Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - D
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Pasture, a Levitical town of Issachar Jos 19:12 21:28 - near the border
of Zebulum. It is the modern small village of Deburich, at the base
of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the
miracle of the cure of the lunatic child Mat 17:14-18.
The Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of the New
Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings Mat 8:16 10:1.
Mat 12:43-45 - at enmity with God, and as having a certain power over
man Jas 2:19 Rev 16:14 - They recognize our Lord as the Son of God
Mat 8:29 Luk 4:41 - They belong to the number of those angels that "kept
not their first estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen angels," the
angels of the devil Mat 25:41 Rev 12:7-9 - They are the
"principalities and powers" against which we must "wrestle"
One "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his
apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted by God
to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies of men,
inflicting dumbness Mat 9:32 - blindness Mat 12:22 - epilepsy
Mar 9:17-27 - insanity Mat 8:28 Mar 5:1-5 - Daemoniacs are
frequently distinguished from those who are afflicted with ordinary
bodily maladies Mar 1:32 - Mar 16:17-18 Luk 6:17-18 - The daemons
speak in their own persons Mat 8:29 Mar 1:23-24 5:7 - This influence
is clearly distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of
temptation over men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to be
destroyed, and his actions, words, and even thoughts to be overborne by
the evil spirit Act 19:15.
Little fish; diminutive from dag a fish, the fish-god; the national
god of the Philistines Jud 16:23 - This idol had the body of a fish
with the head and hands of a man. It was an Assyrio-Babylonian deity,
the worship of which was introduced among the Philistines through
Chaldea. The most famous of the temples of Dagon were at Gaza
Jud 16:23-30 - and Ashdod 1Sa 5:1-7.
See FISH 01343.
1Sa 5:2 - or Beth-dagon, as elsewhere rendered Jos 15:41 19:27 - was
the sanctuary or temple of Dagon. The Beth-dagon of Jos 15:41 - was one
of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the lowland or plain which
stretches westward. It has not been identified. The Beth-dagon of
Jos 19:27 - was one of the border cities of Asher. That of 1Ch 10:10.
was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where the Philistines, after
their victory at Gilboa, placed Saul's head in the temple of their god.
(Comp.) 1Sa 31:8-13.
Dan 8:12 11:31 12:11 - a burnt offering of two lambs of a year old,
which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole Israelitish people
upon the great altar, the first at dawn of day, and the second at
evening Dan 9:21 - or more correctly, "between the two evenings."
See SACRIFICE 03179.
Dale, The King's
The name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh"
(q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham
Gen 14:17 - Some have identified it with the southern part of the
valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument
A place on the west of the Sea of Galilee, mentioned only in Mar 8:10.
In the parallel passage it is said that Christ came "into the borders
of Magdala" Mat 15:39 - It is plain, then, that Dalmanutha was near
Magdala, which was probably the Greek name of one of the many Migdols
(i.e., watch-towers) on the western side of the lake of Gennesaret.
It has been identified in the ruins of a village about a mile from
Magdala, in the little open valley of 'Ain-el-Barideh, "the cold
fountain," called el-Mejdel, possibly the "Migdal-el" of Jos 19:38.
A mountainous country on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, a part of
the Roman province of Illyricum. It still bears its ancient name.
During Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Titus left him to visit
Dalmatia 2Ti 4:10 - for some unknown purpose. Paul had himself
formerly preached in that region Rom 15:19 - The present Emperor of
Austria bears, among his other titles, that of "King of Dalmatia."
A heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the
preaching of Paul Act 17:34 - Some have supposed that she may have been
the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
Activity, the most ancient of Oriental cities; the capital of Syria
Isa 7:8 17:3 - situated about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem.
Its modern name is Esh-Sham; i.e., "the East." The situation of this
city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western Asia. It is
mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes III.
(B.C. 1500) and in the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400) It is first
mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham's victory over the
confederate kings under Chedorlaomer Gen 14:15 - It was the native
place of Abraham's steward Gen 15:2 - It is not again noticed till the
time of David, when "the Syrians of Damascus came to succour
Hadadezer" (q.v.), 2Sa 8:5 1Ch 18:5 - In the reign of Solomon, Rezon
became leader of a band who revolted from Hadadezer 1Ki 11:23 - and
betaking themselves to Damascus, settled there and made their leader
king. There was a long war, with varying success, between the
Israelites and Syrians, who at a later period became allies of Israel
against Judah 2Ki 15:37 - The Syrians were at length subdued by the
Assyrians, the city of Damascus was taken and destroyed, and the
inhabitants carried captive into Assyria 2Ki 16:7-9 - comp. Isa 7:8.
In this, prophecy was fulfilled Isa 17:1 Amo 1:4 Jer 49:24 - The
kingdom of Syria remained a province of Assyria till the capture of
Nineveh by the Medes (B.C. 625) when it fell under the conquerors.
After passing through various vicissitudes, Syria was invaded by the
Romans (B.C. 64) and Damascus became the seat of the government of
the province. In A.D. 37 Aretas, the king of Arabia, became master
of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas. This city is memorable
as the scene of Saul's conversion Act 9:1-25 - The street called
"Straight," in which Judas lived, in whose house Saul was found by
Ananias, is known by the name Sultany, or "Queen's Street." It is the
principal street of the city. Paul visited Damascus again on his
return from Arabia Gal 1:16-17 - Christianity was planted here as a
centre Act 9:20 - from which it spread to the surrounding regions. In
A.D. 634 Damascus was conquered by the growing Muslim power. In
A.D. 1516 it fell under the dominion of the Turks, its present
rulers. It is now the largest city in Asiatic Turkey. Christianity
has again found a firm footing within its walls.
In Rom 13:2 - means "condemnation," which comes on those who withstand
God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation comes
not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus
resisted. In 1Co 11:29 - (R.V., "judgment") this word means
condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgements
from God, as the following verse explains. In Rom 14:23 - the word
"damned" means "condemned" by one's own conscience, as well as by the
Word of God. The apostle shows here that many things which are lawful
are not expedient; and that in using our Christian liberty the
question should not simply be, Is this course I follow lawful? but
also, Can I follow it without doing injury to the spiritual interests
of a brother in Christ? He that "doubteth", i.e., is not clear in his
conscience as to "meats", will violate his conscience "if he eat,"
and in eating is condemned; and thus one ought not so to use his
liberty as to lead one who is "weak" to bring upon himself this
1. The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's maid
Gen 30:6 - "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni). The blessing
pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall judge his
people" Gen 49:16 - probably in allusion to the judgeship of
Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan. The tribe of Dan had their
place in the march through the wilderness on the north side of
the tabernacle Num 2:25,31 10:25 - It was the last of the tribes
to receive a portion in the Land of Promise. Its position and
extent are described in Jos 19:40-48 - The territory of Dan
extended from the west of that of Ephraim and Benjamin to the
sea. It was a small territory, but was very fertile. It included
in it, among others, the cities of Lydda, Ekron, and Joppa,
which formed its northern boundary. But this district was too
limited. "Squeezed into the narrow strip between the mountains
and the sea, its energies were great beyond its numbers." Being
pressed by the Amorites and the Philistines, whom they were
unable to conquer, they longed for a wider space. They
accordingly sent out five spies from two of their towns, who
went north to the sources of the Jordan, and brought back a
favourable report regarding that region. "Arise," they said, "be
not slothful to go, and to possess the land," for it is "a place
where there is no want of any thing that is in the earth"
Jud 18:10 - On receiving this report, 600 Danites girded on
their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives and
their children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought
against Leshem, and took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt
therein, and changed the name of the conquered town to Dan
Jos 19:47 - This new city of Dan became to them a new home,
and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of Palestine,
the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from
Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles. "But like Lot under a
similar temptation, they seem to have succumbed to the evil
influences around them, and to have sunk down into a condition
of semi-heathenism from which they never emerged. The mounds of
ruins which mark the site of the city show that it covered a
considerable extent of ground. But there remains no record of
any noble deed wrought by the degenerate tribe. Their name
disappears from the roll-book of the natural and the spiritual
Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields. This old border city was
originally called Laish. Its modern name is Tell el-Kady, "Hill
of the Judge." It stands about four miles below Caesarea
Philippi, in the midst of a region of surpassing richness and
2. This name occurs in Eze 27:19 - Authorize Version; but the words
there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised Version,
"Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of
merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been
the city of Aden in Arabia.
See MAHANEH-DAN 02375.
Found in Jud 21:21,23 Psa 30:11 149:3 150:4 Jer 31:4,13 - etc., as the
translation of - hul -, which points to the whirling motion of Oriental
sacred dances. It is the rendering of a word (rakad') which means to
skip or leap for joy, in Ecc 3:4 Job 21:11 Isa 13:21 - etc. In the New
Testament it is in like manner the translation of different Greek
words, circular motion Luk 15:25 - leaping up and down in concert
Mat 11:17 - and by a single person Mat 14:6 - It is spoken of as
symbolical of rejoicing Ecc 3:4 - Comp. Psa 30:11 Mat 11:17 - The Hebrews
had their sacred dances expressive of joy and thanksgiving, when the
performers were usually females Exo 15:20 1Sa 18:6 - The ancient
dance was very different from that common among Western nations. It
was usually the part of the women only Exo 15:20 Jud 11:34 - comp.
Jud 5:1 - Hence the peculiarity of David's conduct in dancing before
the ark of the Lord 2Sa 6:14 - The women took part in it with
their timbrels. Michal should, in accordance with the example of
Miriam and others, have herself led the female choir, instead of
keeping aloof on the occasion and "looking through the window." David
led the choir "uncovered", i.e., wearing only the ephod or linen
tunic. He thought only of the honour of God, and forgot himself. From
being reserved for occasions of religious worship and festivity, it
came gradually to be practised in common life on occasions of
rejoicing Jer 31:4 - The sexes among the Jews always danced
separately. The daughter of Herodias danced alone Mat 14:6.
God is my judge, or judge of God.
1. David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the
Carmelitess" 1Ch 3:1 - He is called also Chileab 2Sa 3:3.
2. One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken
of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies
are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of
the noble families of Judah Dan 1:3 - and was probably born in
Jerusalem about B.C. 623 during the reign of Josiah. At the
first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (the kingdom of
Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or
immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second
battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of
Jehoiakim (B.C. 606) Daniel and other three noble youths were
carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the
temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the
king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age
received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of
Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was
very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified
with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right
bank of the river. His training in the schools of the wise men
in Babylon Dan 1:4 - was to fit him for service to the empire. He
was distinguished during this period for his piety and his stict
observance of the Mosaic law Dan 1:8-16 - and gained the
confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of
attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him
soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and
even to excel his compeers. At the close of his three years of
discipline and training in the royal schools, Daniel was
distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom" of his day,
and was brought out into public life. He soon became known for
his skill in the interpretation of dreams Dan 1:17 2:14 - and rose
to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became
"chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise
men of Babylon. He made known and also interpreted
Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years afterwards, when he was
now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation of the terrible
night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in at the
instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of
Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the
wall. He was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the
rank of "third ruler." The place of "second ruler" was held by
Belshazzar as associated with his father, Nabonidus, on the
throne Dan 5:16 - Daniel interpreted the handwriting, and "in that
night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain." After the
taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from
India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince,
on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held
the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and
was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt
interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews
Dan 9:1 - whom he had at last the happiness of seeing
restored to their own land, although he did not return with
them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God
exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of
lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius
issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel"
Dan 6:26 - He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the
reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly
influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the
Captivity (B.C. 536) He had a series of prophetic visions
vouch-safed to him which opened up the prospect of a glorious
future for the people of God, and must have imparted peace and
gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited on at his
post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances of
his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about
eighty-five years of age. Ezekiel, with whom he was
contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of righteousness
Eze 14:14,20 - and wisdom Eze 28:3.
See NEBUCHADNEZZAR 02684.
Daniel, Book of
Is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the
Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim).
See BIBLE 00580.
It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the
first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part,
consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical. The
historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity.
Daniel is "the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone
furnishes any series of events for that dark and dismal period during
which the harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the
Euphrates. His narrative may be said in general to intervene between
Kings and Chronicles on the one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more
strictly) to fill out the sketch which the author of the Chronicles
gives in a single verse in his last chapter: 'And them that had
escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar] away to
Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign
of the kingdom of Persia'" 2Ch 36:20 - The prophetical part
consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical
communication. The genuineness of this book has been much disputed,
but the arguments in its favour fully establish its claims.
1. We have the testimony of Christ Mat 24:15 25:31 26:64 - and his
apostles 1Co 6:2 2Th 2:3 - for its authority; and
2. the important testimony of Ezekiel Eze 14:14,20 28:3.
3. The character and records of the book are also entirely in
harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author
4. The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as
might be expected. Certain portions Dan 2:4 7:1 - are written
in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are
in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books
of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra. The writer
is familiar both with the Hebrew and the Chaldee, passing from
the one to the other just as his subject required. This is in
strict accordance with the position of the author and of the
people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer
of this book is also testified to in the book itself Dan 7:1-28.
Dan 8:2 9:2 10:1-2 12:4,5.
See BELSHAZZAR 00519.
Woodland Dan, a place probably somewhere in the direction of Dan, near
the sources of the Jordan 2Sa 24:6 - The LXX. and the Vulgate read
"Dan-ja'ar", i.e., "Dan in the forest."
Murmuring, a city Jos 15:49 - in the mountains of Judah about 8
miles south-west of Hebron.
Pearl of wisdom, one of the four who were noted for their wisdom, but
whom Solomon excelled 1Ki 4:31.
In the Revised Version of 1Ch 29:7 Ezr 2:69 8:27 Neh 7:70-72 - where
the Authorized Version has "dram." It is the rendering of the Hebrew
darkemon and the Greek dareikos. It was a gold coin, bearing the
figure of a Persian King with his crown and armed with bow and arrow.
It was current among the Jews after their return from Babylon, i.e.,
while under the Persian domination. It weighed about 128 grains
troy, and was of the value of about one guinea or rather more of our
money. It is the first coin mentioned in Scripture, and is the oldest
that history makes known to us.
See DRAM 01070.
The holder or supporter, the name of several Persian kings.
1. Darius the Mede Dan 11:1 - "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of
the Medes" Dan 9:1 - On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he
"received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During
his brief reign (B.C. 538) Daniel was promoted to the highest
dignity Dan 6:1-2 - but on account of the malice of his enemies he
was cast into the den of lions. After his miraculous escape, a
decree was issued by Darius enjoining "reverence for the God of
Daniel" Dan 6:26 - This king was probably the "Astyages" of the
Greek historians. Nothing can, however, be with certainty
affirmed regarding him. Some are of opinion that the name
"Darius" is simply a name of office, equivalent to "governor,"
and that the "Gobryas" of the inscriptions was the person
intended by the name.
2. Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal
family of the Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus
on the throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz., Cambyses
(the Ahasuerus of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from B.C.
529 and was succeeded by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied
the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius
(B.C. 521) Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sympathy
with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which they had treated
the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration of the
temple and of Jerusalem Ezr 4:17-22 - But soon after his death
and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work,
thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void,
as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of
Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the
matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made
for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at Babylon, but
at Achmetha Ezr 6:2 - and Darius forthwith issued a new decree,
giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the
same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to
give them all needed help. It was with the army of this king
that the Greeks fought the famous battle of Marathon (B.C. 490)
During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace and prosperity. He
was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the Greeks as Xerxes, who
reigned for twenty-one years.
3. Darius the Persian Neh 12:22 - was probably the Darius II. (Ochus
or Nothus) of profane history, the son of Artaxerxes Longimanus,
who was the son and successor of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). There are
some, however, who think that the king here meant was Darius
III. (Codomannus), the antagonist of Alexander the Great (B.C. 336)
The plague (the ninth) of darkness in Egypt Exo 10:21 - is described as
darkness "which may be felt." It covered "all the land of Egypt," so
that "they saw not one another." It did not extend to the land of
Goshen Exo 10:23 - When Jesus hung upon the cross Mat 27:45 Luk 23:44.
from the "sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the
ninth hour." On Mount Sinai, Moses Exo 20:21 - "drew near unto the
thick darkness where God was." This was the "thick cloud upon the
mount" in which Jehovah was when he spake unto Moses there. The Lord
dwelt in the cloud upon the mercy-seat 1Ki 8:12 - the cloud of glory.
When the psalmist Psa 97:2 - describes the inscrutable nature of God's
workings among the sons of men, he says, "Clouds and darkness are
round about him." God dwells in thick darkness. Darkness Isa 13:9-10.
Mat 24:29 - also is a symbol of the judgments that attend on the coming
of the Lord. It is a symbol of misery and adversity Job 18:6.
Psa 107:10 Isa 8:22 Eze 30:18 - The "day of darkness" in Joe 2:2.
caused by clouds of locusts, is a symbol of the obscurity which
overhangs all divine proceedings. "Works of darkness" are impure
actions Eph 5:11 - "Outer darkness" refers to the darkness of the
streets in the East, which are never lighted up by any public or
private lamps after nightfall, in contrast with the blaze of cheerful
light in the house. It is also a symbol of ignorance Isa 9:2 60:2.
Mat 6:23 - and of death Job 10:21 17:13.
Psa 22:20 35:17 - means an "only one."
An instrument of war; a light spear. "Fiery darts" Eph 6:16 - are so
called in allusion to the habit of discharging darts from the bow
while they are on fire or armed with some combustible material.
Arrows are compared to lightning Deu 32:23,42 Psa 7:13 120:4.
The fruit of a species of palm (q.v.), the Phoenix dactilifera. This
was a common tree in Palestine Joe 1:12 Neh 8:15 - Palm branches were
carried by the Jews on festive occasions, and especially at the feast
of Tabernacles Lev 23:40 Neh 8:15.
Welled; belonging to a fountain, a son of Eliab, a Reubenite, who
joined Korah (q.v.) in his conspiracy, and with his accomplices was
swallowed up by an earthquake Num 16:1 26:9 Deu 11:6 Psa 106:17.
This word, besides its natural and proper sense, is used to designate,
1. A niece or any female descendant Gen 20:12 24:48 28:6.
2. Women as natives of a place, or as professing the religion of a
place; as, "the daughters of Zion" Isa 3:16 - "daughters of the
Philistines" 2Sa 1:20.
3. Small towns and villages lying around a city are its
"daughters," as related to the metropolis or mother city. Tyre
is in this sense called the daughter of Sidon Isa 23:12.
4. The people of Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion"
5. The daughters of a tree are its boughs Gen 49:22.
6. The "daughters of music" Ecc 12:4 - are singing women.
Beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem.
His father seems to have been a man in humble life. His mother's name
is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash of 2Sa 17:25 - As to
his personal appearance, we only know that he was red-haired, with
beautiful eyes and a fair face 1Sa 16:12 17:42 - His early occupation
was that of tending his father's sheep on the uplands of Judah. From
what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently beguiled
his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's flute, while he
drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread
around him. His first recorded exploits were his encounters with the
wild beasts of the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand
he slew a lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock,
beating them to death in open conflict with his club 1Sa 17:34,35.
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with
his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been
guided thither by divine direction 1Sa 16:1-13 - There he offered up
sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family to the
sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to
discover the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet
immediately recognized him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed
Saul, who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of
the kingdom. He accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the
anointing oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the
Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" 1Sa 16:13-14 - Not long after
this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled spirit
of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. He played
before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began
to entertain great affection for the young shepherd. After this he
went home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The
armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the
valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David
was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the
camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was made aware
of the state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath
of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a
well-trained aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the
giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then
ran and slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword 1Sa 17:1.
The result was a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the
Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron. David's popularity
consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's jealousy
1Sa 18:6-16 - which he showed in various ways. He conceived a bitter
hatred toward him, and by various stratagems sought his death
1Sa 18:1-30 - The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could
not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved
futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and
very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a
life-long warm friendship was formed. A fugitive. To escape from the
vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah 1Sa 19:12-18 - to Samuel,
who received him, and he dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who
were there under Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the
sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this
time. This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who
soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried
ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to
bring his father to a better state of mind toward David
1Sa 20:1-34 - who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety
but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find him first at Nob
1Sa 21:1-9 - and then at Gath, the chief city of the Philistines.
The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as
he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself
to the stronghold of Adullam 1Sa 22:1-4 1Ch 12:8-18 - Here in a
short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as
their leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and
perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of
the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke
through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for
which he longed 2Sa 23:13-17 - but which he would not drink. In
his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave
orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob,
"persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five
persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings
of the massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of
Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Comp. Psa 52:1 - Hearing
that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by the
Philistines, David with his men relieved it 1Sa 23:1-14 - and
then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill
country" of Judah. Comp. Psa 31:1 - While encamped there, in
the forest in the district of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who
spoke to him words of encouragement 1Sa 23:16-18 - The two now
parted never to meet again. Saul continued his pursuit of David, who
narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled to the crags and
ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea
1Sa 23:29 - Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly
escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly
affected by what David had done for him. He returned home from
pursuing him, and David betook himself to Maon, where, with his
600 men, he maintained himself by contributions gathered from
the district. Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his
wife Abigail 1Sa 25:1 - whom David married after Nabal's
death. Saul again went forth 1Sa 26:1 - in pursuit of David,
who had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon,"
in the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the
way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to
the throne. Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of
moving from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more
sought refuge among the Philistines 1Sa 27:1 - He was welcomed
by the king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David
lived among his followers for some time as an independent chief
engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on the
south of Judah. Achish summoned David with his men to join his army
against Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of
David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he
found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief
absence. David pursued after the raiders, the Amalekites, and
completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag tidings reached him
of Saul's death 2Sa 1:1 - An Amalekite brought Saul's crown
and bracelet and laid them at his feet. David and his men rent their
clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near
Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of
all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan
his son" 2Sa 1:18-27 - It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to
be taught to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might
be preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of
Jasher" (q.v.). David king over Judah. David and his men now set out
for Hebron under divine direction 2Sa 2:1-4 - There they were
cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was now
about thirty years of age. But his title to the throne was not
undisputed. Abner took Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over
the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a
civil war in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing
armies, led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took
place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner.
Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed 2Sa 3:1,5.
but still success was on the side of David. For the space of seven and
a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with David, and
sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put to death
by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon
2Sa 3:22-39 - This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for
the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also
treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there
being now no rival, David was anointed king over all Israel 2Sa 4:1-12.
David king over all Israel 2Sa 5:1-5 1Ch 11:1-3 - The elders of Israel
now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name of all
the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. He was
anointed king over all Israel, and sought out a new seat of government,
more suitable than Hebron, as the capital of his empire. At this time
there was a Jebusite fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion,
called also Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it
Israel's capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards
built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The
Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made
war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards
called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim. Again they invaded
the land, and were a second time routed by him. He thus delivered
Israel from their enemies. David now resolved to bring up the ark of
the covenant to his new capital 2Sa 6:1 - It was in the house of
Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had
been for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it
home 1Sa 6:1-7:1 - In consequence of the death of Uzzah
(for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the
ark,) Num 4:1 - who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when
the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the
ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three
months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to
Jerusalem. Comp. Psa 24:1 - Here it was placed in a new tent or
tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. About seventy years
had passed since it had stood in the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old
tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which Zadok ministered. David now
1Ch 16:1 - carefully set in order all the ritual of divine
worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. A new
religious era began. The service of praise was for the first time
introduced into public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy
hill." David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom 2Sa 8:1 - In a few
years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and
from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway
2Sa 8:3-13 10:1 - David's fall. He had now reached the
height of his glory. He ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was
enriched with the spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this
success he fell, and his character became stained with the sin of
adultery 2Sa 11:2-27 - It has been noted as characteristic of the
Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few verses,
the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story full of warning,
and therefore recorded. This crime, in the attempt to conceal it, led
to anoter. He was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had foully wronged,
an officer of the Gibborim, the corps of heros 2Sa 23:39 - was, by
his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the siege of
Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the prophet
2Sa 7:1-17 12:1-23 - was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He
bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and
fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his
spiritual recovery. Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her
first-born son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave
birth to a second son, whom David called Solomon (Peace), and who
ultimately succeeded him on the throne 2Sa 12:24,25. After the
successful termination of all his wars, David formed the idea of
building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not permitted to
carry into execution, because he had been a man of war. God, however,
sent Nathan to him with a gracious message 2Sa 7:1-16 - On receiving
it he went into the sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat
before the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of devout
thanksgiving 2Sa 7:18-29. The building of the temple was reserved
for his son Solomon, who would be a man of peace 1Ch 22:9 28:3 - A
cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great
prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His eldest son
Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and
shameful crime 2Sa 13:1 - This was the beginning of the
disasters of his later years. After two years Absalom terribly avenged
the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon to death. This brought sore
trouble to David's heart. Absalom, afraid of the consequences of his
guilt, fled to Geshur beyond Jordan, where he remained for three years,
when he was brought back through the intrigue of Joab 2Sa 14:1.
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years' famine
2Sa 21:1-14 - This was soon after followed by a pestilence, brought
upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the
people 2Sa 24:1 - in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the
space of three days. Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for
David was sadly lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a
strong popular sentiment against the taking of the census, and the
outburst of the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of
jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes
against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this state of things,
gradually gained over the people, and at length openly rebelled against
his father, and usurped the throne. Ahithophel was Absalom's chief
counsellor. The revolt began in Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom
was there proclaimed king. David was now in imminent danger, and he
left Jerusalem 2Sa 15:13-20 - and once more became a fugitive. It
was a momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a
fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of
Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival
armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the
wood of Ephraim 2Sa 18:1-8 - Absalom's army was defeated, and
himself put to death by the hand of Joab 2Sa 18:9-18. The tidings
of the death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the
most poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and
wept" 2Sa 18:33 - giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would
God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now
restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of
affairs. An unhappy dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men
of Israel 2Sa 19:41-43 - Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the
men of Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put
to death, and so the revolt came to an end. The end. After the
suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that of Sheba, ten
comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away. During those
years he seems to have been principally engaged in accumulating
treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was
reserved to his successor to build 1Ch 22:1 - 1Ch 28:1.
a house which was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory
throughout all countries" 1Ch 22:5 - The exciting and laborious life
he had spent, and the dangers and trials through which he had passed,
had left him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy broke
out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured Adonijah. The
chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of
Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the
part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party
failed. Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and
seated on his father's throne 1Ki 1:11-53 - David's last words are a
grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful
confidence in his gracious covenant promises 2Sa 23:1-7 - After a
reign of forty years and six months 2Sa 5:5 1Ch 3:4 - David died
(B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in the city of
David." His tomb is still pointed out on Mount Zion. Both in his
prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah
1Sa 16:13 - The book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the
"Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest
contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection.
See PSALMS 03013.
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived in
harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that
the spirit of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher
aims of the theocracy. The nation had not been oppressed by him, but
had been left in the free enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far
as his power went he had striven to act justly to all 2Sa 8:15.
His weak indulgence to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had
been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the
remembrance of his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three
years in Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron 2Sa 5:5 - Israel
at his accession had reached the lowest point of national depression;
its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the
Philistines. But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions
like those of Egypt or Assyria. The sceptre of Solomon was already,
before his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the
Euphrates, and from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours
David, City of
1. David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He
"dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" 1Ch 11:7.
This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal
palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem generally
1Ki 3:1 8:1 - It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem,
opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a
bridge over the Tyropoeon valley.
2. Bethlehem is called the "city of David" Luk 2:4,11 - because it
was David's birth-place and early home 1Sa 17:12.
The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset Lev 23:32 - It was
originally divided into three parts Psa 55:17 - "The heat of the day"
1Sa 11:11 Neh 7:3 - was at our nine o'clock, and "the cool of the day"
just before sunset Gen 3:8 - Before the Captivity the Jews divided the
night into three watches,
1. from sunset to midnight Lam 2:19.
2. from midnight till the cock-crowing Jud 7:19.
3. from the cock-crowing till sunrise Exo 14:24 - In the New
Testament the division of the Greeks and Romans into four
watches was adopted Mar 13:35.
See WATCHES 03789.
The division of the day by hours is first mentioned in Dan 3:6,15 4:19.
Dan 5:5 - This mode of reckoning was borrowed from the Chaldeans. The
reckoning of twelve hours was from sunrise to sunset, and accordingly
the hours were of variable length Joh 11:9 - The word "day"
sometimes signifies an indefinite time Gen 2:4 Isa 22:5 Heb 3:8.
etc. In Job 3:1 - it denotes a birthday, and in Isa 2:12 Act 17:31.
2Ti 1:18 - the great day of final judgment.
The usual length of a day's journey in the East, on camel or horseback,
in six or eight hours, is about 25 or 30 miles. The "three days'
journey" mentioned in Exo 3:18 - is simply a journey which would
occupy three days in going and returning.
An umpire or arbiter or judge Job 9:33 - This word is formed from the
Latin diem dicere, i.e., to fix a day for hearing a cause. Such an
one is empowered by mutual consent to decide the cause, and to "lay
his hand", i.e., to impose his authority, on both, and enforce his
Job 38:12 Luk 1:78 - the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp.)
Isa 60:1-2 Mal 4:2 Rev 22:16.
Which precedes and accompanies the sun-rising. It is found only in
2Pe 1:19 - where it denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul,
imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the "bright and morning
star" of Rev 2:28 22:16 - (Comp.) Num 24:17.
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner,"
"messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual
jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke
the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of
the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read
the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This
jealousy early appeared in the Christian community. It was alleged by
the Hellenists that their widows were overlooked in the daily
distribution of alms. This spirit must be checked. The apostles
accordingly advised the disciples to look out for seven men of good
report, full of the Holy Ghost, and men of practical wisdom, who
should take entire charge of this distribution, leaving them free to
devote themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their office
Act 6:1-6 - This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen, who
appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name "deacon" is
nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called
"the seven" Act 21:8 - Their office was at first secular, but it
afterwards became also spiritual. Both Philip and Stephen, who were
of "the seven," preached; they did "the work of evangelists."
Rom 16:1,3,12 Php 4:2-3 1Ti 3:11 5:9-10 Ti 2:3-4 - In these passages it
is evident that females were then engaged in various Christian
ministrations. Pliny makes mention of them also in his letter to
Trajan (A.D. 110)
The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland
sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" Gen 14:3 Num 34:12 - the "sea
of the plain" Deu 3:17 - the "east sea" Eze 47:18 Joe 2:20 - and
simply "the sea" Eze 47:8 - The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the
Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles in a straight line to the east of
Jerusalem. Its surface is 1,292 feet below the surface of the
Mediterranean Sea. It covers an area of about 300 square miles. Its
depth varies from 1,310 to 11 feet. From various phenomena that have
been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding. It is about
53 miles long, and of an average breadth of 10 miles. It has no
outlet, the great heat of that region causing such rapid evaporation
that its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that run into it
See JORDAN 02112.
is maintained with little variation. The Jordan alone discharges into
it no less than six million tons of water every twenty-four hours.
The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24 per cent. of mineral salts,
about seven times as much as in ordinary sea-water; thus they are
unusually buoyant. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to
that chloride of sodium (common salt). But terraces of alluvial
deposits in the deep valley of the Jordan show that formerly one
great lake extended from the Waters of Merom to the foot of the
watershed in the Arabah. The waters were then about 1,400 feet above
the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the
Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salt. Nothing living
can exist in this sea. "The fish carried down by the Jordan at once
die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it is a fable
that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no living creatures
on its banks. Dr. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of
kingfishers, gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish
which enter the sea in shoals, and presently die. He collected one
hundred and eighteen species of birds, some new to science, on the
shores, or swimming or flying over the waters. The cane-brakes which
fringe it at some parts are the homes of about forty species of
mammalia, several of them animals unknown in England; and innumerable
tropical or semi-tropical plants perfume the atmosphere wherever
fresh water can reach. The climate is perfect and most delicious, and
indeed there is perhaps no place in the world where a sanatorium
could be established with so much prospect of benefit as at Ain Jidi
(Engedi).", Geikie's Hours, etc.
See OMER 02784.
A scarcity of provisions 1Ki 17:1 - There were frequent dearths in
Palestine. In the days of Abram there was a "famine in the land"
Gen 12:10 - so also in the days of Jacob Gen 47:4,13 - We read also of
dearths in the time of the judges Rut 1:1 - and of the kings 2Sa 21:1.
1Ki 18:2 2Ki 4:38 8:1 - In New Testament times there was an extensive
famine in Palestine Act 11:28 - in the fourth year of the reign of the
emperor Claudius (A.D. 44 and 45)
May be simply defined as the termination of life. It is represented
under a variety of aspects in Scripture:
1. "The dust shall return to the earth as it was" Ecc 12:7.
2. "Thou takest away their breath, they die" Psa 104:29.
3. It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this tabernacle"
2Co 5:1 - the "putting off this tabernacle" 2Pe 1:13, 14.
4. Being "unclothed" 2Co 5:3-4.
5. "Falling on sleep" Psa 76:5 Jer 51:39 Act 13:36 2Pe 3:9.
6. "I go whence I shall not return" Job 10:21.
7. "Make me to know mine end" Psa 39:4.
8. "to depart" Php 1:23.
9. The grave is represented as "the gates of death" Job 38:17.
Psa 9:13 107:18.
10. The gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of under the figure of
the "shadow of death" Jer 2:6.
11. Death is the effect of sin Rom 5:12 - and not a "debt of nature."
12. It is but once Heb 9:27.
13. universal Gen 3:19 Ro 5:12.
14. Jesus has by his own death taken away its sting for all his
followers 1Co 15:55-57.
15. There is a spiritual death in trespasses and sins, i.e., the
death of the soul under the power of sin Rom 8:6 Eph 2:1,3.
16. The "second death" Rev 2:11 - is the everlasting perdition of
the wicked Rev 21:8 - and "second" in respect to natural or
THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring cause incidentally of all the
blessings men enjoy on earth. But specially it is the procuring cause
of the actual salvation of all his people, together with all the means
that lead thereto. It does not make their salvation merely possible,
but certain Mat 18:11 Ro 5:10 2Co 5:21 Gal 1:4 3:13 Eph 1:7 2:16.
Oracle town; sanctuary.
1. One of the eleven cities to the west of Hebron, in the highlands
of Judah Jos 15:49 Jud 1:11-15 - It was originally one of the
towns of the Anakim Jos 15:15 - and was also called
Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and Kirjath-sannah Jos 15:49. Caleb, who
had conquered and taken possession of the town and district of
Hebron Jos 14:6-15 - offered the hand of his daughter to any
one who would successfully lead a party against Debir. Othniel,
his younger brother Jud 1:13 3:9 - achieved the conquest,
and gained Achsah as his wife. She was not satisfied with the
portion her father gave her, and as she was proceeding toward
her new home, she "lighted from off her ass" and said to him,
"Give me a blessing [i.e., a dowry]: for thou hast given me a
south land" Jos 15:19 - A.V.; or, as in the Revised Version,
"Thou hast set me in the land of the south", i.e., in the
Negeb, outside the rich valley of Hebron, in the dry and barren
land. "Give me also springs of water. And he gave her the
upper springs, and the nether springs." Debir has been
identified with the modern Edh-Dhaheriyeh, i.e., "the well on
the ridge", to the south of Hebron.
2. A place near the "valley of Achor" Jos 15:7 - on the north
boundary of Judah, between Jerusalem and Jericho.
3. The king of Eglon, one of the five Canaanitish kings who were
hanged by Joshua Jos 10:3,23 - after the victory at Gibeon. These
kings fled and took refuge in a cave at Makkedah. Here they were
kept confined till Joshua returned from the pursuit of their
discomfited armies, when he caused them to be brought forth, and
"Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five
trees" Jos 10:26|.
1. Rebekah's nurse. She accompanied her mistress when she left her
father's house in Padan-aram to become the wife of Isaac
Gen 24:59 - Many years afterwards she died at Bethel, and was
buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth Gen 35:8.
2. A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the king of
Hazor, had for twenty years held Israel in degrading subjection.
The spirit of patriotism seemed crushed out of the nation. In
this emergency Deborah roused the people from their lethargy.
Her fame spread far and wide. She became a "mother in Israel"
Jud 4:6,14 5:7 - and "the children of Israel came up to her for
judgment" as she sat in her tent under the palm tree "between
Ramah and Bethel." Preparations were everywhere made by her
direction for the great effort to throw off the yoke of bondage.
She summoned Barak from Kadesh to take the command of 10,000 men
of Zebulun and Naphtali, and lead them to Mount Tabor on the
plain of Esdraelon at its north-east end. With his aid she
organized this army. She gave the signal for attack, and the
Hebrew host rushed down impetuously upon the army of Jabin,
which was commanded by Sisera, and gained a great and decisive
victory. The Canaanitish army almost wholly perished. That was a
great and ever-memorable day in Israel. In Jud 5:1 - is given
the grand triumphal ode, the "song of Deborah," which she wrote
in grateful commemoration of that great deliverance.
See LAPIDOTH 02240.
See JABIN 01938.
The Mosaic law encouraged the practice of lending Deu 15:7 Psa 37:26.
Mat 5:42 - but it forbade the exaction of interest except from
foreigners. Usury was strongly condemned Pro 28:8.
Eze 18:8,13,17 22:12 Psa 15:5 - On the Sabbatical year all pecuniary
obligations were cancelled Deu 15:1-11 - These regulations prevented
the accumulation of debt.
Various regulations as to the relation between debtor and creditor are
laid down in the Scriptures.
1. The debtor was to deliver up as a pledge to the creditor what he
could most easily dispense with Deu 24:10,11.
2. A mill, or millstone, or upper garment, when given as a pledge,
could not be kept over night Exo 22:26,27.
3. A debt could not be exacted during the Sabbatic year Deu 15:1-15.
For other laws bearing on this relation see Lev 25:14,32,39.
4. A surety was liable in the same way as the original debtor
Pro 11:15 17:18.
The name given by the Greek fathers to the ten commandments; "the ten
words," as the original is more literally rendered Exo 20:3-17 - These
commandments were at first written on two stone slabs Exo 31:18 - which
were broken by Moses throwing them down on the ground Exo 32:19 - They
were written by God a second time Exo 34:1 - The decalogue is alluded
to in the New Testament five times Mat 5:17-18,19 Mar 10:19 Luk 18:20.
Rom 7:7-8 13:9 1Ti 1:9-10 - These commandments have been divided since
the days of Origen the Greek father, as they stand in the Confession
of all the Reformed Churches except the Lutheran. The division
adopted by Luther, and which has ever since been received in the
Lutheran Church, makes the first two commandments one, and the third
the second, and so on to the last, which is divided into two. "Thou
shalt not covet thy neighbour's house" being ranked as ninth, and
"Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife," etc., the tenth.
See COMMANDMENTS 00871.
Ten cities = deka, ten, and polis, a city, a district on the east and
south-east of the Sea of Galilee containing "ten cities," which were
chiefly inhabited by Greeks. It included a portion of Bashan and
Gilead, and is mentioned three times in the New Testament Mat 4:25.
Mar 5:20 7:31 - These cities were Scythopolis, i.e., "city of the
Scythians", (ancient Bethshean, the only one of the ten cities on the
west of Jordan), Hippos, Gadara, Pella (to which the Christians fled
just before the destruction of Jerusalem), Philadelphia (ancient
Rabbath-ammon), Gerasa, Dion, Canatha, Raphana, and Damascus. When
the Romans conquered Syria (B.C. 65) they rebuilt, and endowed with
certain privileges, these "ten cities," and the province connected
with them they called "Decapolis."
Decision, Valley of
A name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the
sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies
Joe 3:14 - marg., "valley of concision or threshing".
Decrees of God
"The decrees of God are his eternal, unchangeable, holy, wise, and
sovereign purpose, comprehending at once all things that ever were or
will be in their causes, conditions, successions, and relations, and
determining their certain futurition. The several contents of this one
eternal purpose are, because of the limitation of our faculties,
necessarily conceived of by us in partial aspects, and in logical
relations, and are therefore styled Decrees." The decree being the act
of an infinite, absolute, eternal, unchangeable, and sovereign Person,
comprehending a plan including all his works of all kinds, great and
small, from the beginning of creation to an unending eternity; ends as
well as means, causes as well as effects, conditions and
instrumentalities as well as the events which depend upon them, must be
incomprehensible by the finite intellect of man. The decrees are:
1. eternal Act 15:18 Eph 1:4 2Th 2:13.
2. unchangeable Psa 33:11 Isa 46:9.
3. comprehend all things that come to pass Eph 1:11 Mat 10:29,30.
Eph 2:10 Act 2:23 4:27-28 Psa 17:13,14.
4. efficacious, as they respect those events he has determined to
bring about by his own immediate agency; or
5. permissive, as they respect those events he has determined that
free agents shall be permitted by him to effect. This doctrine
ought to produce in our minds "humility, in view of the infinite
greatness and sovereignty of God, and of the dependence of man;
confidence and implicit reliance upon wisdom, rightenousness,
goodness, and immutability of God's purpose."
See PREDESTINATION 02999.
1. A son of Raamah Gen 10:7 - His descendants are mentioned in
Isa 21:13 Eze 27:15 - They probably settled among the sons of
Cush, on the north-west coast of the Persian Gulf.
2. A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah 1Ch 1:32 - His
descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the territory of
Edom. They probably led a pastoral life.
The descendants of Dedan, the son of Raamah. They are mentioned in
Isa 21:13 - as sending out "travelling companies" which lodged "in the
forest of Arabia." They are enumerated also by Ezekiel Eze 27:20.
among the merchants who supplied Tyre with precious things.
Dedication, Feast of The
Joh 10:22,42 - i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C.
164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by
Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167) and the rebuilding of the altar after
the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted
for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December),
which was often a period of heavy rains Ezr 10:9,13 - It was an
occasion of much rejoicing and festivity. But there were other
dedications of the temple.
1. That of Solomon's temple 1Ki 8:2 2Ch 5:3.
2. the dedication in the days of Hezekiah 2Ch 29:1.
3. the dedication of the temple after the Captivity Ezr 6:16.
Used to denote
1. the grave or the abyss Rom 10:7 Luk 8:31.
2. the deepest part of the sea Psa 69:15.
3. the chaos mentioned in Gen 1:2.
4. the bottomless pit, hell Rev 9:1-2 11:7 20:13.
Degrees, Song of
Song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen psalms, 120-133
inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the circumstance that
these psalms came to be sung by the people on the ascents or goings up
to Jerusalem to attend the three great festivals Deu 16:16 - They were
well fitted for being sung by the way from their peculiar form, and
from the sentiments they express. "They are characterized by brevity,
by a key-word, by epanaphora [i.e, repetition], and by their
epigrammatic style. More than half of them are cheerful, and all of
them hopeful." They are sometimes called "Pilgrim Songs." Four of them
were written by David, one Psa 127:1 - by Solomon, and the rest are
Villagers, one of the Assyrian tribes which Asnapper sent to
repopulate Samaria Ezr 4:9 - They were probably a nomad Persian tribe
on the east of the Caspian Sea, and near the Sea of Azof.
Freed by Jehovah.
1. The head of the twenty-third division of the priestly order
2. A son of Shemaiah, and one of the courtiers to whom Jeremiah's
first roll of prophecy was read Jer 36:12.
3. The head of one of the bands of exiles that returned under
Zerubbabel to Jerusalem Ezr 2:60 Neh 7:62.
Languishing, a Philistine woman who dwelt in the valley of Sorek
Jud 16:4-20 - She was bribed by the "lords of the Philistines" to
obtain from Samson the secret of his strength and the means of
overcoming it Jud 16:4-18 - She tried on three occasions to obtain
from him this secret in vain. On the fourth occasion she wrung it
from him. She made him sleep upon her knees, and then called the man
who was waiting to help her; who "cut off the seven locks of his
head," and so his "strength went from him."
See SAMSON 03208.
The name given to Noah's flood, the history of which is recorded in
Gen 7:1- 8:1 - It began in the year 2516 B.C., and continued
twelve lunar months and ten days, or exactly one solar year. The
cause of this judgment was the corruption and violence that filled
the earth in the ninth generation from Adam. God in righteous
indignation determined to purge the earth of the ungodly race. Amid a
world of crime and guilt there was one household that continued
faithful and true to God, the household of Noah. "Noah was a just man
and perfect in his generations." At the command of God, Noah made an
ark 300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. He slowly proceeded with
this work during a period of one hundred and twenty years Gen 6:3.
At length the purpose of God began to be carried into effect. The
following table exhibits the order of events as they occurred: In the
six hundredth year of his life Noah is commanded by God to enter the
ark, taking with him his wife, and his three sons with their wives
Gen 7:1-10 - The rain begins on the seventeenth day of the second
month Gen 7:11-17 - The rain ceases, the waters prevail, fifteen
cubits upward Gen 7:18-24 - The ark grounds on one of the mountains
of Ararat on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, or one hundred
and fifty days after the Deluge began Gen 8:1-4 - Tops of the mountains
visible on the first day of the tenth month Gen 8:5 - Raven and dove
sent out forty days after this Gen 8:6-9 - Dove again sent out seven
days afterwards; and in the evening she returns with an olive leaf in
her mouth Gen 8:10-11 - Dove sent out the third time after an interval
of other seven days, and returns no more Gen 8:12 - The ground becomes
dry on the first day of the first month of the new year Gen 8:13.
Noah leaves the ark on the twenty-seventh day of the second month
Gen 8:14-19 - The historical truth of the narrative of the Flood is
established by the references made to it by our Lord Mat 24:37.
comp. Luk 17:26 - Peter speaks of it also 1Pe 3:20 2Pe 2:5 - In
Isa 54:9 - the Flood is referred to as "the waters of Noah." The
Biblical narrative clearly shows that the Deluge was universal; that
it swept away all men living except Noah and his family, who were
preserved in the ark; and that the present human race is descended
from those who were thus preserved. Traditions of the Deluge are
found among all the great divisions of the human family; and these
traditions, taken as a whole, wonderfully agree with the Biblical
narrative, and agree with it in such a way as to lead to the
conclusion that the Biblical is the authentic narrative, of which
all these traditions are more or less corrupted versions. The most
remarkable of these traditions is that recorded on tablets prepared
by order of Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria. These were,
however, copies of older records which belonged to somewhere about
B.C. 2000 and which formed part of the priestly library at Erech
(q.v.), "the ineradicable remembrance of a real and terrible event."
See NOAH 02741.
See CHALDEA 00758.
A companion and fellow-labourer of Paul during his first imprisonment
at Rome Phm 1:24 Col 4:14 - It appears, however, that the love of the
world afterwards mastered him, and he deserted the apostle 2Ti 4:10.
1. A silversmith at Ephesus, whose chief occupation was to make
"silver shrines for Diana" (q.v.), Act 19:24 - i.e., models
either of the temple of Diana or of the statue of the goddess.
This trade brought to him and his fellow-craftsmen "no small
gain," for these shrines found a ready sale among the countless
thousands who came to this temple from all parts of Asia Minor.
This traffic was greatly endangered by the progress of the
gospel, and hence Demetrius excited the tradesmen employed in
the manufacture of these shrines, and caused so great a tumult
that "the whole city was filled with confusion."
2. A Christian who is spoken of as having "a good report of all
men, and of the truth itself" 3Jo 1:12.
See DAEMON 00956.
A lair of wild beasts Psa 10:9 104:22 Job 37:8 - the hole of a venomous
reptile Isa 11:8 - a recess for secrecy "in dens and caves of the
earth" Heb 11:38 - a resort of thieves Mat 21:13 Mar 11:17 - Daniel was
cast into "the den of lions" Dan 6:16-17 - Some recent discoveries
among the ruins of Babylon have brought to light the fact that the
practice of punishing offenders against the law by throwing them into
a den of lions was common.
In 1Ki 22:47 - means a prefect; one set over others. The same Hebrew
word is rendered "officer;" i.e., chief of the commissariat appointed
by Solomon 1Ki 4:5 - etc.). In Est 8:9 9:3 - (R.V., "governor") it
denotes a Persian prefect "on this side" i.e., in the region west of
the Euphrates. It is the modern word - pasha -. In Act 13:7-8,12 18:12.
it denotes a proconsul; i.e., the governor of a Roman province
holding his appointment from the senate. The Roman provinces were of
1. senatorial and
The appointment of a governor to the former was in the hands of the
senate, and he bore the title of proconsul (Gr. anthupatos). The
appointment of a governor to the latter was in the hands of the
emperor, and he bore the title of propraetor (Gr. antistrategos).
A small town on the eastern part of the upland plain of Lycaonia,
about 20 miles from Lystra. Paul passed through Derbe on his route
from Cilicia to Iconium, on his second missionary journey Act 16:1.
and probably also on his third journey Act 18:23 19:1 - On his first
journey Act 14:20-21 - he came to Derbe from the other side; i.e., from
Iconium. It was the native place of Gaius, one of Paul's companions
Act 20:4 - He did not here suffer persecution 2Ti 3:11.
1. Heb. midbar, "pasture-ground;" an open tract for pasturage; a
common Joe 2:22 - The "backside of the desert" Exo 3:1 - is
the west of the desert, the region behind a man, as the east is
the region in front. The same Hebrew word is rendered
"wildernes," and is used of the country lying between Egypt and
Palestine Gen 21:14,21 Ex 4:27 19:2 Jos 1:4 - the wilderness
of the wanderings. It was a grazing tract, where the flocks and
herds of the Israelites found pasturage during the whole of
their journey to the Promised Land. The same Hebrew word is used
also to denote the wilderness of Arabia, which in winter and
early spring supplies good pasturage to the flocks of the nomad
tribes than roam over it 1Ki 9:18. The wilderness of Judah
is the mountainous region along the western shore of the Dead
Sea, where David fed his father's flocks 1Sa 17:28 26:2.
Thus in both of these instances the word denotes a country
without settled inhabitants and without streams of water, but
having good pasturage for cattle; a country of wandering tribes,
as distinguished from that of a settled people Isa 35:1 50:2.
Jer 4:11 - Such, also, is the meaning of the word "wilderness"
in Mat 3:3 15:33 Luk 15:4.
2. The translation of the Hebrew - Aribah' -, "an arid tract"
Isa 35:1,6 40:3 41:19 51:3 - etc. The name Arabah is
specially applied to the deep valley of the Jordan (the Ghor of
the Arabs), which extends from the lake of Tiberias to the
Elanitic gulf. While - midbar - denotes properly a pastoral
region, - arabah - denotes a wilderness. It is also translated
"plains;" as "the plains of Jericho" Jos 5:10 2Ki 25:5.
"the plains of Moab" Num 22:1 Deu 34:1,8 - "the plains of the
wilderness" 2Sa 17:16.
3. In the Revised Version of Num 21:20 - the Hebrew word - jeshimon -
is properly rendered "desert," meaning the waste tracts on both
shores of the Dead Sea. This word is also rendered "desert" in
Psa 78:40 106:14 Isa 43:19-20 - It denotes a greater extent of
uncultivated country than the other words so rendered. It is
especially applied to the desert of the peninsula of Arabia
Num 21:20 23:28 - the most terrible of all the deserts with which
the Israelites were acquainted. It is called "the desert" in
Exo 23:31 Deu 11:24.
See JESHIMON 02050.
4. A dry place; hence a desolation Psa 9:6 - desolate Lev 26:34 - the
rendering of the Hebrew word - horbah' -. It is rendered "desert"
only in Psa 102:6 Isa 48:21 Eze 13:4 - where it means the
wilderness of Sinai.
5. This word is the symbol of the Jewish church when they had
forsaken God Isa 40:3 - Nations destitute of the knowledge of God
are called a "wilderness" Isa 32:15 - - midbar -. It is a symbol
of temptation, solitude, and persecution Isa 27:10 - - midbar -;
Isa 33:9 - - arabah -.
Desire of All Nations
Hag 2:7 - usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised
Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all
nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be
consecrated to the Lord.
Desolation, Abomination of
Mat 24:15 Mar 13:14 - comp. Luk 21:20 - is interpreted of the eagles,
the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the
Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a
sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The
references are to Dan 9:27.
See ABOMINATION 00053.
Exo 12:23 - the agent employed in the killing of the first-born; the
destroying angel or messenger of God. (Comp.) 2Ki 19:35 2Sa 24:15,16.
Psa 78:49 Act 12:23.
In Job 26:6 28:22 - (Heb. abaddon) is sheol, the realm of the dead.
Destruction, City of
Isa 19:18 - Heb. Ir-ha-Heres, "city of overthrow," because of
the evidence it would present of the overthrow of heathenism), the
ideal title of On or Heliopolis (q.v.).
In all the Hebrew manuscripts the Pentateuch (q.v.) forms one roll or
volume divided into larger and smaller sections called - parshioth -
and - sedarim -. It is not easy to say when it was divided into five
books. This was probably first done by the Greek translators of the
book, whom the Vulgate follows. The fifth of these books was called
by the Greeks Deuteronomion, i.e., the second law, hence our name
Deuteronomy, or a second statement of the laws already promulgated.
The Jews designated the book by the two first Hebrew words that
occur, - 'Elle haddabharim -, i.e., "These are the words." They divided
it into eleven - parshioth -. In the English Bible it contains
thirty-four chapters. It consists chiefly of three discourses
delivered by Moses a short time before his death. They were spoken to
all Israel in the plains of Moab, in the eleventh month of the last
year of their wanderings.
1. The first discourse (Deu 1:1-4:40) recapitulates the chief
events of the last forty years in the wilderness, with earnest
exhortations to obedience to the divine ordinances, and warnings
against the danger of forsaking the God of their fathers.
2. The seond discourse (Deu 5:1-26:19) is in effect the body of
the whole book. The first address is introductory to it. It
contains practically a recapitulation of the law already given by
God at Mount Sinai, together with many admonitions and
injunctions as to the course of conduct they were to follow when
they were settled in Canaan.
3. The concluding discourse (Deu 27:1-31:20) relates almost
wholly to the solemn sanctions of the law, the blessings to the
obedient, and the curse that would fall on the rebellious. He
solemnly adjures them to adhere faithfully to the covenant God
had made with them, and so secure for themselves and their
posterity the promised blessings.
These addresses to the people are followed by what may be called three
1. a song which God had commanded Moses to write Deu 32:1-47|;
2. the blessings he pronounced on the separate tribes Deu 33:1-29.
3. the story of his death Deu 32:48-52 - and burial Deu 34:1-12.
written by some other hand, probably that of Joshua.
These farewell addresses of Moses to the tribes of Israel he had so
long led in the wilderness "glow in each line with the emotions of a
great leader recounting to his contemporaries the marvellous story of
their common experience. The enthusiasm they kindle, even to-day,
though obscured by translation, reveals their matchless adaptation to
the circumstances under which they were first spoken. Confidence for
the future is evoked by remembrance of the past. The same God who had
done mighty works for the tribes since the Exodus would cover their
head in the day of battle with the nations of Palestine, soon to be
invaded. Their great lawgiver stands before us, vigorous in his hoary
age, stern in his abhorrence of evil, earnest in his zeal for God,
but mellowed in all relations to earth by his nearness to heaven.
The commanding wisdom of his enactments, the dignity of his position
as the founder of the nation and the first of prophets, enforce his
utterances. But he touches our deepest emotions by the human
tenderness that breathes in all his words. Standing on the verge of
life, he speaks as a father giving his parting counsels to those he
loves; willing to depart and be with God he has served so well, but
fondly lengthening out his last farewell to the dear ones of earth.
No book can compare with Deuteronomy in its mingled sublimity and
tenderness." Geikie, Hours, etc.
The whole style and method of this book, its tone and its
peculiarities of conception and expression, show that it must have
come from one hand. That the author was none other than Moses is
established by the following considerations:
1. The uniform tradition both of the Jewish and the Christian
Church down to recent times.
2. The book professes to have been written by Moses Deu 1:1 29:1.
Deu 31:1,9-11 - etc., and was obviously intended to be accepted
as his work.
3. The incontrovertible testimony of our Lord and his apostles
Mat 19:7-8 Mar 10:3-4 Joh 5:46,47 Act 3:22 7:37 Ro 10:19.
establishes the same conclusion.
4. The frequent references to it in the later books of the canon
Jos 8:31 1Ki 2:9 2Ki 14:6 2Ch 23:18 2Ch 25:4 34:14.
Ezr 3:2 7:6 Neh 8:1 Dan 9:11,13 - prove its antiquity.
5. The archaisms found in it are in harmony with the age in which
6. Its style and allusions are also strikingly consistent with the
circumstances and position of Moses and of the people at that
time. This body of positive evidence cannot be set aside by the
conjectures and reasonings of modern critics, who contended that
the book was somewhat like a forgery, introduced among the Jews
some seven or eight centuries after the Exodus.
(Gr. diabolos), a slanderer, the arch-enemy of man's spiritual
interest Job 1:6 Rev 2:10 Zec 3:1 - He is called also "the accuser of
the brethen" Rev 12:10 - In Lev 17:7 - the word "devil" is the
translation of the Hebrew - sair -, meaning a "goat" or "satyr"
Isa 13:21 34:14 - alluding to the wood-daemons, the objects of
idolatrous worship among the heathen. In Deu 32:17 Psa 106:37 - it is
the translation of Hebrew - shed -, meaning lord, and idol, regarded by
the Jews as a "demon," as the word is rendered in the Revised Version.
In the narratives of the Gospels regarding the "casting out of devils"
a different Greek word (daimon) is used. In the time of our Lord there
were frequent cases of demoniacal possession Mat 12:25-30 Mar 5:1-20.
Luk 4:35 10:18 - etc.
"There is no dew properly so called in Palestine, for there is no
moisture in the hot summer air to be chilled into dew-drops by the
coldness of the night. From May till October rain is unknown, the sun
shining with unclouded brightness day after day. The heat becomes
intense, the ground hard, and vegetation would perish but for the
moist west winds that come each night from the sea. The bright skies
cause the heat of the day to radiate very quickly into space, so that
the nights are as cold as the day is the reverse, a peculiarity of
climate from which poor Jacob suffered thousands of years ago
Gen 31:40 - To this coldness of the night air the indispensable
watering of all plant-life is due. The winds, loaded with moisture,
are robbed of it as they pass over the land, the cold air condensing
it into drops of water, which fall in a gracious rain of mist on
every thirsty blade. In the morning the fog thus created rests like a
sea over the plains, and far up the sides of the hills, which raise
their heads above it like so many islands. At sunrise, however, the
scene speedily changes. By the kindling light the mist is transformed
into vast snow-white clouds, which presently break into separate
masses and rise up the mountain-sides, to disappear in the blue
above, dissipated by the increasing heat. These are 'the morning
clouds and the early dew that go away' of which Hosea Hos 6:4 13:3.
speaks so touchingly" (Geikie's The Holy Land, etc., i., p. 72
Dew is a source of great fertility Gen 27:28 Deu 33:13 Zec 8:12.
and its withdrawal is regarded as a curse from God 2Sa 1:21 1Ki 17:1.
It is the symbol of a multitude 2Sa 17:12 Psa 110:3 - and from its
refreshing influence it is an emblem of brotherly love and harmony
Psa 133:3 - and of rich spiritual blessings Hos 14:5.
The tiara of a king Eze 21:26 Isa 28:5 62:3 - the turban Job 29:14 - In
the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn between the diadem
as a badge of royalty Rev 12:3 13:1 19:12 - and the crown as a mark of
distinction in private life. It is not known what the ancient Jewish
"diadem" was. It was the mark of Oriental sovereigns.
See CROWN 00929.
For the measurement of time, only once mentioned in the Bible, erected
by Ahaz 2Ki 20:11 Isa 38:8 - The Hebrew word (ma'aloth) is rendered
"steps" in Exo 20:26 1Ki 10:19 - and "degrees" in 2Ki 20:9-10,11 - The
- ma'aloth - was probably stairs on which the shadow of a column or
obelisk placed on the top fell. The shadow would cover a greater or
smaller number of steps, according as the sun was low or high.
Probably the sun-dial was a Babylonian invention. Daniel at Babylon
Dan 3:6 - is the first to make mention of the "hour."
1. A precious gem (Heb. yahalom', in allusion to its hardness),
otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the second
row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name of
Naphtali engraven on it Exo 28:18 39:11 - R.V. marg.,
2. A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned in
Jer 17:1 - From its hardness it was used for cutting and
perforating other minerals. It is rendered "adamant" (q.v.) in
Eze 3:9 Zec 7:12 - It is the hardest and most valuable of
So called by the Romans; called Artemis by the Greeks, the "great"
goddess worshipped among heathen nations under various modifications.
Her most noted temple was that at Ephesus. It was built outside the
city walls, and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
"First and last it was the work of 220 years; built of shining
marble; 342 feet long by 164 feet broad; supported by a forest of
columns, each 56 feet high; a sacred museum of masterpieces of
sculpture and painting. At the centre, hidden by curtains, within a
gorgeous shrine, stood the very ancient image of the goddess, on wood
or ebony reputed to have fallen from the sky. Behind the shrine was a
treasury, where, as in 'the safest bank in Asia,' nations and kings
stored their most precious things. The temple as St. Paul saw it
subsisted till A.D. 262 when it was ruined by the Goths" Act 19:23-41.
Moule on Ephesians: Introd.
Doubled cakes, the mother of Gomer, who was Hosea's wife Hos 1:3.
Two cakes, a city of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea Num 33:46.
1. A city in Moab Num 21:30 - called also Dibon-gad Num 33:45 - because
it was built by Gad and Dimon Isa 15:9 - It has been identified
with the modern Diban, about 3 miles north of the Arnon and 12
miles east of the Dead Sea. (See Moabite Stone.)
2. A city of the tribe of Judah, inhabited after the Captivity
Neh 11:25 - called also Dimonah Jos 15:22 - It is probably the
(Gr. twin Heb. Thomas, q.v.), Joh 11:16 20:24 21:2.
Dunghill, a city of Zebulun given to the Merarite Levites Jos 21:35.
In 1Ch 6:77 - the name "Rimmon" is substituted.
Judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon
and Levi Gen 30:21 - She was seduced by Shechem, the son of Hamor, the
Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the neighbourhood of Shechem.
This led to the terrible revenge of Simeon and Levi in putting the
Shechemites to death Gen 34:1 - Jacob makes frequent reference to
this deed of blood with abhorrence and regret Gen 34:30 49:5-7 - She is
mentioned among the rest of Jacob's family that went down into Egypt
Gen 43:16 - It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is
probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening,
as was the general custom in the East Luk 14:12.
Robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela Gen 36:32 - It
is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little north-east of Petra.
The Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens Act 17:34.
Jove-nourished, rebuked by John for his pride 3Jo 1:9 - He was a
Judaizer, prating against John and his fellow-labourers "with
malicious words" 3Jo 1:10.
A scholar, sometimes applied to the followers of John the Baptist
Mat 9:14 - and of the Pharisees Mat 22:16 - but principally to the
followers of Christ. A disciple of Christ is one who:
1. believes his doctrine,
2. rests on his sacrifice,
3. imbibes his spirit, and
4. imitates his example
See Mat 10:24 Luk 14:26,27,33 Joh 6:69.
For eating from 2Ki 21:13 - Judas dipped his hand with a "sop" or piece
of bread in the same dish with our Lord, thereby indicating friendly
intimacy Mat 26:23 - The "lordly dish" in Jud 5:25 - was probably the
shallow drinking cup, usually of brass. In Jud 6:38 - the same Hebrew
word is rendered "bowl." The dishes of the tabernacle were made of
pure gold Exo 25:29 37:16.
Antelope, the youngest son of Seir the Horite, head of one of the
tribes of Idumaea Gen 36:21,28,30.
(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy").
1. The method or scheme according to which God carries out his
purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually
reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or
Jewish, and the Christian.
See COVENANT 00916 - (Administration of.)
These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of
grace toward men. The word is not found with this meaning in
2. A commission to preach the gospel 1Co 9:17 Eph 1:10 3:2.
Col 1:25 - Dispensations of Providence are providential events
which affect men either in the way of mercy or of judgement.
(Gr. diaspora, "scattered,") Jas 1:1 1Pe 1:1 - of the Jews. At various
times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were
separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the outmost parts
of heaven" Deu 30:4.
1. Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia,
descendants of those who had been transported thither by the
Exile. The ten tribes, after existing as a separate kingdom for
two hundred and fifty-five years, were carried captive (B.C.
721 by Shalmaneser (or Sargon), king of Assyria. They never
returned to their own land as a distinct people, although many
individuals from among these tribes, there can be no doubt,
joined with the bands that returned from Babylon on the
proclamation of Cyrus.
2. Many Jews migrated to Egypt and took up their abode there. This
migration began in the days of Solomon 2Ki 18:21,24 Isa 30:7.
Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria,
which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with
the Egyptians. Ptolemy Philadelphus, it is said, caused the
Jewish Scriptures to be translated into Greek (the work began
B.C. 284 for the use of the Alexandrian Jews. The Jews in Egypt
continued for many ages to exercise a powerful influence on the
public interests of that country. From Egypt they spread along
the coast of Africa to Cyrene Act 2:10 - and to Ethiopia
3. After the time of Seleucus Nicator (B.C. 280) one of the
captains of Alexander the Great, large numbers of Jews migrated
into Syria, where they enjoyed equal rights with the
Macedonians. From Syria they found their way into Asia Minor.
Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000
families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted
them in Phrygia and Lydia.
4. From Asia Minor many Jews moved into Greece and Macedonia,
chiefly for purposes of commerce. In the apostles' time they
were found in considerable numbers in all the principal cities.
From the time of Pompey the Great (B.C. 63) numbers of Jews
from Palestine and Greece went to Rome, where they had a
separate quarter of the city assigned to them. Here they enjoyed
considerable freedom. Thus were the Jews everywhere scattered
abroad. This, in the overruling providence of God, ultimately
contributed in a great degree toward opening the way for the
spread of the gospel into all lands. Dispersion, from the plain
of Shinar. This was occasioned by the confusion of tongues at
Babel Gen 11:9 - They were scattered abroad "every one after his
tongue, after their families, in their nations" Gen 10:5,20,31.
The tenth chapter of Genesis gives us an account of the
principal nations of the earth in their migrations from the
plain of Shinar, which was their common residence after the
Flood. In general, it may be said that the descendants of
Japheth were scattered over the north, those of Shem over the
central regions, and those of Ham over the extreme south. The
following table shows how the different families were dispersed:
-Japheth -Gomer Cimmerians, Armenians
-Magog Caucasians, Scythians
-Madal Medes and Persian tribes
-Javan -Elishah Greeks
-Tarshish Etruscans, Romans
-Chittim Cyprians, Macedonians
-Tubal Tibareni, Tartars
-Mechech Moschi, Muscovites
-Shem -Elam Persian tribes
-Arphaxad -Abraham -Isaac -Jacob Hebrews
-Ishmael Mingled with Arab tribes
-Ham -Cush Ethiopans
-Phut Lybians, Mauritanians
-Canaan Canaanites, Phoenicians
(Heb. pelek, a "circle"), the instrument used for twisting threads by
a whirl Pro 31:19.
1. Of false prophets Deu 18:10,14 Mic 3:6-7,11.
2. of necromancers 1Sa 28:8.
3. of the Philistine priests and diviners 1Sa 6:2.
4. of Balaam Jos 13:22.
Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Eze 21:21.
1. by arrows,
2. consulting with images (the teraphim),
3. and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed.
The practice of this art seems to have been encouraged in ancient
Egypt. Diviners also abounded among the aborigines of Canaan and the
Philistines Isa 2:6 1Sa 28:1 - At a later period multitudes of
magicians poured from Chaldea and Arabia into the land of Israel, and
pursued their occupations Isa 8:19 2Ki 21:6 2Ch 33:6 - This
superstition widely spread, and in the time of the apostles there were
"vagabond Jews, exorcists" Act 19:13 - and men like Simon Magus
Act 8:9 - Bar-jesus Act 13:6,8 - and other jugglers and impostors
Act 19:19 2Ti 3:13 - Every species and degree of this superstition
was strictly forbidden by the law of Moses Exo 22:18 Lev 19:26,31 20:27.
Deu 18:10-11 - But beyond these various forms of superstition, there
are instances of divination on record in the Scriptures by which God
was pleased to make known his will.
1. There was divination by lot, by which, when resorted to in
matters of moment, and with solemnity, God intimated his will
Jos 7:13 - The land of Canaan was divided by lot Num 26:55,56.
Achan's guilt was detected Jos 7:16-19 - Saul was elected king
1Sa 10:20-21 - and Matthias chosen to the apostleship, by the
solem lot Act 1:26 - It was thus also that the scape-goat was
determined Lev 16:8-10.
2. There was divination by dreams Gen 20:6 Deu 13:1,3 Jud 7:13,15.
Mat 1:20 2:12-13,19,22 - This is illustrated in the history of
Joseph Gen 41:25-32 - and of Daniel Dan 2:27 4:19-28.
3. By divine appointment there was also divination by the Urim and
Thummim Num 27:21 - and by the ephod.
4. God was pleased sometimes to vouch-safe direct vocal
communications to men Deu 34:10 Ex 3:4 4:3 Deu 4:14-15 1Ki 19:12.
He also communed with men from above the mercy-seat Exo 25:22.
and at the door of the tabernacle Exo 29:42,43.
5. Through his prophets God revealed himself, and gave intimations
of his will 2Ki 13:17 Jer 51:63,64.
See ENCHANTEMENTS 01202.
The dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic law
Deu 24:1-4 - The Jews, after the Captivity, were reguired to dismiss
the foreign women they had married contrary to the law Ezr 10:11-19.
Christ limited the permission of divorce to the single case of
adultery. It seems that it was not uncommon for the Jews at that time
to dissolve the union on very slight pretences Mat 5:31-32 19:1-9.
Mar 10:2-12 Luk 16:18 - These precepts given by Christ regulate the law
of divorce in the Christian Church.
Region of gold, a place in the desert of Sinai, on the western shore
of the Elanitic gulf Deu 1:1 - It is now called Dehab.
Luk 2:46 5:17 Act 5:34 - a teacher. The Jewish doctors taught and
disputed in synagogues, or wherever they could find an audience.
Their disciples were allowed to propose to them questions. They
assumed the office without any appointment to it. The doctors of the
law were principally of the sect of the Pharisees. Schools were
established after the destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon and
Tiberias, in which academical degrees were conferred on those who
passed a certain examination. Those of the school of Tiberias were
called by the title "rabbi," and those of Babylon by that of
Loving, one of David's captains 1Ch 27:4.
See DODO 01053.
Leaders, a race descended from Javan Gen 10:4 - They are known in
profane history as the Dardani, originally inhabiting Illyricum. They
were a semi-Pelasgic race, and in the ethnographical table
Gen 10:1 - they are grouped with the Chittim (q.v.). In 1Ch 1:7.
they are called Rodanim. The LXX. and the Samaritan Version also read
Rhodii, whence some have concluded that the Rhodians, the inhabitants
of the island of Rhodes, are meant.
1. A descendant of Issachar Jud 10:1.
2. An Ahohite, father of Eleazar, who was one of David's three
heroes 2Sa 23:9 1Ch 11:12 - He was the same with Dodai mentioned
in 1Ch 27:4.
3. A Bethlehemite, and father of Elhanan, who was one of David's
thirty heroes 2Sa 23:24.
See DODAI 01051.
Fearful, an Edomite, the chief overseer of Saul's flocks 1Sa 21:7 - At
the command of Saul he slew the high priest Ahimelech (q.v.) at Nob,
together with all the priests to the number of eighty-five persons.
(Comp.) Psa 52:1 - title.
Frequently mentioned both in the Old and New Testaments. Dogs were
used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses Isa 56:10 - and for
guarding their flocks Job 30:1 - There were also then as now troops of
semi-wild dogs that wandered about devouring dead bodies and the
offal of the streets 1Ki 14:11 16:4 21:19,23 22:38 Psa 59:6,14 - As the
dog was an unclean animal, the terms "dog," "dog's head," "dead dog,"
were used as terms of reproach or of humiliation 1Sa 24:14 2Sa 3:8.
2Sa 9:8 16:9 - Paul calls false apostles "dogs" Php 3:2 - Those who
are shut out of the kingdom of heaven are also so designated Rev 22:15.
Persecutors are called "dogs" Psa 22:16. Hazael's words, "Thy servant
which is but a dog" 2Ki 8:13 - are spoken in mock humility=impossible
that one so contemptible as he should attain to such power.
(occurring only) Isa 13:21 - Heb. ochim, i.e., "shrieks;" hence
"howling animals"), a general name for screech owls (howlets), which
occupy the desolate palaces of Babylon. Some render the word "hyaenas."
This word is used in Psa 84:10 - (R.V. marg., "stand at the threshold
of," etc.), but there it signifies properly "sitting at the threshold
in the house of God." The psalmist means that he would rather stand
at the door of God's house and merely look in, than dwell in houses
where iniquity prevailed. Persons were appointed to keep the street
door leading into the interior of the house Joh 18:16-17 Act 12:13.
Sometimes females held this post.
The Jews were commanded to write the divine name on the posts
(mezuzoth') of their doors Deu 6:9 - The Jews, misunderstanding this
injunction, adopted the custom of writing on a slip of parchment
these verses Deu 6:4-9 Deu 11:13-21 - which they enclosed in a reed
or cylinder and fixed on the right-hand door-post of every room in
Moved on pivots of wood fastened in sockets above and below Pro 26:14.
They were fastened by a lock Jud 3:23,25 So 5:5 - or by a bar
Jud 16:3 Job 38:10 - In the interior of Oriental houses, curtains were
frequently used instead of doors. The entrances of the tabernacle had
curtains Exo 26:31-33,36 - The "valley of Achor" is called a "door of
hope," because immediately after the execution of Achan the Lord said
to Joshua, "Fear not," and from that time Joshua went forward in a
career of uninterrupted conquest. Paul speaks of a "door opened" for
the spread of the gospel 1Co 16:9 2Co 2:12 Col 4:3 - Our Lord says of
himself, "I am the door" Joh 10:9. John, Rev 4:1 - speaks of a "door
opened in heaven."
Knocking, an encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness Num 33:12.
It was in the desert of Sin, on the eastern shore of the western arm
of the Red Sea, somewhere in the Wady Feiran.
Dwelling, the Dora of the Romans, an ancient royal city of the
Canaanites Jos 11:1-2 12:23 - It was the most southern settlement of
the Phoenicians on the coast of Syria. The original inhabitants seem
never to have been expelled, although they were made tributary by
David. It was one of Solomon's commissariat districts Jud 1:27.
1Ki 4:11 - It has been identified with Tantura (so named from the
supposed resemblance of its tower to a tantur, i.e., "a horn"). This
tower fell in 1895 and nothing remains but debris and foundation
walls, the remains of an old Crusading fortress. It is about 8 miles
north of Caesarea, "a sad and sickly hamlet of wretched huts on a
A female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom
Peter restored to life Act 9:36-41 - She was a Hellenistic Jewess,
called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks.
Two wells, a famous pasture-ground where Joseph found his brethren
watching their flocks. Here, at the suggestion of Judah, they sold
him to the Ishmaelite merchants Gen 37:17 - It is mentioned on
monuments in B.C. 1600 It was the residence of Elisha 2Ki 6:13 - and
the scene of a remarkable vision of chariots and horses of fire
surrounding the mountain on which the city stood. It is identified
with the modern Tell-Dothan, on the south side of the plain of
Jezreel, about 12 miles north of Samaria, among the hills of
Gilboa. The "two wells" are still in existence, one of which bears
the name of the "pit of Joseph" (Jubb Yusuf).
(batsek, meaning "swelling," i.e., in fermentation). The dough the
Israelites had prepared for baking was carried away by them out of
Egypt in their kneading-troughs Exo 12:34,39 - In the process of
baking, the dough had to be turned Hos 7:8.
In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the clefts of
rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared for them
Son 2:14 Jer 48:28 Isa 60:8 - The dove was placed on the standards of
the Assyrians and Babylonians in honour, it is supposed, of Semiramis
Jer 25:38 - Vulg., "fierceness of the dove;" comp. Jer 46:16 50:16.
Doves and turtle-doves were the only birds that could be offered in
sacrifice, as they were clean according to the Mosaic law Gen 15:9.
Lev 5:7 12:6 Luk 2:24 - The dove was the harbinger of peace to Noah
Gen 8:8,10 - It is often mentioned as the emblem of purity Psa 68:13.
It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit Gen 1:2 Mat 3:16 Mar 1:10 Luk 3:22.
Joh 1:32 - also of tender and devoted affection Son 1:15 2:14.
David in his distress wished that he had the wings of a dove, that he
might fly away and be at rest Psa 55:6-8 - There is a species of
dove found at Damascus "whose feathers, all except the wings, are
literally as yellow as gold" Psa 68:13.
2Ki 6:25 - has been generally understood literally. There are
instances in history of the dung of pigeons being actually used as
food during a famine. Compare also the language of Rabshakeh to the
Jews 2Ki 18:27 Isa 36:12 - This name, however, is applied by the Arabs
to different vegetable substances, and there is room for the opinion
of those who think that some such substance is here referred to, as,
e.g., the seeds of a kind of millet, or a very inferior kind of
pulse, or the root of the ornithogalum, i.e., bird-milk, the
(mohar; i.e., price paid for a wife,) Gen 34:12 Ex 22:17 1Sa 18:25 - a
nuptial present; some gift, as a sum of money, which the bridegroom
offers to the father of his bride as a satisfaction before he can
receive her. Jacob had no dowry to give for his wife, but he gave his
services Gen 29:18 30:20 34:12.
1. Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature
inhabiting desert places and ruins Job 30:29 Psa 44:19.
Isa 13:22 34:13 43:20 Jer 10:22 Mic 1:8 Mal 1:3 - probably, as
translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.).
2. Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster Jer 51:34 - In Isa 51:9 - it
may denote the crocodile. In Gen 1:21 - (Heb. plural tanninim) the
Authorized Version renders "whales," and the Revised Version
"sea monsters." It is rendered "serpent" in Exo 7:9 - It is used
figuratively in Psa 74:13 Eze 29:3 - In the New Testament the word
"dragon" is found only in Rev 12:3-4,7,9,16-17 - etc., and is
there used metaphorically of "Satan."
See WHALE 03805.
Neh 2:13 - supposed by some to be identical with the Pool of Gihon.
The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim 1Ch 29:7.
Ezr 8:27 - and the similar word darkomnim Ezr 2:69 Neh 7:70 - as
equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma. But the Revised
Version rightly regards it as the Greek dareikos, a Persian gold coin
(the daric) of the value of about 1 pound, 2s., which was first
struck by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and was current in Western
Asia long after the fall of the Persian empire.
See DARIC 00974.
2Ki 10:27 - Jehu ordered the temple of Baal to be destroyed, and the
place to be converted to the vile use of receiving offal or ordure.
(Comp.) Mat 15:17.
Drawer of water
Deu 29:11 Jos 9:21,23 - a servile employment to which the Gibeonites
God has frequently made use of dreams in communicating his will to
men. The most remarkable instances of this are recorded in the
1. Jacob Gen 28:12 31:10.
2. Laban Gen 31:24.
3. Joseph Gen 37:9-11.
4. Gideon Jud 7:1.
5. Solomon 1Ki 3:5.
Other significant dreams are also recorded, such as those of:
1. Abimelech Gen 20:3-7.
2. Pharaoh's chief butler and baker Gen 40:5.
3. Pharaoh Gen 41:1-8.
4. The Midianites Jud 7:13.
5. Nebuchadnezzar Dan 2:1 4:10,18.
6. the wise men from the east Mat 2:12.
7. Pilate's wife Mat 27:19.
8. To Joseph "the Lord appeared in a dream," and gave him
instructions regarding the infant Jesus Mat 1:20 2:12-13,19.
9. In a vision of the night a "man of Macedonia" stood before Paul
and said, "Come over into Macedonia and help us" Act 16:9.
see also Act 18:9 27:23|.
See CORN 00904.
Psa 75:8 Isa 51:17,22 - the lees of wine which settle at the bottom of
1. Materials used. The earliest and simplest an apron of fig-leaves
sewed together Gen 3:7 - then skins of animals Gen 3:21.
Elijah's dress was probably the skin of a sheep 2Ki 1:8 - The
Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving hair into
cloth Exo 26:7 35:6 - which formed the sackcloth of mourners.
This was the material of John the Baptist's robe Mat 3:4.
Wool was also woven into garments Lev 13:47 Deu 22:11 Eze 34:3.
Job 31:20 Pr 27:26 - The Israelites probably learned the art of
weaving linen when they were in Egypt 1Ch 4:21 - Fine linen
was used in the vestments of the high priest Exo 28:5 - as
well as by the rich Gen 41:42 Pr 31:22 Luk 16:19 - The use of
mixed material, as wool and flax, was forbidden
Lev 19:19 Deu 22:11.
2. Colour. The prevailing colour was the natural white of the
material used, which was sometimes rendered purer by the
fuller's art Psa 104:1-2 Isa 63:3 Mar 9:3 - The Hebrews were
acquainted with the art of dyeing Gen 37:3,23 - Various modes of
ornamentation were adopted in the process of weaving Exo 28:6.
Exo 26:1,31 35:25 - and by needle-work Jud 5:30 Psa 45:13 - Dyed
robes were imported from foreign countries, particularly from
Phoenicia Zep 1:8 - Purple and scarlet robes were the marks
of the wealthy Luk 16:19 2Sa 1:24.
3. Form. The robes of men and women were not very much different in
form from each other.
a. The "coat" (kethoneth), of wool, cotton, or linen, was
worn by both sexes. It was a closely-fitting garment,
resembling in use and form our shirt Joh 19:23 - It was
kept close to the body by a girdle Joh 21:7 - A person
wearing this "coat" alone was described as naked
1Sa 19:24 Isa 20:2 2Ki 6:30 Joh 21:7 - deprived of it he
would be absolutely naked.
b. A linen cloth or wrapper (sadin) of fine linen, used
somewhat as a night-shirt Mar 14:51 - It is mentioned in
Jud 14:12-13 - and rendered there "sheets."
c. An upper tunic (meil), longer than the "coat" 1Sa 2:19.
1Sa 24:4 28:14 - In 1Sa 28:14 - it is the mantle in which
Samuel was enveloped; in 1Sa 24:4 - it is the "robe"
under which Saul slept. The disciples were forbidden to
wear two "coats" Mat 10:10 Luk 9:3.
d. The usual outer garment consisted of a piece of woollen
cloth like a Scotch plaid, either wrapped round the body
or thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends
hanging down in front, or it might be thrown over the head
so as to conceal the face 2Sa 15:30 Es 6:12 - It was
confined to the waist by a girdle, and the fold formed by
the overlapping of the robe served as a pocket 2Ki 4:39.
Psa 79:12 Hag 2:12 Pr 17:23 21:14.
4. Female dress. The "coat" was common to both sexes Son 5:3 - But
peculiar to females were:
a. the "veil" or "wimple," a kind of shawl Rut 3:15 - rendered
"mantle," R.V., Isa 3:22.
b. the "mantle," also a species of shawl Isa 3:22.
c. a "veil," probably a light summer dress Gen 24:65.
d. a "stomacher," a holiday dress Isa 3:24.
e. The outer garment terminated in an ample fringe or border,
which concealed the feet Isa 47:2 Jer 13:22.
The dress of the Persians is described in Dan 3:21 - The reference to
the art of sewing are few, inasmuch as the garments generally came
forth from the loom ready for being worn, and all that was required in
the making of clothes devolved on the women of a family Pro 31:22.
Act 9:39 - Extravagance in dress is referred to in Jer 4:30.
Eze 16:10 Zep 1:8 - (R.V., "foreign apparel"); 1Ti 2:9 1Pe 3:3.
Rending the robes was expressive of grief Gen 37:29,34 - fear
1Ki 21:27 - indignation 2Ki 5:7 - or despair Jud 11:35 Es 4:1.
Shaking the garments, or shaking the dust from off them, was a sign of
renunciation Act 18:6 - wrapping them round the head, of awe
1Ki 19:13 - or grief 2Sa 15:30 - casting them off, of excitement
Act 22:23 - laying hold of them, of supplication 1Sa 15:27 - In the
case of travelling, the outer garments were girded up 1Ki 18:46.
They were thrown aside also when they would impede action Mar 10:50.
Joh 13:4 Act 7:58.
The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and
vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the
"cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer. To drink water by measure
Eze 4:11 - and to buy water to drink Lam 5:4 - denote great scarcity.
To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter. The Jews carefully
strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of violating the
law of Lev 11:20,23,41-42 - (See) Mat 23:24 - ("Strain at" should be
Consisted of wine Num 15:5 Hos 9:4 - poured around the altar Exo 30:9.
Joined with meat-offerings Num 6:15,17 2Ki 16:13 Joe 1:9,13 2:14.
presented daily Exo 29:40 - on the Sabbath Num 28:9 - and on feast-days
Num 28:14 - One-fourth of an hin of wine was required for one lamb,
one-third for a ram, and one-half for a bullock Num 15:5 28:7,14.
"Drink offerings of blood" Psa 16:4 - is used in allusion to the
heathen practice of mingling the blood of animals sacrificed with
wine or water, and pouring out the mixture in the worship of the
gods, and the idea conveyed is that the psalmist would not partake of
the abominations of the heathen.
(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor Jud 13:4 Luk 1:15 Isa 5:11.
Mic 2:11 - distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of
the use of strong drink are referred to in Psa 107:27.
Isa 24:20 49:26 51:17-22 - Its use prohibited, Pro 20:1.
See WINE 03816.
Isa 60:6 - an African or Arabian species of camel having only one hump,
while the Bactrian camel has two. It is distinguished from the camel
only as a trained saddle-horse is distinguished from a cart-horse. It
is remarkable for its speed Jer 2:23 - Camels are frequently spoken of
in partriarchal times Gen 12:16 24:10 30:43 31:17 - etc. They were used
for carrying burdens Gen 37:25 Jud 6:5 - and for riding Gen 24:64 - The
hair of the camel falls off of itself in spring, and is woven into
coarse cloths and garments Mat 3:4.
See CAMEL 00698.
Mentioned only in Luk 14:2 - The man afflicted with it was cured by
Christ on the Sabbath.
The impurities of silver separated from the one in the process of
melting Pro 25:4 26:23 Psa 119:119 - It is also used to denote the base
metal itself, probably before it is smelted, in Isa 1:22,25.
From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of
Palestine is dry. It is then the "drought of summer" Gen 31:40.
Psa 32:4 - and the land suffers Deu 28:23 Psa 102:4 - vegetation being
preserved only by the dews Hag 1:11.
See DEW 01026.
Exo 15:4 Amo 8:8 Heb 11:29 - Drowning was a mode of capital punishment
in use among the Syrians, and was known to the Jews in the time of our
Lord. To this he alludes in Mat 18:6.
The first case of intoxication on record is that of Noah Gen 9:21 - The
sin of drunkenness is frequently and strongly condemned Rom 13:13.
1Co 6:9-10 Eph 5:18 1Th 5:7-8 - The sin of drinking to excess
seems to have been not uncommon among the Israelites. The word is
used figuratively, when men are spoken of as being drunk with sorrow,
and with the wine of God's wrath Isa 63:6 Jer 51:57 Eze 23:33 - To
"add drunkenness to thirst" Deu 29:19 - A.V. is a proverbial
expression, rendered in the Revised Version "to destroy the moist
with the dry", i.e., the well-watered equally with the dry land,
meaning that the effect of such walking in the imagination of their
own hearts would be to destroy one and all.
Third and youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. Act 12:1-4,20-23.
Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to leave her
husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his wife. She was
present with Felix when Paul reasoned of "righteousness, temperance,
and judgment to come" Act 24:24 - She and her son perished in the
eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D. 79.
Derived from the Latin dux, meaning "a leader;" Arabic, "a sheik."
This word is used to denote the phylarch or chief of a tribe
Gen 36:15-43 Ex 15:15 1Ch 1:51-54.
(Heb. sumphoniah), a musical instrument mentioned in Dan 3:5,15 - along
with other instruments there named, as sounded before the golden
image. It was not a Jewish instrument. In the margin of the Revised
Version it is styled the "bag-pipe." Luther translated it "lute," and
Grotius the "crooked trumpet." It is probable that it was introduced
into Babylon by some Greek or Western-Asiatic musician. Some
Rabbinical commentators render it by "organ," the well-known
instrument composed of a series of pipes, others by "lyre." The most
probable interpretation is that it was a bag-pipe similar to the
zampagna of Southern Europe.
Silence, (comp.) Psa 94:17 - the fourth son of Ishmael; also the tribe
descended from him; and hence also the region in Arabia which they
inhabited Gen 25:14 1Ch 1:30 - There was also a town of this name in
Judah Jos 15:52 - which has been identified with ed-Domeh, about 10
miles southwest of Hebron. The place mentioned in the "burden" of the
prophet Isaiah Isa 21:11 - is Edom or Idumea.
From natural infirmity Exo 4:11 - not knowing what to say Pro 31:8.
unwillingness to speak Psa 39:9 Lev 10:3 - Christ repeatedly restored
the dumb Mat 9:32-33 Luk 11:14 Mat 12:22 - to the use of speech.
1. Used as manure Luk 13:8 - collected outside the city walls Neh 2:13.
Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp Exo 29:14 Lev 4:11 8:17.
Num 19:5 - To be "cast out as dung," a figurative expression
1Ki 14:10 2Ki 9:37 Jer 8:2 Psa 18:42 - meaning to be rejected as
2. Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with
difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt Eze 4:12-15.
where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this
Different from the ordinary prison in being more severe as a place of
punishment. Like the Roman inner prison Act 16:24 - it consisted of a
deep cell or cistern Jer 38:6 - To be shut up in, a punishment common
in Egypt Gen 39:20 40:3 41:10 42:19 - It is not mentioned, however, in
the law of Moses as a mode of punishment. Under the later kings
imprisonment was frequently used as a punishment 2Ch 16:10 Jer 20:2.
Jer 32:2 33:1 37:15 - and it was customary after the Exile
Mat 11:2 Luk 3:20 Act 5:18,21 Mat 18:30.
Neh 2:13 - a gate of ancient Jerusalem, on the south-west quarter. "The
gate outside of which lay the piles of sweepings and offscourings of
the streets," in the valley of Tophet.
To sit on a, was a sign of the deepest dejection 1Sa 2:8 Psa 113:7.
The circle, the plain near Babylon in which Nebuchadnezzar set up a
golden image, mentioned in Dan 3:1 - The place still retains its
ancient name. On one of its many mounds the pedestal of what must
have been a colossal statue has been found. It has been supposed to
be that of the golden image.
Storms of sand and dust sometimes overtake Eastern travellers. They
are very dreadful, many perishing under them. Jehovah threatens to
bring on the land of Israel, as a punishment for forsaking him, a
rain of "powder and dust" Deu 28:24 - To cast dust on the head was a
sign of mourning Jos 7:6 - and to sit in dust, of extreme affliction
Isa 47:1 - "Dust" is used to denote the grave Job 7:21 - "To shake off
the dust from one's feet" against another is to renounce all future
intercourse with him Mat 10:14 Act 13:51 - To "lick the dust" is a sign
of abject submission Psa 72:9 - and to throw dust at one is a sign of
abhorrence 2Sa 16:13 - comp. Act 22:23.
A lean or emaciated person Lev 21:20.
Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men. Houses were
afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently of mud
Job 24:16 Mat 6:19-20 - or of sun-dried bricks. God "dwells in light"
1Ti 6:16 1Jo 1:7 - in heaven Psa 123:1 - in his church Psa 9:11.
1Jo 4:12 - Christ dwelt on earth in the days of his humiliation
Joh 1:14 - He now dwells in the hearts of his people Eph 3:17-19.
The Holy Spirit dwells in believers 1Co 3:16 2Ti 1:14 - We are
exhorted to "let the word of God dwell in us richly" Col 3:16.
Psa 119:11 - Dwell deep occurs only in Jer 49:8 - and refers to the
custom of seeking refuge from impending danger, in retiring to the
recesses of rocks and caverns, or to remote places in the desert.
The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also
stones Lev 14:40,42 - which were held together by cement Jer 43:9 - or
bitumen Gen 11:3 - The exterior was usually whitewashed Lev 14:41.
Eze 13:10 Mat 23:27 - The beams were of sycamore Isa 9:10 - or
olive-wood, or cedar 1Ki 7:2 Isa 9:10 - The form of Eastern dwellings
differed in many respects from that of dwellings in Western lands.
The larger houses were built in a quadrangle enclosing a court-yard
Luk 5:19 2Sa 17:18 Neh 8:16 - surrounded by galleries, which formed the
guest-chamber or reception-room for visitors. The flat roof,
surrounded by a low parapet, was used for many domestic and social
purposes. It was reached by steps from the court. In connection with
it 2Ki 23:12 - was an upper room, used as a private chamber
2Sa 18:33 Dan 6:11 - also as a bedroom 2Ki 23:12 - a sleeping
apartment for guests 2Ki 4:10 - and as a sick-chamber 1Ki 17:19.
The doors, sometimes of stone, swung on morticed pivots, and were
generally fastened by wooden bolts. The houses of the more wealthy
had a doorkeeper or a female porter Joh 18:16 Act 12:13 - The
windows generally opened into the courtyard, and were closed by a
lattice Jud 5:28 - The interior rooms were set apart for the
female portion of the household. The furniture of the room 2Ki 4:10.
consisted of a couch furnished with pillows Amo 6:4 Eze 13:20 - and
besides this, chairs, a table and lanterns or lamp-stands 2Ki 4:10.
The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special
mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably
learned it from the Egyptians (see) Exo 26:1 28:5-8 - who brought it to
great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira was famed for its
dyers Act 16:14.
See COLOUR 00868.
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