Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - C

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Hollow (R.V., "kab"), occurs only in 2Ki 6:25 - a dry measure, the
sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of an ephah, equal to
about two English quarts.


Only in Jer 37:16 - (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a
passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.


How little! as nothing.
1. A town on the eastern border of Asher Jos 19:27 - probably one of
the towns given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some
8 miles east of Accho, on the very borders of Galilee.
2. A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre,
containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward
for various services rendered to him in building the temple
1Ki 9:13 - and as payment of the six score talents of gold he had
borrowed from him. Hiram gave the cities this name because he
was not pleased with the gift, the name signifying "good for
nothing." Hiram seems afterwards to have restored these cities
to Solomon 2Ch 8:2.


The title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the
New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns
of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names
Joh 19:15 Act 17:7 - The Jews paid tribute to Caesar Mat 22:17 - and all
Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him Act 25:11 - The Caesars
referred to in the New Testament are:
1. Augustus Luk 2:1.
2. Tiberius Luk 3:1 20:22.
3. Claudius Act 11:28.
4. Nero Act 25:8 Php 4:22.

Caesara Philippi

A city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles
north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the
"upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon. It
is mentioned in Mat 16:13 Mar 8:27 - as the northern limit of our Lord's
public ministry. According to some its original name was Baal-Gad
Jos 11:17 - or Baal-Hermon Jud 3:3 1Ch 5:23 - when it was a Canaanite
sanctuary of Baal. It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas, from a
deep cavern full of water near the town. This name was given to the
cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of
its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated
with the worship of their god Pan. Its modern name is Banias. Here
Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar. This town
was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch
of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by
him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that
of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from the
Caesarea of Palestine.

See JORDAN 02112.

Caesarea (Palestinae)

A city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the great road from Tyre
to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem, at the northern
extremity of the plain of Sharon. It was built by Herod the Great
(B.C. 10) who named it after Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea
Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos "Augustus"), on the site of an old town called
"Strato's Tower." It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea,
the seat of the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the
Roman troops. It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a
spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings of
great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the West.
Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the instrumentality
of Peter Act 10:1-24 - and thus for the first time the door of
faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the evangelist resided here
with his four daughters Act 21:8 - From this place Saul sailed for
his native Tarsus when forced to flee from Jerusalem Act 9:30 - and
here he landed when returning from his second missionary journey
Act 18:22 - He remained as a prisoner here for two years before his
voyage to Rome Act 24:27 25:1,4,6,13 - Here on a "set day," when
games were celebrated in the theatre in honour of the emperor
Claudius, Herod Agrippa I. appeared among the people in great pomp,
and in the midst of the idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly
smitten by an angel, and carried out a dying man. He was "eaten of
worms" Act 12:19-23 - thus perishing by the same loathsome disease
as his granfather, Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name
Kaiseriyeh, but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the
ruins are snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is
described as the most desolate city of all Palestine.


(Heb. kelub',) Jer 5:27 - marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in
Amo 8:1 - a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after being
caught. In Rev 18:2 - it is the rendering of the Greek - phulake -,
properly a prison or place of confinement.


The Jewish high priest (A.D. 27) at the beginning of our Lord's
public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius Luk 3:2 - and also at the
time of his condemnation and crucifixion Mat 26:3,57 Joh 11:49.
Joh 18:13-14 - He held this office during the whole of Pilate's
administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly
been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan)
of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of the Sadducees Act 5:17 - and was a
member of the council when he gave his opinion that Jesus should be
put to death "for the people, and that the whole nation perish not"
Joh 11:50 - In these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like
Saul, he was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to
inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to
Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the sentence
against him Mat 27:2 Joh 18:28 - At a later period his hostility to the
gospel is still manifest Act 4:6.

See ANNAS 00246.


A possession; a spear.
1. The first-born son of Adam and Eve Gen 4:1 - He became a
tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits
of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, self-willed, haughty,
vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character,
and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass
"in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e.,
probably on the Sabbath, that the two brothers presented their
offerings to the Lord. Abel's offering was of the "firstlings of
his flock and of the fat," while Cain's was "of the fruit of the
ground." Abel's sacrifice was "more excellent" Heb 11:4 - than
Cain's, and was accepted by God. On this account Cain was "very
wroth," and cherished feelings of murderous hatred against his
brother, and was at length guilty of the desperate outrage of
putting him to death 1Jo 3:12 - For this crime he was expelled
from Eden, and henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon
him some mark which God had set upon him in answer to his own cry
for mercy, so that thereby he might be protected from the wrath
of his fellow-men; or it may be that God only gave him some sign
to assure him that he would not be slain Gen 4:15 - Doomed to be a
wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth into the
"land of Nod", i.e., the land of "exile", which is said to have
been in the "east of Eden," and there he built a city, the first
we read of, and called it after his son's name, Enoch. His
descendants are enumerated to the sixth generation. They
gradually degenerated in their moral and spiritual condition till
they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption prevailed,
and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent the final
triumph of evil.
See ABEL 00015.
2. A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites Jos 15:57 - on
the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably the "nest
in a rock" mentioned by Balaam Num 24:21 - It is identified with
the modern Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron.


Possession; smith.
1. The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He
was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel,
after which he lived 840 years Gen 5:9-14 - and was 910 years
old when he died. He is also called Kenan 1Ch 1:2.
2. The son of Arphaxad Luk 3:36 - He is nowhere named in the Old
Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."


Cakes made of wheat or barley were offered in the temple. They were
salted, but unleavened Exo 29:2 Lev 2:4 - In idolatrous worship thin
cakes or wafers were offered "to the queen of heaven" Jer 7:18 44:19.
Pancakes are described in 2Sa 13:8-9 - Cakes mingled with oil and
baked in the oven are mentioned in Lev 2:4 - and "wafers unleavened
anointed with oil," in Exo 29:2 Lev 8:26 1Ch 23:29 - "Cracknels," a kind
of crisp cakes, were among the things Jeroboam directed his wife to
take with her when she went to consult Ahijah the prophet at Shiloh
1Ki 14:3 - Such hard cakes were carried by the Gibeonites when they
came to Joshua Jos 9:5,12 - They described their bread as "mouldy;"
but the Hebrew word - nikuddim -, here used, ought rather to be
rendered "hard as biscuit." It is rendered "cracknels" in 1Ki 14:3.
The ordinary bread, when kept for a few days, became dry and
excessively hard. The Gibeonites pointed to this hardness of their
bread as an evidence that they had come a long journey. We read also
of honey-cakes Exo 16:31 - "cakes of figs" 1Sa 25:18 - "cake" as
denoting a whole piece of bread 1Ki 17:12 - and "a [round] cake of
barley bread" Jud 7:13 - In Lev 2:1 - is a list of the different
kinds of bread and cakes which were fit for offerings.


One of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he [i.e.,
Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and
Calah, and Resen" Gen 10:11 - R.V. Its site is now marked probably by
the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of the Tigris. These cover an area
of about 1,000 acres, and are second only in size and importance to
the mass of ruins opposite Mosul. This city was at one time the
capital of the empire, and was the residence of Sardanapalus and his
successors down to the time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the
modern Khorsabad. It has been conjectured that these four cities
mentioned in Gen 10:11 - were afterwards all united into one and called
Nineveh (q.v.).


The Latin for cane, Hebrew - Kaneh -, mentioned Exo 30:23 - as one of the
ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet scents
Son 4:14 - and among the articles sold in the markets of Tyre Eze 27:19.
The word designates an Oriental plant called the "sweet flag," the
ocorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is elsewhere called "sweet cane"
Isa 43:24 Jer 6:20 - It has an aromatic smell, and when its knotted
stalk is cut and dried and reduced to powder, it forms an ingredient
in the most precious perfumes. It was not a native of Palestine, but
was imported from Arabia Felix or from India. It was probably that
which is now known in India by the name of "lemon grass" or "ginger
grass," the Andropogon schoenanthus.

See CANE 00710.


1Ch 2:6 - sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol 1Ki 4:31 - one of
the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom; for "he was wiser than
all men."


A dog.
1. One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is
also called Chelubai 1Ch 2:9 - His descendants are enumerated
1Ch 2:18,42.
2. A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" 1Ch 2:50 - Some would
read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in
1Ch 2:42|] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the
firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be the
name of the son and not the father of Caleb 1Ch 2:19.
3. The son of Jephunneh Num 13:6 32:12 Jos 14:6,14 - He was one of
those whom Moses sent to search the land in the second year
after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of the tribe
of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the
whole number who encouraged the people to go up and possess the
land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke out in
which the other ten spies perished Num 13:1-14:1 - All the
people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward,
perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we
have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he
came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had
gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise
Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain
portion of the land of Kirjath-arba as his inheritance
Jos 14:6-15 15:13-15 21:10-12 1Sa 25:2-3 30:14 - He is called a
"Kenezite" in Jos 14:6,14 - This may simply mean "son of Kenez"
Num 32:12 - Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of Kenez," who
was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a grandson of
Judah 1Ch 2:5 - This Caleb may possibly be identical with
No. 2
4. Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south country
1Sa 30:14 - of Judah, the district between Hebron and Carmel,
which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city of
Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained
possession of the surrounding country Jos 21:11-12 - comp.
1Sa 25:3.


Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are therefore
frequently mentioned in Scripture. The "fatted calf" was regarded as
the choicest of animal food; it was frequently also offered as a
special sacrifice 1Sa 28:24 Amo 6:4 Luk 15:23 - The words used in
Jer 34:18-19 - "cut the calf in twain," allude to the custom of
dividing a sacrifice into two parts, between which the parties
ratifying a covenant passed Gen 15:9-10,17-18 - The sacrifice of
the lips, i.e., praise, is called "the calves of our lips" Hos 14:2.
R.V., "as bullocks the offering of our lips." Comp. Heb 13:15.
Psa 116:7 Jer 33:11 - The golden calf which Aaron made Exo 32:4 - was
probably a copy of the god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the
sacred ox or calf of Egypt. The Jews showed all through their history
a tendency toward the Babylonian and Canaanitish idolatry rather than
toward that of Egypt. Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set
up two idol calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he
might thus prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem for
worship 1Ki 12:28 - These calves continued to be a snare to the
people till the time of their captivity. The calf at Dan was carried
away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser, and that at Bethel ten
years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by Shalmaneser 2Ki 15:29 17:33.
This sin of Jeroboam is almost always mentioned along with his name
2Ki 15:28 - etc.


Workmen skilled in stopping the seams of the deck or sides of vessels.
The inhabitants of Gebel were employed in such work on Tyrian vessels
Eze 27:9,27 - marg., "strengtheners" or "stoppers of chinks").


1. To cry for help, hence to pray Gen 4:26 - Thus men are said to
"call upon the name of the Lord" Act 2:21 7:59 9:14 Ro 10:12.
1Co 1:2.
2. God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some
special office Exo 31:2 Isa 22:20 Act 13:2 - and when he invites
them to accept his offered grace Mat 9:13 11:28 22:4 - In the
message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men, to Jews
and Gentiles alike Mat 28:19 Mar 16:15 Ro 9:24-25 - But this
universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation,
although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable if they
reject it Joh 3:14-19 Mat 22:14.
3. An effectual call is something more than the outward message of
the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the
enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit
Joh 16:14 Act 26:18 Joh 6:44 - effectually drawing men to
Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth
Joh 6:45 Act 16:14 Eph 1:17.


A profession, or as we usually say, a vocation 1Co 7:20 - The "hope of
your calling" in Eph 4:4 - is the hope resulting from your being
called into the kingdom of God.


Fort, one of the four cities founded by Nimrod Gen 10:10 - It is the
modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish situated in the
marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of the Euphrates, but 30
miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles
south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as one of the towns
with which Tyre carried on trade. It was finally taken and probably
destroyed by one of the Assyrian kings Amo 6:2 - It is called Calno
Isa 10:9 - and Canneh Eze 27:23.


Only in Luk 23:33 - the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a
translation of the Greek word - Kranion -, by which the Hebrew word
- Gulgoleth - was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It probably took
this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare
elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull. It is nowhere in
Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of our Lord took place
outside the city walls Heb 13:11-13 - and near the public
thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a corner."

See GOLGOTHA 01522.


From the Hebrew - gamal -, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel does
the care of its master. There are two distinct species of camels,
having, however, the common characteristics of being "ruminants
without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming oblique slits,
the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile, the soles
of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs long,
the abdomen drawn up, while the neck, long and slender, is bent up
and down, the reverse of that of a horse, which is arched."
1. The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a native
of the high table-lands of Central Asia.
2. The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek - dromos -, "a
runner" Isa 60:6 Jer 2:23 - has but one hump, and is a native of
Western Asia or Africa. The camel was early used both for riding
and as a beast of burden Gen 24:64 37:25 - and in war 1Sa 30:17.
Isa 21:7 - Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by
Pharaoh to Abraham Gen 12:16 - Its flesh was not to be eaten, as
it was ranked among unclean animals Lev 11:4 Deu 14:7 - Abraham's
servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch a wife for Isaac
Gen 24:10-11 - Jacob had camels as a portion of his wealth
Gen 30:43 - as Abraham also had Gen 24:35 - He sent a present of
thirty milch camels to his brother Esau Gen 32:15 - It appears
to have been little in use among the Jews after the conquest.
It is, however, mentioned in the history of David 1Ch 27:30.
and after the Exile Ezr 2:67 Neh 7:69 - Camels were much in
use among other nations in the East. The queen of Sheba came
with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom of
Solomon 1Ki 10:2 2Ch 9:1 - Benhadad of Damascus also sent a
present to Elisha, "forty camels' burden" 2Ki 8:9 - To show
the difficulty in the way of a rich man's entering into the
kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that it was
easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle Mat 19:24.
To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also
a proverbial expression Mat 23:24 - used with reference to
those who were careful to avoid small faults, and yet did not
hesitate to commit the greatest sins. The Jews carefully
filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear of swallowing
along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean, and
yet they omitted openly the "weightier matters" of the law. The
raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel's hair
Mat 3:4 Mar 1:6 - by which he was distinguished from those who
resided in royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was also
the case with Elijah 2Ki 1:8 - who is called "a hairy man,"
from his wearing such raiment. "This is one of the most
admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out the heat, cold,
and rain." The "sackcloth" so often alluded to 2Ki 1:8 Isa 15:3.
Zec 13:4 - etc.) was probably made of camel's hair.


Full of stalks, a place Jud 10:5 - where Jair was buried. It has
usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the east of
Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun, on the
southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel Jos 12:22 1Ki 4:12.
since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge, Jair
might find it more convenient to live on the west side of Jordan; and
that he was buried where he had lived.


During their journeys across the wilderness, the twelve tribes formed
encampments at the different places where they halted Exo 16:13 Num 2:3.
The diagram here given shows the position of the different tribes and
the form of the encampment during the wanderings, according to
Num 1:53 2:2-31 3:29,35,38 10:13-28 - The area of the camp would be in
all about 3 square miles. After the Hebrews entered Palestine, the
camps then spoken of were exclusively warlike Jos 11:5,7.
Jud 5:19,21 7:1 1Sa 29:1 30:9 - etc.

See ENCAMP 01201.


(Heb. copher), mentioned in Son 1:14 - (R.V., "henna-flowers");
Son 4:13 - (R.V., "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of
Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous
flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is made
the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain their nails and
the palms of their hands. It is found only at Engedi, on the shore of
the Dead Sea. It is known to botanists by the name Lawsonia alba or
inermis, a kind of privet, which grows 6 or 8 feet high. The margin
of the Authorized Version of the passages above referred to has "or
cypress," not with reference to the conifer so called, but to the
circumstance that one of the most highly appreciated species of this
plant grew in the island of Cyprus.


Reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. Here our Lord wrought his
first miracle, the turning of water into wine Joh 2:1-11 4:46 - It is
also mentioned as the birth-place of Nathanael Joh 21:2 - It is not
mentioned in the Old Testament. It has been identified with the
modern Kana el-Jelil, also called Khurbet Kana, a place 8 or 9 miles
north of Nazareth. Others have identified it with Kefr Kenna, which
lies on the direct road to the Sea of Galilee, about 5 miles
north-east of Nazareth, and 12 in a direct course from Tiberias. It
is called "Cana of Galilee," to distinguish it from Cana of Asher
Jos 19:28.


1. The fourth son of Ham Gen 10:6 - His descendants were under a
curse in consequence of the transgression of his father
Gen 9:22-27 - His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the
Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the
founders of as many tribes Gen 10:15-18.
2. The country which derived its name from the preceding. The name
as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the maritime plain
on which Sidon was built. But in the time of Moses and Joshua it
denoted the whole country to the west of the Jordan and the Dead
Sea Deu 11:30. In Jos 5:12 - the LXX. read, "land of the
Phoenicians," instead of "land of Canaan." The name signifies
"the lowlands," as distinguished from the land of Gilead on the
east of Jordan, which was a mountainous district. The extent and
boundaries of Canaan are fully set forth in different parts of
Scripture Gen 10:19 17:8 Num 13:29 34:8.

See PALESTINE 02828.


A name given to the apostle Simon Mat 10:4 Mar 3:18 - The word here does
not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is a translation, or
rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac word Kanenyeh (R.V.
rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the Jewish sect of the
Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere Luk 6:15 - "Simon Zelotes;" i.e.,
Simon of the sect of the Zealots.

See SIMON 03439.


The descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their
original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and to
have there sojourned for some time. They thence "spread to the west,
across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the
Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became
Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of
Taurus. This group was very numerous, and broken up into a great many
peoples, as we can judge from the list of nations Gen 10:1 - the
'sons of Canaan.'" Six different tribes are mentioned in Exo 3:8,17.
Exo 23:23 33:2 34:11 - In Exo 13:5 - the "Perizzites" are omitted. The
"Girgashites" are mentioned in addition to the foregoing in Deu 7:1.
Jos 3:10 - The "Canaanites," as distinguished from the Amalekites, the
Anakim, and the Rephaim, were "dwellers in the lowlands" Num 13:29.
the great plains and valleys, the richest and most important parts of
Palestine. Tyre and Sidon, their famous cities, were the centres of
great commercial activity; and hence the name "Canaanite" came to
signify a "trader" or "merchant" Job 41:6 Pr 31:24 - lit.
"Canaanites;" comp. Zep 1:11 Eze 17:4 - The name "Canaanite" is also
sometimes used to designate the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land
in general Gen 12:6 Num 21:3 Jud 1:10 - The Israelites, when they were
led to the Promised Land, were commanded utterly to destroy the
descendants of Canaan then possessing it Exo 23:23 Num 33:52,53.
Deu 20:16-17 - This was to be done "by little and little," lest the
beasts of the field should increase Exo 23:29 Deu 7:22-23 - The
history of these wars of conquest is given in the Book of Joshua. The
extermination of these tribes, however, was never fully carried out.
Jerusalem was not taken till the time of David 2Sa 5:6-7 - In the days
of Solomon bond-service was exacted from the fragments of the tribes
still remaining in the land 1Ki 9:20-21 - Even after the return from
captivity survivors of five of the Canaanitish tribes were still
found in the land. In the Tell-el-Amarna tablets Canaan is found
under the forms of Kinakhna and Kinakhkhi. Under the name of Kanana
the Canaanites appear on Egyptian monuments, wearing a coat of mail
and helmet, and distinguished by the use of spear and javelin and the
battle-axe. They were called Phoenicians by the Greeks and Poeni by
the Romans. By race the Canaanites were Semitic. They were famous as
merchants and seamen, as well as for their artistic skill. The chief
object of their worship was the sun-god, who was addressed by the
general name of Baal, "lord." Each locality had its special Baal, and
the various local Baals were summed up under the name of Baalim,

Canaan, The Language of

Mentioned in Isa 19:18 - denotes the language spoken by the Jews
resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the
Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of
the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest
analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the
"Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well
as the Babylonian language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and
the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the
Canaanitish libraries. Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by
the Canaanites.


The queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was
converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the
evangelist Act 8:27 - The country which she ruled was called by the
Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial
intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became
famous for its wealth Isa 45:14 - It is somewhat singular that female
sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace
(compare "Pharaoh," "Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to
several successive queens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root
in Ethiopia at this time, and hence the visit of the queen's
treasurer to Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that
Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his
return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole
region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that he also
preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered

See PHILIP 02936.


Heb. ner, Job 18:6 29:3 Psa 18:28 Pr 24:20 - in all which places the
Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by
which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word
denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a
figure of conscience Pro 20:27 - of a Christian example Mat 5:14-15 - and
of prosperity Job 21:17 Pr 13:9.


The lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for
the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is
described in Exo 25:31-40 37:17-24 - and may be seen represented on the
Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans
from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) It was made of fine gold, and
with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight. The
tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial light was
needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which, however, served
also as a symbol of the church or people of God, who are "the light
of the world." The light which "symbolizes the knowledge of God is
not the sun or any natural light, but an artificial light supplied
with a specially prepared oil; for the knowledge of God is in truth
not natural nor common to all men, but furnished over and above
nature." This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy
Place, opposite the table of shewbread Exo 27:21 30:7-8 Lev 24:3.
1Sa 3:3 - It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished in the
morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by
the seven branches, with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in
golden dishes Exo 25:38 - and supplying the lamps at the same time with
fresh oil. What ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown. In
Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold,
five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place 1Ki 7:49.
2Ch 4:7 - Their structure is not mentioned. They were carried away to
Babylon Jer 52:19 - In the temple erected after the Exile there was
again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches.
It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where
it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered
Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455) It was
recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533) and carried to Constantinople
and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally disappeared.


A tall sedgy plant with a hollow stem, growing in moist places. In
Isa 43:24 Jer 6:20 - the Hebrew word - kaneh - is thus rendered, giving
its name to the plant. It is rendered "reed" in 1Ki 14:15 Job 40:21.
Isa 19:6 35:7. In Psa 68:30 - the expression "company of spearmen" is
in the margin and the Revised Version "beasts of the reeds," referring
probably to the crocodile or the hippopotamus as a symbol of Egypt.
In 2Ki 18:21 Isa 36:6 Eze 29:6-7 - the reference is to the weak,
fragile nature of the reed.

See CALAMUS 00689.


A gangrene or mortification which gradually spreads over the whole
body 2Ti 2:17. In Jas 5:3 - "cankered" means "rusted" (R.V.) or


(Heb. yelek), "the licking locust," which licks up the grass of the
field; probably the locust at a certain stage of its growth, just as
it emerges from the caterpillar state Joe 1:4 2:25 - The word is
rendered "caterpillar" in Psa 105:34 Jer 51:14-17 - (but R.V.
"canker-worm"). "It spoileth and fleeth away" Nah 3:16 - or as some
read the passage, "The cankerworm putteth off [i.e., the envelope of
its wings], and fleeth away."


Mentioned only in Eze 27:23.

See CALNEH 00696.


This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a reed or
cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to keep
straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or measured. It
came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote that they contained
the authoritative rule of faith and practice, the standard of
doctrine and duty. A book is said to be of canonical authority when
it has a right to take a place with the other books which contain a
revelation of the Divine will. Such a right does not arise from any
ecclesiastical authority, but from the evidence of the inspired
authorship of the book. The canonical (i.e., the inspired) books of
the Old and New Testaments, are a complete rule, and the only rule,
of faith and practice. They contain the whole supernatural revelation
of God to men. The New Testament Canon was formed gradually under
divine guidance. The different books as they were written came into
the possession of the Christian associations which began to be formed
soon after the day of Pentecost; and thus slowly the canon increased
till all the books were gathered together into one collection
containing the whole of the twenty-seven New Testament inspired
books. Historical evidence shows that from about the middle of the
second century this New Testament collection was substantially such
as we now possess. Each book contained in it is proved to have, on
its own ground, a right to its place; and thus the whole is of divine
authority. The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New
Testament writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in
the New from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much
more numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the
apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a
well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew writings
under the designation of "The Scriptures;" "The Law and the Prophets
and the Psalms;" "Moses and the Prophets," etc. The appeals to these
books, moreover, show that they were regarded as of divine authority,
finally deciding all questions of which they treat; and that the
whole collection so recognized consisted only of the thirty-nine
books which we now posses. Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic
the canon of the Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.)
also contained every book we now have in the Old Testament
Scriptures. As to the time at which the Old Testament canon was
closed, there are many considerations which point to that of Ezra and
Nehemiah, immediately after the return from Babylonian exile.

See BIBLE 00580.
See EZRA 01294.


Nahum's town, a Galilean city frequently mentioned in the history of
our Lord. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. After our Lord's
expulsion from Nazareth Mat 4:13-16 Luk 4:16-31 - Capernaum became his
"own city." It was the scene of many acts and incidents of his life
Mat 8:5,14,15 9:2-6,10-17 15:1-20 Mar 1:32-34 - etc. The impenitence and
unbelief of its inhabitants after the many evidences our Lord gave
among them of the truth of his mission, brought down upon them a
heavy denunciation of judgement Mat 11:23 - It stood on the western
shore of the Sea of Galilee. The "land of Gennesaret," near, if not
in, which it was situated, was one of the most prosperous and crowded
districts of Palestine. This city lay on the great highway from
Damascus to Acco and Tyre. It has been identified with Tell Hum,
about two miles south-west of where the Jordan flows into the lake.
Here are extensive ruins of walls and foundations, and also the
remains of what must have been a beautiful synagogue, which it is
conjectured may have been the one built by the centurion Luk 7:5 - in
which our Lord frequently taught Joh 6:59 Mar 1:21 Luk 4:33 - Others
have conjectured that the ruins of the city are to be found at Khan
Minyeh, some three miles further to the south on the shore of the
lake. "If Tell Hum be Capernaum, the remains spoken of are without
doubt the ruins of the synagogue built by the Roman centurion, and
one of the most sacred places on earth. It was in this building that
our Lord gave the well-known discourse in Joh 6:1 - and it was not
without a certain strange feeling that on turning over a large block
we found the pot of manna engraved on its face, and remembered the
words, 'I am that bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the
wilderness, and are dead.'", (The Recovery of Jerusalem.)


A chaplet, the original seat of the Philistines Deu 2:23 Jer 47:4.
Amo 9:7 - The name is found written in hieroglyphics in the temple of
Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. But the exact situation of Caphtor is
unknown, though it is supposed to be Crete, since the Philistines seem
to be meant by the "Cherethites" in 1Sa 30:14 - see also 2Sa 8:18.
It may, however, have been a part of Egypt, the Caphtur in the north
Delta, since the Caphtorim were of the same race as the Mizraite
people Gen 10:14 1Ch 1:12.


The easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor. Christianity
very early penetrated into this country 1Pe 1:1 - On the day of
Pentecost there were Cappadocians at Jerusalem Act 2:9.


1. Heb. sar 1Sa 22:2 2Sa 23:19 - Rendered "chief," Gen 40:2 41:9.
rendered also "prince," Dan 1:7 - "ruler," Jud 9:30 - "governor,'
1Ki 22:26 - This same Hebrew word denotes a military captain
Exo 18:21 2Ki 1:9 Deu 1:15 1Sa 18:13 - etc., the "captain of
the body-guard" Gen 37:36 39:1 41:10 Jer 40:1 - or, as the
word may be rendered, "chief of the executioners" (marg.). The
officers of the king's body-guard frequently acted as
executioners. Nebuzar-adan Jer 39:13 - and Arioch Dan 2:14.
held this office in Babylon. The "captain of the guard" mentioned
in Act 28:16 - was the Praetorian prefect, the commander of the
Praetorian troops.
2. Another word (Heb. katsin) so translated denotes sometimes a
military Jos 10:24 Jud 11:6,11 Isa 22:3 - "rulers;" Dan 11:18.
and sometimes a civil command, a judge, magistrate, Arab. - kady -,
Isa 1:10 3:6 Mic 3:1,9.
3. It is also the rendering of a Hebrew word (shalish) meaning "a
third man," or "one of three." The LXX. render in plural by
- tristatai -; i.e., "soldiers fighting from chariots," so called
because each war-chariot contained three men, one of whom acted
as charioteer while the other two fought Exo 14:7 15:4 1Ki 9:22.
comp. 2Ki 9:25 - This word is used also to denote the king's
body-guard 2Ki 10:25 1Ch 12:18 2Ch 11:11 - or aides-de-camp.
4. The "captain of the temple" mentioned in Act 4:1 5:24.
was not a military officer, but superintendent of the guard of
priests and Levites who kept watch in the temple by night.
(Comp. "the ruler of the house of God,") 1Ch 9:11 2Ch 31:13.
Neh 11:11.
5. The Captain of our salvation is a name given to our Lord
Heb 2:10 - because he is the author and source of our salvation,
the head of his people, whom he is conducting to glory. The
"captain of the Lord's host" Jos 5:14-15 - is the name given to
that mysterious person who manifested himself to Abraham
Gen 12:7 - and to Moses in the bush Exo 3:2,6 - etc. the Angel
of the covenant.

See ANGEL 00240.


One taken in war. Captives were often treated with great cruelty and
indignity 1Ki 20:32 Jos 10:24 Jud 1:7 2Sa 4:12 Jud 8:7 2Sa 12:31.
1Ch 20:3 - When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain,
and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves
Isa 20:1 47:3 2Ch 28:9-15 Psa 44:12 Joe 3:3 - and exposed to the most
cruel treatment Nah 3:10 Zec 14:2 Es 3:13 2Ki 8:12 Isa 13:16,18.
Captives were sometimes carried away into foreign countries, as was
the case with the Jews Jer 20:5 39:9-10 40:7.


1. Of Israel. The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively
invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute
on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver 2Ki 15:19-20 1Ch 5:26.
(B.C. 762) and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah (B.C. 738)
carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of
Galilee into Assyria 2Ki 15:29 Isa 9:1 - Subsequently
Shalmaneser invaded Israel and laid siege to Samaria, the
capital of the kingdom. During the siege he died, and was
succeeded by Sargon, who took the city, and transported the
great mass of the people into Assyria (B.C. 721) placing them in
Halah and in Habor, and in the cities of the Medes 2Ki 17:3,5.
Samaria was never again inhabited by the Israelites. The
families thus removed were carried to distant cities, many of
them not far from the Caspian Sea, and their place was supplied
by colonists from Babylon and Cuthah, etc. 2Ki 17:24 - Thus
terminated the kingdom of the ten tribes, after a separate
duration of two hundred and fifty-five years (B.C. 975) Many
speculations have been indulged in with reference to these ten
tribes. But we believe that all, except the number that probably
allied themselves with Judah and shared in their restoration
under Cyrus, are finally lost. "Like the dew on the mountain,
Like the foam on the river, Like the bubble on the fountain,
They are gone, and for ever."
2. Of Judah. In the third year of Jehoiachim, the eighteenth king
of Judah (B.C. 605) Nebuchadnezzar having overcome the
Egyptians at Carchemish, advanced to Jerusalem with a great
army. After a brief siege he took that city, and carried away
the vessels of the sanctuary to Babylon, and dedicated them in
the Temple of Belus 2Ki 24:1 2Ch 36:6-7 Dan 1:1-2 - He also
carried away the treasures of the king, whom he made his vassal.
At this time, from which is dated the "seventy years" of
captivity Jer 25:1 - Dan 9:1-2 - Daniel and his companions were
carried to Babylon, there to be brought up at the court and
trained in all the learning of the Chaldeans. After this, in the
fifth year of Jehoiakim, a great national fast was appointed
Jer 36:9 - during which the king, to show his defiance, cut up
the leaves of the book of Jeremiah's prophecies as they were
read to him in his winter palace, and threw them into the fire.
In the same spirit he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar 2Ki 24:1.
who again a second time (B.C. 598) marched against Jerusalem,
and put Jehoiachim to death, placing his son Jehoiachin on the
throne in his stead. But Jehoiachin's counsellors displeasing
Nebuchadnezzar, he again a third time turned his army against
Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon a second detachment of
Jews as captives, to the number of 10,000 2Ki 24:13 Jer 24:1.
2Ch 36:10 - among whom were the king, with his mother and all his
princes and officers, also Ezekiel, who with many of his
companions were settled on the banks of the river Chebar (q.v.).
He also carried away all the remaining treasures of the temple
and the palace, and the golden vessels of the sanctuary.
Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, was now made king over what
remained of the kingdom of Judah, under the name of Zedekiah
2Ki 24:17 2Ch 36:10 - After a troubled reign of eleven years his
kingdom came to an end 2Ch 36:11 - Nebuchadnezzar, with a
powerful army, besieged Jerusalem, and Zedekiah became a
prisoner in Babylon. His eyes were put out, and he was kept in
close confinement till his death 2Ki 25:7 - The city was spoiled
of all that was of value, and then given up to the flames. The
temple and palaces were consumed, and the walls of the city were
levelled with the ground (B.C. 586) and all that remained of
the people, except a number of the poorest class who were left
to till the ground and dress the vineyards, were carried away
captives to Babylon. This was the third and last deportation of
Jewish captives. The land was now utterly desolate, and was
abondoned to anarchy. In the first year of his reign as king of
Babylon (B.C. 536) Cyrus issued a decree liberating the Jewish
captives, and permitting them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild
the city and the temple 2Ch 36:22-23 Ezr 1:1-2:1 - The
number of the people forming the first caravan, under
Zerubbabel, amounted in all to 42,360 Ezr 2:64-65 - besides
7,337 men-servants and maid-servants. A considerable number,
12,000 probably, from the ten tribes who had been carried away
into Assyria no doubt combined with this band of liberated
captives. At a later period other bands of the Jews returned
a. under Ezr 7:7 - (B.C. 458) and
b. Nehemiah Neh 7:66 - (B.C. 445) But the great mass of the
people remained still in the land to which they had been
carried, and became a portion of the Jews of the
"dispersion" Joh 7:35 1Pe 1:1 - The whole number of the
exiles that chose to remain was probably about six times
the number of those who returned.

See EXILE 01282.


Exo 28:17 39:10 Eze 28:13 - Heb. barkath; LXX. smaragdos; Vulgate,
smaragdus; Revised Version, marg., "emerald." The Hebrew word is from
a root meaning "to glitter," "lighten," "flash." When held up to the
sun, this gem shines like a burning coal, a dark-red glowing coal,
and hence is called "carbunculus", i.e., a little coal. It was one of
the jewels in the first row of the high priest's breastplate. It has
been conjectured by some that the garnet is meant. In Isa 54:12 - the
Hebrew word is - 'ekdah -, used in the prophetic description of the
glory and beauty of the mansions above. Next to the diamond it is the
hardest and most costly of all precious stones.


Contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made
whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law
Hag 2:13 - comp. Num 19:16,22 Lev 11:39.


Fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates
Jer 46:2 2Ch 35:20 - not, as was once supposed, the Circesium at the
confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but a city considerably
higher up the river, and commanding the ordinary passage of the
Euphrates; probably identical with Hierapolis. It was the capital of
the kingdom of the northern Hittites. The Babylonian army, under
Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, here met and conquered the
army of Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt (B.C. 607) It is mentioned in
monuments in B.C. 1600 and down to B.C. 717


A park; generally with the article, "the park."
1. A prominent headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several
connected hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the
sea, a distance of some 12 miles or more. At the east end, in
its highest part, it is 1,728 feet high, and at the west end it
forms a promontory to the bay of Acre about 600 feet above the
sea. It lay within the tribe of Asher. It was here, at the east
end of the ridge, at a place called el-Mukhrakah (i.e., the
place of burning), that Elijah brought back the people to their
allegiance to God, and slew the prophets of Baal 1Ki 18:1.
Here were consumed the "fifties" of the royal guard; and here
also Elisha received the visit of the bereaved mother whose son
was restored by him to life 2Ki 4:25-37 - "No mountain in or
around Palestine retains its ancient beauty so much as Carmel.
Two or three villages and some scattered cottages are found on
it; its groves are few but luxuriant; it is no place for crags
and precipices or rocks of wild goats; but its surface is
covered with a rich and constant verdure." "The whole
mountain-side is dressed with blossom, and flowering shrubs, and
fragrant herbs." The western extremity of the ridge is, however,
more rocky and bleak than the eastern. The head of the bride in
Son 7:5 - is compared to Carmel. It is ranked with Bashan on
account of its rich pastures Isa 33:9 Jer 50:19 Amo 1:2 - The
whole ridge is deeply furrowed with rocky ravines filled with
dense jungle. There are many caves in its sides, which at one
time were inhabited by swarms of monks. These caves are referred
to in Amo 9:3 - To them Elijah and Elisha often resorted
1Ki 18:19,42 2Ki 2:25 - On its north-west summit there is an
ancient establishment of Carmelite monks. Vineyards have
recently been planted on the mount by the German colonists of
Haifa. The modern Arabic name of the mount is Kurmul, but more
commonly Jebel Mar Elyas, i.e., Mount St. Elias, from the
Convent of Elias.
2. A town in the hill country of Judah Jos 15:55 - the residence of
Nabal 1Sa 25:2,5,7,40 - and the native place of Abigail, who
became David's wife 1Sa 27:3 - Here king Uzziah had his vineyards
2Ch 26:10 - The ruins of this town still remain under the name of
Kurmul, about 10 miles south-south-east of Hebron, close to
those of Maon.


1. The last named of the four sons of Reuben Gen 46:9.
2. A descendant of Judah 1Ch 4:1 - He is elsewhere 1Ch 2:18 - called
Caleb (q.v.).
3. The son of Zimri, and the father of Achan Jos 7:1 - "the troubler
of Israel."


Unconverted men are so called 1Co 3:3 - They are represented as of a
"carnal mind, which is enmity against God" Rom 8:6-7 - Enjoyments that
minister to the wants and desires of man's animal nature are so
called Rom 15:27 1Co 9:11 - The ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken
of as "carnal," because it related to things outward, the bodies of
men and of animals, and the purification of the flesh Heb 7:16 9:10.
The weapons of Christian warfare are "not carnal", that is, they are
not of man's device, nor are wielded by human power 2Co 10:4.


An artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood 2Sa 5:11.
1Ch 14:1 Mar 6:3 - The tools used by carpenters are mentioned in
1Sa 13:19-20 Jud 4:21 Isa 10:15 44:13 - It was said of our Lord, "Is
not this the carpenter's son?" Mat 13:55 - also, "Is not this the
carpenter?" Mar 6:3 - Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some
handicraft: Paul was a tentmaker. "In the cities the carpenters would
be Greeks, and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village
could only have held a very humble position, and secured a very
moderate competence."


In the Authorized Version this word is found as the rendering of many
different words. In Jud 18:21 - it means valuables, wealth, or booty.
In Isa 46:1 - (R.V., "the things that ye carried about") the word
means a load for a beast of burden. In 1Sa 17:22 Isa 10:28 - it
is the rendering of a word ("stuff" in) 1Sa 10:22 - meaning
implements, equipments, baggage. The phrase in Act 21:15 - "We took up
our carriages," means properly, "We packed up our baggage," as in the
Revised Version.


A vehicle moving on wheels, and usually drawn by oxen 2Sa 6:3 - The
Hebrew word thus rendered, - 'agalah - 1Sa 6:7-8 - is also rendered
"wagon" Gen 45:19 - It is used also to denote a war-chariot Psa 46:9.
Carts were used for the removal of the ark and its sacred utensils
Num 7:3,6 - After retaining the ark amongst them for seven months, the
Philistines sent it back to the Israelites. On this occasion they set
it in a new cart, probably a rude construction, with solid wooden
wheels like that still used in Western Asia, which was drawn by two
milch cows, which conveyed it straight to Beth-shemesh. A "cart
rope," for the purpose of fastening loads on carts, is used Isa 5:18.
as a symbol of the power of sinful pleasures or habits over him who
indulges them.
See CORD 00898.
In Syria and Palestine wheel-carriages for any other purpose than the
conveyance of agricultural produce are almost unknown.


The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews.
They were practised in connection with the construction of the
tabernacle and the temple Exo 31:2,5 35:33 1Ki 6:18,35 Psa 74:6 - as
well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses Exo 28:9-36.
Zec 3:9 2Ch 2:7,14. Isaiah Isa 44:13-17 - gives a minute description
of the process of carving idols of wood.


A barrier of open-work placed before windows Pro 7:6 - In Jud 5:28 - the
Hebrew word is rendered "lattice," in the LXX. "network," an opening
through which cool air is admitted.


Silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided
Ezr 8:17 - otherwise unknown.


Fortified, a people descended from Mizraim Gen 10:14 1Ch 1:12 - Their
original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the
sea-coast to the south border of Palestine.


1. Hebrew - kiddah' -, i.e., "split." One of the principal spices of
the holy anointing oil Exo 30:24 - and an article of commerce
Eze 27:19 - It is the inner bark of a tree resembling the
cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of botanists, and was
probably imported from India.
2. Hebrew pl. - ketzi'oth - Psa 45:8 - Mentioned in connection with
myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garments. It was probably
prepared from the peeled bark, as the Hebrew word suggests, of
some kind of cinnamon.


Gr. adokimos, 1Co 9:27 - one regarded as unworthy (R.V., "rejected");
elsewhere rendered "reprobate" 2Ti 3:8 - etc.; "rejected" Heb 6:8.


A military fortress 1Ch 11:7 - also probably a kind of tower used by
the priests for making known anything discovered at a distance
1Ch 6:54 - Castles are also mentioned Gen 25:16 - as a kind of
watch-tower, from which shepherds kept watch over their flocks by
night. The "castle" into which the chief captain commanded Paul to be
brought was the quarters of the Roman soldiers in the fortress of
Antonia (so called by Herod after his patron Mark Antony), which was
close to the north-west corner of the temple Act 21:34 - which it

Castor and Pollux

The "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their
figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship
which Luke refers to Act 28:11 - They were regarded as the tutelary
divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the
constellation Gemini.


The consumer. Used in the Old Testament 1Ki 8:37 2Ch 6:28 Psa 78:46,
Isa 33:4 - as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means
"to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to
the locust in Deu 28:38 - It may have been a species of locust, or the
name of one of the transformations through which the locust passes,
locust-grub. It is also found Psa 105:34 Jer 51:14,27 - (R.V.,
"cankerworm") as the rendering of a different Hebrew word, - yelek -, a
word elsewhere rendered "cankerworm" (q.v.), Joe 1:4 2:25.

See LOCUST 02309.

Catholic Epistles

The epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they
are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or
person in particular.


Abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them the
inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves Deu 8:13 12:21 1Sa 11:5 12:3.
Psa 144:14 Jer 3:24 - They may be classified as,
1. Meat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in
sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in
Bashan, beyond Jordan Num 32:4 - Large herds also pastured on the
wide fertile plains of Sharon. They were yoked to the plough
1Ki 19:19 - and were employed for carrying burdens 1Ch 12:40.
They were driven with a pointed rod Jud 3:31 - or goad (q.v.).
According to the Mosaic law, the mouths of cattle employed for
the threshing-floor were not to be muzzled, so as to prevent
them from eating of the provender over which they trampled
Deu 25:4 - Whosoever stole and sold or slaughtered an ox must
give five in satisfaction Exo 22:1 - but if it was found
alive in the possession of him who stole it, he was required to
make double restitution only Exo 22:4 - If an ox went astray,
whoever found it was required to bring it back to its owner
Exo 23:4 Deu 22:1,4 - An ox and an ass could not be yoked
together in the plough Deu 22:10.
2. Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed the
most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of
Palestine Gen 12:16 13:5 26:14 21:27 29:2-3 - They are frequently
mentioned among the booty taken in war Num 31:32 Jos 6:21.
1Sa 14:32 15:3 - There were many who were owners of large flocks
1Sa 25:2 2Sa 12:2 - comp. Job 1:3 - Kings also had shepherds
"over their flocks" 1Ch 27:31 - from which they derived a
large portion of their revenue 2Sa 17:29 1Ch 12:40 - The
districts most famous for their flocks of sheep were the plain
of Sharon Isa 65:10 - Mount Carmel Mic 7:14 - Bashan and
Gilead Mic 7:14 - In patriarchal times the flocks of sheep
were sometimes tended by the daughters of the owners. Thus
Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her father's sheep Gen 29:9.
as also Zipporah and her six sisters had charge of their father
Jethro's flocks Exo 2:16 - Sometimes they were kept by hired
shepherds Joh 10:12 - and sometimes by the sons of the
family 1Sa 16:11 17:15 - The keepers so familiarized their
sheep with their voices that they knew them, and followed them
at their call. Sheep, but more especially rams and lambs, were
frequently offered in sacrifice. The shearing of sheep was a
great festive occasion 1Sa 25:4 2Sa 13:23 - They were folded
at night, and guarded by their keepers against the attacks of
the lion Mic 5:8 - the bear 1Sa 17:34 - and the wolf
Mat 10:16 Joh 10:12 - They were liable to wander over the
wide pastures and go astray Psa 119:176 Isa 53:6 Hos 4:16 Mat 18:12.
Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Palestine
Gen 15:9 32:14 37:31 - They were used both for sacrifice and
for food Deu 14:4 - especially the young males Gen 27:9,14,17.
Jud 6:19 13:15 1Sa 16:20 - Goat's hair was used for making tent
cloth Exo 26:7 36:14 - and for mattresses and bedding
1Sa 19:13,16.

See GOAT 01509.


(Heb. yothe'reth; i.e., "something redundant"), the membrane which
covers the upper part of the liver Exo 29:13,22 Lev 3:4,10,15 4:9 7:4.
marg., "midriff"). In Hos 13:8 - (Heb. seghor; i.e., "an enclosure")
the pericardium, or parts about the heart, is meant.


In Isa 3:18 - this word (Heb. shebisim), in the marg. "networks,"
denotes network caps to contain the hair, worn by females. Others
explain it as meaning "wreaths worn round the forehead, reaching from
one ear to the other."


A raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion and
the temple 1Ch 26:16,18 - In 2Ch 9:11 - the same word is translated


There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of Syria,
many of which have been artificially enlarged for various purposes.
The first notice of a cave occurs in the history of Lot Gen 19:30 - The
next we read of is the cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham
purchased from the sons of Heth Gen 25:9-10 - It was the burying-place
of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also of Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and
Jacob Gen 49:31 50:13 - The cave of Makkedah, into which the five
Amorite kings retired after their defeat by Joshua Jos 10:16,27 - The
cave of Adullam (q.v.), an immense natural cavern, where David hid
himself from Saul 1Sa 22:1-2 - The cave of Engedi (q.v.), now called
'Ain Jidy, i.e., the "Fountain of the Kid", where David cut off the
skirt of Saul's robe 1Sa 24:4 - Here he also found a shelter for
himself and his followers to the number of 600 1Sa 23:29 24:1 - "On
all sides the country is full of caverns which might serve as
lurking-places for David and his men, as they do for outlaws at the
present day." The cave in which Obadiah hid the prophets 1Ki 18:4.
was probably in the north, but it cannot be identified. The cave of
Elijah 1Ki 19:9 - and the "cleft" of Moses on Horeb Exo 33:22 - cannot
be determined. In the time of Gideon the Israelites took refuge from
the Midianites in dens and caves, such as abounded in the mountain
regions of Manasseh Jud 6:2 - Caves were frequently used as
dwelling-places Num 24:21 So 2:14 Jer 49:16 Ob 1:3 - "The excavations
at Deir Dubban, on the south side of the wady leading to Santa
Hanneh, are probably the dwellings of the Horites," the ancient
inhabitants of Idumea Proper. The pits or cavities in rocks were also
sometimes used as prisons Isa 24:22 51:14 Zec 9:11 - Those which had
niches in their sides were occupied as burying-places
Eze 32:23 Joh 11:38.


(Heb. e'rez, Gr. kedros, Lat. cedrus), a tree very frequently
mentioned in Scripture. It was stately Eze 31:3-5 - long-branched
Psa 80:10 92:12 Eze 31:6-9 - odoriferous Son 4:11 Hos 14:6 - durable, and
therefore much used for boards, pillars, and ceilings 1Ki 6:9-10 7:2.
Jer 22:14 - for masts Eze 27:5 - and for carved images Isa 44:14 - It
grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on Lebanon, of
which it was "the glory" Isa 35:2 60:13 - Hiram supplied Solomon with
cedar trees from Lebanon for various purposes connected with the
construction of the temple and the king's palace 2Sa 5:11 7:2,7.
1Ki 5:6,8,10 6:9-10,15-16,18,20 7:2-3,7,11-12 9:11 - etc. Cedars were
used also in the building of the second temple under Zerubbabel
Ezr 3:7 - Of the ancient cedars of Lebanon there remain now only some
seven or eight. They are not standing together. But beside them there are
found between three hundred and four hundred of younger growth. They
stand in an amphitheatre fronting the west, about 6,400 feet above
the level of the sea. The cedar is often figuratively alluded to in
the sacred Scriptures. "The mighty conquerors of olden days, the
despots of Assyria and the Pharaohs of Egypt, the proud and
idolatrous monarchs of Judah, the Hebrew commonwealth itself, the
war-like Ammonites of patriarchal times, and the moral majesty of the
Messianic age, are all compared to the towering cedar, in its royal
loftiness and supremacy Isa 2:13 Eze 17:3,22-23 31:3-9 Amo 2:9.
Zec 11:1-2 Job 40:17 Psa 29:5 80:10 92:12 - etc.", Groser's Scrip. Nat.

See BOX-TREE 00636.


The black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below the
eastern wall of Jerusalem Joh 18:1.

See KIDRON 02187.


The covering 1Ki 7:3,7 - of the inside roof and walls of a house with
planks of wood 2Ch 3:5 Jer 22:14 - Ceilings were sometimes adorned
with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The
ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described
1Ki 6:9,15 7:3 2Ch 3:5,9.


A subterranean vault 1Ch 27:28 - a storehouse. The word is also used to
denote the treasury of the temple 1Ki 7:51 - and of the king
1Ki 14:26 - The Hebrew word is rendered "garner" in Joe 1:17 - and
"armoury" in Jer 50:25.


Millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was distant
about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with the Asiatic
shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from his second
missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port Act 18:18. In
Rom 16:1 - he speaks as if there were at the time of his writing that
epistle an organized church there. The western harbour of Corinth was
Lechaeum, about a mile and a half from the city. It was the channel
of its trade with Italy and the west.


The vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before
the Lord in the temple Exo 30:1-9 - The priest filled the censer with
live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of burnt-offering, and
having carried it into the sanctuary, there threw upon the burning
coals the sweet incense Lev 16:12-13 - which sent up a cloud of smoke,
filling the apartment with fragrance. The censers in daily use were
of brass Num 16:39 - and were designated by a different Hebrew name,
- miktereth - 2Ch 26:19 Eze 8:11 - while those used on the day of
Atonement were of gold, and were denoted by a word (mahtah) meaning
"something to take fire with;" LXX. pureion a fire-pan. Solomon
prepared for the temple censers of pure gold 1Ki 7:50 2Ch 4:22 - The
angel in the Apocalypse is represented with a golden censer Rev 8:3,5.
Paul speaks of the golden censer as belonging to the tabernacle
Heb 9:4 - The Greek word thumiaterion, here rendered "censer," may
more appropriately denote, as in the margin of Revised Version, "the
altar of incense." Paul does not here say that the thumiaterion was
in the holiest, for it was in the holy place, but that the holiest
had it, i.e., that it belonged to the holiest 1Ki 6:22 - It was
intimately connected with the high priest's service in the holiest.
The manner in which the censer is to be used is described in
Num 4:14 Lev 16:12.


There are five instances of a census of the Jewish people having been
1. In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the people were
encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty years old and
upward was then 603,550 Exo 38:26.
2. Another census was made just before the entrance into Canaan,
when the number was found to be 601,000 showing thus a small
decrease Num 26:51.
3. The next census was in the time of David, when the number,
exclusive of the tribes of Levi and Benjamin, was found to be
1,300,000 2Sa 24:9 1Ch 21:5.
4. Solomon made a census of the foreigners in the land, and found
153,600 able-bodied workmen 2Ch 2:17-18.
5. After the return from Exile the whole congregation of Israel was
numbered, and found to amount to 42,360 Ezr 2:64 - A census was
made by the Roman government in the time of our Lord Luk 2:1.

See TAXING 03595.


A Roman officer in command of a hundred men Mar 15:39,44,45 - Cornelius,
the first Gentile convert, was a centurion Act 10:1-22 - Other
centurions are mentioned in Mat 8:5,8,13 Luk 7:2,6 Act 21:32 22:25-26.
Act 23:17,23 24:23 27:1,6,11,31,43 28:16 - A centurion watched the
crucifixion of our Lord Mat 27:54 Luk 23:47 - and when he saw the
wonders attending it, exclaimed, "Truly this man was the Son of God."
"The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly spoken
of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the Acts. It is
interesting to compare this with the statement of Polybius (vi. 24)
that the centurions were chosen by merit, and so were men remarkable
not so much for their daring courage as for their deliberation,
constancy, and strength of mind.", Dr. Maclear's N. T. Hist.


A Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon Joh 1:42 - meaning "rock."
The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus.


See CAESAREA 00682.


The refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned Exo 15:7 Isa 5:24.
Mat 3:12 - This word sometimes, however, means dried grass or hay
Isa 5:24 33:11 - Chaff is used as a figure of abortive wickedness
Psa 1:4 Mat 3:12 - False doctrines are also called chaff Jer 23:28.
or more correctly rendered "chopped straw." The destruction of the
wicked, and their powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of
chaff by the wind Isa 17:13 Hos 13:3 Zep 2:2.


1. A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed
about Joseph's neck Gen 41:42 - and one was promised to Daniel
Dan 5:7 - It is used as a symbol of sovereignty Eze 16:11 - The
breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by
golden chains Exo 39:17,21.
2. It was used as an ornament Pro 1:9 So 1:10 - The Midianites
adorned the necks of their camels with chains Jud 8:21,26.
3. Chains were also used as fetters wherewith prisoners were bound
Jud 16:21 2Sa 3:34 2Ki 25:7 Jer 39:7 - Paul was in this manner
bound to a Roman soldier Act 28:20 Eph 6:20 2Ti 1:16 - Sometimes,
for the sake of greater security, the prisoner was attached by
two chains to two soldiers, as in the case of Peter Act 12:6.


Mentioned only in Rev 21:19 - as one of the precious stones in the
foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived
from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In
modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a
bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended
in Revelation is probably the Hebrew - nophekh -, translated "emerald"
Exo 28:18 39:11 Eze 27:16 28:13 - It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX.,
and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate.

See CARBUNCLE 00721.


The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on
the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of
the Mesopotamian plain. The Hebrew name is Kasdim, which is usually
rendered "Chaldeans" Jer 50:10 51:24,35 - The country so named is a
vast plain formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris,
extending to about 400 miles along the course of these rivers, and
about 100 miles in average breadth. "In former days the vast plains
of Babylon were nourished by a complicated system of canals and
water-courses, which spread over the surface of the country like a
network. The wants of a teeming population were supplied by a rich
soil, not less bountiful than that on the banks of the Egyptian Nile.
Like islands rising from a golden sea of waving corn stood frequent
groves of palm-trees and pleasant gardens, affording to the idler or
traveller their grateful and highly-valued shade. Crowds of
passengers hurried along the dusty roads to and from the busy city.
The land was rich in corn and wine." Recent discoveries, more
especially in Babylonia, have thrown much light on the history of the
Hebrew patriarchs, and have illustrated or confirmed the Biblical
narrative in many points. The ancestor of the Hebrew people, Abram,
was, we are told, born at "Ur of the Chaldees." "Chaldees" is a
mistranslation of the Hebrew - Kasdim -, Kasdim being the Old Testament
name of the Babylonians, while the Chaldees were a tribe who lived on
the shores of the Persian Gulf, and did not become a part of the
Babylonian population till the time of Hezekiah. Ur was one of the
oldest and most famous of the Babylonian cities. Its site is now
called Mugheir, or Mugayyar, on the western bank of the Euphrates, in
Southern Babylonia. About a century before the birth of Abram it was
ruled by a powerful dynasty of kings. Their conquests extended to
Elam on the one side, and to the Lebanon on the other. They were
followed by a dynasty of princes whose capital was Babylon, and who
seem to have been of South Arabian origin. The founder of the dynasty
was Sumu-abi ("Shem is my father"). But soon afterwards Babylonia
fell under Elamite dominion. The kings of Babylon were compelled to
acknowledge the supremacy of Elam, and a rival kingdom to that of
Babylon, and governed by Elamites, sprang up at Larsa, not far from
Ur, but on the opposite bank of the river. In the time of Abram the
king of Larsa was Eri-Aku, the son of an Elamite prince, and Eri-Aku,
as has long been recognized, is the Biblical "Arioch king of Ellasar"
Gen 14:1 - The contemporaneous king of Babylon in the north, in the
country termed Shinar in Scripture, was Khammu-rabi.

See BABYLON 00409.
See ABRAHAM 00054.
See AMRAPHEL 00221.

Chaldee Language

Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old
Testament, viz., Dan 2:4-7,28 Ezr 4:8-Ezr 6:18 7:12-26 Ge 31:46.
Jer 10:11 - It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes called,
as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the language of
commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the
Exile gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. It is
called "Syrian" in 2Ki 18:26 - Some isolated words in this
language are preserved in the New Testament Mat 5:22 6:24 16:17 27:46.
Mar 3:17 5:41 7:34 14:36 Act 1:19 1Co 16:22 - These are specimens of
the vernacular language of Palestine at that period. The term
"Hebrew" was also sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had
become the language of the Hebrews Joh 5:2 19:20.


Or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon was the
capital. They were so called till the time of the Captivity 2Ki 25:1.
Isa 13:19 23:13 - when, particularly in the Book of Daniel
Dan 5:30 9:1 - the name began to be used with special reference to
a class of learned men ranked with the magicians and astronomers.
These men cultivated the ancient Cushite language of the original
inhabitants of the land, for they had a "learning" and a "tongue"
Dan 1:4 - of their own. The common language of the country at that
time had become assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially
through the influence of the Assyrians, and was the language that was
used for all civil purposes. The Chaldeans were the learned class,
interesting themselves in science and religion, which consisted, like
that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of the
heavenly bodies. There are representations of this priestly class,
of magi and diviners, on the walls of the Assyrian palaces.


"on the wall," which the Shunammite prepared for the prophet Elisha
2Ki 4:10 - was an upper chamber over the porch through the hall toward
the street. This was the "guest chamber" where entertainments were
prepared Mar 14:14 - There were also "chambers within chambers"
1Ki 22:25 2Ki 9:2 - To enter into a chamber is used metaphorically of
prayer and communion with God Isa 26:20 - The "chambers of the south"
Job 9:9 - are probably the constelations of the southern hemisphere.
The "chambers of imagery", i.e., chambers painted with images, as
used by Ezekiel Eze 8:12 - is an expression denoting the vision the
prophet had of the abominations practised by the Jews in Jerusalem.


Rom 13:13 - wantonness, impurity.


A confidential servant of the king Gen 37:36 39:1-5 - In Rom 16:23.
mention is made of "Erastus the chamberlain." Here the word denotes the
treasurer of the city, or the quaestor, as the Romans styled him. He is
almost the only convert from the higher ranks of whom mention is made
(comp.) Act 17:34 - Blastus, Herod's "chamberlain" Act 12:20 - was his
personal attendant or valet-de-chambre. The Hebrew word - saris -, thus
translated in Est 1:10,15 2:3,14,21 - etc., properly means an eunuch
(as in the marg.), as it is rendered in Isa 39:7 56:3.


A species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour of
its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev 11:30 - where
the Hebrew word so translated is - coah - (R.V., "land crocodile"). In
the same verse the Hebrew - tanshemeth -, rendered in Authorized
Version "mole," is in Revised Version "chameleon," which is the
correct rendering. This animal is very common in Egypt and in the
Holy Land, especially in the Jordan valley.


Only in Deu 14:5 - (Heb. zemer), an animal of the deer or gazelle
species. It bears this Hebrew name from its leaping or springing. The
animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus), which
is still found in Sinai and in the broken ridges of Stony Arabia. The
LXX. and Vulgate render the word by camelopardus, i.e., the giraffe;
but this is an animal of Central Africa, and is not at all known in


1Sa 17:4,23 - properly "the man between the two," denoting the position
of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of this kind at the
head of armies were common in ancient times. In 1Sa 17:51 - this word
is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and properly denotes "a
mighty man."


Luk 10:31 - "It was not by chance that the priest came down by that road
at that time, but by a specific arrangement and in exact fulfilment
of a plan; not the plan of the priest, nor the plan of the wounded
traveller, but the plan of God. By coincidence (Gr. sungkuria) the
priest came down, that is, by the conjunction of two things, in fact,
which were previously constituted a pair in the providence of God. In
the result they fell together according to the omniscient Designer's
plan. This is the true theory of the divine government." Compare the
meeting of Philip with the Ethiopian Act 8:26-27 - There is no "chance"
in God's empire. "Chance" is only another word for our want of
knowledge as to the way in which one event falls in with another
1Sa 6:9 Ec 9:11.


One who has judicial authority, literally, a "lord of judgement;" a
title given to the Persian governor of Samaria Ezr 4:8-9,17.

Changes of Raiment

Were reckoned among the treasures of rich men Gen 45:22 Jud 14:12-13.
2Ki 5:22,23.


1. The bed of the sea or of a river Psa 18:15 Isa 8:7.
2. The "chanelbone" Job 31:22 - marg., properly "tube" or "shaft,"
an old term for the collar-bone.


A holy place or sanctuary, occurs only in Amo 7:13 - where one of the
idol priests calls Bethel "the king's chapel."


The ornamental head or capital of a pillar. Three Hebrew words are so
1. - Cothereth - 1Ki 7:16 2Ki 25:17 2Ch 4:12 - meaning a "diadem" or
2. - Tzepheth - 2Ch 3:15.
3. - Rosh - Exo 36:38 38:17,19,28 - properly a "head" or "top."


The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an early
time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by the ancient
Hebrews into 54 - parshioth - or sections, one of which was read in
the synagogue every Sabbath day Act 13:15 - These sections were
afterwards divided into 669 - sidrim - or orders of unequal length.
The Prophets were divided in somewhat the same manner into
- haphtaroth - or passages. In the early Latin and Greek versions of
the Bible, similar divisions of the several books were made. The New
Testament books were also divided into portions of various lengths
under different names, such as titles and heads or chapters. In
modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many attempts of
the kind were made before the existing division into chapters was
fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo of St. Cher in A.D.
1240 is generally regarded as the first Bible that was divided into
our present chapters, although it appears that some of the chapters
were fixed as early as A.D. 1059 This division into chapters came
gradually to be adopted in the published editions of the Hebrew, with
some few variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other


Craftsmen, a valley named in 1Ch 4:14 - In Neh 11:35 - the Hebrew word
is rendered "valley of craftsmen" (R.V. marg., Geha-rashim). Nothing
is known of it.


A bowl or deep dish. The silver vessels given by the heads of the
tribes for the services of the tabernacle are so named Num 7:13 - etc.
The "charger" in which the Baptist's head was presented was a platter
or flat wooden trencher Mat 14:8,11 Mar 6:25,28 - The chargers of gold
and silver of Ezr 1:9 - were probably basins for receiving the blood
of sacrifices.


A vehicle generally used for warlike purposes. Sometimes, though but
rarely, it is spoken of as used for peaceful purposes. The first
mention of the chariot is when Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was
placed in Pharaoh's second state chariot Gen 41:43 - and the next, when
he went out in his own chariot to meet his father Jacob Gen 46:29.
Chariots formed part of the funeral procession of Jacob Gen 50:9 - When
Pharaoh pursued the Israelites he took 600 war-chariots with him
Exo 14:7 - The Canaanites in the valleys of Palestine had chariots of
iron Jos 17:18 Jud 1:19 - Jabin, the king of Canaan, had 900
chariots Jud 4:3 - and in Saul's time the Philistines had 30,000 In
his wars with the king of Zobah and with the Syrians, David took many
chariots among the spoils 2Sa 8:4 10:18 - Solomon maintained as part
of his army 1,400 chariots 1Ki 10:26 - which were chiefly imported
from Egypt 1Ki 10:29. From this time forward they formed part of
the armies of Israel 1Ki 22:34 2Ki 9:16,21 13:7,14 18:24 23:30. In
the New Testament we have only one historical reference to the use of
chariots, in the case of the Ethiopian eunuch Act 8:28-29,38 - This
word is sometimes used figuratively for hosts Psa 68:17 2Ki 6:17.
Elijah, by his prayers and his counsel, was "the chariot of Israel,
and the horsemen thereof." The rapid agency of God in the phenomena
of nature is also spoken of under the similitude of a chariot
Psa 104:3 Isa 66:15 Hab 3:8 - Chariot of the cherubim 1Ch 28:18 - the
chariot formed by the two cherubs on the mercy-seat on which the Lord
rides. Chariot cities were set apart for storing the war-chariots in
time of peace 2Ch 1:14 - Chariot horses were such as were peculiarly
fitted for service in chariots 2Ki 7:14 - Chariots of war are
described in Exo 14:7 1Sa 13:5 2Sa 8:4 1Ch 18:4 Jos 11:4 Jud 4:3,13.
They were not used by the Israelites till the time of David. Elijah
was translated in a "chariot of fire" 2Ki 2:11 - Comp. 2Ki 6:17.
This vision would be to Elisha a source of strength and encouragement,
for now he could say, "They that be with us are more than they that be
with them."


1Co 13:1 - the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word which
properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered (always so in
the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the greatest of the three
Christian graces 1Co 12:31 13:1-13.


One who practises serpent-charming Psa 58:5 Jer 8:17 Ec 10:11 - It was
an early and universal opinion that the most venomous reptiles could
be made harmless by certain charms or by sweet sounds. It is well
known that there are jugglers in India and in other Eastern lands who
practise this art at the present day. In Isa 19:3 - the word
"charmers" is the rendering of the Hebrew - 'ittim -, meaning,
properly, necromancers (R.V. marg., "whisperers"). In Deu 18:11 - the
word "charmer" means a dealer in spells, especially one who, by
binding certain knots, was supposed thereby to bind a curse or a
blessing on its object. In Isa 3:3 - the words "eloquent orator"
should be, as in the Revised Version, "skilful enchanter."


Another form Act 7:2,4 - of Haran (q.v.).

See HARAN 01635.


Length, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" Eze 1:3 - on the banks
of which were located some of the Jews of the Captivity Eze 1:1.
Eze 3:15,23 10:15,20,22 - It has been supposed to be identical with the
river Habor, the Chaboras, or modern Khabour, which falls into the
Euphrates at Circesium. To the banks of this river some of the
Israelites were removed by the Assyrians 2Ki 17:6 - An opinion that
has much to support it is that the "Chebar" was the royal canal of
Nebuchadnezzar, the Nahr Malcha, the greatest in Mesopotamia, which
connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, in the excavation of which
the Jewish captives were probably employed.


(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many centuries
before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had
been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham
himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignity
over Syria and Palestine. The kings of the dynasty bore names which
were not Babylonian, but at once South Arabic and Hebrew. The most
famous king of the dynasty was Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia
under one rule, and made Babylon its capital. When he ascended the
throne, the country was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was
divided into two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and
that of Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku
("the servant of the moon-god"), the son of an Elamite prince,
Kudur-Mabug, who is entitled "the father of the land of the
Amorites." A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the enemies
of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar ("the servant of the goddess Lagamar")
or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and Tudkhula or Tidal.
Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some
scholars, succeeded in overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites
out of Babylonia. Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian
conquerors, mentions in two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635
years after Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It
was in the year B.C. 660 that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.


Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult
Job 16:10 La 3:30 Mic 5:1 - The admonition Luk 6:29 - "Unto him that
smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other," means simply,
"Resist not evil" Mat 5:39 1Pe 2:19-23 Psa 3:7 - = that God had
deprived his enemies of the power of doing him injury.


(A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as
the translation of three different Hebrew words:
1. 1Sa 17:18 - "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd.
2. 2Sa 17:29 - "cheese of kine" perhaps curdled milk of kine. The
Vulgate version reads "fat calves."
3. Job 10:10 - curdled milk is meant by the word.


Black, Zep 1:4 - rendered "idolatrous priests" in 2Ki 23:5 - and
"priests" in Hos 10:5 - Some derive this word from the Assyrian Kamaru,
meaning "to throw down," and interpret it as describing the
idolatrous priests who prostrate themselves before the idols. Others
regard it as meaning "those who go about in black," or "ascetics."


The destroyer, subduer, or fish-god, the god of the Moabites Num 21:29.
Jer 48:7,13,46 - The worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab,"
was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon 1Ki 11:7 - but was abolished by
Josiah 2Ki 23:13 - On the "Moabite Stone" (q.v.), Mesha 2Ki 3:5.
ascribes his victories over the king of Israel to this god, "And
Chemosh drove him before my sight."


1. A Benjamite 1Ch 7:10.
2. The father of Zedekiah 1Ki 22:11,24.


Whom Jehovah hath made. "Chief of the Levites," probably a Kohathite
1Ch 15:22 - and therefore not the same as mentioned in 1Ch 26:29.


Village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with whom
Joshua made a league Jos 9:17 18:26 - It belonged to Benjamin. It has
been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west confines of
Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from Jerusalem.


Eze 25:16 - more frequently Cherethites, the inhabitants of Southern
Philistia, the Philistines Zep 2:5 - The Cherethites and the
Pelethites were David's life-guards 1Sa 30:14 2Sa 8:18 20:7,23 23:23.
This name is by some interpreted as meaning "Cretans," and by others
"executioners," who were ready to execute the king's sentence of
death (comp.) Gen 37:36 - marg.; 1Ki 2:25.


A cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a
"brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the
early part of the three years' drought 1Ki 17:3,5 - It has by some
been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho, which is formed
by the junction of many streams flowing from the mountains west of
Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have described it as one of
the wildest ravines of this wild region, and peculiarly fitted to
afford a secure asylum to the persecuted. But if the prophet's
interview with Ahab was in Samaria, and he thence journeyed toward
the east, it is probable that he crossed Jordan and found refuge in
some of the ravines of Gilead. The "brook" is said to have been
"before Jordan," which probably means that it opened toward that
river, into which it flowed. This description would apply to the east
as well as to the west of Jordan. Thus Elijah's hiding-place may have
been the Jermuk, in the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh.


Plural cherubim, the name of certain symbolical figures frequently
mentioned in Scripture. They are first mentioned in connection with
the expulsion of our first parents from Eden Gen 3:24 - There is no
intimation given of their shape or form. They are next mentioned when
Moses was commanded to provide furniture for the tabernacle
Exo 25:17-20 26:1,31 - God promised to commune with Moses "from between
the cherubim" Exo 25:22 - This expression was afterwards used to
denote the Divine abode and presence Num 7:89 1Sa 4:4 Isa 37:16.
Psa 80:1 99:1 - In Ezekiel's vision Eze 10:1-20 - they appear as
living creatures supporting the throne of God. From Ezekiel's
description of them Eze 1:10-25 41:18, 19 - they appear to have been
compound figures, unlike any real object in nature; artificial images
possessing the features and properties of several animals. Two
cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark; two of colossal
size overshadowed it in Solomon's temple. Ezekiel Eze 1:4-14 - speaks
of four; and this number of "living creatures" is mentioned in Rev 4:6.
Those on the ark are called the "cherubim of glory" Heb 9:5.
i.e., of the Shechinah, or cloud of glory, for on them the visible
glory of God rested. They were placed one at each end of the
mercy-seat, with wings stretched upward, and their faces "toward each
other and toward the mercy-seat." They were anointed with holy oil,
like the ark itself and the other sacred furniture. The cherubim were
symbolical. They were intended to represent spiritual existences in
immediate contact with Jehovah. Some have regarded them as symbolical
of the chief ruling power by which God carries on his operations in
providence Psa 18:10 - Others interpret them as having reference to the
redemption of men, and as symbolizing the great rulers or ministers
of the church. Many other opinions have been held regarding them
which need not be referred to here. On the whole, it seems to be most
satisfactory to regard the interpretation of the symbol to be
variable, as is the symbol itself. Their office was,
1. on the expulsion of our first parents from Eden, to prevent all
access to the tree of life; and
2. to form the throne and chariot of Jehovah in his manifestation
of himself on earth. He dwelleth between and sitteth on the
cherubim 1Sa 4:4 Psa 80:1 Eze 1:26,28.

See ANGEL 00240.


Strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the side of
Mount Jearim Jos 15:10 - probably identified with the modern village
of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah.


Gain, the son of Nahor Gen 22:22.


Ungodly, a town in the south of Judah Jos 15:30 - probably the same as
Bethul Jos 19:4 - and Bethuel 1Ch 4:30 - now Khelasa.


(Heb. - 'aron -, generally rendered "ark"), the coffer into which the
contributions for the repair of the temple were put 2Ki 12:9-10.
2Ch 24:8,10,11 - In Gen 50:26 - it is rendered "coffin." In
Eze 27:24 - a different Hebrew word, - genazim - (plur.), is used. It
there means "treasure-chests."

Chestnut Tree

(Heb. - 'armon -; i.e., "naked"), mentioned in connection with Jacob's
artifice regarding the cattle Gen 30:37 - It is one of the trees of
which, because of its strength and beauty, the Assyrian empire is
likened Eze 31:8 - R.V., "plane trees"). It is probably the Oriental
plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that is intended. It is a
characteristic of this tree that it annually sheds its outer bark,
becomes "naked." The chestnut tree proper is not a native of Palestine.


Fertile places; the loins, a town of Issachar, on the slopes of some
mountain between Jezreel and Shunem Jos 19:18 - It has been identified
with Chisloth-tabor, 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor,
and north of Jezreel; now Iksal.


Deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born Gen 38:5.
Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.).


Dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of Uzzah took
place 1Ch 13:9 - In the parallel passage in Samuel 2Sa 6:6 - it is
called "Nachon's threshing-floor." It was a place not far north-west
from Jerusalem.

Chief of the Three

A title given to Adino the Eznite, one of David's greatest heroes
2Sa 23:8 - also called Jashobeam 1Ch 11:11.

Chief Priest

See PRIEST 03001.

Chiefs of Asia

"Asiarchs," the title given to certain wealthy persons annually
appointed to preside over the religious festivals and games in the
various cities of proconsular Asia Act 19:31 - Some of these
officials appear to have been Paul's friends.


This word has considerable latitude of meaning in Scripture. Thus
Joseph is called a child at the time when he was probably about
sixteen years of age Gen 37:3 - and Benjamin is so called when he was
above thirty years Gen 44:20 - Solomon called himself a little child
when he came to the kingdom 1Ki 3:7 - The descendants of a man,
however remote, are called his children; as, "the children of Edom,"
"the children of Moab," "the children of Israel." In the earliest
times mothers did not wean their children till they were from thirty
months to three years old; and the day on which they were weaned was
kept as a festival day Gen 21:8 Ex 2:7,9 1Sa 1:22-24 Mat 21:16 - At the
age of five, children began to learn the arts and duties of life
under the care of their fathers Deu 6:20-25 11:19 - To have a numerous
family was regarded as a mark of divine favour Gen 11:30 30:1 1Sa 2:5.
2Sa 6:23 Psa 127:3 128:3 - Figuratively the name is used for those who
are ignorant or narrow-minded Mat 11:16 Luk 7:32 1Co 13:11 - "When I was
a child, I spake as a child." "Brethren, be not children in
understanding" 1Co 14:20 - "That we henceforth be no more children,
tossed to and fro" Eph 4:14 - Children are also spoken of as
representing simplicity and humility Mat 19:13-15 Mar 10:13-16.
Luk 18:15-17 - Believers are "children of light" Luk 16:8 1Th 5:5 - and
"children of obedience" 1Pe 1:14.


Protected by the father, David's second son by Abigail 2Sa 3:3 - called
also Daniel 1Ch 3:1 - He seems to have died when young.


The pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of
Orpah, Ruth's sister Rut 1:2 4:9.


A place or country unknown which, along with Sheba and Asshur, traded
with Tyre Eze 27:23.


Pining, probably the youngest son of Barzillai the Gileadite
2Sa 19:37-40 - The "habitation of Chimham" Jer 41:17 - was probably
an inn or khan, which is the proper meaning of the Hebrew - geruth -,
rendered "habitation", established in later times in his possession
at Bethlehem, which David gave to him as a reward for his loyalty in
accompanying him to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom 1Ki 2:7.
It has been supposed that, considering the stationary character of
Eastern institutions, it was in the stable of this inn or
caravanserai that our Saviour was born Luk 2:7.


Lyre, the singular form of the word Deu 3:17 Jos 19:35 - which is also
used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a fenced city which
stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a little to the south of
Tiberias. The town seems to have given its name to a district, as
appears from 1Ki 15:20 - where the plural form of the word is used.
The Sea of Chinnereth Num 34:11 Jos 13:27 - or of Chinneroth Jos 12:3.
was the "lake of Gennesaret" or "sea of Tiberias" Deu 3:17 Jos 11:2.
Chinnereth was probably an ancient Canaanitish name adopted by the
Israelites into their language.


Mentioned in Act 20:15 - an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5 miles
distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the shelter of
which Paul and his companions anchored for a night when on his third
missionary return journey. It is now called Scio.


The name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the Captivity
for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month Neh 1:1 Zec 7:1.
It corresponds nearly with the moon in November.


Or Kittim, a plural form Gen 10:4 - the name of a branch of the
descendants of Javan, the "son" of Japheth. Balaam foretold Num 24:24.
"that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and afflict Eber."
Daniel prophesied Dan 11:30 - that the ships of Chittim would come
against the king of the north. It probably denotes Cyprus, whose
ancient capital was called Kition by the Greeks. The references
elsewhere made to Chittim Isa 23:1,12 Jer 2:10 Eze 27:6 - are to be
explained on the ground that while the name originally designated the
Phoenicians only, it came latterly to be used of all the islands and
various settlements on the sea-coasts which they had occupied, and
then of the people who succeeded them when the Phoenician power
decayed. Hence it designates generally the islands and coasts of the
Mediterranean and the races that inhabit them.


Occurs only in Amo 5:26 - (R.V. marg., "shrine"). The LXX. translated
the word by Rhephan, which became corrupted into Remphan, as used by
Stephen Act 7:43 - but R.V., "Rephan"). Probably the planet Saturn is
intended by the name. Astrologers represented this planet as baleful
in its influences, and hence the Phoenicians offered to it human
sacrifices, especially children.


Verdure, a female Christian 1Co 1:11 - some of whose household had
informed Paul of the divided state of the Corinthian church. Nothing
is known of her.


Smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his men
were wont to haunt" 1Sa 30:30-31 - It is probably identical with Ashan
Jos 15:42 19:7 - a Simeonite city in the Negeb, i.e., the south,
belonging to Judah. The word ought, according to another reading, to
be "Bor-ashan."


Named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which
our Lord's "mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe
because of signal privileges neglected Mat 11:21 Luk 10:13 - It has been
identified by general consent with the modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2
miles up the Wady Kerazeh from Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum.


Spoken of warriors Exo 15:4 Jud 20:16 - of the Hebrew nation Psa 105:43.
Deu 7:7 - of Jerusalem as the seat of the temple 1Ki 11:13 - Christ is
the "chosen" of God Isa 42:1 - and the apostles are "chosen" for their
work Act 10:41 - It is said with regard to those who do not profit by
their opportunities that "many are called, but few are chosen"
Mat 20:16.

See ELECTION 01149.


1Ch 4:22 - the same as Chezib and Achzib, a place in the lowlands of
Judah Gen 38:5 Jos 15:44.


Anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word rendered "Messiah"
(q.v.), the official title of our Lord, occurring five hundred and
fourteen times in the New Testament. It denotes that he was anointed
or consecrated to his great redemptive work as Prophet, Priest, and
King of his people. He is Jesus the Christ Act 17:3 18:5 Mat 22:42 - the
Anointed One. He is thus spoken of by Isaiah Isa 61:1 - and by Daniel
Dan 9:24-26 - who styles him "Messiah the Prince." The Messiah is the
same person as "the seed of the woman" Gen 3:15 - "the seed of Abraham"
Gen 22:18 - the "Prophet like unto Moses" Deu 18:15 - "the priest after
the order of Melchizedek" Psa 110:4 - "the rod out of the stem of
Jesse" Isa 11:1,10 - the "Immanuel," the virgin's son Isa 7:14 - "the
branch of Jehovah" Isa 4:2 - and "the messenger of the covenant"
Mal 3:1 - This is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did
write." The Old Testament Scripture is full of prophetic declarations
regarding the Great Deliverer and the work he was to accomplish. Jesus
the Christ is Jesus the Great Deliverer, the Anointed One, the Saviour
of men. This name denotes that Jesus was divinely appointed,
commissioned, and accredited as the Saviour of men Heb 5:4.
Isa 11:2-4 49:6 Joh 5:37 Act 2:22 - To believe that "Jesus is the Christ"
is to believe that he is the Anointed, the Messiah of the prophets, the
Saviour sent of God, that he was, in a word, what he claimed to be.
This is to believe the gospel, by the faith of which alone men can be
brought unto God. That Jesus is the Christ is the testimony of God, and
the faith of this constitutes a Christian 1Co 12:3 1Jo 5:1.

See JESUS 02054.


The name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the
followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names by which
the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren," "the
faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But as distinguishing them
from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and
was universally accepted. This name occurs but three times in the New
Testament Act 11:26 26:28 1Pe 4:16.

Christs, False

Our Lord warned his disciples that they would arise Mat 24:24 - It is
said that no fewer than twenty-four persons have at different times
appeared (the last in 1682) pretending to be the Messiah of the


The words of the days, 1Ki 14:19 1Ch 27:24 - the daily or yearly
records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the
order of time.

Chronicles, Books of

The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the
Massoretic Hebrew - Dibre hayyamim -, i.e., "Acts of the Days." This
title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and
hence "Chronicles." In the Septuagint version the book is divided into
two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e., "things omitted," or
"supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books of
Kings. The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads.
1. The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than a
list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of
2. The remainder of the first book contains a history of the reign
of David.
3. The first nine chapters of Book II. contain the history of the
reign of Solomon.
4. The remaining chapters of the second book contain the history of
the separate kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from
Babylonian Exile. The time of the composition of the Chronicles
was, there is every ground to conclude, subsequent to the
Babylonian Exile, probably between 450 and 435 B.C. The contents
of this twofold book, both as to matter and form, correspond
closely with this idea. The close of the book records the
proclamation of Cyrus permitting the Jews to return to their
own land, and this forms the opening passage of the Book of
Ezra, which must be viewed as a continuation of the Chronicles.
The peculiar form of the language, being Aramaean in its
general character, harmonizes also with that of the books which
were written after the Exile. The author was certainly
contemporary with Zerubbabel, details of whose family history
are given 1Ch 3:19 - The time of the composition being
determined, the question of the authorship may be more easily
decided. According to Jewish tradition, which was universally
received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra
was regarded as the author of the Chronicles. There are many
points of resemblance and of contact between the Chronicles and
the Book of Ezra which seem to confirm this opinion. The
conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost
identical in expression. In their spirit and characteristics
they are the same, showing thus also an identity of authorship.
In their general scope and design these books are not so much
historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears
to be to present moral and religious truth. He does not give
prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and
Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions. "The genealogies, so
uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important
part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the
basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but
the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted,
the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known,
being entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose."
The "Chronicles" are an epitome of the sacred history from the
days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period
of about 3,500 years. The writer gathers up "the threads
of the old national life broken by the Captivity." The sources
whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records,
registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews. These
are referred to in the course of the book 1Ch 27:24 29:29.
2Ch 9:29 12:15 13:22 20:34 1Ch 24:27 26:22-32 27:7 35:25.
There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty
parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer both knew and
used these records 1Ch 17:18 - comp. 2Sa 7:18-20.
1Ch 19:1 - comp. 2Sa 10:1 - etc. As compared with
Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars
there recorded 2Sa 6:20-23 9,11,14-19 - etc., and includes many
things peculiar to itself 1Ch 12:22-23 - etc.. Twenty whole
chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with
matter not found elsewhere. It also records many things in fuller
detail, as (e.g.) the list of David's heroes 1Ch 12:1-37 - the
removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion
1Ch 13:1 - 1Ch 15:2-24 16:4-43 - comp. 2Sa 6:1 - Uzziah's
leprosy and its cause 2Ch 26:16-21 - comp. 2Ki 15:5 - etc.
It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is
that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those
that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen
particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such
as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer
1Ch 20:4 - is used instead of Gob 2Sa 21:18 - etc. The
Books of Chronicles are ranked among the - khethubim - or
hagiographa. They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in
the New Testament Heb 5:4 Mat 12:42 23:35 - Luk 1:5 11:31,51.

Chronicles of King David

1Ch 27:24 - were statistical state records; one of the public sources
from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information
on various public matters.


Is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The
writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era
according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are
reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus Num 1:1 33:38 1Ki 6:1 - and
sometimes from the accession of kings 1Ki 15:1,9,25,33 - etc., and
sometimes again from the return from Exile Ezr 3:8 - Hence in
constructing a system of Biblecal chronology, the plan has been
adopted of reckoning the years from the ages of the patriarchs before
the birth of their first-born sons for the period from the Creation
to Abraham. After this period other data are to be taken into account
in determining the relative sequence of events. As to the patriarchal
period, there are three principal systems of chronology:
1. that of the Hebrew text,
2. that of the Septuagint version, and
3. that of the Samaritan Pentateuch
The Samaritan and the Septuagint have considerably modified the
Hebrew chronology. This modification some regard as having been
wilfully made, and to be rejected. The same system of variations is
observed in the chronology of the period between the Flood and
Abraham. Thus:

Hebrew Septuigant Samaritan

From the birth of Arphaxad,
2 years after the Flood,
to the birth of Terah. 220 1000 870

From the birth of Terah to
the birth of Abraham. 130 70 72

The Septuagint fixes on seventy years as the age of Terah at the
birth of Abraham, from Gen 11:26 - but a comparison of Gen 11:32.
Act 7:4 Ge 12:4 - shows that when Terah died, at the age of two hundred
and five years, Abraham was seventy-five years, and hence Terah must
have been one hundred and thirty years when Abraham was born. Thus,
including the two years from the Flood to the birth of Arphaxad, the
period from the Flood to the birth of Abraham was three hundred and
fifty-two years. The next period is from the birth of Abraham to the
Exodus. This, according to the Hebrew, extends to five hundred and
five years. The difficulty here is as to the four hundred and thirty
years mentioned Exo 12:40,41 Gal 3:17 - These years are regarded by
some as dating from the covenant with Abraham Gen 15:1 - which
was entered into soon after his sojourn in Egypt; others, with more
probability, reckon these years from Jacob's going down into Egypt.
See EXODUS 01283.

In modern times the systems of Biblical chronology that have been
adopted are chiefly those of Ussher. He follows the Hebrew text only.
These dates may be in error by 1 or 2 per cent but serve as an accurate
time frame for past events. Dates based on the Septuagint or other
versions are very inaccurate.

Creation of Universe 4004
Flood 2348
Abram leaves Haran 1921
Exodus 1491
Destruction of the Temple 588


Golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek's juice, a
greenish-golden colour Rev 21:20.


The name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of
Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Eze 30:5 - They were
probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt in
the south.


One of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured brass
(i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple 1Ch 18:8 - It is
called Berothai in 2Sa 8:8 - probably the same as Berothah in
Eze 47:16.


Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., "the Lord's house"),
which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship. In the
New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which
is synonymous with the Hebrew - kahal - of the Old Testament, both
words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be
known from the connection in which the word is found. There is no
clear instance of its being used for a place of meeting or of
worship, although in post-apostolic times it early received this
meaning. Nor is this word ever used to denote the inhabitants of a
country united in the same profession, as when we say the "Church of
England," the "Church of Scotland," etc. We find the word ecclesia
used in the following senses in the New Testament:
1. It is translated "assembly" in the ordinary classical sense
Act 19:32,39,41.
2. It denotes the whole body of the redeemed, all those whom the
Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic church
Eph 5:23,25,27,29 Heb 12:23.
3. A few Christians associated together in observing the ordinances
of the gospel are an ecclesia Rom 16:5 Col 4:15.
4. All the Christians in a particular city, whether they assembled
together in one place or in several places for religious
worship, were an ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in Antioch,
forming several congregations, were one church Act 13:1 - so also
we read of the "church of God at Corinth" 1Co 1:2 - "the church
at Jerusalem" Act 8:1 - "the church of Ephesus" Rev 2:1 - etc.
5. The whole body of professing Christians throughout the world
1Co 15:9 Gal 1:13 Mat 16:18 - are the church of Christ. The church
visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess
the true religion, together with their children." It is called
"visible" because its members are known and its assemblies are
public. Here there is a mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints
and sinners. "God has commanded his people to organize
themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical communities,
with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges, ordinances, and
discipline, for the great purpose of giving visibility to his
kingdom, of making known the gospel of that kingdom, and of
gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct
organized communities which is faithful to the great King is an
integral part of the visible church, and all together constitute
the catholic or universal visible church." A credible profession
of the true religion constitutes a person a member of this
church. This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose character and
progress are set forth in the parables recorded in Mat 13:1.
The children of all who thus profess the true religion are
members of the visible church along with their parents. Children
are included in every covenant God ever made with man. They go
along with their parents Gen 9:9-17 12:1-3 17:7 Ex 20:5.
Deu 29:10-13 - Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of
the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great
principle. "The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed the
promises were made] is unto you, and to your children"
Act 2:38-39 - The children of believing parents are "holy", i.e.,
are "saints", a title which designates the members of the
Christian church 1Co 7:14.
See BAPTISM 00435.
The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the elect that
have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head
thereof." This is a pure society, the church in which Christ dwells.
It is the body of Christ. it is called "invisible" because the
greater part of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are
yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth cannot
certainly be distinguished. The qualifications of membership in it
are internal and are hidden. It is unseen except by Him who "searches
the heart." "The Lord knoweth them that are his" 2Ti 2:19 - The
church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises
appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body
consisting of all true believers, i.e., the church invisible.
1. Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. We
sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New
Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old
Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged
Isa 49:13-23 60:1-14 - When the Jews are at length restored,
they will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again
into "their own olive tree" Rom 11:18-24 - comp. Eph 2:11-22.
The apostles did not set up a new organization. Under their
ministry disciples were "added" to the "church" already
existing Act 2:47.
2. Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not confined to
any particular country or outward organization, but
comprehending all believers throughout the whole world.
3. Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the end of
the world. It can never be destroyed. It is an "everlasting


In Isa 32:5 - (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1Sa 25:3.
the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and ill-natured, or,
as the word literally means, "hard." The same Greek word as used by
the LXX. here is found in Mat 25:24 - and there is rendered "hard."


Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king
of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately
following Joshua Jud 3:8 - We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets
that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V.,
"Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at
the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still
intriguing in Canaan. It is mentioned among the countries which took
part in the attack upon Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the
Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated
to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not
actually enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with
the Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the
Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by
Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of Egypt,
so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have been
considered to be attacking Egypt.


A maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the
birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of a
celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate attracted to
it many Greek residents after its incorporation with the Macedonian
empire. It was formed into a Roman province, B.C. 67 The Jews of
Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem Act 6:9 - Paul visited it soon
after his conversion Gal 1:21 Act 9:30 - and again, on his second
missionary journey Act 15:41 - "he went through Syria and Cilicia,
confirming the churches." It was famous for its goat's-hair cloth,
called cilicium. Paul learned in his youth the trade of making tents
of this cloth.


Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the
Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in
Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was
unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders
forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark
when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal
ingredients in the holy anointing oil Exo 30:23 - It is mentioned
elsewhere only in Pro 7:17 So 4:14 Rev 18:13 - The mention of it
indicates a very early and extensive commerce carried on between
Palestine and the East.


A harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali Jos 19:35 - comp.
Deu 3:17 - It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken
its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently
called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed
district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of
Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Jos 11:2 - The
phrase "all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali" in 1Ki 15:20.
is parallel to "the store-houses of the cities of Naphtali" (R.V.
marg.) in 2Ch 16:4.


The apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth Psa 19:6.
and the changes of the wind Ecc 1:6 - In Job 22:14 - "in the circuit of
heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of heaven") means the "arch of
heaven," which seems to be bent over our heads.


Cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers
races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen
people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was
established as a national ordinance Gen 17:10-11 - In compliance with
the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was
circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old
Gen 17:24-27 - Slaves, whether home-born or purchased, were circumcised
Gen 17:12-13 - and all foreigners must have their males circumcised
before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship
Exo 12:48 - During the journey through the wilderness, the practice
of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of
Joshua before they entered the Promised Land Jos 5:2-9 - It was
observed always afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is
not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan
till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided
themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction Jud 14:3.
Jud 15:18 1Sa 14:6 17:26 2Sa 1:20 Eze 31:18 - As a rite of the
church it ceased when the New Testament times began Gal 6:15.
Col 3:11 - Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the
Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted
Act 15:1 Gal 6:12 - Our Lord was circumcised, for it "became him to
fulfil all righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to
the flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy Act 16:3 - to
avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy's labours
more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means consent to
the demand that Titus should be circumcised Gal 2:3-5 - The great
point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised
Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of
Titus, even in Jerusalem. In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is
attached to circumcision. It was the symbol of purity Isa 52:1.
We read of uncircumcised lips Exo 6:12,30 - ears Jer 6:10 - hearts
Lev 26:41 - The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as
uncircumcised Lev 19:23 - It was a sign and seal of the covenant of
grace as well as of the national covenant between God and the
1. It sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the
commonwealth of Israel, national promises.
2. But the promises made to Abraham included the promise of
redemption Gal 3:14 - a promise which has come upon us. The
covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of
the covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of
that covenant. It had a spiritual meaning. It signified
purification of the heart, inward circumcision effected by the
Spirit Deu 10:16 30:6 Eze 44:7 Act 7:51 Ro 2:28 Col 2:11.


The rendering of a Hebrew word - bor -, which means a receptacle for
water conveyed to it; distinguished from - beer -, which denotes a
place where water rises on the spot Jer 2:13 Pr 5:15 Isa 36:16 - a
fountain. Cisterns are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The
scarcity of springs in Palestine made it necessary to collect
rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns Num 21:22.
See WELL 03803.
Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons Jer 38:6 La 3:53.
Psa 40:2 69:15 - The "pit" into which Joseph was cast Gen 37:24 - was a
- beer - or dry well. There are numerous remains of ancient cisterns in
all parts of Palestine.


The rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a foreigner
Luk 15:15 19:14 Act 21:39 - Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with
the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned
in Deu 23:1-3 - were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship
among the Jews Exo 12:19 Lev 24:22 Num 15:15 35:15 Deu 10:18 14:29 16:10,14.
The right of citizenship under the Roman government was granted by the
emperor to individuals, and sometimes to provinces, as a favour or as a
recompense for services rendered to the state, or for a sum of money
Act 22:28 - This "freedom" secured privileges equal to those enjoyed
by natives of Rome. Among the most notable of these was the provision
that a man could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial
Act 22:25-26 - or scourged Act 16:37 - All Roman citizens had the
right of appeal to Caesar Act 25:11.


The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which was
built by Cain Gen 4:17 - After the confusion of tongues, the
descendants of Nimrod founded several cities Gen 10:10-12 - Next, we
have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon, Gaza, Sodom,
etc. Gen 10:12,19 11:3,9 36:31-39 - The earliest description of a city
is that of Sodom Gen 19:1-22 - Damascus is said to be the oldest
existing city in the world. Before the time of Abraham there were
cities in Egypt Num 13:22 - The Israelites in Egypt were employed in
building the "treasure cities" of Pithom and Raamses Exo 1:11 - but it
does not seem that they had any cities of their own in Goshen
Gen 46:34 47:1-11 - In the kingdom of Og in Bashan there were sixty
"great cities with walls," and twenty-three cities in Gilead partly
rebuilt by the tribes on the east of Jordan Num 21:21,32-33,35.
Num 32:1-3,34-42 Deu 3:4-5,14 1Ki 4:13 - On the west of Jordan were
thirty-one "royal cities" Jos 12:1 - besides many others
spoken of in the history of Israel. A fenced city was a city
surrounded by fortifications and high walls, with watch-towers upon
them 2Ch 11:11 Deu 3:5 - There was also within the city generally a
tower to which the citizens might flee when danger threatened them
Jud 9:46-52 - A city with suburbs was a city surrounded with open
pasture-grounds, such as the forty-eight cities which were given to
the Levites Num 35:2-7 - There were six cities of refuge, three on
each side of Jordan, namely, Kadesh, Shechem, Hebron, on the west of
Jordan; and on the east, Bezer, Ramoth-gilead, and Golan. The cities
on each side of the river were nearly opposite each other. The
regulations concerning these cities are given in Num 35:9-34.
Deu 19:1-13 Ex 21:12-14 - When David reduced the fortress of the
Jebusites which stood on Mount Zion, he built on the site of it a
palace and a city, which he called by his own name 1Ch 11:5 - the
city of David. Bethlehem is also so called as being David's native
town Luk 2:4 - Jerusalem is called the Holy City, the holiness of
the temple being regarded as extending in some measure over the whole
city Neh 11:1 - Pithom and Raamses, built by the Israelites as
"treasure cities," were not places where royal treasures were kept,
but were fortified towns where merchants might store their goods and
transact their business in safety, or cities in which munitions of
war were stored.

See PITHOM 02968.


A small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul on his
voyage to Rome Act 27:16 - It is about 7 miles long and 3 broad. It is
now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda").


A female Christian mentioned in 2Ti 4:21 - It is a conjecture having
some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king
Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the
emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that she was the wife of


1. The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41)
Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia
and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his
reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome Act 18:2 - In this
edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed,
a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome.
During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the
Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod
Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed"
Act 12:2 - He died A.D. 54
2. Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase the
privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius
Act 21:31-40 22:28 23:26.


This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets Isa 57:20.
Jer 18:6 - of dust mixed with spittle Joh 9:6 - and of potter's clay
Isa 41:25 Na 3:14 Jer 18:1-6 Ro 9:21 - Clay was used for sealing
Job 38:14 Jer 32:14 - Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed
Mat 27:66 - The practice of sealing doors with clay is still common
in the East. Clay was also in primitive times used for mortar
Gen 11:3 - The "clay ground" in which the large vessels of the temple
were cast 1Ki 7:46 2Ch 4:17 - was a compact loam fitted for the
purpose. The expression literally rendered is, "in the thickness of
the ground,", meaning, "in stiff ground" or in clay.


The various forms of uncleanness according to the Mosaic law are
enumerated in Lev 11:2-47 Num 19:1-22 - The division of animals into
clean and unclean was probably founded on the practice of sacrifice.
It existed before the Flood Gen 7:2 - The regulations regarding such
animals are recorded in Lev 11:1-43 Deu 14:1-21 - The Hebrews were
prohibited from using as food certain animal substances, such as
1. blood Lev 17:10 19:26.
2. the fat covering the intestines, termed the caul
3. the fat on the intestines, called the mesentery
4. the fat of the kidneys
5. the fat tail of certain sheep Exo 29:13,22 Lev 3:4-9 9:19.
The chief design of these regulations seems to have been to establish a
system of regimen which would distinguish the Jews from all other
nations. Regarding the design and the abolition of these regulations
the reader will find all the details in Lev 20:24-26 Act 10:9-16 11:1-10.
Heb 9:9-14.


Mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul's "fellow-labourer," whose name he
mentions as "in the book of life" Php 4:3 - It was an opinion of
ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well
known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to
the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to
the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. It is of some
historical interest, and has given rise to much discussion among
critics. It makes distinct reference to Paul's First Epistle to the


(abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom Jesus
conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection
Luk 24:18 - We know nothing definitely regarding him. It is not certain
that he was the Clopas of Joh 19:25 - or the Alphaeus of Mat 10:3.
although he may have been so.


(in the spelling of this word - h - is inserted by mistake from Latin
MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the word, while
Clopas is the Aramaic form. In Joh 19:25 - the Authorized Version
reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word "wife" is conjecturally
inserted here. If "wife" is rightly inserted, then Mary was the
mother of James the Less, and Clopas is the same as Alphaeus
Mat 10:3 27:56.


An upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the
ankles, but without sleeves" Isa 59:17 - The word so rendered is
elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest
under the ephod Exo 28:31 - by kings and others of rank 1Sa 15:27.
Job 1:20 2:12 - and by women 2Sa 13:18 - The word translated "cloke",
i.e., outer garment, in Mat 5:40 - is in its plural form used of
garments in general Mat 17:2 26:65 - The cloak mentioned here and in
Luk 6:29 - was the Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a
large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like
the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor Exo 22:26,27.
but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton) mentioned in Mat 5:40 - could
not. The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" 2Ti 4:13 - was the Roman
paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a
protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what
Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used
means a bookcase.

See DRESS 01076.


As used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse
Luk 12:24 - and hence a place of privacy and retirement
Mat 6:6 Luk 12:3.


The Hebrew so rendered means "a covering," because clouds cover the
sky. The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as
indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals Exo 16:10.
Exo 33:9 Num 11:25 12:5 Job 22:14 Psa 18:11 - A "cloud without rain" is a
proverbial saying, denoting a man who does not keep his promise
Pro 16:15 Isa 18:4 25:5 Jude 1:12 - A cloud is the figure of that which
is transitory Job 30:15 Hos 6:4 - A bright cloud is the symbolical
seat of the Divine presence Exo 29:42,43 1Ki 8:10 2Ch 5:14 Eze 43:4.
and was called the Shechinah (q.v.). Jehovah came down upon Sinai in
a cloud Exo 19:9 - and the cloud filled the court around the
tabernacle in the wilderness so that Moses could not enter it
Exo 40:34-35 - At the dedication of the temple also the cloud
"filled the house of the Lord" 1Ki 8:10 - Thus in like manner when
Christ comes the second time he is described as coming "in the
clouds" Mat 17:5 24:30 Act 1:9,11 - False teachers are likened unto
clouds carried about with a tempest 2Pe 2:17 - The infirmities of
old age, which come one after another, are compared by Solomon to
"clouds returning after the rain" Ecc 12:2 - The blotting out of
sins is like the sudden disappearance of threatening clouds from the
sky Isa 44:22 - Cloud, the pillar of, was the glory-cloud which
indicated God's presence leading the ransomed people through the
wilderness Exo 13:22 33:9-10 - This pillar preceded the people as
they marched, resting on the ark Exo 13:21 40:36 - By night it
became a pillar of fire Num 9:17-23.


A town and harbour on the extreme south-west of the peninsula of Doris
in Asia Minor. Paul sailed past it on his voyage to Rome after
leaving Myra Act 27:7.


It is by no means certain that the Hebrews were acquainted with
mineral coal, although it is found in Syria. Their common fuel was
dried dung of animals and wood charcoal. Two different words are
found in Hebrew to denote coal, both occurring in Pro 26:21 - "As coal
[Heb. peham; i.e., "black coal"] is to burning coal [Heb. gehalim]."
The latter of these words is used in Job 41:21 Pr 6:28 Isa 44:19 - The
words "live coal" in Isa 6:6 - are more correctly "glowing stone." In
Lam 4:8 - the expression "blacker than a coal" is literally rendered in
the margin of the Revised Version "darker than blackness." "Coals of
fire" 2Sa 22:9,13 Psa 18:8,12-13 - etc. is an expression used
metaphorically for lightnings proceeding from God. A false tongue is
compared to "coals of juniper" Psa 120:4 Jas 3:6 - "Heaping coals of
fire on the head" symbolizes overcoming evil with good. The words of
Paul Rom 12:20 - are equivalent to saying, "By charity and kindness
thou shalt soften down his enmity as surely as heaping coals on the
fire fuses the metal in the crucible."


The tunic worn like the shirt next the skin Lev 16:4 So 5:3 2Sa 15:32.
Exo 28:4 29:5 - The "coats of skins" prepared by God for Adam and Eve
were probably nothing more than aprons Gen 3:21 - This tunic was
sometimes woven entire without a seam Joh 19:23 - it was also
sometimes of "many colours" Gen 37:3 - R.V. marg., "a long garment with
sleeves"). The "fisher's coat" of Joh 21:7 - was obviously an outer
garment or cloak, as was also the "coat" made by Hannah for Samuel
1Sa 2:19.

See DRESS 01076.

Coat of Mail

the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "glittering" 1Sa 17:5,38 - The
same word in the plural form is translated "habergeons" in 2Ch 26:14.
Neh 4:16 - The "harness" 1Ki 22:34 - "breastplate" Isa 59:17 - and
"brigandine" Jer 46:4 - were probably also corselets or coats of

See ARMOUR 00315.


The mediaeval name (a corruption of "crocodile") of a fabulous serpent
supposed to be produced from a cock's egg. It is generally supposed
to denote the cerastes, or "horned viper," a very poisonous serpent
about a foot long. Others think it to be the yellow viper (Daboia
xanthina), one of the most dangerous vipers, from its size and its
nocturnal habits Isa 11:8 14:29 59:5 Jer 8:17 - in all which the
Revised Version renders the Hebrew - tziph'oni - by "basilisk"). In
Pro 23:32 - the Hebrew - tzeph'a - is rendered both in the Authorized
Version and the Revised Version by "adder;" margin of Revised Version
"basilisk," and of Authorized Version "cockatrice."

See BASILISK 00465.
See ADDER 00085.


In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division
of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the
first beginning at six o'clock in the evening Luk 12:38 Mat 14:25.
Mar 6:48 - But the ancient division, known as the first and second
cock-crowing, was still retained. The cock usually crows several
times soon after midnight (this is the first crowing), and again at
the dawn of day (and this is the second crowing). Mark mentions
Mar 14:30 - the two cock-crowings. Matthew Mat 26:34 - alludes to that
only which was emphatically the cock-crowing, viz, the second.


Occurs only in Job 31:40 - (marg., "noisome weeds"), where it is the
rendering of a Hebrew word (b'oshah) which means "offensive," "having
a bad smell," referring to some weed perhaps which has an unpleasant
odour. Or it may be regarded as simply any noisome weed, such as the
"tares" or darnel of Mat 13:30. In Isa 5:2,4 - the plural form is
rendered "wild grapes."


Hollow Syria, the name (not found in Scripture) given by the Greeks to
the extensive valley, about 100 miles long, between the Lebanon and the
Anti-Lebanon range of mountains.


The receptacle or small box placed beside the ark by the Philistines,
in which they deposited the golden mice and the emerods as their
trespass-offering 1Sa 6:8,11,15.


Used in Gen 50:26 - with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here, it
means a mummy-chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chest" in
2Ki 12:9-10.


(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan 7:28 - literally means),
earnest meditation.


Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They made
use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they weighed out
Gen 23:16 Ex 38:24 2Sa 18:12 - Probably the silver ingots used in the
time of Abraham may have been of a fixed weight, which was in some
way indicated on them. The "pieces of silver" paid by Abimelech to
Abraham Gen 20:16 - and those also for which Joseph was sold Gen 37:28.
were proably in the form of rings. The shekel was the common standard
of weight and value among the Hebrews down to the time of the
Captivity. Only once is a shekel of gold mentioned 1Ch 21:25 - The
"six thousand of gold" mentioned in the transaction between Naaman
and Gehazi 2Ki 5:5 - were probably so many shekels of gold. The "piece
of money" mentioned in Job 42:11 Ge 33:19 - (marg., "lambs") was the
Hebrew - kesitah -, probably an uncoined piece of silver of a certain
weight in the form of a sheep or lamb, or perhaps having on it such
an impression. The same Hebrew word is used in Jos 24:32 - which is
rendered by Wickliffe "an hundred yonge scheep."


(Heb. peh), means in Job 30:18 - the mouth or opening of the garment
that closes round the neck in the same way as a tunic Exo 39:23 - The
"collars" (Heb. netiphoth) among the spoils of the Midianites
Jud 8:26 - R.V., "pendants" were ear-drops. The same Hebrew word is
rendered "chains" in Isa 3:19.


The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from
poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile
churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf Act 24:17.
Rom 15:25-26 1Co 16:1-3 2Co 8:9 Gal 2:10.


Heb. mishneh 2Ki 22:14 2Ch 34:22 - rendered in Revised Version "second
quarter", the residence of the prophetess Huldah. The Authorized
Version followed the Jewish commentators, who, following the Targum,
gave the Hebrew word its post-Biblical sense, as if it meant a place
of instruction. It properly means the "second," and may therefore
denote the lower city (Acra), which was built after the portion of
the city on Mount Zion, and was enclosed by a second wall.


The city of Philippi was a Roman colony Act 16:12 - i.e., a military
settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted there to keep in
subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony was Rome in
miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed by military
officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls. It had an
independent internal government, the jus Italicum; i.e., the
privileges of Italian citizens.


Or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a tributary of
the Maeander. It was about 12 miles above Laodicea, and near the
great road from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was consequently of
some mercantile importance. It does not appear that Paul had visited
this city when he wrote his letter to the church there Col 1:2 - He
expresses in his letter to Philemon Phm 1:22 - his hope to visit it on
being delivered from his imprisonment. From Col 1:7 4:12 - it has been
concluded that Epaphras was the founder of the Colossian church. This
town afterwards fell into decay, and the modern town of Chonas or
Chonum occupies a site near its ruins.

Colossians, Epistle to The

was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there
Act 28:16,30 - probably in the spring of A.D. 57 or, as some think,
62 and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians. Like
some of his other epistles (e.g., those to Corinth), this seems to have
been written in consequence of information which had somehow been
conveyed to him of the internal state of the church there Col 1:4-8.
Its object was to counteract false teaching. A large part of it is
directed against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the
doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with Christianity,
thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a higher spiritual
life and a deeper insight into the world of spirits. Paul argues
against such teaching, showing that in Christ Jesus they had all
things. He sets forth the majesty of his redemption. The mention of the
"new moon" and "sabbath days" Col 2:16 - shows also that there were
here Judaizing teachers who sought to draw away the disciples from the
simplicity of the gospel. Like most of Paul's epistles, this consists
of two parts, a doctrinal and a practical.
1. The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters. His main
theme is developed in chapter 2 Col 2:1-23. He warns them
against being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness
of the Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers.
Christ was the head of the body of which they were members; and
if they were truly united to him, what needed they more?
2. The practical part of the epistle Col 3:1-4:18 - enforces
various duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded.
They are exhorted to mind things that are above Col 3:1-4.
to mortify every evil principle of their nature, and to put on
the new man Col 3:5-14 - Many special duties of the Christian
life are also insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the
Christian character. Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as
he was also of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he
would tell them of the state of the apostle Col 4:7-9. After
friendly greetings Col 4:10-14 - he bids them interchange this
letter with that he had sent to the neighbouring church of
Laodicea. He then closes this brief but striking epistle with
his usual autograph salutation. There is a remarkable
resemblance between this epistle and that to the Ephesians
(q.v.). The genuineness of this epistle has not been called in


The subject of colours holds an important place in the Scriptures.

1. White occurs as the translation of various Hebrew words. It is
applied to:
a. milk Gen 49:12.
b. manna Exo 16:31.
c. snow Isa 1:18.
d. horses Zec 1:8.
e. raiment Ecc 9:8.
f. The hangings of the tabernacle court Exo 27:9 38:9.
g. the coats, mitres, bonnets, and breeches of the priests
Exo 39:27,28.
h. the dress of the high priest on the day of Atonement
Lev 16:4,32 - were white.
i. marble Est 1:6.
j. and a cognate word to the lily Son 2:16.
k. A different term, meaning "dazzling," is applied to the
countenance Son 5:10.
This colour was an emblem of:
a. purity and innocence Mar 16:5 Joh 20:12 Rev 19:8,14.
b. of joy Ecc 9:8 - and also
c. of victory Zec 6:3 Rev 6:2.
2. Black, applied to:
a. the hair Lev 13:31 So 5:11.
b. the complexion Son 1:5.
c. to horses Zec 6:2,6.
3. The word rendered "brown" in Gen 30:32 - (R.V., "black") means
properly "scorched", i.e., the colour produced by the influence
of the sun's rays. "Black" in Job 30:30 - means dirty,
blackened by sorrow and disease. The word is applied to:
a. a mourner's robes Jer 8:21 14:2.
b. a clouded sky 1Ki 18:45.
c. to night Mic 3:6 Jer 4:28.
d. to a brook rendered turbid by melted snow Job 6:16.
It is used as symbolical of evil in Zec 6:2,6 Rev 6:5 - It was the
emblem of mourning, affliction, calamity Jer 14:2 La 4:8 5:10.
4. Red, applied to:
a. blood 2Ki 3:1 - 2Ki 22:1.
b. a heifer Num 19:2.
c. pottage of lentils Gen 25:30.
d. a horse Zec 1:8.
e. wine Pro 23:31.
f. the complexion Gen 25:25 So 5:10.
This colour is symbolical of bloodshed Zec 6:2 Rev 6:4 12:3.
5. Purple, a colour obtained from the secretion of a species of
shell-fish (the Murex trunculus) which was found in the
Mediterranean, and particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and
Asia Minor. The colouring matter in each separate shell-fish
amounted to only a single drop, and hence the great value of this
dye. Robes of this colour were worn by:
a. kings Jud 8:26.
b. high officers Est 8:15.
c. the wealthy and luxurious Jer 10:9 Eze 27:7 Luk 16:19 Rev 17:4.
With this colour was associated the idea of royalty and majesty
Jud 8:26 So 3:10 7:5 Dan 5:7,16,29.
6. Blue. This colour was also procured from a species of shell-fish,
the chelzon of the Hebrews, and the Helix ianthina of modern
naturalists. The tint was emblematic of the sky, the deep dark
hue of the Eastern sky. This colour was used in the same way as
a. The ribbon and fringe of the Hebrew dress colour Num 15:38.
b. The loops of the curtains Exo 26:4.
c. the lace of the high priest's breastplate,
d. the robe of the ephod, and
f. the lace on his mitre, were blue Exo 28:28,31,37.
7. Scarlet, or Crimson. In Isa 1:18 - a Hebrew word is used which
denotes the worm or grub whence this dye was procured. In
Gen 38:28,30 - the word so rendered means "to shine," and
expresses the brilliancy of the colour. The small parasitic
insects from which this dye was obtained somewhat resembled the
cochineal which is found in Eastern countries. It is called by
naturalists Coccus ilics. The dye was procured from the female
grub alone.
a. The only natural object to which this colour is applied in
Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a scarlet
thread Son 4:3.
b. Scarlet robes were worn by the rich and luxurious
2Sa 1:24 Pr 31:21 Jer 4:30 Rev 17:4.
c. It was also the hue of the warrior's dress Nah 2:3 Isa 9:5.
The Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour
2Ch 2:7.
These four colours--white, purple, blue, and scarlet--were used
in the textures of the tabernacle curtains Exo 26:1,31,36 - and
also in the high priest's ephod, girdle, and breastplate
Exo 28:5-6,8,15 - Scarlet thread is mentioned in connection with
the rites of cleansing the leper Lev 14:4,6,51 - and of burning
the red heifer Num 19:6 - It was a crimson thread that Rahab was
to bind on her window as a sign that she was to be saved alive
Jos 2:18 6:25 - when the city of Jericho was taken.
8. Vermilion, the red sulphuret of mercury, or cinnabar; a colour
used for drawing the figures of idols on the walls of temples
Eze 23:14 - or for decorating the walls and beams of houses
Jer 22:14.


The designation of the Holy Ghost Joh 14:16,26 15:26 16:7 - R.V. marg.,
"or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos"). The same Greek word thus
rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1Jo 2:1 - as applicable to
Christ. It means properly "one who is summoned to the side of
another" to help him in a court of justice by defending him, "one who
is summoned to plead a cause." "Advocate" is the proper rendering of
the word in every case where it occurs. It is worthy of notice that
although Paul nowhere uses the word paracletos, he yet presents the
idea it embodies when he speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ
and the Spirit Rom 8:27,34.

Coming Of Christ

1. with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the time"
1Jo 5:20 2Jo 1:7 - or
2. with reference to his coming again the second time at the last
day Act 1:11 3:20-21 1Th 4:15 2Ti 4:1 Heb 9:28 - The expression is
used metaphorically of the introduction of the gospel into any
place Joh 15:22 Eph 2:17 - the visible establishment of his
kingdom in the world Mat 16:28 - the conferring on his people of
the peculiar tokens of his love Joh 14:18,23,28 - and his
executing judgment on the wicked 2Th 2:8.

Commandments, The Ten

Exo 34:28 Deu 10:4 - (marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a
summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given
in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped
at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt Exo 19:10-25.
They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The
first tables were broken by Moses when he brought them down from the
mount Exo 32:19 - being thrown by him on the ground. At the command of
God he took up into the mount two other tables, and God wrote on them
"the words that were on the first tables" Exo 34:1 - These tables
were afterwards placed in the ark of the covenant Deu 10:5 1Ki 8:9.
Their subsequent history is unknown. They are as a whole called "the
covenant" Deu 4:13 - and "the tables of the covenant" Deu 9:9,11.
Heb 9:4 - and "the testimony." They are obviously "ten" in number, but
their division is not fixed, hence different methods of numbering them
have been adopted. The Jews make the "Preface" one of the commandments,
and then combine the first and second. The Roman Catholics and
Lutherans combine the first and second and divide the tenth into two.
The Jews and Josephus divide them equally. The Lutherans and Roman
Catholics refer three commandments to the first table and seven to the
second. The Greek and Reformed Churches refer four to the first and six
to the second table. The Samaritans add to the second that Gerizim is
the mount of worship.

See LAW 02249.


Fellowship with God Gen 18:17-33 Ex 33:9-11 Num 12:7-8 - between Christ
and his people Joh 14:23 - by the Spirit 2Co 13:14 Php 2:1 - of
believers with one another Eph 4:1-6 - The Lord's Supper is so called
1Co 10:16-17 - because in it there is fellowship between Christ and
his disciples, and of the disciples with one another.


Whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought into
the temple 2Ch 35:9.


(Gr. katatome; i.e., "mutilation"), a term used by Paul contemptuously
of those who were zealots for circumcision Php 3:2 - Instead of the
warning, "Beware of the circumcision" (peritome) i.e., of the party
who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that
ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say,
"This circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ only as the
gashings and mutilations of idolatrous heathen."


In the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a
relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from
various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was
less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of
secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their
protection Exo 21:7 Deu 21:10-14 - and setting limits to the relation
they sustained to the household to which they belonged Gen 21:14 25:6.
They had no authority in the family, nor could they share in the
household government. The immediate cause of concubinage might be
gathered from the conjugal histories of Abraham and Jacob
Gen 16:1 - Gen 30:1 - But in process of time the custom of
concubinage degenerated, and laws were made to restrain and regulate
it Exo 21:7-9 - Christianity has restored the sacred institution of
marriage to its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the
sins of fornication and adultery Mat 19:5-9 1Co 7:2.


Desire, Rom 7:8 - (R.V., "coveting"); Col 3:5 - (R.V., "desire"). The
"lust of concupiscence" 1Th 4:5 - R.V., "passion of lust") denotes
evil desire, indwelling sin.


A water-course or channel Job 38:25 - The "conduit of the upper pool"
Isa 7:3 - was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of conveying the
waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon to the west side of
the city of David 2Ki 18:17 20:20 2Ch 32:30 - In carrying out this
work he stopped "the waters of the fountains which were without the
city" i.e., "the upper water-course of Gihon", and conveyed it down
from the west through a canal into the city, so that in case of a
siege the inhabitants of the city might have a supply of water, which
would thus be withdrawn from the enemy.
See SILOAM 03433.
There are also the remains of a conduit which conducted water from
the so-called "Pools of Solomon," beyond Bethlehem, into the city.
Water is still conveyed into the city from the fountains which
supplied these pools by a channel which crosses the valley of Hinnom.


(Heb. shaphan; i.e., "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the
mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the
Holy Land. "The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their
houses in the rocks" Pro 30:26 Psa 104:18 - They are gregarious, and
"exceeding wise" Pro 30:24 - and are described as chewing the cud
Lev 11:5 Deu 14:7 - The animal intended by this name is known among
naturalists as the Hyrax Syriacus. It is neither a ruminant nor a
rodent, but is regarded as akin to the rhinoceros. When it is said to
"chew the cud," the Hebrew word so used does not necessarily imply
the possession of a ruminant stomach. "The lawgiver speaks according
to appearances; and no one can watch the constant motion of the
little creature's jaws, as it sits continually working its teeth,
without recognizing the naturalness of the expression" (Tristram,
Natural History of the Bible). It is about the size and color of a
rabbit, though clumsier in structure, and without a tail. Its feet
are not formed for digging, and therefore it has its home not in
burrows but in the clefts of the rocks. "Coney" is an obsolete
English word for "rabbit."


Exo 30:35 - "ointment" in Exo 30:25 - R.V., "perfume". The Hebrew word
so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil and perfume.


Only in 1Sa 8:13 - those who make confections, i.e., perfumers, who
compound species and perfumes.


1. An open profession of faith Luk 12:8.
2. An acknowledment of sins to God Lev 16:21 Ezr 9:5-15 Dan 9:3-12.
and to a neighbour whom we have wronged Jas 5:16 Mat 18:15.


(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community
Num 15:15 - Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward
was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if
circumcised, were, with certain exceptions Exo 12:19 Num 9:14 Deu 23:1-3.
admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members
of the congregation Exo 12:19 Num 9:14 15:15 - The congregation were
summonded together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met
at the door of the tabernacle Num 10:3 - These assemblies were convened
for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services Exo 12:27.
Num 25:6 Joe 2:15 - or of receiving new commandments Exo 19:7,8.
The elders, who were summonded by the sound of one trumpet Num 10:4.
represented on various occasions the whole congregation Exo 3:16.
Exo 12:21 17:5 24:1 - After the conquest of Canaan, the people were
assembled only on occasions of the highest national importance
Jud 1:20 2Ch 30:5 34:29 1Sa 10:17 2Sa 5:1-5 1Ki 12:20 2Ki 11:19.
2Ki 21:24 23:30 - In subsequent times the congregation was represented
by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in the Septuagint
version exclusively to the congregation, came to be used to denote
the places of worship established by the Jews.
See CHURCH 00828.
In Act 13:43 - where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is
the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (q.v.) in Act 13:42.
and is so rendered in Act 13:43 - in R.V.

Congregation, Mount of the

Isa 14:13 - has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised
to meet with his people Exo 25:22 29:42,43 - i.e., the mount of the
Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken
as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not
according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will
therefore in this case mean the northern mountain, supposed by the
Babylonians to be the meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian
inscriptions mention is made of a mountain which is described as "the
mighty mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the
holy deep." This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the place
where the gods had their seat.


That faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which
we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all
men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall
Joh 16:2 Act 26:9 Ro 2:15 - It is spoken of as "defiled" Tit 1:15.
and "seared" 1Ti 4:2 - A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought
and cultivated Act 24:16 Ro 9:1 2Co 1:12 1Ti 1:5,19 1Pe 3:21.


The devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of
God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated
Exo 13:2,12,15 Num 3:12 - The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle,
and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord Lev 27:28-29 - According
to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were
consecrated to God. In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as
consecrated to the Lord 1Pe 2:9.

Consolation of Israel

A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested
by Isa 12:1 49:13 - The Greek word thus rendered Luk 2:25.
(paraklesis) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in Joh 14:16.
etc., parakletos.


A cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the
heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as
the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification
and of memory. In Isa 13:10 - where this word only occurs, it is the
rendering of the Hebrew - kesil -, i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew
name of the constellation Orion Job 9:9 38:31 - a constellation which
represented Nimrod, the symbol of folly and impiety. The word some
interpret by "the giant" in this place, "some heaven-daring rebel who
was chained to the sky for his impiety."


A state of mind in which one's desires are confined to his lot
whatever it may be 1Ti 6:6 2Co 9:8 - It is opposed to envy Jas 3:16.
avarice Heb 13:5 - ambition Pro 13:10 - anxiety Mat 6:25,34 - and repining
1Co 10:10 - It arises from the inward disposition, and is the
offspring of humility, and of an intelligent consideration of the
rectitude and benignity of divine providence Psa 96:1-2 145:1 - the
greatness of the divine promises 2Pe 1:4 - and our own unworthiness
Gen 32:10 - as well as from the view the gospel opens up to us of rest
and peace hereafter Rom 5:2.


Generally the goings out and in of social intercourse Eph 2:3 4:22.
R.V., "manner of life"; one's deportment or course of life. This word
is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from
one to another Psa 50:23 Heb 13:5 - In Php 1:27 3:20 - a different Greek
word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a
citizen, i.e., citizenship.


The turning of a sinner to God Act 15:3 - In a general sense the
heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and
embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are
converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls,
their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things
become new Act 26:18 - Thus we speak of the conversion of the
Philippian jailer Act 16:19-34 - of Paul Act 9:1-22 - of the Ethiopian
treasurer Act 8:26-40 - of Cornelius Act 10:1 - of Lydia
Act 16:13-15 - and others.



A meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation,
which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters.
Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the
Sabbaths Lev 23:2-3 - the Passover Exo 12:16 Lev 23:7-8 Num 28:25.
Pentecost Lev 23:21 - the feast of Trumpets Lev 23:24 Num 29:1 - the feast
of Weeks Num 28:26 - and the feast of Tabernacles Lev 23:35-36 - The
great fast, the annual day of atonement, was "the holy convocation"
Lev 23:27 Num 29:7.


A person employed to perform culinary service. In early times among
the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the household
Gen 18:2-6 Jud 6:19 - and the process was very expeditiously performed
Gen 27:3-4,9-10 - Professional cooks were afterwards employed
1Sa 8:13 9:23 - Few animals, as a rule, were slaughtered (other than
sacrifices), except for purposes of hospitality Gen 18:7 Luk 15:23 - The
paschal lamb was roasted over a fire Exo 12:8-9 2Ch 35:13 - Cooking
by boiling was the usual method adopted Lev 8:31 Ex 16:23 - No cooking
took place on the Sabbath day Exo 35:3.


(written Cos in the R.V.), a small island, one of the Sporades in the
Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of Caria. Paul
on his return from his third missionary journey, passed the night
here after sailing from Miletus Act 21:1 - It is now called Stanchio.


Derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called "Cyprian
brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezr 8:27 - Elsewhere
the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly rendered "brass," and
sometimes "steel" 2Sa 22:35 Jer 15:12 - The "bow of steel" Job 20:24.
Psa 18:34 - should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the
R.V.). The vessels of "fine copper" of Ezr 8:27 - were probably
similar to those of "bright brass" mentioned in 1Ki 7:45 Dan 10:6.
Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron Gen 4:22 - Hiram
was noted as a worker in brass 1Ki 7:14 - Copper abounded in Palestine
Deu 8:9 Isa 60:17 1Ch 22:3,14 - All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle
and the temple were made of it Lev 6:28 Num 16:39 2Ch 4:16 Ezr 8:27.
also weapons of war 1Sa 17:5-6,38 2Sa 21:16 - Iron is mentioned only
four times Gen 4:22 Lev 26:19 Num 31:22 35:16 - in the first four books
of Moses, while copper (rendered "brass") is mentioned forty times.
See BRASS 00641.
We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of Ephesus
2Ti 4:14.


This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a
measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer, and
contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure
Eze 45:14 - The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five gallons, while
Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1Ki 4:22 5:11.
2Ch 2:10 27:5 - the original word is rendered "measure."


Heb. ramoth, meaning "heights;" i.e., "high-priced" or valuable
things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a tree
Job 28:18 Eze 27:16 - according to the Rabbins, red coral, which was
in use for ornaments. The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the
deposit by minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in
which the animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but
usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs and coral islands
abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews derived their
knowledge of it. It is found of different colours, white, black, and
red. The red, being esteemed the most precious, was used, as noticed
above, for ornamental purposes.


A Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left
untranslated. It occurs only once Mar 7:11 - It means a gift or
offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this word was once
pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the temple. Land, however, so
dedicated might be redeemed before the year of jubilee Lev 27:16-24.
Our Lord condemns the Pharisees for their false doctrine, inasmuch as
by their traditions they had destroyed the commandment which requires
children to honour their father and mother, teaching them to find
excuse from helping their parents by the device of pronouncing
"Corban" over their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish


Frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent
Exo 35:18 39:40 - yoking animals to a cart Isa 5:18 - binding prisoners
Jud 15:13 Psa 2:3 129:4 - and measuring ground 2Sa 8:2 Psa 78:55.
Figuratively, death is spoken of as the giving way of the tent-cord
Job 4:21 - "Is not their tent-cord plucked up?" R.V. To gird one's self
with a cord was a token of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line
over a city meant to level it with the ground Lam 2:8 - The "cords of
sin" are the consequences or fruits of sin Pro 5:22 - A "threefold
cord" is a symbol of union Ecc 4:12 - The "cords of a man" Hos 11:4.
means that men employ, in inducing each other, methods such as are
suitable to men, and not "cords" such as oxen are led by. Isa 5:18.
says, "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin
as it were with a cart rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee
paraphrase: "Woe to those who begin to sin by little and little,
drawing sin by cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till
they are strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true
meaning. The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but
by-and-by their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a
cart rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the
persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of provoking
the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his vengeance,
but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of iniquity, and,
putting forth all their strength, drew down upon themselves, with
accelerated speed, the load of punishment which their sins deserved."


Heb. gad, Exo 16:31 Num 11:7 - seed to which the manna is likened in its
form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an
umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high.
It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of
Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little
ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a
spice. The Greek name of this plant is korion or koriannon, whence
the name "coriander."


A Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the
mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient
city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146) and that mentioned in the
New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a
century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It
became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern Greece or
Achaia Act 18:12-16 - It was noted for its wealth, and for the
luxurious and immoral and vicious habits of the people. It had a
large mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first
visited the city (A.D. 51 or 52) Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was
proconsul. Here Paul resided for eighteen months Act 18:1-18 - Here
he first became aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after
his departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he
visited it a second time, and remained for three months Act 20:3.
During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written
(probably A.D. 55) Although there were many Jewish converts at
Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there. Some
have argued from 2Co 12:14 13:1 - that Paul visited Corinth a
third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he visited the
city between what are usually called the first and second visits).
But the passages referred to only indicate Paul's intention to visit
Corinth (comp.) 1Co 16:5 - where the Greek present tense denotes
an intention), an intention which was in some way frustrated. We can
hardly suppose that such a visit could have been made by the apostle
without more distinct reference to it.

Corinthians, First Epistle to the

Was written from Ephesus 1Co 16:8 - about the time of the Passover
in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there Act 19:10 20:31.
and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then
return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57) The news which had reached him,
however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses
and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos
Act 19:1 - and then from a letter they had written him on the
subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from
Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him 1Co 1:11 16:17.
Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the
factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had sprung
up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices
that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were
probably the bearers of the letter 2Co 2:13 8:6,16-18 - The epistle
may be divided into four parts:
1. The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions
and party strifes that had arisen among them 1Co 1:1-4:21.
2. He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become
notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought the very
first principles of morality (1Co 5:1-6:20)
3. In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and
of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had
made to him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses
regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (1Co 7:1-14:40)
4. The concluding part (1Co 15:1-16:24) contains an elaborate
defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which
had been called in question by some among them, followed by
some general instructions, intimations, and greetings.
This epistle "shows the powerful self-control of the apostle in spite
of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant
troubles, and his emotional nature. It was written, he tells us, in
bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart and
with streaming eyes' 2Co 2:4 - yet he restrained the expression of
his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought
most calculated to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid
picture of the early church. It entirely dissipates the dream that the
apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or
purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies
great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with
the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear. This is
one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in
question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the
evidences of its Pauline origin. The subscription to this epistle
states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at
Philippi. This error arose from a mistranslation of 1Co 16:5 - "For
I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am
passing through Macedonia." In 1Co 16:8 - he declares his intention
of remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose is to
"pass through Macedonia."

Corinthians, Second Epistle to the

Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left
Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the
evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing
the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe.
Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to
Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by
the first epistle; but was disappointed 1Co 16:9 2Co 1:8 2:12-13.
He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where
he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus 2Co 7:6-7 - who brought him
good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the influence of
the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which
Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It
was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica,
early in the year A.D. 58 and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This
letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to
the saints in all Achaia, i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities
in Greece. The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:
1. Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and
expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians
(2Co 1:1-7:16)
2. He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was
to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (2Co 8:1-9:15)
3. He defends his own apostolic claim (2Co 10:1-13:14) and
justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the
false teacher and his adherents.
This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the
apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the
deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony,
rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect,
zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the
progress of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of
its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his
appeal."--Lias, Second Corinthians. Of the effects produced on the
Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We
know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it Act 20:2-3.
and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months. In his
letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of
the principal members of the church to the Romans.


Lev 11:17 Deu 14:17 - Heb. shalak, "plunging," or "darting down," (the
Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean" birds; of the same
family group as the pelican. It is a "plunging" bird, and is common
on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew
word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose");
others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents
the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan
valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason to
depart from the ordinary rendering. In Isa 34:11 Zep 2:14 - (but in
R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew word rendered by this name is - ka'ath -.
It is translated "pelican" (q.v.) in Psa 102:6 - The word literally
means the "vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting
the shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed.

See PELICAN 02890.


The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen 27:28,37 Num 18:27 Deu 28:51 La 2:12.
is a general term representing all the commodities we usually
describe by the words corn, grain, seeds, peas, beans. With this
corresponds the use of the word in Joh 12:24 - In Gen 41:35,49.
Pro 11:26 Joe 2:24 - ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i.e.,
"winnowed") means corn purified from chaff. With this corresponds the
use of the word in the New Testament Mat 3:12 Luk 3:17 Act 7:12 - In
Psa 65:13 - it means "growing corn." In Gen 42:1-2,19 Jos 9:14.
Neh 10:31 - ("victuals"), the word (sheber; i.e., "broken," i.e.,
grist) denotes generally victuals, provisions, and corn as a
principal article of food. From the time of Solomon, corn began to be
exported from Palestine Eze 27:17 Amo 8:5 - "Plenty of corn" was a
part of Issac's blessing conferred upon Jacob Gen 27:28 - comp.
Psa 65:13.


A centurion whose history is narrated in Act 10:1-48 - He was a
"devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in the
God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into
contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations
regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the
message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile
world to Christ. He and his family were baptized and admitted into
the Christian church Act 10:1,44-48.

See CENTURION 00752.


The angle of a house Job 1:19 - or a street Pro 7:8 - "Corners" in
Neh 9:22 - denotes the various districts of the promised land
allotted to the Israelites. In Num 24:17 - the "corners of Moab"
denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" Lev 19:9.
Lev 23:22 - is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews
were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of
the hair and whiskers running round the ears Lev 19:27 21:5 - The
"four corners of the earth" in Isa 11:12 Eze 7:2 - denotes the whole
land. The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Mat 6:5 - means the
angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public
resort. The corner gate of Jerusalem 2Ki 14:13 2Ch 26:9 - was on the
north-west side of the city. Corner-stone Job 38:6 Isa 28:16 - a
block of great importance in binding together the sides of a
building. The "head of the corner" Psa 118:22-23 - denotes the coping,
the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the
word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of rank
and importance Isa 28:16 - It is applied to our Lord, who was set in
highest honour Mat 21:42 - He is also styled "the chief corner stone"
Eph 2:20 1Pe 2:6-8 - When Zechariah Zec 10:4 - speaking of Judah,
says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be
understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner



Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its
sound 1Ch 15:28 2Ch 15:14 Psa 98:6 Hos 5:8 - It is usually rendered in
the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight
horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the
trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which
was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Dan 3:5,7,10,15 - the
word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in
2Sa 6:5 - (Heb. mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of
instrument played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum,
consisting of rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.


Pens or enclosures for flocks 2Ch 32:28 - "cotes for flocks;" R.V.,
"flocks in folds").


1. A booth in a vineyard Isa 1:8 - a temporary shed covered
with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the
garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no
longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter
Job 27:18.
2. A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in) Isa 1:8 - a slighter
structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more
temporary than a vineyard Isa 24:20 - It denotes a frail
structure of boughs supported on a few poles, which is still in
use in the East, or a hammock suspended between trees, in which
the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer.
3. In Zep 2:6 - it is the rendering of the Hebrew - keroth -, which
some suppose to denote rather "pits" (R.V. marg., "caves") or
"wells of water," such as shepherds would sink.


Gen 49:4 1Ch 5:1 Job 7:13 Psa 6:6 - a seat for repose or rest.

See BED 00494.


1Sa 13:20-21 - an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called
"ploughshare" Isa 2:4 Mic 4:3 Joe 3:10 - It was the facing-piece of a
plough, analogous to the modern coulter.


Spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor of a
province Act 25:12 - The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme
council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals
(the "judgment," perhaps, in) Mat 5:21-22 - in the cities of Palestine
Mat 10:17 Mar 13:9 - In the time of Christ the functions of the
Sanhedrim were limited Joh 16:2 2Co 11:24 - In Psa 68:27 - the word
"council" means simply a company of persons. (R.V. marg., "company.")
In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly of
pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of church
affairs. The first of these councils was that of the apostles and
elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed account in
Act 15:1-33.


An adviser Pro 11:14 15:22 - a king's state counsellor 2Sa 15:12 - Used
once of the Messiah Isa 9:6 - In Mar 15:43 Luk 23:50 - the word probably
means a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim.


When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded, among
the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok and
Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to be
conducted in the house of God.
1. He divided the priests into twenty-four courses 1Ch 24:1-19.
sixteen being of the house of Eleazar and eight of that of
Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief, and ministered
for a week, the order being determined by lot.
2. The rest of the 38,000 Levites 1Ch 23:4 - were divided also into
twenty-four courses, each to render some allotted service in
public worship: 4,000 in twenty-four courses were set apart as
singers and musicians under separate leaders 1Ch 25:1-31|.
4,000 as porters or keepers of the doors and gates of the
sanctuary 1Ch 26:1-19 - and 6,000 as officers and judges to see
to the administration of the law in all civil and ecclesiastical
matters 1Ch 26:20-32. This arrangement was re-established by
Hezekiah 2Ch 31:2 - and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses
which are said to have returned from the Captivity were
re-divided into the original number of twenty-four by Ezra
Ezr 6:18.


The enclosure of the tabernacle Exo 27:9-19 40:8 - of the temple
1Ki 6:36 - of a prison Neh 3:25 - of a private house 2Sa 17:18 - and of
a king's palace 2Ki 20:4.


A contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the
Hebrew word - berith - is always thus translated. - Berith - is derived
from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a
"cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into
two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in
making a covenant Gen 15:1-18 Jer 34:18-19 - The corresponding word
in the New Testament Greek is - diatheke -, which is, however, rendered
"testament" generally in the Authorized Version. It ought to be
rendered, just as the word - berith - of the Old Testament, "covenant."
This word is used
1. of a covenant or compact between man and man Gen 21:32 - or
between tribes or nations 1Sa 11:1 Jos 9:6,15 - In entering into
a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the
transaction Gen 31:50 - and hence it was called a "covenant of the
Lord" 1Sa 20:8 - The marriage compact is called "the covenant of
God" Pro 2:17 - because the marriage was made in God's name.
Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a
"covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to
devour them Isa 28:15,18.
2. The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself
in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise
to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant Gen 9:1-15.
Jer 33:20 - "my covenant". We have an account of God's covernant
with Abraham Gen 17:1 - comp. Lev 26:42 - of the
covenant of the priesthood Num 25:12-13 Deu 33:9 Neh 13:29.
and of the covenant of Sinai Exo 34:27-28 Lev 26:15 - which
was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of
Israel Deu 29:1 - Jos 1:24 2Ch 15 23 29 34, Ezr 10:1-11.
Neh 9:1-38. In conformity with human custom, God's covenant
is said to be confirmed with an oath Deu 4:31 Psa 89:3 - and
to be accompanied by a sign Gen 9:1 ... 17:1 ... - Hence the
covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise"
Psa 89:3-4 105:8-11 Heb 6:13-20 Luk 1:68-75 - God's covenant
consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing Isa 59:21.
Jer 31:33-34 - The term covenant is also used to designate
the regular succession of day and night Jer 33:20 - the
Sabbath Exo 31:16 - circumcision Gen 17:9-10 - and in
general any ordinance of God Jer 34:13-14 - A "covenant of
salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or
ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used
Num 18:19 Lev 2:13 2Ch 13:5.
COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at
his creation. In this covenant,
1. The contracting parties were
a. God the moral Governor, and
b. Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his
natural posterity Rom 5:12-19.
2. The promise was "life" Mat 19:16-17 Gal 3:12.
3. The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this
case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of
knowledge," etc.
4. The penalty was death Gen 2:16,17.
This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in
his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was
the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it
demanded perfect obedience to the law. The "tree of life" was the
outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant,
and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant
is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its
conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the
condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the
immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to
Christ and accepted his righteousness.

CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by
the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its
several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in its
indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety
Joh 17:4,6,9 Isa 42:6 Psa 89:3 - The conditions of this covenant
1. On the part of the Father
a. all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment
of his work Heb 10:5 Isa 42:1-7.
b. support in the work Luk 22:43 - and
c. a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his
work was done Php 2:6-11 - his investiture with
universal dominion Joh 5:22 Psa 110:1 - his having the
administration of the covenant committed into his hands
Mat 28:18 Joh 1:12 17:2 Act 2:33 - and in the final
salvation of all his people Isa 35:10 53:10,11.
Jer 31:33 Ti 1:2.
2. On the part of the Son the conditions were
a. his becoming incarnate Gal 4:4-5 - and
b. as the second Adam his representing all his people,
assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations
under the violated covenant of works;
c. obeying the law Psa 40:8 Isa 42:21 Joh 9:4-5 - and
d. suffering its penalty Isa 53:1 - 2Co 5:21 Gal 3:13.
in their stead. Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its
conditions in behalf of his people, and dispenses to them
all its blessings. In Heb 8:6 9:15 12:24 - this title
is given to Christ.


Covering of the Eyes

Occurs only in Gen 20:16 - In the Revised Version the rendering is "it
(i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for
thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied
advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a
complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face.


A strong desire after the possession of worldly things Col 3:5.
Eph 5:5 Heb 13:5 1Ti 6:9-10 Mat 6:20 - It assumes sometimes the more
aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted


A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day Lev 22:28.
Exo 23:19 Deu 22:6-7 - The reason for this enactment is not given. A
state of great poverty is described in the words of Isa 7:21-25.
where, instead of possessing great resources, a man shall depend for
the subsistence of himself and his family on what a single cow and
two sheep could yield.


Isa 38:14 Jer 8:7 - In both of these passages the Authorized Version
has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or swallow" should
be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised Version. The rendering is
there correct. The Hebrew for crane is - 'agur -, the Grus cincerea, a
bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and is distinguished
by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melancholy.


"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things
out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely
free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists
only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed
1. to the Godhead Gen 1:1-26.
2. to the Father 1Co 8:6.
3. to the Son Joh 1:3 Col 1:16,17.
4. to the Holy Spirit Gen 1:2 Job 26:13 Psa 104:30 - The fact that he
is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God Isa 37:16.
Isa 40:12-13 54:5 Psa 96:5 Jer 10:11-12 - The one great end in
the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the
Creator Col 1:16 Rev 4:11 Ro 11:36 - God's works, equally
with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the
teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly
understood, there can be no contradiction. Traditions of the
creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the
records of ancient Eastern nations.
See ACCAD 00060.
A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians,
the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia.
These within the last few years have been brought to light in
the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the
long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a
remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.


Denotes the whole creation in Rom 8:39 Col 1:15 Rev 5:13 - the whole
human race in Mar 16:15 Ro 8:19-22 - The living creatures in
Eze 10:15,17 - are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes
and operations.


Increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He was
one of Paul's assistants 2Ti 4:10 - probably a Christian of Rome.


Now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean,
about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very
prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The
character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of
their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans
are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" Tit 1:12 - Jews from Crete
were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost Act 2:11 - The island was
visited by Paul on his voyage to Rome Act 27:1 - Here Paul
subsequently left Titus (Tit 1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have
supposed that it was the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or


See COLOUR 00868.


Isa 3:22 - R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably
like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word - harit - properly signifies
pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2Ki 5:23.


Curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth Act 18:8 - He was
converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul 1Co 1:14.


In the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for
the crucifixion of Christ itself Eph 2:16 Heb 12:2 1Co 1:17-18.
Gal 5:11 6:12,14 Php 3:18 - The word is also used to denote any severe
affliction or trial Mat 10:38 16:24 Mar 8:34 10:21 - The forms in which
the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of
cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the
projecting beam, was placed the "title."
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313)
the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He
pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the
heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this
sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ
himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of
this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was
accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the
standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire.
It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek
letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega.

See A 00001.


1. Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's
mitre Exo 29:6 39:30 - The same Hebrew word so rendered
(ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle 2Sa 1:10.
and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash
2Ki 11:12.
2. The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is - 'atarah -,
meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments
of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown
taken from the king of Ammon by David 2Sa 12:30 - The crown worn
by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with
flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns worn
by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem
surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This
probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or
three countries. In Rev 12:3 13:1 - we read of "many crowns," a
token of extended dominion.
3. The ancient Persian crown Est 1:11 2:17 6:8 - was called - kether -;
i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn
sometimes to represent honour and power Eze 23:42 - They were
worn at marriages Son 3:11 Isa 61:10 - "ornaments;" R.V., "a
garland"), and at feasts and public festivals. The crown was
among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward. The
crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was
made of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of
laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian
games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the "civic crown" on him
who saved the life of a citizen. It was made of the leaves of
the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles
speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life Jas 1:12.
Rev 2:10 - "that fadeth not away" 1Pe 5:4 - Gr. amarantinos;
comp. 1Pe 1:4. Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to
flowers we call "everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."

See DIADEM 01027.

Crown of Thorns

Our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans Mat 27:29 - The
object of Pilate's guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not
specially to inflict pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus
used was, as has been supposed, the spina Christi, which could have
been easily woven into a wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which
grew abundantly round about Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and
round branches could easily be platted into the form of a crown.

See THORN 03642.


A common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It
is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably
it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic
law were, by the sword Exo 21:1 - strangling, fire Lev 20:1 - and
stoning Deu 21:1 - This was regarded as the most horrible form of
death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in
Deu 21:23 - This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to
scourging. In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather
before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate
for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape
from further punishment Luk 23:22 Joh 19:1 - The condemned one carried
his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city,
in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose. Before the
nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed
with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of
deadening the pangs of the sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that
his senses might be clear Mat 27:34 - The spongeful of vinegar, sour
wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on
a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity Mat 27:48.
Luk 23:36 - he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst Joh 19:29 - The
accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement
with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases. He was
crucified between two "malefactors" Isa 53:12 Luk 23:32 - and was
watched by a party of four soldiers Joh 19:23 Mat 27:36,54 - with their
centurion. The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended
to hasten death, and put them out of misery Joh 19:31 - but the
unusual rapidity of our Lord's death Joh 19:33 - was due to his
previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The omission of the
breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type Exo 12:46 - He
literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the
flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear
Joh 19:34 - Our Lord uttered seven memorable words from the cross,
1. Luk 23:34.
2. Luk 23:43.
3. Joh 19:26.
4. Mat 27:46 Mar 15:34.
5. Joh 19:28.
6. Joh 19:30.
7. Luk 23:46.


A utensil; a flask or cup for holding water 1Sa 26:11-12,16 1Ki 19:6.
or oil 1Ki 17:12,14,16 - In 1Ki 14:3 - the word there so rendered means
properly a bottle, as in Jer 19:1,10 - or pitcher. In 2Ki 2:20 - a
platter or flat metal saucer is intended. The Hebrew word here used
is translated "dish" in 2Ki 21:13 - "pans," in 2Ch 35:13 - and "bosom,"
in Pro 19:24 26:15 - (R.V., "dish").


Eze 1:22 - with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the spectators with
its brightness). The word occurs in Rev 4:6 21:11 22:1 - It is a stone
of the flint order, the most refined kind of quartz. The Greek word
here used means also literally "ice." The ancients regarded the
crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme hardness by great
length of time.


Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word
derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult to
determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty
whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of
the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at
the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit.
The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20
inches for the ordinary cubit, and 21 inches for the sacred one.
This is the same as the Egyptian measurements. A rod or staff the
measure of a cubit is called in Jud 3:16 - - gomed -, which literally
means a "cut," something "cut off." The LXX. and Vulgate render it


(Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning "to be lean; slender." This bird
is mentioned only in Lev 11:16 Deu 14:15 - (R.V., "seamew"). Some
have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel" or "shearwater"
(Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria; others
think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo
(Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in
Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. It only passes the winter in
Palestine. The Arabs suppose it to utter the cry - Yakub -, and hence
they call it - tir el-Yakub -; i.e., "Jacob's bird."


(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion, only
in Num 11:5) This vegetable is extensively cultivated in the East at
the present day, as it appears to have been in earlier times among
the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family of plants. In the East
its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We need not
altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through the
arid solitudes of the Sinaitic peninsula, thought more of the
cucumbers and watermelons of which they had had no lack in Egypt,
rather than of the cruel bondage which was the price of these
luxuries." Groser's Scripture Natural History. Isaiah speaks of a
"lodge" (Isa 1:8 - Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or edifice more solid
than a booth, for the protection throughout the season from spring to
autumn of the watchers in a "garden of cucumbers."


(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an
umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively
cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa 28:25,27 - In
the New Testament it is mentioned in Mat 23:23 - where our Lord
pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in
paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the
weightier matters of the law." "It is used as a spice, both bruised,
to mix with bread, and also boiled, in the various messes and stews
which compose an Oriental banquet." Tristram, Natural History.


A wine-cup Gen 40:11,21 - various forms of which are found on Assyrian
and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold
1Ki 10:21 - The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after
Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold Rev 17:4 - The art
of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt Gen 44:2-17 - and
in the East generally. The "cup of salvation" Psa 116:13 - is the cup
of thanksgiving for the great salvation. The "cup of consolation"
Jer 16:7 - refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to
console relatives in mourning Pro 31:6 - In 1Co 10:16 - the "cup of
blessing" is contrasted with the "cup of devils" 1Co 10:21 - The
sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing," because of blessing
pronounced over it Mat 26:27 Luk 22:17 - The "portion of the cup"
Psa 11:6 16:5 - denotes one's condition of life, prosperous or
adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement Jer 51:7.
Pro 23:31 Rev 17:4 - We read also of the "cup of astonishment," the "cup
of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" Psa 75:8 Isa 51:17.
Jer 25:15 La 4:21 Eze 23:32 Rev 16:19 - comp. Mat 26:39,42 Joh 18:11.
The cup is also the symbol of death Mat 16:28 Mar 9:1 Heb 2:9.


An officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish
monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in
connection with Joseph's history Gen 40:1-21 41:9 - Rabshakeh (q.v.)
was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court 2Ki 18:17 - Nehemiah filled this
office to the king of Persia Neh 1:11 - We read also of Solomon's
cup-bearers 1Ki 10:5 2Ch 9:4.

Curious Arts

Act 19:19 - magical arts; jugglery practised by the Ephesian
conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the "Ephesian
spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with
certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner of
evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written
out in books which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a
great price.


Denounced by God against the serpent Gen 3:14 - and against Cain
Gen 4:11 - These divine maledictions carried their effect with them.
Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men Gen 9:25.
Gen 49:7 Deu 27:15 Jos 6:26 - Such curses are not the consequence of
passion or revenge, they are predictions. No one on pain of death
shall curse father or mother Exo 21:17 - nor the prince of his people
Exo 22:28 - nor the deaf Lev 19:14 - Cursing God or blaspheming
was punishable by death Lev 24:10-16 - The words "curse God and die"
(R.V., "renounce God and die"), used by Job's wife Job 2:9 - have been
variously interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but
death was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and
destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.


1. Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made
of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the
tabernacle Exo 26:1-13 36:8-17.
2. The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the
sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh).
It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and
fine twined linen of cunning work" Exo 26:31 Lev 16:2 Num 18:7.
3. "Stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain" Isa 40:22 - is an
expression used with reference to the veil or awning which
Orientals spread for a screen over their courts in summer.
According to the prophet, the heavens are spread over our heads
as such an awning. Similar expressions are found in comp.
Isa 44:24 Job 9:8.


1. A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod
Gen 10:8 1Ch 1:10 - From him the land of Cush seems to have
derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the
land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The
second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush
Gen 2:13 - R.V. The term Cush is in the Old Testament
generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It
was the southern limit of Egypt Eze 29:10 - A.V. "Ethiopia,"
Heb. Cush), with which it is generally associated Psa 68:31.
Isa 18:1 Jer 46:9 - etc. It stands also associated with Elam
Isa 11:11 - with Persia Eze 38:5 - and with the Sabeans
Isa 45:14 - From these facts it has been inferred that Cush
included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red
Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as
Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there
are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was
also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks)
of Africa. Ezekiel speaks Eze 29:10 - comp. Eze 30:4-6 - of
it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us
as Nubia and Abyssinia Isa 18:1 Zep 3:10 - Heb. Cush. In
ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed - Kesh -. The
Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts,
stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At
an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites
"from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia,
and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after
their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west.
Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from
Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian
Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the
mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known
afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of
the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the
southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards
emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of
Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief.
He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled
in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling
with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation.
2. A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Psa 7:1.
"Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe,
and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of
'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'"


Probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush, the Arabian
Cush Hab 3:7 - Some have, however, supposed this to be the same as
Chushan-rishathaim Jud 3:8,10 - i.e., taking the latter part of the
name as a title or local appellation, Chushan "of the two iniquities"
oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry), a Mesopotamian
king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur-ris-ilim (the father of
Tiglathpileser I.); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was
not yet founded. He held Israel in bondage for eight years.


1. The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over
Absalom 2Sa 18:32.
2. The father of Shelemiah Jer 36:14.
3. Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah Zep 1:1.
4. Moses married a Cushite woman Num 12:1 - From this circumstance
some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that
Midian was Cush.


A tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed publicans
(q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities, and in the
public highways, and at the place set apart for that purpose, called
the "receipt of custom" Mat 9:9 Mar 2:14 - where they collected the
money that was to be paid on certain goods Mat 17:25 - These publicans
were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawful, and were,
in consequence of their extortions, objects of great hatred. The
Pharisees would have no intercourse with them Mat 5:46,47 9:10-11 - A
tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by every
adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin
Mat 22:17-19 Mar 12:14-15 - Money-changers (q.v.) were necessary, to
enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange
their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the
law to carry on such a traffic for emolument Deu 23:19-20 - our
Lord drove them from the temple Mat 21:12 Mar 11:15.


One of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser
transplanted certain colonists to Samaria 2Ki 17:24 - Some have
conjectured that the "Cutheans" were identical with the "Cossaeans"
who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the river Choaspes.
Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east of


The flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of
idol-worship Deu 14:1 1Ki 18:28 - The Israelites were commanded not to
imitate this practice Lev 19:28 21:5 Deu 14:1 - The tearing of the flesh
from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was
regarded as a mark of affection Jer 16:6 41:5 48:37 - Allusions are
made in Revelation Rev 13:16 17:5 19:20 - to the practice of printing
marks on the body, to indicate allegiance to a deity. We find also
references to it, through in a different direction, by Paul Gal 6:7.
and by Ezekiel Eze 9:4.

See HAIR 01591.


(Heb. tzeltzelim, from a root meaning to "tinkle"), musical
instruments, consisting of two convex pieces of brass one held in
each hand, which were clashed together to produce a loud clanging
sound; castanets; "loud cymbals." "Highsounding cymbals" consisted of
two larger plates, one held also in each hand 2Sa 6:5 Psa 150:5.
1Ch 13:8 15:16,19,28 1Co 13:1.


(Heb. tirzah, "hardness"), mentioned only in Isa 44:14 - (R.V., "holm
tree"). The oldest Latin version translates this word by ilex, i.e.,
the evergreen oak, which may possibly have been the tree intended;
but there is great probability that our Authorized Version is correct
in rendering it "cypress." This tree grows abundantly on the
mountains of Hermon. Its wood is hard and fragrant, and very durable.
Its foliage is dark and gloomy. It is an evergreen (Cupressus
sempervirens). "Throughout the East it is used as a funereal tree;
and its dark, tall, waving plumes render it peculiarly appropriate
among the tombs."


One of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles
long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian
coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament Num 24:24 - The Greek
colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus, i.e., the
See CAMPHIRE 00701.
which grew on this island. It was originally inhabited by
Phoenicians. In B.C. 477 it fell under the dominion of the Greeks;
and became a Roman province B.C. 58 In ancient times it was a centre
of great commercial activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced
here in the greatest perfection. It was rich also in timber and in
mineral wealth. It is first mentioned in the New Testament Act 4:36.
as the native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first
missionary labours Act 13:4-13 - when he and Barnabas and John Mark
were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards visited by
Barnabas and Mark alone Act 15:39 - Mnason, an "old disciple,"
probably one of the converts of the day of Pentecost belonging to this
island, is mentioned Act 21:16 - It is also mentioned in connection
with the voyages of Paul Act 21:3 27:4 - After being under the Turks
for three hundred years, it was given up to the British Government in


A city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya, North Africa, founded by a colony
of Greeks (B.C. 630) It contained latterly a large number of Jews,
who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the son of Lagus,
because he thought they would contribute to the security of the
place. They increased in number and influence; and we are thus
prepared for the frequent references to them in connection with the
early history of Christianity. Simon, who bore our Lord's cross, was
a native of this place Mat 27:32 Mar 15:21 - Jews from Cyrene were in
Jerusalem at Pentecost Act 2:10 - and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at
Jerusalem Act 6:9 - Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the
formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch Act 11:20 - Among "the
prophets and teachers" who "ministered to the Lord at Antioch" was
Lucius of Cyrene Act 13:1.


The Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius
Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved that Quirinus
was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria at the time of
our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled, being a province of Syria,
he is called the governor, which he was de jure, of Syria. Some ten
years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria for the second
time. During his tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's birth
Luk 2:2 - a "taxing" (R.V., "enrolment;" i.e., a registration) of the
people was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his

See TAXING 03595.


(Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was
conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews
Ezr 1:1-2 - He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was
born about B.C. 599 In the year B.C. 559 he became king of Persia,
the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus was
a great military leader, bent on universal conquest. Babylon fell
before his army (B.C. 538) on the night of Belshazzar's feast
Dan 5:30 - and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to
his empire (cf., "Go up, O Elam",) Isa 21:2 - Hitherto the great kings
of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a
"shepherd" Isa 44:28 45:1 - God employed him in doing service to
his ancient people. He may posibly have gained, through contact with
the Jews, some knowledge of their religion. The "first year of Cyrus"
Ezr 1:1 - is not the year of his elevation to power over the
Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon,
but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius the Mede"
was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (B.C. 536)
Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his
Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem
marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people
2Ch 36:22-23 Ezr 1:1-4 4:3 5:13-17 6:3-5 - This decree was discovered
"at Achmetha [R.V. marg., "Ecbatana"], in the palace that is in the
province of the Medes" Ezr 6:2 - A chronicle drawn up just after
the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of
Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of
the Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern
Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the
north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis,
and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror.
Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to
Babylon, which surrendered "without fighting," and the daily services
in the temples continued without a break. In October, Cyrus himself
arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by
Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of which he had been made
governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was
captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses,
the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title
of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient
kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he
allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to
return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their
gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no
images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.

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