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of
spreading the gospel. During his third missionary journey Paul
reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" Act 19:1 - i.e., from the
inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years;
and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which
dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks"
Act 19:10 - Probably during this period the seven churches of the
Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by
missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the
influence of converts returning to their homes. On his return from
his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of
Ephesus Act 20:15 - and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet
him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which
is recorded in Act 20:18-35 - Ephesus is not again mentioned till near
the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to
"abide still at Ephesus" 1Ti 1:3 - Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus
and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus Act 20:4 21:29.
2Ti 4:12 - In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of
Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus 2Ti 1:18.
He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" 2Ti 4:12 - probably to attend to
the interests of the church there. Ephesus is twice mentioned in the
Apocalypse Rev 1:11 2:1 - The apostle John, according to tradition,
spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried. A part of
the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish
village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek
words, hagios theologos; i.e., "the holy divine."
Something girt, a sacred vestment worn originally by the high priest
Exo 28:4 - afterwards by the ordinary priest 1Sa 22:18 - and
characteristic of his office 1Sa 2:18,28 14:3 - It was worn by Samuel,
and also by David 2Sa 6:14 - It was made of fine linen, and consisted
of two pieces, which hung from the neck, and covered both the back
and front, above the tunic and outer garment Exo 28:31 - That of the
high priest was embroidered with divers colours. The two pieces were
joined together over the shoulders (hence in Latin called
superhumerale) by clasps or buckles of gold or precious stones, and
fastened round the waist by a "curious girdle of gold, blue, purple,
and fine twined linen" Exo 28:6-12 - The breastplate, with the Urim and
Thummim, was attached to the ephod.
The Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be
opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and dumb
Mar 7:34 - It is one of the characteristics of Mark that he uses the
very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips. Mar 3:17 5:41.
Mar 7:11 14:36 15:34.
Double fruitfulness ("for God had made him fruitful in the land of his
affliction"). The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt Gen 41:52 46:20.
The first incident recorded regarding him is his being placed, along
with his brother Manasseh, before their grandfather, Jacob, that he
might bless them Gen 48:10 - comp. Gen 27:1 - The intention of Joseph was
that the right hand of the aged patriarch should be placed on the
head of the elder of the two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger
before his brother, "guiding his hands wittingly." Before Joseph's
death, Ephraim's family had reached the third generation Gen 50:23.
Ephraim, Gate of
One of the gates of Jerusalem 2Ki 14:13 2Ch 25:23 - on the side of the
city looking toward Ephraim, the north side.
Ephraim In the Wilderness
Joh 11:54 - a town to which our Lord retired with his disciples after
he had raised Lazarus, and when the priests were conspiring against
him. It lay in the wild, uncultivated hill-country to the north-east of
Jerusalem, betwen the central towns and the Jordan valley.
The central mountainous district of Palestine occupied by the tribe of
Ephraim Jos 17:15 19:50 20:7 - extending from Bethel to the plain of
Jezreel. In Joshua's time Jos 17:18 - these hills were densely wooded.
They were intersected by well-watered, fertile valleys, referred to in
Jer 50:19 - Joshua was buried at Timnath-heres among the mountains of
Ephraim, on the north side of the hill of Gaash Jud 2:9 - This region
is also called the "mountains of Israel" Jos 11:21 - and the
"mountains of Samaria" Jer 31:5-6 Amo 3:9.
Ephraim, The tribe of
Took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacob's blessing
Gen 41:52 48:1 - The descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes
of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of
only one tribe. Thus there were in reality thirteen tribes; but the
number twelve was preserved by excluding that of Levi when Ephraim and
Manasseh are mentioned separately Num 1:32-34 Jos 17:14,17 1Ch 7:20.
Territory of. At the time of the first census in the wilderness
this tribe numbered 40,500 Num 1:32-33 - forty years later, when
about to take possession of the Promised Land, it numbered only 32,500
During the march
See CAMP 00700.
Ephraim's place was on the west side of the tabernacle Num 2:18-24.
When the spies were sent out to spy the land, "Oshea the son of Nun"
of this tribe signalized himself. The boundaries of the portion of the
land assigned to Ephraim are given in Jos 16:1-10 - It included
most of what was afterwards called Samaria as distinguished from Judea
and Galilee. It thus lay in the centre of all traffic, from north to
south, and from Jordan to the sea, and was about 55 miles long and 30
broad. The tabernacle and the ark were deposited within its limits at
Shiloh, where it remained for four hundred years. During the time of
the judges and the first stage of the monarchy this tribe manifested a
domineering and haughty and discontented spirit. "For more than five
hundred years, a period equal to that which elapsed between the Norman
Conquest and the War of the Roses, Ephraim, with its two dependent
tribes of Manasseh and Benjamin, exercised undisputed pre-eminence.
Joshua the first conqueror, Gideon the greatest of the judges, and
Saul the first king, belonged to one or other of the three tribes. It
was not till the close of the first period of Jewish history that God
'refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim,
but chose the tribe of Judah, the Mount Zion which he loved'
Psa 78:67,68 - When the ark was removed from Shiloh to Zion the
power of Ephraim was humbled." Among the causes which operated to
bring about the disruption of Israel was Ephraim's jealousy of the
growing power of Judah. From the settlement of Canaan till the time of
David and Solomon, Ephraim had held the place of honour among the
tribes. It occupied the central and fairest portions of the land, and
had Shiloh and Shechem within its borders. But now when Jerusalem
became the capital of the kingdom, and the centre of power and worship
for the whole nation of Israel, Ephraim declined in influence. The
discontent came to a crisis by Rehoboam's refusal to grant certain
redresses that were demanded 1Ki 12:1.
Ephrain, Wood of
A forest in which a fatal battle was fought between the army of David
and that of Absalom, who was killed there 2Sa 18:6,8 - It lay on
the east of Jordan, not far from Mahanaim, and was some part of the
great forest of Gilead.
1. The second wife of Caleb, the son of Hezron, mother of Hur, and
grandmother of Caleb, who was one of those that were sent to spy
the land 1Ch 2:19,50.
2. The ancient name of Bethlehem in Judah Gen 35:16,19 48:7 - In
Rut 1:2 - it is called "Bethlehem-Judah," but the inhabitants are
called "Ephrathites;" in Mic 5:2 - "Bethlehem-Ephratah;" in
Mat 2:6 - "Bethlehem in the land of Judah." In Psa 132:6 - it
is mentioned as the place where David spent his youth, and where
he heard much of the ark, although he never saw it till he found
it long afterwards at Kirjath-jearim; i.e., the "city of the
wood," or the "forest-town" 1Sa 7:1 - comp. 2Sa 6:3-4.
A citizen of Ephratah, the old name of Bethlehem Rut 1:2 1Sa 17:12 - or
1. The son of Zohar a Hittite, the owner of the field and cave of
Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham bought for 400 shekels of
silver Gen 23:8-17 25:9 49:29,30.
2. A mountain range which formed one of the landmarks on the north
boundary of the tribe of Judah Jos 15:9 - probably the range on
the west side of the Wady Beit-Hanina.
Followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B.C. 270) or adherents of
the Epicurean philosophy Act 17:18 - This philosophy was a system of
atheism, and taught men to seek as their highest aim a pleasant and
smooth life. They have been called the "Sadducees" of Greek paganism.
They, with the Stoics, ridiculed the teaching of Paul Act 17:18 - They
appear to have been greatly esteemed at Athens.
The apostolic letters. The New Testament contains twenty-one in all.
They are divided into two classes.
1. Paul's Epistles, fourteen in number, including Hebrews. These
are not arranged in the New Testament in the order of time as to
their composition, but rather according to the rank of the
cities or places to which they were sent. Who arranged them
after this manner is unknown. Paul's letters were, as a rule,
dictated to an amanuensis, a fact which accounts for some of
their peculiarities. He authenticated them, however, by adding a
few words in his own hand at the close.
See GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO 01413.
The epistles to Timothy and Titus are styled the Pastoral
2. The Catholic or General Epistles, so called because they are not
addressed to any particular church or city or individual, but to
Christians in general, or to Christians in several countries. Of
these, three are written by John, two by Peter, and one each by
James and Jude. It is an interesting and instructive fact that a
large portion of the New Testament is taken up with epistles.
The doctrines of Christianity are thus not set forth in any
formal treatise, but mainly in a collection of letters.
"Christianity was the first great missionary religion. It was
the first to break the bonds of race and aim at embracing all
mankind. But this necessarily involved a change in the mode in
which it was presented. The prophet of the Old Testament, if he
had anything to communicate, either appeared in person or sent
messengers to speak for him by word of mouth. The narrow limits
of Palestine made direct personal communication easy. But the
case was different when the Christian Church came to consist of
a number of scattered parts, stretching from Mesopotamia in the
east to Rome or even Spain in the far west. It was only natural
that the apostle by whom the greater number of these communities
had been founded should seek to communicate with them by
1. The "chamberlain" of the city of Corinth Rom 16:23 - and one of
Paul's disciples. As treasurer of such a city he was a public
officer of great dignity, and his conversion to the gospel was
accordingly a proof of the wonderful success of the apostle's
2. A companion of Paul at Ephesus, who was sent by him along with
Timothy into Macedonia Act 19:22 - Corinth was his usual place of
abode 2Ti 4:20 - but probably he may have been the same as the
(LXX., "Orech"), length, or Moon-town, one of the cities of Nimrod's
kingdom in the plain of Shinar Gen 10:10 - the Orchoe of the Greeks and
Romans. It was probably the city of the Archevites, who were
transplanted to Samaria by Asnapper Ezr 4:9 - It lay on the left bank
of the Euphrates, about 120 miles south-east of Babylon, and is now
represented by the mounds and ruins of Warka. It appears to have been
the necropolis of the Assyrian kings, as the whole region is strewed
with bricks and the remains of coffins. "Standing on the summit of
the principal edifice, called the Buwarizza, a tower 200 feet
square in the centre of the ruins, the beholder is struck with
astonishment at the enormous accumulation of mounds and ancient
relics at his feet. An irregular circle, nearly 6 miles in
circumference, is defined by the traces of an earthen rampart, in
some places 40 feet high."
The Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized Version
of the New Testament Mat 3:3 4:14 - but in the Revised Version always
Assur has given a brother, successor of Sennacherib 2Ki 19:37.
Isa 37:38 - He ascended the throne about B.C. 681 Nothing further is
recorded of him in Scripture, except that he settled certain
colonists in Samaria Ezr 4:2 - But from the monuments it appears that
he was the most powerful of all the Assyrian monarchs. He built many
temples and palaces, the most magnificent of which was the south-west
palace at Nimrud, which is said to have been in its general design
almost the same as Solomon's palace, only much larger 1Ki 7:1-12 - In
December B.C. 681 Sennacherib was murdered by two of his sons, who,
after holding Nineveh for forty-two days, were compelled to fly to
Erimenas of Ararat, or Armenia. Their brother Esarhaddon, who had
been engaged in a campaign against Armenia, led his army against
them. They were utterly overthrown in a battle fought April B.C.
680 near Malatiyeh, and in the following month Esarhaddon was
crowned at Nineveh. He restored Babylon, conquered Egypt, and
received tribute from Manasseh of Judah. He died in October B.C.
668 while on the march to suppress an Egyptian revolt, and was
succeeded by his son Assur-bani-pal, whose younger brother was made
viceroy of Babylonia.
Hairy, Rebekah's first-born twin son Gen 25:25 - The name of Edom,
"red", was also given to him from his conduct in connection with the
red lentil "pottage" for which he sold his birthright Gen 25:30,31|.
The circumstances connected with his birth foreshadowed the enmity
which afterwards subsisted between the twin brothers and the nations
they founded Gen 25:22,23,26 - In process of time Jacob, following
his natural bent, became a shepherd; while Esau, a "son of the
desert," devoted himself to the perilous and toilsome life of a
huntsman. On a certain occasion, on returning from the chase, urged by
the cravings of hunger, Esau sold his birthright to his brother,
Jacob, who thereby obtained the covenant blessing Gen 27:28-29,36.
Heb 12:16-17 - He afterwards tried to regain what he had so recklessly
parted with, but was defeated in his attempts through the stealth of
his brother Gen 27:4,34,38 - At the age of forty years, to the great
grief of his parents, he married Gen 26:34-35 - two Canaanitish
maidens, Judith, the daughter of Beeri, and Bashemath, the daughter of
Elon. When Jacob was sent away to Padan-aram, Esau tried to conciliate
his parents Gen 28:8-9 - by marrying his cousin Mahalath, the
daughter of Ishmael. This led him to cast in his lot with the
Ishmaelite tribes; and driving the Horites out of Mount Seir, he
settled in that region. After some thirty years' sojourn in Padan-aram
Jacob returned to Canaan, and was reconciled to Esau, who went forth
to meet him Gen 33:4 - Twenty years after this, Isaac their father
died, when the two brothers met, probably for the last time, beside
his grave Gen 35:29 - Esau now permanently left Canaan, and
established himself as a powerful and wealthy chief in the land of
Edom (q.v.). Long after this, when the descendants of Jacob came out
of Egypt, the Edomites remembered the old quarrel between the
brothers, and with fierce hatred they warred against Israel.
From old French eschever, "to flee from" Job 1:1,8 2:3 1Pe 3:11.
The Greek form of the Hebrew "Jezreel," the name of the great plain
(called by the natives Merj Ibn Amer; i.e., "the meadow of the son of
Amer") which stretches across Central Palestine from the Jordan to
the Mediterraanean, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and
Samaria from those of Galilee, extending about 14 miles from north
to south, and 9 miles from east to west. It is drained by "that
ancient river" the Kishon, which flows westward to the Mediterranean.
From the foot of Mount Tabor it branches out into three valleys, that
on the north passing between Tabor and Little Hermon Jud 4:14 - that
on the south between Mount Gilboa and En-gannim 2Ki 9:27 - while the
central portion, the "valley of Jezreel" proper, runs into the Jordan
valley (which is about 1,000 feet lower than Esdraelon) by Bethshean.
Here Gideon gained his great victory over the Midianites Jud 7:1-25.
Here also Barak defeated Sisera, and Saul's army was defeated by the
Philistines, and king Josiah, while fighting in disguise against
Necho, king of Egypt, was slain 2Ch 35:20-27 2Ki 23:29 - This plain
has been well called the "battle-field of Palestine." "It has been a
chosen place for encampment in every contest carried on in this
country, from the days of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Assyrians, in
the history of whose wars with Arphaxad it is mentioned as the Great
Plain of Esdraelon, until the disastrous march of Napoleon Bonaparte
from Egypt into Syria. Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Crusaders, Frenchmen,
Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, warriors out of every
nation which is under heaven, have pitched their tents in the plain,
and have beheld the various banners of their nations wet with the dews
of Tabor and Hermon" (Dr. Clark).
Quarrel, a well which Isaac's herdsmen dug in the valley of Gerar, and
so called because the herdsmen of Gerar quarrelled with them for its
possession Gen 26:20.
Man of Baal, the fourth son of king Saul 1Ch 8:33 9:39 - He is also
called Ish-bosheth (q.v.), 2Sa 2:8.
1. A young Amoritish chief who joined Abraham in the recovery of
Lot from the hands of Chedorlaomer Gen 14:13,24.
2. A valley in which the spies obtained a fine cluster of grapes
Num 13:23-24 - "the brook Eshcol," A.V.; "the valley of Eshcol,"
R.V.), which they took back with them to the camp of Israel as a
specimen of the fruits of the Promised Land. On their way back
they explored the route which led into the south (the Negeb) by
the western edge of the mountains at Telilat el-'Anab, i.e.,
"grape-mounds", near Beersheba. "In one of these extensive
valleys, perhaps in Wady Hanein, where miles of grape-mounds
even now meet the eye, they cut the gigantic clusters of grapes,
and gathered the pomegranates and figs, to show how goodly was
the land which the Lord had promised for their inheritance.",
Palmer's Desert of the Exodus.
A place in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:52 - supposed to be the ruin
es-Simia, near Dumah, south of Hebron.
Narrow pass or recess, a town Jos 15:33 - in the low country, the
She-phelah of Judah. It was allotted to the tribe of Dan Jos 19:41.
and was one of their strongholds. Here Samson spent his boyhood, and
first began to show his mighty strength; and here he was buried in
the burying-place of Manoah his father Jud 13:25 16:31 18:2,8,11,12.
It is identified with the modern Yeshua, on a hill 2 miles east
of Zorah. Others, however, identify it with Kustul, east of
Obedience, a town in the mountains of Judah Jos 21:14 1Ch 6:57 - which
was allotted, with the land round it, to the priests. It was
frequented by David and his followers during their wanderings; and he
sent presents of the spoil of the Amalekites to his friends there
1Sa 30:28 - It is identified with es-Semu'a, a village about 3 1/2
miles east of Socoh, and 7 or 8 miles south of Hebron, around which
there are ancient remains of the ruined city. It is the centre of the
"south country" or Negeb. It is also called "Eshtemoh" Jos 15:50.
2Sa 3:14 - to betroth. The espousal was a ceremony of betrothing, a
formal agreement between the parties then coming under obligation for
the purpose of marriage. Espousals are in the East frequently
contracted years before the marriage is celebrated. It is referred to
as figuratively illustrating the relations between God and his people
Jer 2:2 Mat 1:18 2Co 11:2.
See BETROTH 00573.
A Jewish mystical sect somewhat resembling the Pharisees. They
affected great purity. They originated about B.C. 100 and
disappeared from history after the destruction of Jerusalem. They are
not directly mentioned in Scripture, although they may be referred to
in Mat 19:11-12, Col 2:8,18,23.
The queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name.
She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered
the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became
known Est 2:7 - It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word
satarah, which means a star. She was the daughter of Abihail, a
Benjamite. Her family did not avail themselves of the permission
granted by Cyrus to the exiles to return to Jerusalem; and she
resided with her cousin Mordecai, who held some office in the
household of the Persian king at "Shushan in the palace." Ahasuerus
having divorced Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife. Soon after this
he gave Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to
kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire. By the
interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was averted. Haman
was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai Est 7:1.
and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (q.v.),
in memory of their wonderful deliverance. This took place about
fifty-two years after the Return, the year of the great battles of
Plataea and Mycale (B.C. 479) Esther appears in the Bible as a
"woman of deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution,
combined with resolution; a dutiful daughter to her adopted father,
docile and obedient to his counsels, and anxious to share the king's
favour with him for the good of the Jewish people. There must have
been a singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she
obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her'
Est 2:15 - That she was raised up as an instrument in the hand of God
to avert the destruction of the Jewish people, and to afford them
protection and forward their wealth and peace in their captivity, is
also manifest from the Scripture account."
Esther, Book of
The authorship of this book is unknown. It must have been obviously
written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which
took place B.C. 465 The minute and particular account also given of
many historical details makes it probable that the writer was
contemporary with Mordecai and Esther. Hence we may conclude that the
book was written probably about B.C. 444 and that the author was one of
the Jews of the dispersion. This book is more purely historical than
any other book of Scripture; and it has this remarkable peculiarity
that the name of God does not occur in it from first to last in any
form. It has, however, been well observed that "though the name of God
be not in it, his finger is." The book wonderfully exhibits the
providential government of God.
1. A village of the tribe of Simeon 1Ch 4:32 - Into some cleft
("top," A.V.,; R.V., "cleft") of a rock here Samson retired
after his slaughter of the Philistines Jud 15:8,11 - It was a
natural stronghold. It has been identified with Beit 'Atab, west
of Bethlehem, near Zorah and Eshtaol. On the crest of a rocky
knoll, under the village, is a long tunnel, which may be the
"cleft" in which Samson hid.
2. A city of Judah, fortified by Rehoboam 2Ch 11:6 - It was near
Bethlehem and Tekoah, and some distance apparently to the north
of (No. 1). It seems to have been in the district called Nephtoah
(or Netophah), where were the sources of the water from which
Solomon's gardens and pleasure-grounds and pools, as well as
Bethlehem and the temple, were supplied. It is now 'Ain 'Atan,
at the head of the Wady Urtas, a fountain sending forth a
copious supply of pure water.
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell Mat 25:46 Mar 3:29 Heb 6:2.
2Th 1:9 Mat 18:8 25:41 Jude 1:7 - The Scripture as clearly teaches the
unending duration of the penal sufferings of the lost as the
"everlasting life," the "eternal life" of the righteous. The same
Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to
1. the eternal existence of God 1Ti 1:17 Ro 1:20 16:26.
2. of Christ Rev 1:18.
3. of the Holy Ghost Heb 9:14.
4. The eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost Mat 25:46,
Their condition after casting off the mortal body is spoken of in
these expressive words: "Fire that shall not be quenched" Mar 9:45,46.
"fire unquenchable" Luk 3:17 - "the worm that never dies," the
"bottomless pit" Rev 9:1 - "the smoke of their torment ascending up
for ever and ever" Rev 14:10-11 - The idea that the "second death"
Rev 20:14 - is in the case of the wicked their absolute destruction,
their annihilation, has not the slightest support from Scripture,
which always represents their future as one of conscious suffering
enduring for ever. The supposition that God will ultimately secure the
repentance and restoration of all sinners is equally unscriptural.
There is not the slightest trace in all the Scriptures of any such
restoration. Sufferings of themselves have no tendency to purify the
soul from sin or impart spiritual life. The atoning death of Christ
and the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit are the only means of
divine appointment for bringing men to repentance. Now in the case of
them that perish these means have been rejected, and "there remaineth
no more sacrifice for sins" Heb 10:26,27.
This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Dan 12:2 - (R.V.,
"everlasting life"). It occurs frequently in the New Testament
Mat 7:14 18:8-9 Luk 10:28 - comp. Luk 18:18 - It comprises the whole
future of the redeemed Luk 16:9 - and is opposed to "eternal
punishment" Mat 19:29 25:46 - It is the final reward and glory into
which the children of God enter 1Ti 6:12,19 Ro 6:22 Gal 6:8 1Ti 1:16.
Rom 5:21 - their Sabbath of rest Heb 4:9 - comp. Heb 12:22 - The
newness of life which the believer derives from Christ Rom 6:4 - is
the very essence of salvation, and hence the life of glory or the
eternal life must also be theirs Rom 6:8 2Ti 2:11-12 Ro 5:17,21 8:30.
Eph 2:5-6 - It is the "gift of God in Jesus Christ our Lord" Rom 6:23.
The life the faithful have here on earth Joh 3:36 5:24 6:47,53-58.
is inseparably connected with the eternal life beyond, the endless
life of the future, the happy future of the saints in heaven
Mat 19:16,29 25:46.
See EVERLASTING 01275.
Perhaps another name for Khetam, or "fortress," on the Shur or great
wall of Egypt, which extended from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of
Suez. Here the Israelites made their third encampment Exo 13:20.
Num 33:6 - The camp was probably a little to the west of the modern
town of Ismailia. Here the Israelites were commanded to change their
route Exo 14:2 - and "turn" towards the south, and encamp before
See EXODUS 01283.
See PITHOM 02968.
1. "The Ezrahite," distinguished for his wisdom 1Ki 4:31 - He is
named as the author of the 89th Psalm. He was of the tribe of
2. A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of the
temple music 1Ch 6:44 15:17,19 - He was probably the same as
Jeduthun. He is supposed by some to be the same also as No. 1.
The month of gifts, i.e., of vintage offerings; called Tisri after the
Exile; corresponding to part of September and October. It was the
first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the sacred year
With Baal, a king of Sidon (B.C. 940) father of Jezebel, who was the
wife of Ahab 1Ki 16:31 - He is said to have been also a priest of
Astarte, whose worship was closely allied to that of Baal, and this
may account for his daughter's zeal in promoting idolatry in Israel.
This marriage of Ahab was most fatal to both Israel and Judah. Dido,
the founder of Carthage, was his granddaughter.
Country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is
rendered Gen 2:13 2Ki 19:9 Es 1:1 Job 28:19 Psa 68:31 87:4 - a country
which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First
Cataract Eze 29:10 30:6 - and extending to beyond the confluence of
the White and Blue Nile. It corresponds generally with what is now
known as the Soudan (i.e., the land of the blacks). This country was
known to the Hebrews, and is described in Isa 18:1 Zep 3:10 - They
carried on some commercial intercourse with it Isa 45:14 - Its
inhabitants were descendants of Ham Gen 10:6 Jer 13:23 Isa 18:2.
"scattered and peeled," A.V.; but in R.V., "tall and smooth").
Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes them as "the tallest and
handsomest of men." They are frequently represented on Egyptian
monuments, and they are all of the type of the true negro. As might
be expected, the history of this country is interwoven with that of
Egypt. Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy Psa 68:31 87:4 Isa 45:14.
Eze 30:4-9 Dan 11:43 Na 3:8-10 Hab 3:7 Zep 2:12.
The chief officer or prime minister of state of Candace (q.v.), queen
of Ethiopia. He was converted to Christianity through the
instrumentality of Philip Act 8:27 - The northern portion of Ethiopia
formed the kingdom of Meroe, which for a long period was ruled over by
queens, and it was probably from this kingdom that the eunuch came.
The wife of Moses Num 12:1 - It is supposed that Zipporah, Moses'
first wife Exo 2:21 - was now dead. His marriage of this "woman"
descended from Ham gave offence to Aaron and Miriam.
Happily conquering, the mother of Timothy, a believing Jewess, but
married to a Greek Act 16:1 - She trained her son from his childhood in
the knowledge of the Scriptures 2Ti 1:5 3:15 - She was distinguished by
her "unfeigned faith."
Literally bed-keeper or chamberlain, and not necessarily in all cases
one who was mutilated, although the practice of employing such
mutilated persons in Oriental courts was common 2Ki 9:32 Es 2:3 - The
law of Moses excluded them from the congregation Deu 23:1 - They were
common also among the Greeks and Romans. Three classes of eunuchs are
mentioned in Mat 19:12.
A good journey, a female member of the church at Philippi. She was one
who laboured much with Paul in the gospel. He exhorts her to be of
one mind with Syntyche Php 4:2 - From this it seems they had been at
variance with each other.
Hebrew, Perath; Assyrian, Purat; Persian cuneiform, Ufratush, whence
Greek Euphrates, meaning "sweet water." The Assyrian name means "the
stream," or "the great stream." It is generally called in the Bible
simply "the river" Exo 23:31 - or "the great river" Deu 1:7 - The
Euphrates is first mentioned in Gen 2:14 - as one of the rivers of
Paradise. It is next mentioned in connection with the covenant which
God entered into with Abraham Gen 15:18 - when he promised to his
descendants the land from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates
(comp.) Deu 11:24 Jos 1:4 - a covenant promise afterwards fulfilled in
the extended conquests of David 2Sa 8:2-14 1Ch 18:3 1Ki 4:24 - It was
then the boundary of the kingdom to the north-east. In the ancient
history of Assyria, and Babylon, and Egypt many events are recorded
in which mention is made of the "great river." Just as the Nile
represented in prophecy the power of Egypt, so the Euphrates
represented the Assyrian power Isa 8:7 Jer 2:18 - It is by far the
largest and most important of all the rivers of Western Asia. From
its source in the Armenian mountains to the Persian Gulf, into which
it empties itself, it has a course of about 1,700 miles. It has two
1. the Frat or Kara-su (i.e., "the black river"), which rises 25
miles north-east of Erzeroum; and
2. the Muradchai (i.e., "the river of desire"), which rises near
Ararat, on the northern slope of Ala-tagh. At Kebban Maden,
400 miles from the source of the former, and 270 from that
of the latter, they meet and form the majestic stream, which is
at length joined by the Tigris at Koornah, after which it is
called Shat-el-Arab, which runs in a deep and broad stream for
above 140 miles to the sea. It is estimated that the alluvium
brought down by these rivers encroaches on the sea at the rate
of about one mile in thirty years.
South-east billow, the name of the wind which blew in the Adriatic
Gulf, and which struck the ship in which Paul was wrecked on the
coast of Malta Act 27:14 - R.V., "Euraquilo," i.e., north-east wind. It
is called a "tempestuous wind," i.e., as literally rendered, a
"typhonic wind," or a typhoon. It is the modern Gregalia or Levanter.
(Comp.) Jon 1:4.
Fortunate, Act 20:9-12 - a young man of Troas who fell through
drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house where
Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The lattice-work of the
window being open to admit the air, the lad fell out and down to the
court below. Paul restored him to life again. (Comp.) 1Ki 17:21 .
A "publisher of glad tidings;" a missionary preacher of the gospel
Eph 4:11 - This title is applied to Philip Act 21:8 - who appears to
have gone from city to city preaching the word Act 8:4,40 - Judging
from the case of Philip, evangelists had neither the authority of an
apostle, nor the gift of prophecy, nor the responsibility of pastoral
supervision over a portion of the flock. They were itinerant
preachers, having it as their special function to carry the gospel to
places where it was previously unknown. The writers of the four
Gospels are known as the Evangelists.
Life; living, the name given by Adam to his wife Gen 3:20 4:1 - The
account of her creation is given in Gen 2:21-22 - The Creator, by
declaring that it was not good for man to be alone, and by creating
for him a suitable companion, gave sanction to monogamy. The
commentator Matthew Henry says: "This companion was taken from his
side to signify that she was to be dear unto him as his own flesh.
Not from his head, lest she should rule over him; nor from his feet,
lest he should tyrannize over her; but from his side, to denote that
species of equality which is to subsist in the marriage state." And
again, "That wife that is of God's making by special grace, and of
God's bringing by special providence, is likely to prove a helpmeet
to her husband." Through the subtle temptation of the serpent she
violated the commandment of God by taking of the forbidden fruit,
which she gave also unto her husband 1Ti 2:13-15 2Co 11:3 - When she
gave birth to her first son, she said, "I have gotten a man from the
Lord" (R.V., "I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord,")
Gen 4:1 - Thus she welcomed Cain, as some think, as if he had been the
Promised One the "Seed of the woman."
The period following sunset with which the Jewish day began Gen 1:5.
Mar 13:35 - The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of each day, as appears
from Exo 16:12 30:8 12:6 - (marg.); Lev 23:5 - (marg. R.V., "between the
two evenings"). The "first evening" was that period when the sun was
verging towards setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual
sunset. The word "evenings" in Jer 5:6 - should be "deserts" (marg.
Eternal, applied to God Gen 21:33 Deu 33:27 Psa 41:13 90:2 - We also read
of the "everlasting hills" Gen 49:26 - an "everlasting priesthood"
Exo 40:15 Num 25:13.
See ETERNAL LIFE 01258.
Pro 23:6 - figuratively, the envious or covetous. (Comp.)
Deu 15:9 Mat 20:15.
Merodach's man, the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of
Babylon 2Ki 25:27 Jer 52:31,34 - He seems to have reigned but two
years (B.C. 562) Influenced probably by Daniel, he showed kindness
to Jehoiachin, who had been a prisoner in Babylon for thirty-seven
years. He released him, and "spoke kindly to him." He was murdered by
Nergal-sharezer=Neriglissar, his brother-in-law, who succeeded him
Is expressly forbidden Tit 3:2 Jas 4:11 - and severe punishments are
denounced against it 1Co 5:11 6:10 - It is spoken of also with
abhorrence Psa 15:3 Pr 18:6-7 - and is foreign to the whole Christian
character and the example of Christ.
1. Of Christ 1Pe 2:21 Joh 13:15.
2. of pastors to their flocks Php 3:17 2Th 3:9 1Ti 4:12 1Pe 5:3.
3. of the Jews as a warning Heb 4:11.
4. of the prophets as suffering affliction Jas 5:10.
Mar 6:27 - Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin word,
speculator, which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and at length
came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the emperor. Herod
Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in attendance on him a
company of speculatores. They were sometimes employed as
executioners, but this was a mere accident of their office.
See MARK, GOSPEL OF 02421.
1Ti 4:8 - An ascetic mortification of the flesh and denial of personal
gratification (comp.) Col 2:23 - to which some sects of the Jews,
especially the Essenes, attached importance.
1. Of the kingdom of Israel. In the time of Pekah, Tiglath-pileser
II. carried away captive into Assyria 2Ki 15:29 - comp.
Isa 10:5-6 - a part of the inhabitants of Galilee and of
Gilead (B.C. 741) After the destruction of Samaria (B.C. 720) by
Shalmaneser and Sargon (q.v.), there was a general deportation of
the Israelites into Mesopotamia and Media 2Ki 17:6 18:9 1Ch 5:26.
See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF 01909.
2. Of the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah.
Nebuchadnezzar, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim Jer 25:1.
invaded Judah, and carried away some royal youths, including
Daniel and his companions (B.C. 606) together with the sacred
vessels of the temple 2Ch 36:7 Dan 1:2 - In B.C. 598 Jer 52:28.
2Ki 24:12 - in the beginning of Jehoiachin's reign 2Ki 24:8.
Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive 3,023 eminent Jews,
including the king 2Ch 36:10 - with his family and officers
2Ki 24:12 - and a large number of warriors 2Ki 24:16 - with very
many persons of note 2Ki 24:14 - and artisans 2Ki 24:16 - leaving
behind only those who were poor and helpless. This was the first
general deportation to Babylon. In B.C. 588 after the revolt of
Zedekiah (q.v.), there was a second general deportation of Jews
by Nebuchadnezzar Jer 52:29 2Ki 25:8 - including 832 more of
the principal men of the kingdom. He carried away also the rest
of the sacred vessels 2Ch 36:18 - From this period, when the
temple was destroyed 2Ki 25:9 - to the complete restoration,
B.C. 517 Ezr 6:15 - is the period of the "seventy years." In
B.C. 582 occurred the last and final deportation. The entire
number Nebuchadnezzar carried captive was 4,600 heads of
families with their wives and children and dependants
Jer 52:30 43:5-7 2Ch 36:20 - Thus the exiles formed a very
considerable community in Babylon. When Cyrus granted permission
to the Jews to return to their own land Ezr 1:5 7:13 - only a
comparatively small number at first availed themselves of the
privilege. It cannot be questioned that many belonging to the
kingdom of Israel ultimately joined the Jews under Ezra,
Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah, and returned along with them to
Jerusalem Jer 50:4-5,17-20,33-35 - Large numbers had,
however, settled in the land of Babylon, and formed numerous
colonies in different parts of the kingdom. Their descendants
very probably have spread far into Eastern lands and become
absorbed in the general population.
See JUDAH, KINGDOM OF 02126.
See CAPTIVITY 00720.
The great deliverance wrought for the children of Israel when they
were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an
outstretched arm" Exo 12:51 Deu 26:8 Psa 114:1 - Psa 136:1 - about B.C.
1490 and four hundred and eighty years 1Ki 6:1 - before the building
of Solomon's temple. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was,
according to Exo 12:40 - the space of four hundred and thirty years. In
the LXX., the words are, "The sojourning of the children of Israel
which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land of Canaan was four
hundred and thirty years;" and the Samaritan version reads, "The
sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they
sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was four
hundred and thirty years." In Gen 15:13-16 - the period is
prophetically given (in round numbers) as four hundred years. This
passage is quoted by Stephen in his defence before the council Act 7:6.
The chronology of the "sojourning" is variously estimated. Those who
adopt the longer term reckon thus:
From the descent of Jacob into Egypt to the death of Joseph 71
From the death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 278
From the birth of Moses to his flight into Midian 40
From the flight of Moses to his return into Egypt 40
From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1
Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen
years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years
comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan
See SAMARITAIN PENTATEUCH 03203.
to the descent of Jacob into Egypt. They reckon thus:
From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's birth 25
From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons Esau and Jacob 60
From Jacob's birth to the going down into Egypt 130 (215)
From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the death of Joseph 71
From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64
From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80
In all 430
During the forty years of Moses' sojourn in the land of Midian, the
Hebrews in Egypt were being gradually prepared for the great national
crisis which was approaching. The plagues that successively fell upon
the land loosened the bonds by which Pharaoh held them in slavery, and
at length he was eager that they should depart. But the Hebrews must
now also be ready to go. They were poor; for generations they had
laboured for the Egyptians without wages. They asked gifts from their
neighbours around them Exo 12:35 - and these were readily bestowed.
And then, as the first step towards their independent national
organization, they observed the feast of the Passover, which was now
instituted as a perpetual memorial. The blood of the paschal lamb was
duly sprinkled on the door-posts and lintels of all their houses, and
they were all within, waiting the next movement in the working out of
God's plan. At length the last stroke fell on the land of Egypt. "It
came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the
land of Egypt." Pharaoh rose up in the night, and called for Moses and
Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, and get you forth from among my
people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as
ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said,
and be gone; and bless me also." Thus was Pharaoh (q.v.) completely
humbled and broken down. These words he spoke to Moses and Aaron "seem
to gleam through the tears of the humbled king, as he lamented his son
snatched from him by so sudden a death, and tremble with a sense of
the helplessness which his proud soul at last felt when the avenging
hand of God had visited even his palace." The terror-stricken
Egyptians now urged the instant departure of the Hebrews. In the midst
of the Passover feast, before the dawn of the 15th day of the month
Abib (our April nearly), which was to be to them henceforth the
beginning of the year, as it was the commencement of a new epoch in
their history, every family, with all that appertained to it, was
ready for the march, which instantly began under the leadership of the
heads of tribes with their various sub-divisions. They moved onward,
increasing as they went forward from all the districts of Goshen, over
the whole of which they were scattered, to the common centre. Three or
four days perhaps elapsed before the whole body of the people were
assembled at Rameses, and ready to set out under their leader Moses
Exo 12:37 Num 33:3 - This city was at that time the residence of the
Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had
taken place. From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth Exo 12:37.
identified with Tel-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia.
See PITHOM 02968.
Their third station was Etham (q.v.), Exo 13:20 - "in the edge of
the wilderness," and was probably a little to the west of the modern
town of Ismailia, on the Suez Canal. Here they were commanded "to
turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea", i.e.,
to change their route from east to due south. The Lord now assumed the
direction of their march in the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by
night. They were then led along the west shore of the Red Sea till
they came to an extensive camping-ground "before Pi-hahiroth," about
40 miles from Etham. This distance from Etham may have taken three
days to traverse, for the number of camping-places by no means
indicates the number of days spent on the journey: e.g., it took fully
a month to travel from Rameses to the wilderness of Sin Exo 16:1.
yet reference is made to only six camping-places during all that time.
The exact spot of their encampment before they crossed the Red Sea
cannot be determined. It was probably somewhere near the present site
of Suez. Under the direction of God the children of Israel went
"forward" from the camp "before Pi-hahiroth," and the sea opened a
pathway for them, so that they crossed to the farther shore in safety.
The Egyptian host pursued after them, and, attempting to follow
through the sea, were overwhelmed in its returning waters, and thus
the whole military force of the Egyptians perished. They "sank as lead
in the mighty waters" Exo 15:1-9 - comp. Psa 77:16-19 - Having reached
the eastern shore of the sea, perhaps a little way to the north of
'Ayun Musa ("the springs of Moses"), there they encamped and rested
probably for a day. Here Miriam and the other women sang the triumphal
song recorded in Exo 15:1-21 - From 'Ayun Musa they went on for
three days through a part of the barren "wilderness of Shur"
Exo 15:22 - called also the "wilderness of Etham" Num 33:8 - comp.
Exo 13:20 - without finding water. On the last of these days they came
to Marah (q.v.), where the "bitter" water was by a miracle made
drinkable. Their next camping-place was Elim (q.v.), where were
twelve springs of water and a grove of "threescore and ten" palm trees
Exo 15:27 - After a time the children of Israel "took their journey
from Elim," and encamped by the Red Sea Num 33:10 - and thence
removed to the "wilderness of Sin" (to be distinguished from the
wilderness of Zin,) Num 20:1 - where they again encamped. Here,
probably the modern el-Markha, the supply of bread they had brought
with them out of Egypt failed. They began to "murmur" for want of
bread. God "heard their murmurings" and gave them quails and manna,
"bread from heaven" Exo 16:4-36 - Moses directed that an omer of
manna should be put aside and preserved as a perpetual memorial of
God's goodness. They now turned inland, and after three encampments
came to the rich and fertile valley of Rephidim, in the Wady Feiran.
Here they found no water, and again murmured against Moses. Directed
by God, Moses procured a miraculous supply of water from the "rock in
Horeb," one of the hills of the Sinai group Exo 17:1-7 - and shortly
afterwards the children of Israel here fought their first battle with
the Amalekites, whom they smote with the edge of the sword. From the
eastern extremity of the Wady Feiran the line of march now probably
led through the Wady esh-Sheikh and the Wady Solaf, meeting in the
Wady er-Rahah, "the enclosed plain in front of the magnificient cliffs
of Ras Sufsafeh." Here they encamped for more than a year Num 1:1.
Num 10:11 - before Sinai (q.v.). The different encampments of the
children of Israel, from the time of their leaving Egypt till they
reached the Promised Land, are mentioned in Exo 12:37-19.
Num 10:1 - Num 33:1 - Deu 1:1 - Deu 2:1 - Deu 10:1.
It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the
Egyptians had a tradition of a great exodus from their country, which
could be none other than the exodus of the Hebrews.
Exodus, Book of
Exodus is the name given in the LXX. to the second book of the
Pentateuch (q.v.). It means "departure" or "outgoing." This name was
adopted in the Latin translation, and thence passed into other
languages. The Hebrews called it by the first words, according to
their custom, Ve-eleh shemoth (i.e., "and these are the names"). It
1. An account of the increase and growth of the Israelites in Egypt
2. Preparations for their departure out of Egypt Exo 2:1-12:36.
3. Their journeyings from Egypt to Sinai Exo 12:37-19:2.
4. The giving of the law and the establishment of the institutions
by which the organization of the people was completed, the
theocracy, "a kingdom of priest and an holy nation"
The time comprised in this book, from the death of Joseph to the
erection of the tabernacle in the wilderness, is about one hundred and
forty-five years, on the supposition that the four hundred and thirty
years Exo 12:40 - are to be computed from the time of the promises
made to Abraham Gal 3:17 - The authorship of this book, as well as
of that of the other books of the Pentateuch, is to be ascribed to
Moses. The unanimous voice of tradition and all internal evidences
abundantly support this opinion.
Act 19:13 - "In that sceptical and therefore superstitious age
professional exorcist abounded. Many of these professional exorcists
were disreputable Jews, like Simon in Samaria and Elymas in Cyprus
Act 8:9 13:6 - "Other references to exorcism as practised by the Jews
are found in Mat 12:27 Mar 9:38 Luk 9:49,50 - It would seem that it was
an opinion among the Jews that miracles might be wrought by invoking
the divine name. Thus also these "vagabond Jews" pretended that they
could expel daemons. The power of casting out devils was conferred by
Christ on his apostles Mat 10:8 - and on the seventy Luk 10:17-19 - and
was exercised by believers after his ascension Mar 16:17 Act 16:18 - but
this power was never spoken of as exorcism.
Guilt is said to be expiated when it is visited with punishment
falling on a substitute. Expiation is made for our sins when they are
punished not in ourselves but in another who consents to stand in our
room. It is that by which reconciliation is effected. Sin is thus
said to be "covered" by vicarious satisfaction. The cover or lid of
the ark is termed in the LXX. hilasterion, that which covered or shut
out the claims and demands of the law against the sins of God's
people, whereby he became "propitious" to them. The idea of vicarious
expiation runs through the whole Old Testament system of sacrifices.
See PROPITIATION 03007.
(Heb. 'ain, meaning "flowing"), applied
1. to a fountain, frequently;
2. to colour Num 11:7 - R.V., "appearance," marg. "eye");
3. the face Exo 10:5,15 Num 22:5,11 - in Num 14:14 - "face to face"
(R.V. marg., "eye to eye"). "Between the eyes", i.e., the
forehead Exo 13:9,16.
4. The expression Pro 23:31 - "when it giveth his colour in the cup,"
is literally, "when it giveth out [or showeth] its eye." The
beads or bubbles of wine are thus spoken of.
5. "To set the eyes" on any one is to view him with favour
Gen 44:21 Job 24:23 Jer 39:12.
6. This word is used figuratively in the expressions
a. an "evil eye" Mat 20:15.
b. a "bountiful eye" Pro 22:9.
c. "haughty eyes" Pro 6:17 - (marg.),
d. "wanton eyes" Isa 3:16.
e. "eyes full of adultery" 2Pe 2:14.
f. "the lust of the eyes" 1Jo 2:16.
7. Christians are warned against "eye-service" Eph 6:6 Col 3:22.
8. Men were sometimes punished by having their eyes put out
a. The men of Jabesh 1Sa 11:2.
b. Samson, Jud 16:21.
c. Zedekiah, 2Ki 25:7.
7. The custom of painting the eyes is alluded to in 2Ki 9:30 - R.V.;
Jer 4:30 Eze 23:40 - a custom which still prevails extensively
among Eastern women.
Grecized form of Hezekiah Mat 1:9-10.
God will strengthen.
1. 1Ch 24:16 - "Jehezekel."
2. One of the great prophets, the son of Buzi the priest Eze 1:3.
He was one of the Jewish exiles who settled at Tel-Abib, on the
banks of the Chebar, "in the land of the Chaldeans." He was
probably carried away captive with Jehoiachin Eze 1:2.
2Ki 24:14-16 - about B.C. 597 His prophetic call came to him "
in the fifth year of Jehoiachin's captivity" (B.C. 594 He had a
house in the place of his exile, where he lost his wife, in the
ninth year of his exile, by some sudden and unforeseen stroke
Eze 8:1 24:18 - He held a prominent place among the exiles, and
was frequently consulted by the elders Eze 8:1 11:25 14:1 20:1.
His ministry extended over twenty-three years Eze 29:17 - B.C.
595-573, during part of which he was contemporary with Daniel
Eze 14:14 28:3 - and Jeremiah, and probably also with Obadiah.
The time and manner of his death are unknown. His reputed tomb
is pointed out in the neighbourhood of Bagdad, at a place called
Ezekiel, Book of
Consists mainly of three groups of prophecies. After an account of
his call to the prophetical office Eze 1:1-3:21 - Ezekiel:
1. utters words of denunciation against the Jews Eze 3:22-24.
warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in
opposition to the words of the false prophets Eze 4:1-3 - The
symbolical acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem
would be reduced are described in Eze 4:1 - show his intimate
acquaintance with the Levitical legislation. Exo 22:30 Deu 14:21.
Lev 5:2 7:18,24 17:15 19:7 22:8 - etc.
2. Prophecies against various surrounding nations: against:
a. the Ammonites Eze 25:1-7.
b. the Moabites Eze 25:8-11.
c. the Edomites Eze 25:12-14.
d. the Philistines Eze 25:15-17.
e. Tyre and Sidon Eze 26:1-28:26.
f. Egypt Eze 29:1-32:32.
3. Prophecies delivered after the destruction of Jerusalem by
a. the triumphs of Israel and of the kingdom of God on earth
b. Messianic times, and the establishment and prosperity of the
kingdom of God Eze 40:1-48:35.
The closing visions of this book are referred to in the book of
Eze 38:1 - = Rev 20:8.
Eze 47:1-8 - = Rev 22:1-2.
Other references to this book are also found in the New Testament.
Rom 2:24 - with Eze 36:2.
Rom 10:5 Gal 3:12 - with Eze 20:11.
2Pe 3:4 - with Eze 12:22.
It may be noted that Daniel, fourteen years after his deportation from
Jerusalem, is mentioned by Ezekiel Eze 14:14 - along with Noah and
Job as distinguished for his righteousness, and some five years later
he is spoken of as pre-eminent for his wisdom Eze 28:3. Ezekiel's
prophecies are characterized by symbolical and allegorical
representations, "unfolding a rich series of majestic visions and of
colossal symbols." There are a great many also of "symbolcal actions
embodying vivid conceptions on the part of the prophet" Eze 4:1-4.
Eze 5:1-4 12:3-6 24:3-5 37:16 - etc. "The mode of representation, in
which symbols and allegories occupy a prominent place, gives a dark,
mysterious character to the prophecies of Ezekiel. They are obscure
and enigmatical. A cloudy mystery overhangs them which it is almost
impossible to penetrate. Jerome calls the book 'a labyrith of the
mysteries of God.' It was because of this obscurity that the Jews
forbade any one to read it till he had attained the age of thirty."
Ezekiel is singular in the frequency with which he refers to the
Pentateuch (e.g.,) Eze 27:1 - Eze 28:13 31:8 36:11,34 47:13.
He shows also an acquaintance with the writings of Hosea Eze 37:22.
Isaiah Eze 8:12 29:6 - and especially with those of Jeremiah, his
older contemporary Jer 24:7,9 48:37.
A separation, 1Sa 20:19 - a stone, or heap of stones, in the
neighbourhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of David
and Jonathan 1Sa 20:42. The margin of the Authorized Version reads,
"The stone that sheweth the way," in this rendering following the
1. One of the sons of Seir, the native princes, "dukes," of Mount
Hor Gen 36:21,27.
2. 1Ch 7:21.
3. 1Ch 4:4.
4. One of the Gadite champions who repaired to David at Ziklag
5. A Levite Neh 3:19.
6. A priest Neh 12:42.
The giant's backbone (so called from the head of a mountain which runs
out into the sea), an ancient city and harbour at the north-east end
of the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Akabah, near Elath
or Eloth Num 33:35 Deu 2:8 - Here Solomon built ships, "Tarshish ships,"
like those trading from Tyre to Tarshish and the west, which traded
with Ophir 1Ki 9:26 2Ch 8:17 - and here also Jehoshaphat's fleet was
shipwrecked 1Ki 22:48 2Ch 20:36 - It became a populous town, many of
the Jews settling in it 2Ki 16:6 - "Elath". It is supposed that
anciently the north end of the gulf flowed further into the country
than now, as far as 'Ain el-Ghudyan, which is 10 miles up the dry bed
of the Arabah, and that Ezion-geber may have been there.
1. A priest among those that returned to Jerusalem under Zerubabel
2. The "scribe" who led the second body of exiles that returned
from Babylon to Jerusalem B.C. 459 and author of the book of
Scripture which bears his name. He was the son, or perhaps
grandson, of Seraiah 2Ki 25:18-21 - and a lineal descendant of
Phinehas, the son of Aaron Ezr 7:1-5 - All we know of his
personal history is contained in the last four chapters of his
book, and in Neh 8:1 - and Neh 12:26 - In the seventh year of
the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus
See DARIUS 00975.
he obtained leave to go up to Jerusalem and to take with him a
company of Israelites Ezr 8:1 - Artaxerxes manifested
great interest in Ezra's undertaking, granting him "all his
request," and loading him with gifts for the house of God. Ezra
assembled the band of exiles, probably about 5,000 in all, who
were prepared to go up with him to Jerusalem, on the banks of
the Ahava, where they rested for three days, and were put into
order for their march across the desert, which was completed in
four months. His proceedings at Jerusalem on his arrival there
are recorded in his book. He was "a ready scribe in the law of
Moses," who "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord
and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments."
"He is," says Professor Binnie, "the first well-defined example
of an order of men who have never since ceased in the church;
men of sacred erudition, who devote their lives to the study of
the Holy Scriptures, in order that they may be in a condition to
interpret them for the instruction and edification of the
church. It is significant that the earliest mention of the
pulpit occurs in the history of Ezra's ministry Neh 8:4 - He
was much more of a teacher than a priest. We learn from the
account of his labours in the book of Nehemiah that he was
careful to have the whole people instructed in the law of Moses;
and there is no reason to reject the constant tradition of the
Jews which connects his name with the collecting and editing of
the Old Testament canon. The final completion of the canon may
have been, and probably was, the work of a later generation; but
Ezra seems to have put it much into the shape in which it is
still found in the Hebrew Bible. When it is added that the
complete organization of the synagogue dates from this period,
it will be seen that the age was emphatically one of Biblical
study" (The Psalms: their History, etc.). For about fourteen
years, i.e., till B.C. 445 we have no record of what went on in
Jerusalem after Ezra had set in order the ecclesiastical and
civil affairs of the nation. In that year another distinguished
personage, Nehemiah, appears on the scene. After the ruined wall
of the city had been built by Nehemiah, there was a great
gathering of the people at Jerusalem preparatory to the
dedication of the wall. On the appointed day the whole
population assembled, and the law was read aloud to them by Ezra
and his assistants Neh 8:3 - The remarkable scene is described
in detail. There was a great religious awakening. For successive
days they held solemn assemblies, confessing their sins and
offering up solemn sacrifices. They kept also the feast of
Tabernacles with great solemnity and joyous enthusiasm, and then
renewed their national covenant to be the Lord's. Abuses were
rectified, and arrangements for the temple service completed,
and now nothing remained but the dedication of the walls of the
city Neh 12:1.
See NEHEMIAH 02696.
Ezra, Book of
This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the
Babylonian exile. It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the
Jews regarding them as one volume. The two are still distinguished in
the Vulgate version as I. and II. Esdras. It consists of two
1. The history of the first return of exiles, in the first year of
Cyrus (B.C. 536) till the completion and dedication of the new
temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (B.C. 515)
Ezr 1:1-6:22 - From the close of the sixth to the opening of the
seventh chapter there is a blank in the history of about sixty
2. The history of the second return under Ezra, in the seventh year
of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that took place at
Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there Ezr 7:1-10:44|.
The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews, from the
decree of Cyrus (B.C. 536) to the reformation by Ezra (B.C. 456)
extending over a period of about eighty years. There is no quotation
from this book in the New Testament, but there never has been any
doubt about its being canonical. Ezra was probably the author of this
book, at least of the greater part of it (comp.) Ezr 7:27-28 8:1.
etc.), as he was also of the Books of Chronicles, the close of which
forms the opening passage of Ezra.
A title given to Ethan 1Ki 4:31 Psa 89:1 - (title) and Heman Psa 88:1.
(title). They were both sons of Zerah 1Ch 2:6.
Help of Jehovah, the son of Chelub. He superintended, under David,
those who "did the work of the field for tillage" 1Ch 27:26.
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