Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - B

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1. The name appropriated to the principal male god of the
Phoenicians. It is found in several places in the plural BAALIM
Jud 2:11 10:10 1Ki 18:18 Jer 2:23 Hos 2:17 - Baal is identified
with Molech Jer 19:5 - It was known to the Israelites as
Baal-peor Num 25:3 Deu 4:3 - was worshipped till the time of Samuel
1Sa 7:4 - and was afterwards the religion of the ten tribes in
the time of Ahab 1Ki 16:31-33 18:19,22 - It prevailed also for a
time in the kingdom of Judah 2Ki 8:27 - comp. 2Ki 11:18 16:3.
2Ch 28:2 - till finally put an end to by the severe discipline of
the Captivity Zep 1:4-6 - The priests of Baal were in great
numbers 1Ki 18:19 - and of various classes 2Ki 10:19 - Their
mode of offering sacrifices is described in 1Ki 18:25-29 - The
sun-god, under the general title of Baal, or "lord," was the
chief object of worship of the Canaanites. Each locality had its
special Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up under
the name of Baalim, or "lords." Each Baal had a wife, who was a
colourless reflection of himself.
2. A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, the progenitor of the Gibeonites
1Ch 8:30 9:36.
3. The name of a place inhabited by the Simeonites, the same
probably as Baal-ath-beer 1Ch 4:33 Jos 19:8.


Mistress; city.
1. A city in the south of Judah Jos 15:29 - elsewhere called Balah
Jos 19:3 - and Bilhah 1Ch 4:29 - Now Khurbet Zebalah.
2. A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah Jos 15:10.
called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. Jos 15:9 1Ch 13:6 - now
Kuriet-el-Enab, or as some think, 'Erma.
3. A mountain on the north-western boundary of Judah and Dan
Jos 15:11.


A town of the tribe of Dan Jos 19:44 - It was fortified by Solomon
1Ki 9:18 2Ch 8:6 - Some have identified it with Bel'ain, in Wady Deir


Baalah of the well, Jos 19:8 - probably the same as Baal, mentioned in
1Ch 4:33 - a city of Simeon.


Called by the Greeks Heliopolis i.e., "the city of the sun", because
of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been supposed to be
Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" 1Ki 7:2 10:17 2Ch 9:16 - by
others it is identified with Baal-gad (q.v.). It was a city of
Coele-Syria, on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus, about 42 miles
north-west of Damascus. It was one of the most splendid of Syrian
cities, existing from a remote antiquity. After sustaining several
sieges under the Moslems and others, it was finally destroyed by an
earthquake in 1759. Its ruins are of great extent.


Covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the
death of Gideon Jud 8:33 9:4 - In Jud 9:46 - he is called simply "the
god Berith." The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the
Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of
Jehovah Exo 34:12 - when they began to fall away to the worship of

Baale of Judah

Lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David brought
the ark into Jerusalem 2Sa 6:2 - Elsewhere 1Ch 13:6 - called

See BAALAH 00383.


Lord of fortune, or troop of Baal, a Canaanite city in the valley of
Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence called Baal-hermon Jud 3:3.
1Ch 5:23 - near the source of the Jordan Jos 13:5 11:17 12:7 - It was
the most northern point to which Joshua's conquests extended. It
probably derived its name from the worship of Baal. Its modern
representative is Banias. Some have supposed it to be the same as

See BAALBEC 00386.


Place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive vineyard
Son 8:11 - It has been supposed to be identical with Baal-gad, and also
with Hammon in the tribe of Asher Jos 19:28 - Others identify it with
Belamon, in Central Palestine, near Dothaim.


Lord of grace.
1. A king of Edom, son of Achbor Gen 36:38-39 1Ch 1:49,50.
2. An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the low
plains" (the Shephelah) under David 1Ch 27:28.


Having a courtyard, or Baal's village, the place on the borders of
Ephraim and Benjamin where Absalom held the feast of sheep-shearing
when Amnon was assassinated 2Sa 13:23 - Probably it is the same with
Hazor Neh 11:33 - now Tell' Asur, 5 miles north-east of Bethel.


Lord of Hermon.
1. A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites 1Ch 5:23.
Probably identical with Baal-gad Jos 11:17.
2. A mountain east of Lebanon Jud 3:3 - Probably it may be the same
as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.


My lord, a title the prophet Hos 2:16 - reproaches the Jewish church for
applying to Jehovah, instead of the more endearing title Ishi,
meaning "my husband."


Plural of Baal; images of the god Baal Jud 2:11 1Sa 7:4.


King of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity
Jer 40:14 - He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been appointed
governor over the cities of Judah.


Lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben Num 32:38 - called also Beth-meon
Jer 48:23 - and Beth-baal-meon Jos 13:17 - It is supposed to have been
the birth-place of Elisha. It is identified with the modern M'ain,
about 3 miles south-east of Heshbon.


Lord of the opening, a god of the Moabites Num 25:3 31:16 Jos 22:17.
worshipped by obscene rites. So called from Mount Peor, where this
worship was celebrated, the Baal of Peor. The Israelites fell into
the worship of this idol Num 25:3,5,18 Deu 4:3 Psa 106:28 Hos 9:10.


Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a victory
gained by David over the Philistines 2Sa 5:20 1Ch 14:11 - Called Mount
Perazim Isa 28:21 - It was near the valley of Rephaim, west of
Jerusalem. Identified with the modern Jebel Aly.


Lord of Shalisha, a place from which a man came with provisions for
Elisha, apparently not far from Gilgal 2Ki 4:42 - It has been
identified with Sirisia, 13 miles north of Lydda.


Lord of palm trees, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Gibeah of
Saul Jud 20:33 - It was one of the sanctuaries or groves of Baal.
Probably the palm tree of Deborah Jud 4:5 - is alluded to in the name.


Fly-lord, the god of the Philistines at Ekron 2Ki 1:2-3,16 - This name
was given to the god because he was supposed to be able to avert the
plague of flies which in that region was to be feared. He was
consulted by Ahaziah as to his recovery.


Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez
Exo 14:2 Num 33:7 - over against which the children of Israel encamped
before they crossed the Red Sea. It is probably to be identified with
the modern Jebel Deraj or Kulalah, on the western shore of the Gulf
of Suez. Baal-zapuna of the Egyptians was a place of worship.


Son of affliction.
1. One of Solomon's purveyors 1Ki 4:12.
2. Son of Hushai, another of Solomon's purveyors 1Ki 4:16.
3. Father of Zadok Neh 3:4.


Son of affliction.
1. One of the two sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, a captain in
Saul's army. He and his brother Rechab assassinated Ishbosheth
2Sa 4:2 - and were on this account slain by David, and their
mutilated bodies suspended over the pool at Hebron 2Sa 4:5-6,12.
2. The father of Heled, who was one of David's thirty heroes
2Sa 23:29 1Ch 11:30.


Bravery, the third king of the separate kingdom of Israel, and founder
of its second dynasty 1Ki 15:1 - 1Ki 16:1 - 2Ch 16:1-6 - He
was the son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. The city of Tirzah he
made the capital of his kingdom, and there he was buried, after an
eventful reign of twenty-four years 1Ki 15:33 - On account of his
idolatries his family was exterminated, according to the word of the
prophet Jehu 1Ki 16:3-4,10-13.


Used of children generally Mat 11:25 21:16 Luk 10:21 Ro 2:20 - It is used
also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge 1Co 3:1.
Heb 5:13 1Pe 2:2 - In Isa 3:4 - the word "babes" refers to a succession
of weak and wicked princes who reigned over Judah from the death of
Josiah downward to the destruction of Jerusalem.

Babel, Tower of

The name given to the tower which the primitive fathers of our race
built in the land of Shinar after the Deluge Gen 11:1-9 - Their object
in building this tower was probably that it might be seen as a
rallying-point in the extensive plain of Shinar, to which they had
emigrated from the uplands of Armenia, and so prevent their being
scattered abroad. But God interposed and defeated their design by
condounding their language, and hence the name Babel, meaning
"confusion." In the Babylonian tablets there is an account of this
event, and also of the creation and the deluge.
See CHALDEA 00758.
The Temple of Belus, which is supposed to occupy its site, is
described by the Greek historian Herodotus as a temple of great extent
and magnificence, erected by the Babylonians for their god Belus. The
treasures Nebuchadnezzar brought from Jerusalem were laid up in this
temple 2Ch 36:7 - The Birs Nimrud, at ancient Borsippa, about 7
miles south-west of Hillah, the modern town which occupies a part of
the site of ancient Babylon, and 6 miles from the Euphrates, is
an immense mass of broken and fire-blasted fragments, of about 2,300
feet in circumference, rising suddenly to the height of 235 feet above
the desert-plain, and is with probability regarded as the ruins of the
tower of Babel. This is "one of the most imposing ruins in the
country." Others think it to be the ruins of the Temple of Belus.


The Greek form of BABEL; Semitic form Babilu, meaning "The Gate of
God." In the Assyrian tablets it means "The city of the dispersion of
the tribes." The monumental list of its kings reaches back to B.C.
2300 and includes Khammurabi, or Amraphel (q.v.), the contemporary
of Abraham. It stood on the Euphrates, about 200 miles above its
junction with the Tigris, which flowed through its midst and divided
it into two almost equal parts. The Elamites invaded Chaldea (i.e.,
Lower Mesopotamia, or Shinar, and Upper Mesopotamia, or Accad, now
combined into one) and held it in subjection. At length Khammu-rabi
delivered it from the foreign yoke, and founded the new empire of
Chaldea (q.v.), making Babylon the capital of the united kingdom.
This city gradually grew in extent and grandeur, but in process of
time it became subject to Assyria. On the fall of Nineveh (B.C. 606)
it threw off the Assyrian yoke, and became the capital of the growing
Babylonian empire. Under Nebuchadnezzar it became one of the most
splendid cities of the ancient world. After passing through various
vicissitudes the city was occupied by Cyrus, "king of Elam," B.C.
538) who issued a decree permitting the Jews to return to their own
land Ezr 1:1 - It then ceased to be the capital of an empire. It
was again and again visited by hostile armies, till its inhabitants
were all driven from their homes, and the city became a complete
desolation, its very site being forgotten from among men. On the west
bank of the Euphrates, about 50 miles south of Bagdad, there is
found a series of artificial mounds of vast extent. These are the
ruins of this once famous proud city. These ruins are principally
1. the great mound called Babil by the Arabs. This was probably the
noted Temple of Belus, which was a pyramid about 480 feet high.
2. The Kasr (i.e., "the palace"). This was the great palace of
Nebuchadnezzar. It is almost a square, each side of which is
about 700 feet long. The little town of Hillah, near the site of
Babylon, is built almost wholly of bricks taken from this single
3. A lofty mound, on the summit of which stands a modern tomb
called Amran ibn-Ali. This is probably the most ancient portion
of the remains of the city, and represents the ruins of the
famous hanging-gardens, or perhaps of some royal palace. The
utter desolation of the city once called "The glory of kingdoms"
Isa 13:19 - was foretold by the prophets Isa 13:4-22 Jer 25:12.
Jer 50:2-3 Dan 2:31-38 - The Babylon mentioned in 1Pe 5:13 - was
not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon,
which was inhabited by many Jews at the time Peter wrote. In
Rev 14:8 16:19 17:5 18:2 - "Babylon" is supposed to mean
Rome, not considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the
ancient power in the papal form. Rome, pagan and papal, is
regarded as one power. "The literal Babylon was the beginner and
supporter of tyranny and idolatry. This city and its whole
empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were
subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans;
so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it was
her method to adopt the worship of the false deities she had
conquered; so that by her own act she became the heiress and
successor of all the Babylonian idolatry, and of all that was
introduced into it by the immediate successors of Babylon, and
consequently of all the idolatry of the earth." Rome, or
"mystical Babylon," is "that great city which reigneth over the
kings of the earth" Rev 17:18.

Babylonish Garment

A robe of rich colours fabricated at Babylon, and hence of great value
Jos 7:21.

Babylon, Kingdom of

Called "the land of the Chaldeans" Jer 24:5 Eze 12:13 - was an
extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from
the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its
fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great
commercial centre Eze 17:4 Isa 43:14 - Babylonia was divided into
the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the
Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may
be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the
Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech Gen 10:10 - (now Warka), between Ur and
Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Gen 14:1 - a little to
the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon;
Sepharvaim 2Ki 17:24 - "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba),
considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now
Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf,
but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles
distant from it. Another city was Kulunu, or Calneh Gen 10:10 - The
salt-marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris were called
Marratu, "the bitter" or "salt", the Merathaim of Jer 50:21 - They
were the original home of the Kalda, or Chaldeans. The most famous of
the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B.C.3800) and his
son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia,
establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to
the Sinaitic peninsula. A great Babylonian library was founded in the
reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more
than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. This
was put an end to by Khammu-rabi (Amraphel), who drove the Elamites out
of the country, and overcame Arioch, the son of an Elamite prince. From
this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. About B.C. 1750 it
was conquered by the Kassi, or Kosseans, from the mountains of Elam,
and a Kassite dynasty ruled over it for 576 years and 9 months. In the
time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and
its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy,
the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in
what was called "the land of the Amorites." In the epoch of the Kassite
dynasty, however, Canaan passed into the hands of Egypt. In B.C. 729
Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III.; but
on the death of Shalmaneser IV. it was seized by the Kalda or
"Chaldean" prince Merodach-baladan 2Ki 20:12-19 - who held it till
B.C. 709 when he was driven out by Sargon. Under Sennacherib, Babylonia
revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and
after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B.C.
689 It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part
of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner
2Ch 33:11 - After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the
viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king,
and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty. When Nineveh was
destroyed, B.C. 606 Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems
to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. His son
Nebuchadrezzar (Nabu-kudur-uzur), after defeating the Egyptians at
Carchemish, succeeded him as king, B.C. 604 and founded the Babylonian
empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and
other buildings. His son, Evil-merodach, who succeeded him in B.C. 561
was murdered after a reign of two years. The last monarch of the
Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B.C. 555 whose eldest
son, Belshazzar (Bilu-sar-uzur), is mentioned in several inscriptions.
Babylon was captured by Cyrus, B.C. 538 and though it revolted more
than once in later years, it never succeeded in maintaining its

Baca, Valley of

Psa 84:6 - R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"),
probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of
the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the
sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of


In Psa 15:3 - the rendering of a word which means to run about
tattling, calumniating; in Pro 25:23 - secret talebearing or
slandering; in Rom 1:30 2Co 12:20 - evil-speaking, maliciously
defaming the absent.


To draw back or apostatize in matters of religion Act 21:21 2Th 2:3.
1Ti 4:1 - This may be either partial Pro 14:14 - or complete
Heb 6:4-6 10:38-39 - The apostasy may be both doctrinal and moral.


This word is found in Exo 25:5 26:14 35:7,23 36:19 39:34 Num 4:6 - etc.
The tabernacle was covered with badgers' skins; the shoes of women
were also made of them Eze 16:10 - Our translators seem to have been
misled by the similarity in sound of the Hebrew - tachash - and the
Latin - taxus -, "a badger." The revisers have correctly substituted
"seal skins." The Arabs of the Sinaitic peninsula apply the name
- tucash - to the seals and dugongs which are common in the Red Sea,
and the skins of which are largely used as leather and for sandals.
Though the badger is common in Palestine, and might occur in the
wilderness, its small hide would have been useless as a tent
covering. The dugong, very plentiful in the shallow waters on the
shores of the Red Sea, is a marine animal from 12 to 30 feet
long, something between a whale and a seal, never leaving the water,
but very easily caught. It grazes on seaweed, and is known by
naturalists as Halicore tabernaculi.


1. A pocket of a cone-like shape in which Naaman bound two pieces
of silver for Gehazi 2Ki 5:23 - The same Hebrew word occurs
elsewhere only in Isa 3:22 - where it is rendered
"crisping-pins," but denotes the reticules (or as R.V.,
"satchels") carried by Hebrew women.
2. Another word (kees) so rendered means a bag for carrying
weights Deu 25:13 Pr 16:11 Mic 6:11 - It also denotes a purse
Pro 1:14 - and a cup Pro 23:31.
3. Another word rendered "bag" in 1Sa 17:40 - is rendered
"sack" in Gen 42:25 - and in 1Sa 9:7 21:5 - "vessel," or
wallet for carrying food.
4. The word rendered in the Authorized Version "bags," in which
the priests bound up the money contributed for the restoration
of the temple 2Ki 12:10 - is also rendered "bundle"
Gen 42:35 1Sa 25:29 - It denotes bags used by travellers for
carrying money during a journey Pro 7:20 Hag 1:6.
5. The "bag" of Judas was a small box Joh 12:6 13:29.


Young men, a place east of Jerusalem 2Sa 3:16 19:16 - on the road to
the Jordan valley. Here Shimei resided, who poured forth vile abuse
against David, and flung dust and stones at him and his party when
they were making their way down the eastern slopes of Olivet toward
Jordan 2Sa 16:5 - and here Jonathan and Ahimaaz hid themselves
2Sa 17:18 - With the exception of Shimei, Azmaveth, one of David's
heroes, is the only other native of the place who is mentioned
2Sa 23:31 1Ch 11:33.


House, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple
Isa 15:2 - It has also been regarded as denoting simply the temple of
the idol of Moab as opposed to the "high place."


The duty of preparing bread was usually, in ancient times, committed
to the females or the slaves of the family Gen 18:6 Lev 26:26 1Sa 8:13.
but at a later period we find a class of public bakers mentioned
Hos 7:4,6 Jer 37:21 - The bread was generally in the form of long
or round cakes Exo 29:23 1Sa 2:36 - of a thinness that rendered
them easily broken Isa 58:7 Mat 14:19 26:26 Act 20:11 - Common ovens
were generally used; at other times a jar was half-filled with hot
pebbles, and the dough was spread over them. Hence we read of "cakes
baken on the coals" 1Ki 19:6 - and "baken in the oven" Lev 2:4.

See BREAD 00644.


Baked provisions Gen 40:17 - literally "works of the baker," such as
biscuits and cakes.


Lord of the people; foreigner or glutton, as interpreted by others,
the son of Beor, was a man of some rank among the Midianites Num 31:8.
comp. Num 31:16 - He resided at Pethor Deu 23:4 - in Mesopotamia
Num 23:7 - It is evident that though dwelling among idolaters he had
some knowledge of the true God; and was held in such reputation that
it was supposed that he whom he blessed was blessed, and he whom he
cursed was cursed. When the Israelites were encamped on the plains of
Moab, on the east of Jordan, by Jericho, Balak sent for Balaam "from
Aram, out of the mountains of the east," to curse them; but by the
remarkable interposition of God he was utterly unable to fulfil
Balak's wish, however desirous he was to do so. The apostle Peter
refers 2Pe 2:15-16 - to this as an historical event. In Mic 6:5.
reference also is made to the relations between Balaam and Balak.
Though Balaam could not curse Israel, yet he suggested a mode by
which the divine displeasure might be caused to descend upon them
Num 25:1 - In a battle between Israel and the Midianites (q.v.)
Balaam was slain while fighting on the side of Balak Num 31:8.
The "doctrine of Balaam" is spoken of in Rev 2:14 - in allusion to the
fact that it was through the teaching of Balaam that Balak learned the
way by which the Israelites might be led into sin.
Balaam was constrained to utter prophecies regarding the future of
Israel of wonderful magnificence and beauty of expression
Num 24:5-9,17.


He has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king 2Ki 20:12.
Isa 39:1 - Merodach-baladan (q.v.).


A city in the tribe of Simeon Jos 19:3 - elsewhere called Bilhah
1Ch 4:29 - and Baalah Jos 15:29.


Empty; spoiler, a son of Zippor, and king of the Moabites Num 22:2,4.
From fear of the Israelites, who were encamped near the confines of
his territory, he applied to Balaam (q.v.) to curse them; but in vain
Jos 24:9.


Occurs in Lev 19:36 Isa 46:6 - as the rendering of the Hebrew
- kanch' -, which properly means "a reed" or "a cane," then a rod or
beam of a balance. This same word is translated "measuring reed" in
Eze 40:3,5 42:16-18 - There is another Hebrew word, - mozena'yim -,
i.e., "two poisers", also so rendered Dan 5:27 - The balances as
represented on the most ancient Egyptian monuments resemble those now
in use. A "pair of balances" is a symbol of justice and fair dealing
Job 31:6 Psa 62:9 Pr 11:1 - The expression denotes great want and
scarcity in Rev 6:5.


From natural causes was uncommon 2Ki 2:23 Isa 3:24 - It was included
apparently under "scab" and "scurf," which disqualified for the
priesthood Lev 21:20 - The Egyptians were rarely subject to it. This
probably arose from their custom of constantly shaving the head, only
allowing the hair to grow as a sign of mourning. With the Jews
artificial baldness was a sign of mourning Isa 22:12 Jer 7:29 16:6.
it also marked the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow Act 18:18 21:24.
Num 6:9 - It is often alluded to Mic 1:16 Amo 8:10 Jer 47:5 - The
Jews were forbidden to follow the customs of surrounding nations in
making themselves bald Deu 14:1.


Contracted from Bal'sam, a general name for many oily or resinous
substances which flow or trickle from certain trees or plants when an
incision is made through the bark.
1. This word occurs in the Authorized Version Gen 37:25 43:11.
Jer 8:22 46:11 51:8 Eze 27:17 - as the rendering of the
Hebrew word - tsori - or - tseri -, which denotes the gum of a tree
growing in Gilead (q.v.), which is very precious. It was
celebrated for its medicinal qualities, and was circulated as
an article of merchandise by Arab and Phoenician merchants. The
shrub so named was highly valued, and was almost peculiar to
Palestine. In the time of Josephus it was cultivated in the
neighbourhood of Jericho and the Dead Sea. There is an Arab
tradition that the tree yielding this balm was brought by the
queen of Sheba as a present to Solomon, and that he planted it
in his gardens at Jericho.
2. There is another Hebrew word, - basam - or - bosem -, from which our
word "balsam," as well as the corresponding Greek balsamon, is
derived. It is rendered "spice" Son 5:1,13 6:2 - margin of Revised
Version, "balsam;" Exo 35:28 1Ki 10:10 - and denotes fragrance in
general. - Basam - also denotes the true balsam-plant, a native of
South Arabia (Cant. l.c.).


A height, a name used simply to denote a high place where the Jews
worshipped idols Eze 20:29 - The plural is translated "high places" in
Num 22:41 Eze 36:2.


Heights, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites Num 21:19-20 - in
the territory of the Moabites.


Heights of Baal, a place on the river Arnon, or in the plains through
which it flows, east of Jordan Jos 13:17 - comp. Num 21:28 - It has been
supposed to be the same place as Bamoth.


1. of love Hos 11:4.
2. of Christ Psa 2:3.
3. uniting together Christ's body the church Col 2:19 3:14 Eph 4:3.
4. the emblem of the captivity of Israel Eze 34:27 Isa 28:22 52:2.
5. of brotherhood Eze 37:15-28.
6. no bands to the wicked in their death Psa 73:4 Job 21:7 Psa 10:6.
Also denotes chains Luk 8:29 - companies of soldiers Act 21:31 - a
shepherd's staff, indicating the union between Judah and Israel
Zec 11:7.


1. 1Ch 6:46.
2. One of David's thirty-seven warriors, a Gadite 2Sa 23:36.
3. Ezr 2:10 10:29,34,38.
4. A Levite who was prominent in the reforms on the return from
Babylon Neh 8:7 9:4-5 - His son Rehum took part in rebuilding the
wall of Jerusalem Neh 3:17.


1. The flag borne by each separate tribe, of a smaller form.
Probably it bore on it the name of the tribe to which it
belonged, or some distinguishing device Num 2:2,34.
2. A lofty signal-flag, not carried about, but stationary. It was
usually erected on a mountain or other lofty place. As soon as
it was seen the war-trumpets were blown Psa 60:4 Isa 5:26 11:12.
Isa 13:2 18:3 30:17 Jer 4:6 21:1 Eze 27:7.
3. A "sign of fire" Jer 6:1 - was sometimes used as a signal. The
banners and ensigns of the Roman army had idolatrous images upon
them, and hence they are called the "abomination of desolation"
(q.v.). The principal Roman standard, however, was an eagle. See
Mat 24:28 Luk 17:37 - where the Jewish nation is compared to a dead
body, which the eagles gather together to devour. God's setting
up or giving a banner Psa 20:5 60:4 So 2:4 - imports his presence
and protection and aid extended to his people.
See ENSEIGN 01216.


A feast provided for the entertainment of a company of guests
Est 5:1 - 1Pe 4:3 - such as was provided for our Lord by his
friends in Bethany Mat 26:6 Mar 14:3 - comp.Joh 12:2 - These meals were
in the days of Christ usually called "suppers," after the custom of
the Romans, and were partaken of toward the close of the day. It was
usual to send a second invitation Mat 22:3 Luk 14:17 - to those who had
been already invited. When the whole company was assembled, the
master of the house shut the door with his own hands Luk 13:25.
Mat 25:10 - The guests were first refreshed with water and fragrant oil
Luk 7:38 Mar 7:4 - A less frequent custom was that of supplying each guest
with a robe to be worn during the feast Ecc 9:8 Rev 3:4-5 Mat 22:11 - At
private banquets the master of the house presided; but on public
occasions a "governor of the feast" was chosen Joh 2:8 - The guests
were placed in order according to seniority Gen 43:33 - or according to
the rank they held Pro 25:6-7 Mat 23:6 Luk 14:7 - As spoons and knives
and forks are a modern invention, and were altogether unknown in the
East, the hands alone were necessarily used, and were dipped in the
dish, which was common to two of the guests Joh 13:26 - In the days of
our Lord the guests reclined at table; but the ancient Israelites sat
around low tables, cross-legged, like the modern Orientals. Guests
were specially honoured when extra portions were set before them
Gen 43:34 - and when their cup was filled with wine till it ran over
Psa 23:5 - The hands of the guests were usually cleaned by being
rubbed on bread, the crumbs of which fell to the ground, and were the
portion for dogs Mat 15:27 Luk 16:21 - At the time of the three
annual festivals at Jerusalem family banquets were common. To these
the "widow, and the fatherless, and the stranger" were welcome
Deu 16:11 - Sacrifices also included a banquet Exo 34:15 Jud 16:23.
Birthday banquets are mentioned Gen 40:20 Mat 14:6 - They were
sometimes protracted, and attended with revelry and excess Gen 21:8.
Gen 29:22 1Sa 25:2,36 2Sa 13:23 - Portions were sometimes sent from the
table to poorer friends Neh 8:10 Es 9:19,22.

See MEALS 02451.
See ENTERTAIN 01217.

Baptism, Christian

An ordinance immediately instituted by Christ Mat 28:19-20 - and
designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till
he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words
transferred into English. This was necessarily done by the translators
of the Scriptures, for no literal translation could properly express
all that is implied in them.

1.This term, which designates a NT rite, is confined to the vocabulary
of the NT. It does not occur in the LXX, neither is the verb with
which it is connected ever used of an initiatory ceremony. This verb
is a derivative from one which means to dip Joh 13:26 Rev 19:13|,
but itself has a wider meaning .. to wash whether the whole or part
of the body by immersion or pouring of water Mar 7:4 Luk 11:38 - The
substantive is used:
a. of Jewish ceremonial washings Mar 7:4 He 9:10.
b. in a metaphorical sense Mar 10:38 Luk 12:50 - cf. plunged in
c. most commonly in the technical sense of a religious ceremony of
2. The earliest use of the word baptism to describe a religious and not
merely ceremonial observance is in connection to the baptism of John
and the title which is given him is probably an indication of the
novelty of his procedure Mat 3:1 Mar 8:28. He preached the
baptism for the repentance of sins Mar 1:4 - i.e. the result of
his preaching was to induce men to seek baptism as an outward sign
and a pledge to inward repentance on their part, and of their
forgiveness on the part of God.
3. Jesus himself accepted baptism at the hands of John Mar 1:9.
See Baptism of Christ 00438.
4. Baptism was given as part of the great commission Mat 28:19.
Act 2:37-38.
5. In the Epistles, Christian baptism is analysed into its various
a. In baptism the believer was to realize most vividly the total
breach with his old life involved in his new attitude to God
through Christ, a breach comparable only with that affected by
death Rom 6:2-7 Col 2:12. He was to realize that also that
the consequences of this fellowship with Christ were not only
death to sin, but a new life in righteousness as real as that
which followed the resurection
b. Baptism confered incorporation in the one body of Christ
1Co 12:13 - and was thus adapted to serve as a symbol of the
true unity of Christians Eph 4:5. The body with which the
believer is thus incorporated is conceived of sometimes as the
corporate community of Christians.

Baptism for the dead

Only mentioned in 1Co 15:29 - This expression as used by the
apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a baptism
of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence
[i.e., if the dead rise not] is a fool." Some also regard the
statement here as an allusion to the strange practice which began, it
is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a person was baptized in the
stead of others who had died before being baptized, to whom it was
hoped some of the benefits of that rite would be extended. This they
think may have been one of the erroneous customs which Paul went to
Corinth to "set in order."

Baptism, John's

Was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by the
disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the New
Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its subjects to
repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was not administered
in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were
rebaptized by Paul Act 18:24-19:7.

Baptism Of Christ

Christ had to be formally inaugurated into the public discharge of
his offices. For this purpose he came to John, who was the
representative of the law and the prophets, that by him he might be
introduced into his offices, and thus be publicly recognized as the
Messiah of whose coming the prophecies and types had for many ages
borne witness. John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ,
for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of
repentance." But Christ said, it to be so now,' NOW as suited to my
state of humiliation, my state as a substitute in the room of
sinners." His reception of baptism was not necessary on his own
account. It was a voluntary act, the same as his act of becoming
incarnate. Yet if the work he had engaged to accomplish was to be
completed, then it became him to take on him the likeness of a
sinner, and to fulfil all righteousness Mat 3:15 - The official
duty of Christ and the sinless person of Christ are to be
distinguished. It was in his official capacity that he submitted to
baptism. In coming to John our Lord virtually said, "Though sinless,
and without any personal taint, yet in my public or official capacity
as the Sent of God, I stand in the room of many, and bring with me
the sin of the world, for which I am the propitiation." Christ was
not made under the law on his own account. It was as surety of his
people, a position which he spontaneously assumed. The administration
of the rite of baptism was also a symbol of the baptism of suffering
before him in this official capacity Luk 12:50 - In thus presenting
himself he in effect dedicated or consecrated himself to the work of
fulfilling all righteousness.


Used to denote the means by which a door is bolted Neh 3:3 - a rock in
the sea Jon 2:6 - the shore of the sea Job 38:10 - strong
fortifications and powerful impediments, etc. Isa 45:2 Amo 1:5.
defences of a city 1Ki 4:13 - A bar for a door was of iron
Isa 45:2 - brass Psa 107:16 - or wood Nah 3:13.


I.e., son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate
proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to
release, in accordance with the Roman custom Joh 18:40 Mar 15:7.
Luk 23:19 - But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they
demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned Mat 27:16-26 Act 3:14 - This
Pilate did.


Whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of Job's
friends Job 32:2,6.

Barachias, Berechiah

(q.v.), whom Jehovah hath blessed, father of the prophet Zechariah
Zec 1:1,7 Mat 23:35.


Lightning, the son of Abinoam Jud 4:6 - At the summons of Deborah he
made war against Jabin. She accompanied him into the battle, and gave
the signal for the little army to make the attack; in which the host
of Jabin was completely routed. The battle was fought Jud 4:16 - in
the plain of Jezreel (q.v.). This deliverance of Israel is
commemorated in Jud 5:1 - Barak's faith is commended Heb 11:32.
"The character of Barak, though pious, does not seem to have been
heroic. Like Gideon, and in a sense Samson, he is an illustration of
the words in Heb 11:34 'Out - of weakness were made strong.'"

See DEBORAH 00996.


A Greek word used in the New Testament Rom 1:14 - to denote one of
another nation. In Col 3:11 - the word more definitely designates
those nations of the Roman empire that did not speak Greek. In
1Co 14:11 - it simply refers to one speaking a different language. The
inhabitants of Malta are so called Act 28:1-2,4 - They were originally
a Carthaginian colony. This word nowhere in Scripture bears the
meaning it does in modern times.


Found only once, in Eze 5:1 - where reference is made to the Jewish
custom of shaving the head as a sign of mourning. The Nazarites were
untouched by the razor from their birth Num 6:5 - Comp. Jud 16:19.


To go barefoot was a sign of great distress Isa 20:2-4 - or of some
great calamity having fallen on a person 2Sa 15:30.


Fugitive, one of Shemaiah's five sons. Their father is counted along
with them in 1Ch 3:22.


Son of Joshua, the patronymic of Elymas the sorcerer Act 13:6 - who met
Paul and Barnabas at Paphos. Elymas is a word of Arabic origin
meaning "wise."


Son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter Mat 16:17 Joh 1:42 - because his
father's name was Jonas.

See PETER 02911.


Painter, Ezr 2:53 Neh 7:55 - The father of some of the Nethinim.


A grain much cultivated in Egypt Exo 9:31 - and in Palestine Lev 27:16.
Deu 8:8 - It was usually the food of horses 1Ki 4:28 - Barley bread was
used by the poorer people Jud 7:13 2Ki 4:42 - Barley of the first crop
was ready for the harvest by the time of the Passover, in the middle
of April Rut 1:22 2Sa 21:9 - Mention is made of barley-meal Num 5:15.
Our Lord fed five thousand with "five barley loaves and two small
fishes" Joh 6:9.


A storehouse Deu 28:8 Job 39:12 Hag 2:19 - for grain, which was usually
under ground, although also sometimes above ground Luk 12:18.


Son of consolation, the surname of Joses, a Levite Act 4:36 - His name
stands first on the list of prophets and teachers of the church at
Antioch Act 13:1 - Luke speaks of him as a "good man" Act 11:24 - He was
born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He was a native of
Cyprus, where he had a possession of land Act 4:36-37 - which he sold.
His personal appearance is supposed to have been dignified and
commanding Act 14:11-12 - When Paul returned to Jerusalem after his
conversion, Barnabas took him and introduced him to the apostles
Act 9:27 - They had probably been companions as students in the
school of Gamaliel. The prosperity of the church at Antioch led the
apostles and brethren at Jerusalem to send Barnabas thither to
superintend the movement. He found the work so extensive and weighty
that he went to Tarsus in search of Saul to assist him. Saul returned
with him to Antioch and laboured with him for a whole year
Act 11:25-26 - The two were at the end of this period sent up to
Jerusalem with the contributions the church at Antioch had made for
the poorer brethren there Act 11:28-30 - Shortly after they returned,
bringing John Mark with them, they were appointed as missionaries to
the heathen world, and in this capacity visited Cyprus and some of
the principal cities of Asia Minor Act 13:14 - Returning from this
first missionary journey to Antioch, they were again sent up to
Jerusalem to consult with the church there regarding the relation of
Gentiles to the church Act 15:2 Gal 2:1 - This matter having been
settled, they returned again to Antioch, bringing the decree of the
council as the rule by which Gentiles were to be admitted into the
church. When about to set forth on a second missionary journey, a
dispute arose between Saul and Barnabas as to the propriety of taking
John Mark with them again. The dispute ended by Saul and Barnabas
taking separate routes. Saul took Silas as his companion, and
journeyed through Syria and Cilicia; while Barnabas took his nephew
John Mark, and visited Cyprus Act 15:36-41 - Barnabas is not again
mentioned by Luke in the Acts.


A vessel used for keeping flour 1Ki 17:12,14,16 - The same word (cad)
so rendered is also translated "pitcher," a vessel for carrying water
Gen 24:14 Jud 7:16.


For a woman to be barren was accounted a severe punishment among the
Jews Gen 16:2 30:1-23 1Sa 1:6,27 Isa 47:9 49:21 Luk 1:25 - Instances of
barrenness are noticed Gen 11:30 25:21 29:31 Jud 13:2-3 Luk 1:7,36.


Son of Saba, the surname
1. of Joseph, also called Justus Act 1:23 - some identify him with
2. of Judas, who was a "prophet." Nothing more is known of him than
what is mentioned in Act 15:32.


Son of Tolmai, one of the twelve apostles Mat 10:3 Act 1:13 - generally
supposed to have been the same as Nathanael. In the synoptic gospels
Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael
is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip
and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said
of Bartholomew. He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared
at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection Joh 21:2 - He was also a
witness of the Ascension Act 1:4,12-13 - He was an "Israelite indeed"
Joh 1:47.


Son of Timaeus, one of the two blind beggars of Jericho Mar 10:46.
Mat 20:30 - His blindness was miraculously cured on the ground of his


1. The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah Jer 32:12 36:4 - He was of
the tribe of Judah Jer 51:59 - To him Jeremiah dictated his
prophecies regarding the invasion of the Babylonians and the
Captivity. These he read to the people from a window in the
temple in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim, king of
Judah Jer 36:1 - He afterwards read them before the
counsellors of the king at a private interview; and then to the
king himself, who, after hearing a part of the roll, cut it with
a penknife, and threw it into the fire of his winter parlour,
where he was sitting. During the siege of Jerusalem by
Nebuchadnezzar, he was the keeper of the deed of purchase
Jeremiah had made of the territory of Hanameel Jer 32:12 - Being
accused by his enemies of favouring the Chaldeans, he was cast,
with Jeremiah, into prison, where he remained till the capture
of Jerusalem (B.C. 586) He probably died in Babylon.
2. Neh 3:20 10:6 11:5.


Of iron.
1. A Meholathite, the father of Adriel 2Sa 21:8.
2. A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his loyalty to
David. He liberally provided for the king's followers 2Sa 17:27.
David on his death-bed, remembering his kindness, commended
Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon 1Ki 2:7.
3. A priest who married a daughter of the preceding Ezr 2:61.


Light soil, first mentioned in Gen 14:5 - where it is said that
Chedorlaomer and his confederates "smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth,"
where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. At the time of
Israel's entrance into the Promised Land, Og came out against them,
but was utterly routed Num 21:33-35 Deu 3:1-7 - This country extended
from Gilead in the south to Hermon in the north, and from the Jordan
on the west to Salcah on the east. Along with the half of Gilead it
was given to the half-tribe of Manasseh Jos 13:29-31 - Golan, one of
its cities, became a "city of refuge" Jos 21:27 - Argob, in Bashan,
was one of Solomon's commissariat districts 1Ki 4:13 - The cities of
Bashan were taken by Hazael 2Ki 10:33 - but were soon after
reconquered by Jehoash 2Ki 13:25 - who overcame the Syrians in three
battles, according to the word of Elisha 2Ki 13:19. From this time
Bashan almost disappears from history, although we read of the wild
cattle of its rich pastures Eze 39:18 Psa 22:12 - the oaks of its
forests Isa 2:13 Eze 27:6 Zec 11:2 - and the beauty of its
extensive plains Amo 4:1 Jer 50:19 - Soon after the conquest, the
name "Gilead" was given to the whole country beyond Jordan. After the
Exile, Bashan was divided into four districts,
1. Gaulonitis, or Jaulan, the most western;
2. Auranitis, the Hauran Eze 47:16.
3. Argob or Trachonitis, now the Lejah; and
4. Batanaea, now Ard-el-Bathanyeh, on the east of the Lejah, with
many deserted towns almost as perfect as when they were

See EDREI 01130.
See HAURAN 01675.


The Bashan of the villages of Jair, the general name given to Argob by
Jair, the son of Manasseh Deu 3:14 - containing sixty cities with walls
and brazen gates Jos 13:30 1Ki 4:13.

See ARGOB 00302.

Bashan, Hill of

Psa 68:15 - probably another name for Hermon, which lies to the north
of Bashan.


1. The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives
Gen 36:3-4,13 - from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites
sprung. She is also called Mahalath Gen 28:9 - It is noticeable
that Esau's three wives receive different names in the
genealogical table of the Edomites Gen 36:1 - from those given
to them in the history Gen 26:34 28:9.
2. A daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his officers
1Ki 4:15.


(in R.V.,) Isa 11:8 14:29 59:5 Jer 8:17 - the "king serpent," as the
name imports; a fabulous serpent said to be three spans long, with a
spot on its head like a crown. Probably the yellow snake is intended.

See ADDER 00085.


Or Bason.
1. A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing Exo 24:6 - rendered
also "goblet" Son 7:2 - and "cups" Isa 22:24.
2. A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of the
temple 1Ch 28:17 Ezr 1:10 8:27.
3. A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic
vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" Amo 6:6 Zec 9:15 - The vessels
of the tabernacle were of brass Exo 27:3 - while those of the
temple were of gold 2Ch 4:8.
4. A utensil (Heb. saph) for holding the blood of the victims
Exo 12:22 - also a basin for domestic purposes 2Sa 17:28 - The
various vessels spoken of by the names "basin, bowl, charger,
cup, and dish," cannot now be accurately distinguished. The basin
in which our Lord washed the disciples' feet Joh 13:5 - must
have been larger and deeper than the hand-basin.


There are five different Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized
1. A basket (Heb. sal, a twig or osier) for holding bread Gen 40:16.
Exo 29:3,23 Lev 8:2,26,31 Num 6:15,17,19 - Sometimes baskets were
made of twigs peeled; their manufacture was a recognized trade
among the Hebrews.
2. That used (Heb. salsilloth') in gathering grapes Jer 6:9.
3. That in which the first fruits of the harvest were presented,
Heb. tene, Deu 26:2,4 - It was also used for household purposes.
In form it tapered downwards like that called - corbis - by the
4. A basket (Heb. kelub) having a lid, resembling a bird-cage. It
was made of leaves or rushes. The name is also applied to
fruit-baskets Amo 8:1-2.
5. A basket (Heb. dud) for carrying figs Jer 24:2 - also clay to the
brick-yard (R.V.,) Psa 81:6 - and bulky articles 2Ki 10:7 - This
word is also rendered in the Authorized Version "kettle"
1Sa 2:14 - "caldron" 2Ch 35:13 - "seething-pot" Job 41:20.
In the New Testament mention is made of the basket (Gr.
kophinos, small "wicker-basket") for the "fragments" in the
miracle recorded Mar 6:43 - and in that recorded Mat 15:37.
(Gr. spuris, large "rope-basket"); also of the basket in which
Paul escaped Act 9:25 - Gr. spuris; 2Co 11:33 - Gr. sargane,
"basket of plaited cords".


In the Old Testament the rendering of the Hebrew word - mamzer' -, which
means "polluted." In Deu 23:2 - it occurs in the ordinary sense of
illegitimate offspring. In Zec 9:6 - the word is used in the sense of
foreigner. From the history of Jephthah we learn that there were
bastard offspring among the Jews Jud 11:1-7 - In Heb 12:8 - the word
(Gr. nothoi) is used in its ordinary sense, and denotes those who do
not share the privileges of God's children.


Beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by
"the rod of correction" Pro 22:15 - "scourging" Lev 19:20 - "chastising"
Deu 22:18 - The number of blows could not exceed forty Deu 25:2-3.


The Hebrew word (atalleph') so rendered Lev 11:19 Deu 14:18 - implies
"flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list
of unclean animals. To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats"
means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which
these animals resort Isa 2:20 - i.e., to consign them to desolation or


A Hebrew liquid measure, the tenth part of an homer 1Ki 7:26,38.
Eze 45:10,14 - It contained 8 gallons 3 quarts of our measure. "Ten
acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" Isa 5:10 - denotes great


Daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of Heshbon,
near which were pools Son 7:4.


The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews Lev 14:8.
Num 19:19 - etc. The high priest at his inauguration Lev 8:6 - and
on the day of atonement, was required to bathe himself Lev 16:4,24.
The "pools" mentioned in Neh 3:15-16, 2Ki 20:20, Isa 22:11, Joh 9:7.
were public bathing-places.


Daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a 1Ch 3:5 - was
the daughter of Eliam 2Sa 11:3 - or Ammiel 1Ch 3:5 - and wife of Uriah
the Hittite. David committed adultery with her 2Sa 11:4-5 Psa 51:1.
The child born in adultery died 2Sa 12:15-19 - After her husband was
slain 2Sa 11:15 - she was married to David 2Sa 11:27 - and became the
mother of Solomon 2Sa 12:24 1Ki 1:11 2:13 - She took a prominent part
in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne 1Ki 1:11, 16-21.


Eze 4:2 21:22 - a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood
hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which
was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head.


A mallet or heavy war-club. Applied metaphorically Jer 51:20 - to
Cyrus, God's instrument in destroying Babylon.


The war-bow used in fighting Zec 9:10 10:4 - "Thy bow was made quite
naked" Hab 3:9 - means that it was made ready for use. By David's
order 2Sa 1:18 - the young men were taught the use, or rather the song
of the bow.

See ARMOUR 00315.
See BOW 00631.


A parapet wall or balustrade surrounding the flat roofs of the houses,
required to be built by a special law Deu 22:8 - In Jer 5:10 - it
denotes the parapet of a city wall.


Denotes the estuary of the Dead Sea at the mouth of the Jordan
Jos 15:5 18:19 - also the southern extremity of the same sea
Jos 15:2 - The same Hebrew word is rendered "tongue" in Isa 11:15.
where it is used with reference to the forked mouths of the Nile. Bay
in Zec 6:3,7 - denotes the colour of horses, but the original Hebrew
means strong, and is here used rather to describe the horses as fleet
or spirited.

Bay Tree

named only in Psa 37:35 - Authorized Version. The Hebrew word so
rendered is - ereh -, which simply means "native born", i.e., a tree
not transplanted, but growing on its native soil, and therefore
luxuriantly. If the psalmist intended by this word to denote any
particular tree, it may have been the evergreen bay laurel (Laurus
nobilis), which is a native of Palestine. Instead of "like a green
bay tree" in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version has, "like a
green tree in its native soil."


Occurs only in Gen 2:12 - where it designates a product of the land of
Havilah; and in Num 11:7 - where the manna is likened to it in colour.
It was probably an aromatic gum like balsam which exuded from a
particular tree (Borassus flabelliformis) still found in Arabia,
Media, and India. It bears a resemblance in colour to myrrh. Others
think the word denotes "pearls," or some precious stone.


A pole (Heb. to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of
mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some
great national purpose Isa 30:17 - In Isa 33:23 Eze 27:5 - the
same word is rendered "mast."

See BANNER 00433.


Whose Lord is Jehovah, a Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes of
the sling and bow 1Ch 12:5.


Citizens, a town in the extreme south of Judah Jos 15:24 - probably the
same as Baalath-beer Jos 19:8 - In 1Ki 4:16 - the Authorized Version
has "in Aloth," the Revised Version "Bealoth."


Occurs in the Authorized Version as the rendering of various Hebrew
1. 1Sa 17:7 - it means a weaver's frame or principal beam;
2. Hab 2:11 - a crossbeam or girder;
3. 2Ki 6:2,5 - a cross-piece or rafter of a house;
4. 1Ki 7:6 - an architectural ornament as a projecting step or
5. Eze 41:25 - a thick plank.
In the New Testament the word occurs only in Mat 7:3-5 Luk 6:41-42.
where it means (Gr. dokos) a large piece of wood used for building
purposes, as contrasted with "mote" (Gr. karphos), a small piece or
mere splinter. "Mote" and "beam" became proverbial for little and
great faults.


Mentioned in 2Sa 17:28 - as having been brought to David when flying
from Absalom. They formed a constituent in the bread Ezekiel Eze 4:9.
was commanded to make, as they were in general much used as an
article of diet. They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia
and Syria.


A native of the mountain regions of Western Asia, frequently mentioned
in Scripture. David defended his flocks against the attacks of a bear
1Sa 17:34-37 - Bears came out of the wood and destroyed the children
who mocked the prophet Elisha 2Ki 2:24 - Their habits are referred to
in Isa 59:11 Pr 28:15 La 3:10 - The fury of the female bear when
robbed of her young is spoken of 2Sa 17:8 Pr 17:12 Hos 13:8 - In
Daniel's vision of the four great monarchies, the Medo-Persian empire
is represented by a bear Dan 7:5.


The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews
Lev 19:27 21:5 - Hence the import of Ezekiel's Eze 5:1-4 - description
of the "razor" i.e., the agents of an angry providence being used
against the guilty nation of the Jews. It was a part of a Jew's daily
toilet to anoint his beard with oil and perfume Psa 133:2 - Beards
were trimmed with the most fastidious care 2Sa 19:24 - and their
neglet was an indication of deep sorrow Isa 15:2 Jer 41:5 - The
custom was to shave or pluck off the hair as a sign of mourning
Isa 50:6 Jer 48:37 Ezr 9:3 - The beards of David's ambassadors
were cut off by Hanun 2Sa 10:4 - as a mark of indignity. On the
other hand, the Egyptians carefully shaved the hair off their faces,
and they compelled their slaves to do so also Gen 41:14.


This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals Exo 22:5.
Num 20:4,8,11 Psa 78:48 - of beasts of burden Gen 45:17 - of eatable
beasts Pro 9:2 - and of swift beasts or dromedaries Isa 60:6 - In
the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property
Rev 18:13 - as used for food 1Co 15:39 - for service Luk 10:34.
Act 23:24 - and for sacrifice Act 7:42 - When used in contradistinction
to man Psa 36:6 - it denotes a brute creature generally, and when
in contradistinction to creeping things Lev 11:2-7 27:26 - a four-
footed animal. The Mosaic law required that beasts of labour should
have rest on the Sabbath Exo 20:10 23:12 - and in the Sabbatical
year all cattle were allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever
grew in the fields Exo 23:11 Lev 25:7 - Animals of different kinds were
to be always kept separate Lev 19:19 Deu 22:10 - Oxen when used in
threshing were not to be prevented from eating what was within their
reach Deu 25:4 1Co 9:9 - This word is used figuratively of an infuriated
multitude 1Co 15:32 Act 19:29 - comp. Psa 22:12,16 Ec 3:18 Isa 11:6-8.
and of wicked men 2Pe 2:12 - The four beasts of Daniel Dan 7:3,17,23.
represent four kingdoms or kings.

Beaten Gold

In Num 8:4 - means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek
Version, however, renders the word "solid gold;" the Revised Version,
"beaten work of gold." In 1Ki 10:16-17 - it probably means "mixed"
gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others
render the word in these places "thin plates of gold."

Beaten Oil

Exo 27:20 29:40 - obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by
crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best.

See OLIVE 02778.

Beautiful Gate

The name of one of the gates of the temple Act 3:2 - It is supposed
to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the
court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with
plates of Corinthian brass.


First-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin Gen 46:21 - who came
down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an
Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently
reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim Num 26:35 1Ch 7:20-21 - They are
not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin Num 26:38.


(Heb. mittah), for rest at night Exo 8:3 1Sa 19:13,15,16 - etc; during
sickness Gen 47:31 48:2 49:33 - etc.; as a sofa for rest
1Sa 28:23 Amo 3:12 - Another Hebrew word (er'es) so rendered denotes
a canopied bed, or a bed with curtains Deu 3:11 Psa 132:3 - for
sickness Psa 6:6 41:3 - In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a
litter with a coverlet Mat 9:2,6 Luk 5:18 Act 5:15 - The Jewish
bedstead was frequently merely the divan or platform along the sides
of the house, sometimes a very slight portable frame, sometimes only
a mat or one or more quilts. The only material for bed-clothes is
mentioned in 1Sa 19:13 - Sleeping in the open air was not
uncommon, the sleeper wrapping himself in his outer garment
Exo 22:26-27 Deu 24:12-13.


One of the judges of Israel 1Sa 12:11 - It is uncertain who he was.
Some suppose that Barak is meant, others Samson, but most probably
this is a contracted form of Abdon Jud 12:13.


An apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly elevated
platform at the upper end and sometimes along the sides, on which
were laid mattresses. This was the general arrangement of the public
sleeping-room for the males of the family and for guests, but there
were usually besides distinct bed-chambers of a more private
character 2Ki 4:10 Ex 8:3 2Ki 6:12 - In 2Ki 11:2 - this word denotes,
as in the margin of the Revised Version, a store-room in which
mattresses were kept.


Used in Deu 3:11 - but elsewhere rendered "couch," "bed." In 2Ki 1:4.
Psa 132:3 Amo 3:12 - the divan is meant by this word.


First mentioned in Deu 1:44 - Swarms of bees, and the danger of their
attacks, are mentioned in Psa 118:12 - Samson found a "swarm of bees"
in the carcass of a lion he had slain Jud 14:8 - Wild bees are
described as laying up honey in woods and in clefts of rocks
Deu 32:13 Psa 81:16 - In Isa 7:18 - the "fly" and the "bee" are
personifications of the Egyptians and Assyrians, the inveterate
enemies of Israel.


(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only in the
New Testament Mat 10:25 12:24,27 Mar 3:22 - It is probably the same as
Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning "the lord of flies," or,
as others think, "the lord of dung," or "the dung-god."

See FLY 01362.


1. A place where a well was dug by the direction of Moses, at the
forty-fourth station of the Hebrews in their wanderings
Num 21:16-18 - in the wilderness of Moab.
See WELL 03803.
2. A town in the tribe of Judah to which Jotham fled for fear of
Abimelech Jud 9:21 - Some have identified this place with


Well of heroes, probably the name given to Beer, the place where the
chiefs of Israel dug a well Num 21:16 Isa 15:8.


Illustrious, or the well-man.
1. The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau Gen 26:34 - the
same as Adah Gen 36:2.
2. The father of the prophet Hos 1:1.


I.e., "the well of him that liveth and seeth me," or, as some render
it, "the well of the vision of life", the well where the Lord met
with Hagar Gen 16:7-14 - Isaac dwelt beside this well Gen 24:62 25:11.
It has been identified with 'Ain Muweileh, or Moilahhi, south-west of
Beersheba, and about 12 miles W. from Kadesh-barnea.


Wells, one of the four cities of the Hivites which entered by fraud
into a league with Joshua. It belonged to Benjamin Jos 18:25 - It has
by some been identified with el-Bireh on the way to Nablus, 10 miles
north of Jerusalem.

Beeroth of the Children of

Jaakan Deu 10:6 - The same as Bene-jaakan Num 33:31.


Well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so
named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact Gen 21:31.
On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name Gen 26:31-33 - It was a
favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs Gen 21:33-34.
Gen 22:1,19 26:33 28:10 - It is mentioned among the "cities" given to
the tribe of Simeon Jos 19:2 1Ch 4:28 - From Dan to Beersheba, a
distance of about 144 miles Jud 20:1 1Ch 21:2 2Sa 24:2 - became the
usual way of designating the whole Promised Land, and passed into a
proverb. After the return from the Captivity the phrase is narrowed
into "from Beersheba unto the valley of Hinnom" Neh 11:30 - The
kingdom of the ten tribes extended from Beersheba to Mount Ephraim
2Ch 19:4 - The name is not found in the New Testament. It is still
called by the Arabs Bir es-Seba, i.e., "well of the seven", where
there are to the present day two principal wells and five smaller
ones. It is nearly midway between the southern end of the Dead Sea
and the Mediterranean.


(Heb. hargol, meaning "leaper"). Mention of it is made only in
Lev 11:22 - where it is obvious the word cannot mean properly the
beetle. It denotes some winged creeper with at least four feet,
"which has legs above its feet, to leap withal." The description
plainly points to the locust (q.v.). This has been an article of food
from the earliest times in the East to the present day. The word is
rendered "cricket" in the Revised Version.


(an old English plural of the word beef), a name applicable to all
ruminating animals except camels, and especially to the Bovidce, or
horned cattle Lev 22:19,21 Num 31:28,30,33,38,44.


That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant evidence
Exo 23:11 Deu 15:11 - but there is no mention of beggars properly so
called in the Old Testament. The poor were provided for by the law of
Moses Lev 19:10 Deu 12:12 14:29 - It is predicted of the seed of the
wicked that they shall be beggars Psa 37:25 109:10 - In the New
Testament we find not seldom mention made of beggars Mar 10:46.
Luk 16:20-21 Act 3:2 - yet there is no mention of such a class as
vagrant beggars, so numerous in the East. "Beggarly," in Gal 4:9.
means worthless.


A method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians
Gen 40:17-19 - There are instances of this mode of punishment also among
the Hebrews 2Sa 4:8 20:21-22 2Ki 10:6-8 - It is also mentioned in the
New Testament Mat 14:8-12 Act 12:2.


Job 40:15-24 - Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a
"water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus,"
which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs
frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name,
and translated "beast" or "cattle."


Both the name and its explanation, "a half shekel," are given in
Exo 38:26 - The word properly means a "division," a "part." (R.V.,


The Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians
Isa 46:1 Jer 50:2 51:44 - It signifies "lord."

See BAAL 00382.


A thing swallowed.
1. A city on the shore of the Dead Sea, not far from Sodom, called
also Zoar. It was the only one of the five cities that was
spared at Lot's intercession Gen 19:20,23 - It is first mentioned
in Gen 14:2,8.
2. The eldest son of Benjamin Num 26:38 - "Belah," Gen 46:21.
3. The son of Beor, and a king of Edom Gen 36:32-33 1Ch 1:43.
4. A son of Azaz 1Ch 5:8.


Worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper name.
It is first used in Deu 13:13 - In the New Testament it is found only
in 2Co 6:15 - where it is used as a name of Satan, the personification
of all that is evil. It is translated "wicked" in Deu 15:9 Psa 41:8.
(R.V. marg.); Psa 101:3 Pr 6:12 - etc. The expression "son" or "man of
Belial" means simply a worthless, lawless person Jud 19:22 20:13.
1Sa 1:16 2:12.


The bells first mentioned in Scripture are the small golden bells
attached to the hem of the high priest's ephod Exo 28:33,34,35 - The
"bells of the horses" mentioned by Zechariah Zec 14:20 - were attached
to the bridles or belts round the necks of horses trained for war, so
as to accustom them to noise and tumult.


Occurs only in Jer 6:29 - in relation to the casting of metal. Probably
they consisted of leather bags similar to those common in Egypt.


The seat of the carnal affections Tit 1:12 Php 3:19 Ro 16:18 - The word
is used symbolically for the heart Pro 18:8 20:27 22:18 - marg. The
"belly of hell" signifies the grave or underworld Jon 2:2.


Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon Dan 5:1 - He was
the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the daughter of
Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. When still young he
made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and when heated with
wine sent for the sacred vessels his "father" Dan 5:2 - or grandfather,
Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he
and his princes drank out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry
a hand was seen by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of
God's judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of
the queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he
interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans came
to an end, and the king was slain Dan 5:30.
The absence of the name of Belshazzar on the monuments was long
regarded as an argument against the genuineness of the Book of
Daniel. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson found an inscription of Nabonidus
which referred to his eldest son. Quite recently, however, the side
of a ravine undermined by heavy rains fell at Hillah, a suburb of
Babylon. A number of huge, coarse earthenware vases were laid bare.
These were filled with tablets, the receipts and contracts of a firm
of Babylonian bankers, which showed that Belshazzar had a household,
with secretaries and stewards. One was dated in the third year of the
king Marduk-sar-uzur. As Marduk-sar-uzar was another name for Baal,
this Marduk-sar-uzur was found to be the Belshazzar of Scripture. In
one of these contract tablets, dated in the July after the defeat of
the army of Nabonidus, we find him paying tithes for his sister to
the temple of the sun-god at Sippara.


Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by
Nebuchadnezzar Dan 1:7.


Built up by Jehovah.
1. The son of Jehoiada, chief priest 1Ch 27:5 - He was set by David
over his body-guard of Cherethites and Pelethites 2Sa 8:18.
1Ki 1:32 1Ch 18:17 - His exploits are enumerated in
2Sa 23:20,21-22 1Ch 11:22 - He remained faithful to Solomon
1Ki 1:8,10,26 - by whom he was raised to the rank of
commander-in-chief 1Ki 2:25,29,30,34,35 4:4.
2. 2Sa 23:30 1Ch 11:31.
3. A musical Levite 1Ch 15:18,20.
4. A priest 1Ch 15:24 16:6.
5. The son of Jeiel 2Ch 20:14.


Son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his
youngest daughter Gen 19:38.


Deck of a Tyrian ship, described by Ezekiel Eze 27:6 - as overlaid with


Children of Jaakan Num 33:31-32 - the same as Beeroth.


The standing title of the Syrian kings, meaning "the son of Hadad."
See HADADEZER 01569.
1. The king of Syria whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade
Israel 1Ki 15:18.
2. Son of the preceding, also king of Syria. He was long engaged in
war against Israel. He was murdered probably by Hazael, by whom
he was succeeded 2Ki 8:7-15 - after a reign of some thirty years.
3. King of Damascus, and successor of his father Hazael on the
throne of Syria 2Ki 13:3-4 - His misfortunes in war are noticed
by Amo 1:4.


Son of my right hand.
1. The younger son of Jacob by Rachel Gen 35:18 - His birth took
place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a
short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving
him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my
pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His
posterity are called Benjamites Gen 49:27 Deu 33:12 Jos 18:21 - The
tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus was the smallest but one
Num 1:36-37 Psa 68:27 - During the march its place was along with
Manasseh and Ephraim on the west of the tabernacle. At the
entrance into Canaan it counted 45,600 warriors. It has been
inferred by some from the words of Jacob Gen 49:27 - that the
figure of a wolf was on the tribal standard. This tribe is
mentioned in Rom 11:1 Php 3:5 - The inheritance of this tribe lay
immediately to the south of that of Ephraim, and was about 26
miles in length and 12 in breadth. Its eastern boundary was
the Jordan. Dan intervened between it and the Philistines. Its
chief towns are named in Jos 18:21-28 - The history of the tribe
contains a sad record of a desolating civil war in which they
were engaged with the other eleven tribes. By it they were
almost exterminated Jud 20:20-21 21:10.
See GIBEAH 01476.
The first king of the Jews was Saul, a Benjamite. A close
alliance was formed between this tribe and that of Judah in the
time of David 2Sa 19:16-17 - which continued after his death
1Ki 11:13 12:20 - After the Exile these two tribes formed
the great body of the Jewish nation Ezr 1:5 10:9 - The tribe
of Benjamin was famous for its archers 1Sa 20:20,36 2Sa 1:22.
1Ch 8:40 12:2 - and slingers Jud 20:6 - The gate of Benjamin, on
the north side of Jerusalem Jer 37:13 38:7 Zec 14:10 - was
so called because it led in the direction of the territory of
the tribe of Benjamin. It is called by Jeremiah Jer 20:2.
"the high gate of Benjamin;" also "the gate of the children
of the people" Jer 17:19 - (Comp.) 2Ki 14:13.


A torch.
1. The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom Gen 36:32.
2. The father of Balaam Num 22:5 24:3,15 31:8 - In 2Pe 2:15 - he is
called Bosor.


Gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion of the
four kings under Chedorlaomer Gen 14:2,8,17,21.


1. A valley not far from Engedi, where Jehoshaphat overthrew the
Moabites and Ammonites 2Ch 20:26 - It has been identified with
the valley of Bereikut. (R.V., "Beracah.")
2. One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who joined David
when at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3.


A city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when
persecuted at Thessalonica Act 17:10,13 - and from which also he was
compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast and thence
sailed to Athens Act 17:14,15. Sopater, one of Paul's companions
belonged to this city, and his conversion probably took place at this
time Act 20:4 - It is now called Verria.


Blessed by Jehovah.
1. Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the musician 1Ch 6:39 15:17.
2. One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of Meshillemoth
2Ch 28:12.
3. The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal family
of Judah 1Ch 3:20.
4. The father of the prophet Zechariah Zec 1:1,7.


1. A town in the south of Palestine Gen 16:14 - in the desert of
Shur, near Lahai-roi.
2. A son of Shuthelah, and grandson of Ephraim 1Ch 7:20.


A gift, or in evil.
1. One of Asher's four sons, and father of Heber Gen 46:17.
2. A son of Ephraim 1Ch 7:20-23 - born after the slaughter of his
brothers, and so called by his father "because it went evil with
his house" at that time.
3. A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and
expelled the Gittites 1Ch 8:13.


Bearer of victory, the eldest daughter of Agrippa I., the Herod
Agrippa of Act 12:20 - After the early death of her first husband she
was married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. After his death
(A.D. 40 she lived in incestuous connection with her brother
Agrippa II. Act 25:13,23 26:30 - They joined the Romans at the outbreak
of the final war between them and the Jews, and lived afterwards at


The king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah
2Ki 20:12 - In Isa 39:1 - he is called Merodach-baladan (q.v.).


The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word - tarshish -,
a precious stone; probably so called as being brought from Tarshish.
It was one of the stones on the breastplate of the high priest
Exo 28:20 - R.V. marg., "chalcedony;" Exo 39:13 - The colour of
the wheels in Ezekiel's vision was as the colour of a beryl stone
Eze 1:16 10:9 - R.V., "stone of Tarshish". It is mentioned in
Son 5:14 Dan 10:6 Rev 21:20. In Eze 28:13 - the LXX. render the word
by "chrysolite," which the Jewish historian Josephus regards as its
proper translation. This also is the rendering given in the
Authorized Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem, the
topaz of ancient authors.


The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in
Isa 14:23 - of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon.


Cold, a ravine or brook in the extreme south-west of Judah, where
200 of David's men stayed behind because they were faint, while the
other 400 pursued the Amalekites 1Sa 30:9-10,21 - Probably the
Wadyes Sheriah, south of Gaza.


The rendering in Isa 8:21 - where alone it occurs, of a Hebrew word
meaning to oppress, or be in circumstances of hardship.


Confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which
yielded much spoil of brass to David 2Sa 8:8 - In 1Ch 18:8 - it is
called Tibhath.


Occurs frequently as the appellation for a house, or dwelling-place,
in such compounds as the words immediately following:


House of the ford, a place on the east bank of the Jordan, where John
was baptizing Joh 1:28 - It may be identical with Bethbarah, the
ancient ford of Jordan of which the men of Ephraim took possession
Jud 7:24 - The Revised Version reads "Bethany beyond Jordan." It was
the great ford, and still bears the name of "the ford," Makhadhet
'Abarah, "the ford of crossing over," about 25 miles from

See BETHBARAH 00550.


House of response, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali Jos 19:38 - It
is perhaps identical with the modern village 'Ainata, 6 miles west of


House of answers, a city in the mountainous district of Judah
Jos 15:59 - It has been identified with the modern Beit-'Anun, about
3 miles northeast of Hebron.


House of dates.
1. The Revised Version in Joh 1:28 - has this word instead of
Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest manuscripts. It
appears to have been the name of a place on the east of Jordan.
2. A village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives
Mar 11:1 - about 2 miles east of Jerusalem, on the road to
Jericho. It derived its name from the number of palm-trees
which grew there. It was the residence of Lazarus and his
sisters. It is frequently mentioned in connection with
memorable incidents in the life of our Lord Mat 21:17 26:6.
Mar 11:11-12 14:3 Luk 24:50 Joh 11:1 12:1 - It is now known by the
name of el-Azariyeh, i.e., "place of Lazarus," or simply
Lazariyeh. Seen from a distance, the village has been described
as "remarkably beautiful, the perfection of retirement and
repose, of seclusion and lovely peace." Now a mean village,
containing about twenty families.


House of the desert, one of the six cities of Judah, situated in the
sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea Jos 18:22. In Jos 15:61.
it is said to have been "in the wilderness." It was afterwards
included in the towns of Benjamin. It is called Arabah Jos 18:18.


House of the height; i.e., "mountain-house", one of the towns of Gad,
3 miles east of Jordan, opposite Jericho Jos 13:27 - Probably the
same as Beth-haran in Num 32:36 - It was called by king Herod, Julias,
or Livias, after Livia, the wife of Augustus. It is now called


House of God's court, a place alluded to by Hos 10:14 - as the scene of
some great military exploit, but not otherwise mentioned in Scripture.
The Shalman here named was probably Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria
2Ki 17:3.


House of nothingness; i.e., "of idols", a place in the mountains of
Benjamin, east of Bethel Jos 7:2 18:12 1Sa 13:5 - In Hos 4:15 5:8 10:5.
it stands for "Bethel" (q.v.), and it is so called because it was no
longer the "house of God," but "the house of idols," referring to the
calves there worshipped.


House of crossing, a place south of the scene of Gideon's victory
Jud 7:24 - It was probably the chief ford of the Jordan in that
district, and may have been that by which Jacob crossed when he
returned from Mesopotamia, near the Jabbok Gen 32:22 - and at which
Jephthah slew the Ephraimites Jud 12:4 - Nothing, however, is
certainly known of it.

See BETHABARA 00542.


Sheep-house, a place to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines
west from Mizpeh 1Sa 7:11.


House of Dagon.
1. A city in the low country or plain of Judah, near Philistia
Jos 15:41 - the modern Beit Degan, about 5 miles from Lydda.
2. A city near the south-east border of Asher Jos 19:27 - It was a
Philistine colony. It is identical with the modern ruined
village of Tell D'auk.


House of two cakes of figs, a city of Moab, upon which Jeremiah
Jer 48:22 - denounced destruction. It is called also Almon-diblathaim
Num 33:46 - and Diblath Eze 6:14 - (R.V., "Diblah.")


House of God.
1. A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of
Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. It was
originally the royal Canaanite city of Luz Gen 28:19 - The name
Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the
neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till
after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered
Canaan he formed his second encampment between Bethel and Hai
Gen 12:8 - and on his return from Egypt he came back to it, and
again "called upon the name of the Lord" Gen 13:4 - Here Jacob, on
his way from Beersheba to Haran, had a vision of the angels of
God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached
unto heaven Gen 28:10-19 - and on his return he again visited this
place, "where God talked with him" Gen 35:1-15 - and there he
"built an altar, and called the place El-beth-el" (q.v.). To
this second occasion of God's speaking with Jacob at Bethel,
Hos 12:4-5 - makes reference. In troublous times the people went
to Bethel to ask counsel of God Jud 20:18,31 21:2 - Here the ark
of the covenant was kept for a long time under the care of
Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron Jud 20:26-28 - Here also Samuel
held in rotation his court of justice 1Sa 7:16 - It was included
in Israel after the kingdom was divided, and it became one of
the seats of the worship of the golden calf 1Ki 12:28-33 13:1.
Hence the prophet Hosea Hos 4:15 5:8 10:5,8 - calls it in contempt
Beth-aven, i.e., "house of idols." Bethel remained an abode of
priests even after the kingdom of Israel was desolated by the
king of Assyria 2Ki 17:28-29 - At length all traces of the
idolatries were extirpated by Josiah, king of Judah
2Ki 23:15-18 - and the place was still in existence after the
Captivity Ezr 2:28 Neh 7:32 - It has been identified with the
ruins of Beitin, a small village amid extensive ruins some 9
miles south of Shiloh.
2. Mount Bethel was a hilly district near Bethel Jos 16:1 1Sa 13:2.
3. A town in the south of Judah Jos 8:17 12:16.


A designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the
curse pronounced long before 1Ki 16:34.


Dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in Son 2:17.
probably near Lebanon.


House of mercy, a reservoir (Gr. kolumbethra, "a swimming bath") with
five porches, close to the sheep-gate or market Neh 3:1 Joh 5:2.
Eusebius the historian (A.D. 330 calls it "the sheep-pool." It is
also called "Bethsaida" and "Beth-zatha" Joh 5:2 - R.V. marg. Under
these "porches" or colonnades were usually a large number of infirm
people waiting for the "troubling of the water." It is usually
identified with the modern so-called Fountain of the Virgin, in the
valley of the Kidron, and not far from the Pool of Siloam (q.v.); and
also with the Birket Israel, a pool near the mouth of the valley
which runs into the Kidron south of "St. Stephen's Gate." Others
again identify it with the twin pools called the "Souterrains," under
the convent of the Sisters of Zion, situated in what must have been
the rock-hewn ditch between Bezetha and the fortress of Antonia. But
quite recently Schick has discovered a large tank, as sketched here,
situated about 100 feet north-west of St. Anne's Church, which is,
as he contends, very probably the Pool of Bethesda. No certainty as
to its identification, however, has as yet been arrived at.

See FOUNTAIN 01378.
See GIHON 01485.


Camel-house, a city in the "plain country" of Moab denounced by the
prophet Jer 48:23 - probably the modern Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, one
of the deserted cities of the Hauran.


House of Gilgal, a place from which the inhabitants gathered for the
purpose of celebrating the rebuilding of the walls on the return
exile Neh 12:29.

See GILGAL 01489.


House of a vineyard, a place in the tribe of Judah Neh 3:14 - where the
Benjamites were to set up a beacon when they heard the trumpet
against the invading army of the Babylonians Jer 6:1 - It is probable
that this place is the modern 'Ain Karim, or "well of the vineyards,"
near which there is a ridge on which are cairns which may have served
as beacons of old, one of which is 40 feet high and 130 in diameter.


House of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or
villages 2Ch 8:5 1Ch 7:24 - in the territory of Ephraim, on the way
from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as Beth-horon "the
upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are about 2 miles apart,
the former being about 10 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Between
the two places was the ascent and descent of Beth-horon, leading from
Gibeon down to the western plain Jos 10:10-11 18:13-14 - down which
the five kings of the Amorites were driven by Joshua in that great
battle, the most important in which the Hebrews had been as yet
engaged, being their first conflict with their enemies in the open
field. Jehovah interposed in behalf of Israel by a terrific
hailstorm, which caused more deaths among the Canaanites than did the
swords of the Israelites. Beth-horon is mentioned as having been
taken by Shishak, B.C. 945 in the list of his conquests, and the
pass was the scene of a victory of Judas Maccabeus. (Comp.)
Exo 9:19,25 Job 38:22-23 Psa 18:12-14 Isa 30:30 - The modern name of
these places is Beit-ur, distinguished by el-Foka, "the upper," and
el-Tahta, "the nether." The lower was at the foot of the pass, and
the upper, 500 feet higher, at the top, west of Gibeon.

See GIBEON 01480.


House of wastes, or deserts, a town near Abel-shittim, east of Jordan,
in the desert of Moab, where the Israelites encamped not long before
crossing the Jordan Num 33:49 - A.V., "Bethjesimoth". It was within the
territory of Sihon, king of the Amorites Jos 12:3.


(R.V.) Mic 1:10 - house of dust. The Authorized Version reads "in the
house of Aphrah." This is probably the name of a town in the
Shephelah, or "low country," between Joppa and Gaza.


House of bread.
1. A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called
Ephrath Gen 35:16,19 48:7 Ru 4:11 - It was also called Beth-lehem
Ephratah Mic 5:2 - Beth-lehem-judah 1Sa 17:12 - and "the city of
David" Luk 2:4 - It is first noticed in Scripture as the place
where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to
the north of the city Gen 48:7 - The valley to the east was the
scene of the story of Ruth the Moabitess. There are the fields
in which she gleaned, and the path by which she and Naomi
returned to the town. Here was David's birth-place, and here
also, in after years, he was anointed as king by Samuel
1Sa 16:4-13 - and it was from the well of Bethlehem that three
of his heroes brought water for him at the risk of their lives
when he was in the cave of Adullam 2Sa 23:13-17 - But it
was distinguished above every other city as the birth-place of
"Him whose goings forth have been of old" Mat 2:6 - comp.
Mic 5:2 - Afterwards Herod, "when he saw that he was mocked
of the wise men," sent and slew "all the children that were in
Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old
and under" Mat 2:16,18 Jer 31:15 - Bethlehem bears the
modern name of Beit-Lahm, i.e., "house of flesh." It is about
5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an elevation of about
2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet higher than Jerusalem.
There is a church still existing, built by Constantine the
Great (A.D. 330) called the "Church of the Nativity," over a
grotto or cave called the "holy crypt," and said to be the
"stable" in which Jesus was born. This is perhaps the oldest
existing Christian church in the world. Close to it is another
grotto, where Jerome the Latin father is said to have spent
thirty years of his life in translating the Scriptures into
See VERSION 03768.
2. A city of Zebulun, mentioned only in Jos 19:15 - Now Beit-Lahm,
a ruined village about 6 miles west-north-west of Nazareth.


House of Peor; i.e., "temple of Baal-peor", a place in Moab, on the
east of Jordan, opposite Jericho. It was in the tribe of Reuben
Jos 13:20 Deu 3:29 4:46 - In the "ravine" or valley over against
Beth-peor Moses was probably buried Deu 34:6.


House of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on the road
from Jerusalem to Jericho Mat 21:1 Mar 11:1 Luk 19:29 - and very close to
Bethany. It was the limit of a Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem,
i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has been identified with the modern


House of fish.
1. A town in Galilee, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias, in
the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native place of Peter,
Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted to by Jesus
Mar 6:45 Joh 1:44 12:21 - It is supposed to have been at the
modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of Gennesaret.
2. A city near which Christ fed 5,000 Luk 9:10 - comp.
Joh 6:17 Mat 14:15-21 - and where the blind man had his sight
restored Mar 8:22 - on the east side of the lake, two miles up
the Jordan. It stood within the region of Gaulonitis, and was
enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, who called it "Julias," after
the emperor's daughter. Or, as some have supposed, there may
have been but one Bethsaida built on both sides of the lake,
near where the Jordan enters it. Now the ruins et-Tel.


House of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh 1Ch 7:29.
on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened
to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district
1Ki 4:12 - The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in
1Sa 31:10,12 2Sa 21:12 - It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus,
about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 14 from the south end of the Lake
of Gennesaret. After the Captivity it was called Scythopolis, i.e.,
"the city of the Scythians," who about B.C. 640 came down from the
steppes of Southern Russia and settled in different places in Syria.
It is now called Beisan.


House of the sun.
1. A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan Jos 21:16 1Sa 6:15 - on
the north border of Judah Jos 15:10 - It was the scene of an
encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of
Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner 2Ki 14:11,13 - It
was afterwards taken by the Philistines 2Ch 28:18 - It is the
modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-shems, on the north-west
slopes of the mountains of Judah, 14 miles west of Jerusalem.
2. A city between Dothan and the Jordan, near the southern border
of Issachar Jos 19:22|, 7 1/2 miles south of Beth-shean. It is
the modern Ain-esh-Shemsiyeh.
3. One of the fenced cities of Naphtali Jos 19:38 - between Mount
Tabor and the Jordan. Now Khurbet Shema, 3 miles west of Safed.
But perhaps the same as No. 2
4. An idol sanctuary in Egypt Jer 43:13 - called by the Greeks
Heliopolis, and by the Egyptians On (q.v.), Gen 41:45.


House of apples, a town of Judah, now Tuffuh, 5 miles west of
Hebron Jos 15:53.


Man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God.
1. The son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of
Rebekah Gen 22:22-23 24:15,24,47 - He appears in person only once
Gen 24:50.
2. A southern city of Judah 1Ch 4:30 - called also Bethul Jos 19:4.
and Bethel Jos 12:16 1Sa 30:27.


House of rock, a town in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:58 - about 4
miles to the north of Hebron. It was built by Rehoboam for the
defence of his kingdom 2Ch 11:7 - It stood near the modern ed-Dirweh.
Its ruins are still seen on a hill which bears the name of Beit-Sur,
and which commands the road from Beer-sheba and Hebron to Jerusalem
from the south.


To promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when they
were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year or more
before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman was regarded as
the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed Deu 28:30.
Jud 14:2,8 Mat 1:18-21 - The term is figuratively employed of the
spiritual connection between God and his people Hos 2:19,20.

See ESPOUSE 01252.


Married, is used in Isa 62:4 - metaphorically as the name of Judea:
"Thy land shall be married," i.e., favoured and blessed of the Lord.


To reveal or disclose; an old English word equivalent to "betray"
Pro 27:16 29:24 - R.V., "uttereth;" Isa 16:3 Mat 26:73.


When used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses
the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank Gen 50:10,11.
Deu 1:1,5 3:8,20 4:46 - but in the writings of Joshua, after he had
crossed the river, it means the east side Jos 5:1 12:7 22:7.


In the shadow of God; i.e., "under his protection", the artificer who
executed the work of art in connection with the tabernacle in the
wilderness Exo 31:2 35:30 - He was engaged principally in works of
metal, wood, and stone; while Aholiab, who was associated with him
and subordinate to him, had the charge of the textile fabrics
Exo 36:1-2 38:22 - He was of the tribe of Judah, the son of Uri, and
grandson of Hur Exo 31:2 - Mention is made in Ezr 10:30 - of another of
the same name.


1. The residence of Adoni-bezek, in the lot of Judah Jud 1:5 - It
was in the mountains, not far from Jerusalem. Probably the
modern Bezkah, 6 miles south-east of Lydda.
2. The place where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah
1Sa 11:8 - somewhere in the centre of the country, near the
Jordan valley. Probably the modern Ibzik, 13 miles north-east
of Shechem.


Ore of gold or silver.
1. A city of the Reubenites; one of the three cities of refuge on
the east of Jordan Deu 4:43 Jos 20:8 - It has been identified with
the modern ruined village of Burazin, some 12 miles north of
Heshbon; also with Kasur-el-Besheir, 2 miles south-west of
2. A descendant of Asher 1Ch 7:37.


Bible, the English form of the Greek name - Biblia -, meaning "books,"
the name which in the fifth century began to be given to the entire
collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine Revelation." The
name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came gradually into use in
our English language. The Bible consists of sixty-six different
books, composed by many different writers, in three different
languages, under different circumstances; writers of almost every
social rank, statesmen and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen,
priests, tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and
Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at various
periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet, after all, it
is only one book dealing with only one subject in its numberless
aspects and relations, the subject of man's redemption. It is divided
into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine books, and the New
Testament, containing twenty-seven books. The names given to the Old
in the writings of the New are:
1. "the scriptures" Mat 21:42.
2. "scripture" 2Pe 1:20.
3. "the holy scriptures" Rom 1:2.
4. "the law" Joh 12:34.
5. "the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" Luk 24:44.
6. "the law and the prophets" Mat 5:17.
7. "the old covenant" 2Co 3:14 - R.V.
There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament and the New.
See APOCRYPHA 00263.
The Old Testament is divided into three parts:
1. The Law (Torah), consisting of the Pentateuch, or five books of
2. The Prophets, consisting of:
a. the former, namely, Joshua, Judges, the Books of Samuel,
and the Books of Kings;
b. the latter, namely, the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah,
and Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets.
3. The Hagiographa, or holy writings, including the rest of the
books. These were ranked in three divisions:
a. The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, distinguished by the Hebrew
name, a word formed of the initial letters of these books,
- emeth -, meaning truth.
b. Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther,
called the five rolls, as being written for the synagogue
use on five separate rolls.
c. Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles.
Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to the
revelation God had already given. The period of New Testament
revelation, extending over a century, began with the appearance of
John the Baptist.
The New Testament consists of
1. The historical books, viz., the Gospels, and the Acts of the
2. The Epistles.
3. The book of prophecy, the Revelation.
The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is altogether of
human invention, designed to facilitate reference to it. The ancient
Jews divided the Old Testament into certain sections for use in the
synagogue service, and then at a later period, in the ninth century
A.D., into verses. Our modern system of chapters for all the books
of the Bible was introduced by Cardinal Hugo about the middle of the
thirteenth century (he died 1263) The system of verses for the New
Testament was introduced by Stephens in 1551 and generally adopted,
although neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of
the Bible has verses. The division is not always wisely made, yet it
is very useful.

See VERSION 03768.


The frame on which dead bodies were conveyed to the grave Luk 7:14.


Garden, or gift of fortune, one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains
who had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus Est 1:10.


One of the eunuchs who "kept the door" in the court of Ahasuerus. With
Teresh he conspired against the king's life. Mordecai detected the
conspiracy, and the culprits were hanged Est 2:21-23 6:1-3.


Son of contention, one of Job's friends. He is called "the Shuhite,"
probably as belonging to Shuah, a district in Arabia, in which Shuah,
the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah, settled Gen 25:2 - He took part in
each of the three controversies into which Job's friends entered with
him Job 8:1 18:1 25:1 - and delivered three speeches, very severe and
stern in their tone, although less violent than those of Zophar, but
more so than those of Eliphaz.


1. The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for the temple
service 1Ch 24:14.
2. A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel Neh 12:5,18.


Faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob
Gen 29:29 - She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali Gen 30:3-8 - Reuben
was cursed by his father for committing adultry with her
Gen 35:22 49:4 - He was deprived of the birth-right, which was given to
the sons of Joseph.


Son of the tongue; i.e., "eloquent", a man of some note who returned
from the Captivity with Zerubbabel Ezr 2:2 Neh 7:7.


Birds are divided in the Mosaic law into two classes,
1. The clean Lev 1:14-17 5:7-10 14:4-7 - which were offered in
2. The unclean Lev 11:13-20 - They are mentioned also as an article
of food Deu 14:11 - The art of snaring wild birds is referred to
Psa 124:7 Pr 1:17 7:23 Jer 5:27 - Singing birds are mentioned in
Psa 104:12 Ec 12:4 - Their timidity is alluded to Hos 11:11 - The
reference in Psa 84:3 - to the swallow and the sparrow may be only
a comparison equivalent to, "What her house is to the sparrow,
and her nest to the swallow, that thine altars are to my soul."


Son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in the
invasion of Chedorlaomer Gen 14:2.


As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt
Eze 16:4 - and then swathed with bandages Job 38:9 Luk 2:7,12 - A
Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after the birth of a
son, and after the birth of a daughter double that number of days.
At the close of that period she entered into the tabernacle or temple
and offered up a sacrifice of purification Lev 12:1-8 Luk 2:22 - A
son was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, being thereby
consecrated to God Gen 17:10-12 - comp. Rom 4:11 - Seasons of
misfortune are likened to the pains of a woman in travail, and
seasons of prosperity to the joy that succeeds child-birth Isa 13:8.
Jer 4:31 Joh 16:21-22 - The natural birth is referred to as the
emblem of the new birth Joh 3:3-8 Gal 6:15 Ti 3:5 - etc.


The observance of birth-days was common in early times Job 1:4,13,18.
They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt Gen 40:20 - There
is no recorded instance in Scripture of the celebration of birth-days
among the Jews. On the occasion of Herod's birth-day John the Baptist
was beheaded Mat 14:6.


1. This word denotes the special privileges and advantages belonging
to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the priest of
the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the patriarchs,
and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him. That honour
was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi
Num 3:12-13 8:18.
2. The first-born son had allotted to him also a double portion of
the paternal inheritance Deu 21:15-17 - Reuben was, because of his
undutiful conduct, deprived of his birth-right Gen 49:4 1Ch 5:1.
Esau transferred his birth-right to Jacob Gen 25:33.
3. The first-born inherited the judicial authority of his father,
whatever it might be 2Ch 21:3 - By divine appointment, however,
David excluded Adonijah in favour of Solomon.
4. The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of
"first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah
Rom 8:29 Col 1:18 Heb 1:4-6 - As first-born he has an inheritance
superior to his brethren, and is the alone true priest.

See FIRST BORN 01339.


An overseer. In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was
no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters
Act 20:17-28 1Pe 5:1-2 Php 1:1 1Ti 3:1 - The term bishop is never
once used to denote a different office from that of elder or
presbyter. These different names are simply titles of the same
office, "bishop" designating the function, namely, that of oversight,
and "presbyter" the dignity appertaining to the office. Christ is
figuratively called "the bishop [episcopos] of souls" 1Pe 2:25.


The curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew
word (metheg) so rendered in Psa 32:9 - is elsewhere translated
"bridle" 2Ki 19:28 Pr 26:3 Isa 37:29 - Bits were generally made of
bronze or iron, but sometimes also of gold or silver. In Jas 3:3 - the
Authorized Version translates the Greek word by "bits," but the
Revised Version by "bridles."


The broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan
valley, on the east of the river 2Sa 2:29 - It was probably the
designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected
by ravines.


A province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and Propontis.
Christian congregations were here formed at an early time 1Pe 1:1.
Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province Act 16:7.
It is noted in church history as the province ruled over by Pliny as
Roman proconsul, who was perplexed as to the course he should take
with the numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account
of their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to
Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107)


Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude Exo 1:14.
Rut 1:20 Jer 9:15 - The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty
nation" Hab 1:6 - The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great
wickedness Act 8:23 - A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a
dangerous sin Heb 12:15 - The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter
herbs" Exo 12:8 Num 9:11 - The kind of herbs so designated is not known.
Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and time
when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the severity of
the servitude under which the people groaned; and have been regarded
also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.


Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon
Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh Isa 14:23 34:11 Zep 2:14 - This bird
belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus
stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The
Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is
rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages
noted the kippod is associated with birds, with pools of water, and
with solitude and desolation. This favours the idea that not the
"porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended by the word.


Gen 11:3 - R.V., margin, rendered in the A.V. "slime"), a mineral pitch.
With this the ark was pitched Gen 6:14 Ex 2:3.

See SLIME 03459.


Properly the absence of all colour. In Pro 7:9 - the Hebrew word means,
as in the margin of the Revised Version, "the pupil of the eye." It
is translated "apple" of the eye in Deu 32:10 Psa 17:8 Pr 7:2 - It is a
different word which is rendered "black" in Lev 13:31,37 So 1:5 5:11.
Zec 6:2,6 - It is uncertain what the "black marble" of Est 1:6 - was
which formed a part of the mosaic pavement.


Applied to:
1. The glittering point of a spear Job 39:23.
2. Or sword Nah 3:3.
3. The blade of a dagger Jud 3:22.
4. The "shoulder blade" Job 31:22.
5. The "blade" of cereals Mat 13:26.


Occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt Exo 9:9-10 - In
Deu 28:27,35 - it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been
the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis,
producing burning ulcers.


In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psa 74:18.
Isa 52:5 Ro 2:24 Rev 13:1,6 16:9,11,21 - It denotes also any kind of
calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse 1Ki 21:10 Act 13:45 18:6 - Our Lord
was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God
Mat 26:65 - comp. Mat 9:3 Mar 2:7 - They who deny his Messiahship
blaspheme Jesus Luk 22:65 Joh 10:36 - Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost
Mat 12:31-32 Mar 3:28-29 Luk 12:10 - is regarded by some as a continued
and obstinate rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable
sin, simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he
voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the expression
as designating the sin of attributing to the power of Satan those
miracles which Christ performed, or generally those works which are
the result of the Spirit's agency.


Chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. Act 12:20 - Such persons generally
had great influence with their masters.


Imperfection or bodily deformity excluding men from the priesthood,
and rendering animals unfit to be offered in sacrifice Lev 21:17-23.
Lev 22:19-25 - The Christian church, as justified in Christ, is
"without blemish" Eph 5:27 - Christ offered himself a sacrifice
"without blemish," acceptable to God 1Pe 1:19.


1. God blesses his people when he bestows on them some gift
temporal or spiritual Gen 1:22 24:35 Job 42:12.
Psa 45:2 104:24,35.
2. We bless God when we thank him for his mercies Psa 103:1-2.
Psa 145:1-2.
3. A man blesses himself when he invokes God's blessing Isa 65:16.
or rejoices in God's goodness to him Deu 29:19 Psa 49:18.
4. One blesses another when he expresses good wishes or offers
prayer to God for his welfare Gen 24:60 31:55 1Sa 2:20 - Sometimes
blessings were uttered under divine inspiration, as in the case
of Noah, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses Gen 9:26-27 27:28-29,40.
Gen 48:15-20 49:1-28 Deu 33:1 - The priests were divinely
authorized to bless the people Deu 10:8 Num 6:22-27 - We have many
examples of apostolic benediction 2Co 13:14 Eph 6:23,24.
2Th 3:16,18 Heb 13:20-21 1Pe 5:10,11.
5. Among the Jews in their thank-offerings the master of the feast
took a cup of wine in his hand, and after having blessed God for
it and for other mercies then enjoyed, handed it to his guests,
who all partook of it. Psa 116:13 - refers to this custom. It is
also alluded to in 1Co 10:16 - where the apostle speaks of the
"cup of blessing."


Blind beggars are frequently mentioned Mat 9:27 12:22 20:30 Joh 5:3.
The blind are to be treated with compassion Lev 19:14 Deu 27:18.
Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience 1Sa 11:2.
Jer 39:7 - sometimes the effect of old age Gen 27:1 1Ki 14:4 1Sa 4:15.
Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives 2Ki 25:7 1Sa 11:2.
Blindness denotes ignorance as to spiritual things Isa 6:10 42:18,19.
Mat 15:14 Eph 4:18 - The opening of the eyes of the blind is peculiar
to the Messiah Isa 29:18 - Elymas was smitten with blindness at Paul's
word Act 13:11.


1. As food, prohibited in Gen 9:4 - where the use of animal food
is first allowed. Comp. Deu 12:23 Lev 3:17 7:26 17:10-14 - The
injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in the decree of
the council of Jerusalem Act 15:29 - It has been held by
some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was
only ceremonial and temporary; while others regard it as still
binding on all. Blood was eaten by the Israelites after the
battle of Gilboa 1Sa 14:32-34.
2. The blood of sacrifices was caught by the priest in a basin, and
then sprinkled seven times on the altar; that of the passover on
the doorposts and lintels of the houses Exo 12:1.
Lev 4:5-7 16:14-19 - At the giving of the law Exo 24:8 - the blood
of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the people as well as on the
altar, and thus the people were consecrated to God, or entered
into covenant with him, hence the blood of the covenant
Mat 26:28 Heb 9:19-20 10:29 13:20.
3. Human blood. The murderer was to be punished Gen 9:5 - The blood
of the murdered "crieth for vengeance" Gen 4:10 - The "avenger of
blood" was the nearest relative of the murdered, and he was
required to avenge his death Num 35:24,27 - No satisfaction could
be made for the guilt of murder Num 35:31.
4. Blood used metaphorically to denote race Act 17:26 - and as a
symbol of slaughter Isa 34:3 - To "wash the feet in blood" means
to gain a great victory Psa 58:10 - Wine, from its red colour, is
called "the blood of the grape" Gen 49:11 - Blood and water issued
from our Saviour's side when it was pierced by the Roman soldier
Joh 19:34 - This has led pathologists to the conclusion that the
proper cause of Christ's death was rupture of the heart. (Comp.)
Psa 69:20.

Bloody Sweat

The sign and token of our Lord's great agony Luk 22:44.


A stain or reproach Job 31:7 Pr 9:7 - To blot out sin is to forgive it
Psa 51:1,9 Isa 44:22 Act 3:19 - Christ's blotting out the handwriting of
ordinances was his fulfilling the law in our behalf Col 2:14.


Generally associated with purple Exo 25:4 26:1,31,36 - etc. It is
supposed to have been obtained from a shellfish of the Mediterranean,
the Helix ianthina of Linnaeus. The robe of the high priest's ephod
was to be all of this colour Exo 28:31 - also the loops of the curtains
Exo 26:4 - and the ribbon of the breastplate Exo 28:28 - Blue cloths were
also made for various sacred purposes Num 4:6-7,9,11-12.

See COLOUR 00868.


Sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John
Mar 3:17 - on account of their fervid and impetuous temper Luk 9:54.


Occurs only in Psa 80:13 - The same Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered
"swine" Lev 11:7 Deu 14:8 Pr 11:22 Isa 65:4 66:3,17 - The Hebrews
abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly none of these animals were
reared, except in the district beyond the Sea of Galilee. In the
psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish nation are
compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the field.


1. The husband of Ruth, a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate
law" the duty devolved on him of marrying Ruth the Moabitess
Rut 4:1-13 - He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her first husband.
2. The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two
(the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon
erected in the court of the temple 1Ki 7:21 2Ch 3:17 - These
pillars were broken up and carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.


Weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the Israelites
for entering into a league with the people of the land. This caused
them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of the place Jud 2:1,5 - It
lay probably at the head of one of the valleys between Gilgal and


(rendered "botch" in) Deu 28:27,35 - an aggravated ulcer, as in the case
of Hezekiah 2Ki 20:7 Isa 38:21 - or of the Egyptians Exo 9:9-10,11.
Deu 28:27,35 - It designates the disease of Job 2:7 - which was
probably the black leprosy.


Exo 9:31 - meaning "swollen or podded for seed," was adopted in the
Authorized Version from the version of Coverdale (1535). The Revised
Version has in the margin "was in bloom," which is the more probable
rendering of the Hebrew word. It is the fact that in Egypt when barley
is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming.


The Hebrew word - kebir -, rendered "pillow" in 1Sa 19:13,16 - but in
Revised Version marg. "quilt" or "network," probably means some
counterpane or veil intended to protect the head of the sleeper. A
different Hebrew word (meraashoth') is used for "bolster"
1Sa 26:7,11,16 - It is rightly rendered in Revised Version "at his
head." In Gen 28:11,18 - the Authorized Version renders it "for his
pillows," and the Revised Version "under his head." In Eze 13:18,20.
another Hebrew word (kesathoth) is used, properly denoting "cushions"
or "pillows," as so rendered both in the Authorized and the Revised


An obligation of any kind Num 30:2,4,12 - The word means also oppression
or affliction Psa 116:16 Php 1:7 - Christian love is the "bond of
perfectness" Col 3:14 - and the influences of the Spirit are the "bond
of peace" Eph 4:3.


Of Israel in Egypt Exo 2:23,25 5:1 - which is called the "house of
bondage" Exo 13:3 20:2 - This word is used also with reference to the
captivity in Babylon Isa 14:3 - and the oppression of the Persian king
Ezr 9:8,9.


(Heb. peer), Exo 39:28 - (R.V., "head-tires"); Eze 44:18 - (R.V.,
"tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isa 3:20.
(R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew
word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isa 61:10.
(R.V., "garland"), and in Eze 24:17,23 - "tire" (R.V., "head-tire").
It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the head. In
Exo 28:40 29:9 - it is the translation of a different Hebrew word
(migba'ah), which denotes the turban (R.V., "head-tire") of the common
priest as distinguished from the mitre of the high priest.

See MITRE 02575.


This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old
Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word - sepher -, which
properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" Exo 17:14 Deu 28:58.
Deu 29:20 Job 19:23 - or "roll of a book" Jer 36:2,4 - Books were
originally written on skins, on linen or cotton cloth, and on
Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The leaves of the book
were generally written in columns, designated by a Hebrew word
properly meaning "doors" and "valves" Jer 36:23 - R.V., marg.
"columns". Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our
maps, or if very long they were rolled from both ends, forming two
rolls Luk 4:17-20 - Thus they were arranged when the writing was on
flexible materials; but if the writing was on tablets of wood or
brass or lead, then the several tablets were bound together by rings
through which a rod was passed. A sealed book is one whose contents
are secret Isa 29:11 Rev 5:1-3 - To "eat" a book Jer 15:16.
Eze 2:8-10 3:1-3 Rev 10:9 - is to study its contents carefully. The
book of judgment Dan 7:10 - refers to the method of human courts of
justice as illustrating the proceedings which will take place at the
day of God's final judgment. The book of the wars of the Lord
Num 21:14 - the book of Jasher Jos 10:13 - and the book of the
chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel 2Ch 25:26 - were
probably ancient documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a
part of the canon. The book of life Psa 69:28 - suggests the idea
that as the redeemed form a community or citizenship Php 3:20 4:3.
a catalogue of the citizens' names is preserved Luk 10:20 Rev 20:15.
Their names are registered in heaven Luk 10:20 Rev 3:5 - The book of
the covenant Exo 24:7 - containing Exo 20:22-Ex 23:33 - is the first
book actually mentioned as a part of the written word. It contains a
series of laws, civil, social, and religious, given to Moses at Sinai
immediately after the delivery of the decalogue. These were written
in this "book."


A hut made of the branches of a tree. In such tabernacles Jacob
sojourned for a season at a place named from this circumstance
Succoth Gen 33:17 - Booths were erected also at the feast of
Tabernacles (q.v.), Lev 23:42,43 - which commemorated the abode of the
Israelites in the wilderness.


Captives or cattle or objects of value taken in war. In Canaan all
that breathed were to be destroyed Deu 20:16 - The "pictures and
images" of the Canaanites were to be destroyed also Num 33:52 - The law
of booty as to its division is laid down in Num 31:26-47 - David
afterwards introduced a regulation that the baggage-guard should
share the booty equally with the soldiers engaged in battle. He also
devoted of the spoils of war for the temple 1Sa 30:24-26 2Sa 8:11.
1Ch 26:27.


The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians Exo 12:35 - R.V., "asked",
in accordance with a divine command Exo 3:22 11:2 - But the word
(sha'al) so rendered here means simply and always to "request" or
"demand." The Hebrew had another word which is properly translated
"borrow" in Deu 28:12 Psa 37:21 - It was well known that the parting was
final. The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Israelites away out
of their land that "they let them have what they asked" Exo 12:36.
R.V., or literally "made them to ask," urged them to take whatever
they desired and depart.

See LOAN 02307.


In the East objects are carried in the bosom which Europeans carry in
the pocket. To have in one's bosom indicates kindness, secrecy, or
intimacy Gen 16:5 2Sa 12:8 - Christ is said to have been in "the bosom
of the Father," i.e., he had the most perfect knowledge of the
Father, had the closest intimacy with him Joh 1:18. John Joh 13:23.
was "leaning on Jesus' bosom" at the last supper. Our Lord carries his
lambs in his bosom, i.e., has a tender, watchful care over them
Isa 40:11.


The Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of Balaam
2Pe 2:15.


The projecting parts of a shield Job 15:26 - The Hebrew word thus
rendered means anything convex or arched, and hence the back, as of


The name given in Deu 28:27,35 - to one of the Egyptian plagues Exo 9:9.
The word so translated is usually rendered "boil" (q.v.).


A vessel made of skins for holding wine Jos 9:4,13 1Sa 16:20 Mat 9:17.
Mar 2:22 Luk 5:37-38 - or milk Jud 4:19 - or water Gen 21:14,15,19 - or
strong drink Hab 2:15 - Earthenware vessels were also similarly used
Jer 19:1-10 1Ki 14:3 Isa 30:14. In Job 32:19 - (comp.) Mat 9:17.
Luk 5:37-38 Mar 2:22 - the reference is to a wine-skin ready to burst
through the fermentation of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in the
Authorized Version of Hos 7:5 - is properly rendered in the Revised
Version by "the heat of wine," i.e., the fever of wine, its
intoxicating strength. The clouds are figuratively called the
"bottles of heaven" Job 38:37 - A bottle blackened or shrivelled by
smoke is referred to in Psa 119:83 - as an image to which the psalmist
likens himself.


The bow was in use in early times both in war and in the chase
Gen 21:20 27:3 48:22 - The tribe of Benjamin were famous for the use of
the bow 1Ch 8:40 12:2 2Ch 14:8 17:17 - so also were the Elamites
Isa 22:6 - and the Lydians Jer 46:9 - The Hebrew word commonly
used for bow means properly to tread 1Ch 5:18 8:40 - and hence it is
concluded that the foot was employed in bending the bow. Bows of steel
(correctly "copper") are mentioned 2Sa 22:35 Psa 18:34 - The arrows
were carried in a quiver Gen 27:3 Isa 22:6 49:2 Psa 127:5 - They
were apparently sometimes shot with some burning material attached to
them Psa 120:4 - The bow is a symbol of victory Psa 7:12 - It
denotes also falsehood, deceit Psa 64:3-4 Hos 7:16 Jer 9:3 - "The
use of the bow" in 2Sa 1:18 - (A.V.) ought to be "the song of the
bow," as in the Revised Version.

See ARCHER 00291.


Php 1:8 2:1 Col 3:12 - compassionate feelings; R.V., "tender mercies."


A mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the
land" Gen 23:7 - so Jacob to Esau Gen 33:3 - and the brethren of Joseph
before him as the governor of the land Gen 43:28 - Bowing is also
frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols Jos 23:7.
2Ki 5:18 Jud 2:19 Isa 44:15 - and to God Jos 5:14 Psa 22:29 72:9.
Mic 6:6 Psa 95:6 Eph 3:14.


The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the tabernacle
are called bowls Exo 25:31,33-34 37:17,19,20 - the same word so
rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" Gen 44:2,12,16 - and wine "pot"
Jer 35:5 - The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in
Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called also by this name
Zec 4:2-3 - so also are the vessels used for libations Exo 25:29 37:16.


For holding oil or perfumery Mar 14:3 - It was of the form of a flask or
bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used for it is more appropriately
rendered "vial" in 1Sa 10:1 - and should also be so rendered in
2Ki 9:1 - where alone else it occurs.

See ALABASTER 00164.


(Heb. teashshur), mentioned in Isa 60:13 41:19 - was, according to
some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon. The words of Eze 27:6.
literally translated are, "Thy benches they have made of ivory, the
daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with ashur wood. The ashur
is the box-tree, and accordingly the Revised Version rightly reads
"inlaid in box wood." This is the Buxus sempervirens of botanists. It
is remarkable for the beauty of its evergreen foliage and for the
utility of its hard and durable wood.


Enclosure; fortress.
1. The city of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings Gen 36:33 - This
place is mentioned by the prophets in later times Isa 34:6.
Jer 49:13 Amo 1:12 Mic 2:12 - Its modern representative is
el-Busseireh. It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20
miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea.
2. A Moabite city in the "plain country" Jer 48:24 - i.e., on the
high level down on the east of the Dead Sea. It is probably the
modern Buzrah.


1. Anklets Num 31:50 2Sa 1:10 - and with reference to men.
2. The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning fasteners, found in
Gen 24:22,30,47.
3. In Isa 3:19 - the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning chains,
i.e., twisted or chain-like bracelets.
4. In Exo 35:22 - it designates properly a clasp for fastening the
dress of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring.
5. In Gen 38:18,25 - the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "thread,"
and may denote the ornamental cord with which the signet was
suspended from the neck of the wearer. Bracelets were worn by
men as well as by women Son 5:14 - R.V. They were of many various
forms. The weight of those presented by Eliezer to Rebekah was
ten shekels Gen 24:22.


1. Hebrew - atad -, Jud 9:14 - rendered "thorn," Psa 58:9 - The LXX.
and Vulgate render by rhamnus, a thorny shrub common in
Palestine, resembling the hawthorn.
2. Hebrew - hoah -, Isa 34:13 - (R.V. "thistles"); "thickets" in
1Sa 13:6 - "thistles" in 2Ki 14:9 2Ch 25:18 Job 31:40 - "thorns"
in 2Ch 33:11 So 2:2 Hos 9:6 - The word may be regarded as denoting
the common thistle, of which there are many species which
encumber the corn-fields of Palestine.

See THORNS 03642.


A symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors Eze 17:3,10 Dan 11:7.
of prosperity Job 8:16 - of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of
the stem of Jesse Isa 11:1 - the "beautiful branch" Isa 4:2 - a
"righteous branch" Jer 23:5 - "the Branch" Zec 3:8 6:12 - Disciples are
branches of the true vine Joh 15:5-6 - "The branch of the terrible
ones" Isa 25:5 - is rightly translated in the Revised Version "the
song of the terrible ones," i.e., the song of victory shall be
brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews
from captivity. The "abominable branch" is a tree on which a
malefactor has been hanged Isa 14:19 - The "highest branch" in
Eze 17:3 - represents Jehoiakim the king.


Which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the
thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is
properly copper Deu 8:9 - It was used for fetters Jud 16:21 2Ki 25:7.
for pieces of armour 1Sa 17:5-6 - for musical instruments
1Ch 15:19 1Co 13:1 - and for money Mat 10:9 - It is a symbol of
insensibility and obstinacy in sin Isa 48:4 Jer 6:28 Eze 22:18.
and of strength Psa 107:16 Mic 4:13 - The Macedonian empire is
described as a kingdom of brass Dan 2:39 - The "mountains of brass"
Zechariah Zec 6:1 - speaks of have been supposed to represent the
immutable decrees of God. The serpent of brass was made by Moses at
the command of God Num 21:4-9 - and elevated on a pole, so that it
might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the
serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings
against God and against Moses. It was afterwards carried by the Jews
into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah, who
caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be viewed by
the people with superstitious reverence 2Ki 18:4 - The brazen
serpent is alluded to by our Lord in Joh 3:14,15.

See COPPER 00894.
See NEHUSHTAN 02700.
See SERPENT 03287.


Isa 3:18 - an old English word meaning comeliness or beauty.


An opening in a wall 1Ki 11:27 2Ki 12:5 - the fracture of a limb
Lev 24:20 - and hence the expression, "Heal, etc." Psa 60:2.
Jud 5:17 - a bay or harbour; R.V., "by his creeks."


Among the Jews was generally made of wheat Exo 29:2 Jud 6:19 - though
also sometimes of other grains Gen 14:18 Jud 7:13 - Parched grain was
sometimes used for food without any other preparation Rut 2:14 - Bread
was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs"
Gen 18:6 Ex 12:34 Jer 7:18 - The dough was mixed with leaven and made
into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the
Passover was always unleavened Exo 12:15-20 Deu 16:3 - In the towns
there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking
bread; there were also bakers by trade Hos 7:4 Jer 37:21 - Their ovens
were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was
baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire,
and by covering it with the embers 1Ki 19:6 - This was probably the
mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in
Gen 18:6 - In Lev 2:1 - there is an account of the different
kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews.
See BAKE 00419.
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread
prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They
were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel.
The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only
by the priests in the court of the sanctuary Exo 25:30 Lev 24:8.
1Sa 21:1-6 Mat 12:4 - The word bread is used figuratively in such
expressions as "bread of sorrows" Psa 127:2 - "bread of tears"
Psa 80:5 - i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they
form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" Pro 4:17.
and "of deceit" Pro 20:17 - denote in like manner that wickedness and
deceit are a part of the daily life.


1. That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast. This
word is used figuratively in Eph 6:14 Isa 59:17.
See ARMOUR 00315.
2. An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first
mentioned in Exo 25:7 - It was made of embroidered cloth, set with
four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone
was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes Exo 28:15-29.
Exo 39:8-21 - It was in size about ten inches square. The two
upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue ribbons. It was
not to be "loosed from the ephod" Exo 28:28 - The lower
corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it
reminded the priest of his representative character, it was
called the memorial Exo 28:29 - It was also called the
breastplate of judgment Exo 28:15.

See PRIEST 03001.


Exo 28:42 - rather linen drawers, reaching from the waist to a little
above the knee, worn by the priests Eze 44:17-18.


None to be taken; "for the gift maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth
the cause of the righteous" Exo 23:8 - literally rendered.


The making of, formed the chief labour of the Israelites in Egypt
Exo 1:13-14 - Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are
about a foot square and four inches thick. They were usually dried in
the sun, though also sometimes in kilns 2Sa 12:31 Jer 43:9 Na 3:14.
The bricks used in the tower of Babel were burnt bricks, cemented in
the building by bitumen Gen 11:3.



Frequently used in the ordinary sense Isa 49:18 61:10 - etc. The
relation between Christ and his church is set forth under the figure
of that between a bridegroom and bride Joh 3:29 - The church is called
"the bride" Rev 21:9 22:17 - Compare parable of the Ten Virgins
Mat 25:1-13.


Three Hebrew words are thus rendered in the Authorized Version.
1. Heb. - mahsom' - signifies a muzzle or halter or bridle, by which
the rider governs his horse Psa 39:1.
2. - Me'theg -, rendered also "bit" in Psa 32:9 - which is its proper
meaning. Found in 2Ki 19:28 - where the restraints of God's
providence are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and "hook."
God's placing a "bridle in the jaws of the people" Isa 30:28.
Isa 37:29 - signifies his preventing the Assyrians from carrying
out their purpose against Jerusalem.
3. Another word, - re'sen -, was employed to represent a halter or
bridle-rein, as used Psa 32:9 Isa 30:28 - In Job 30:11 - the
restraints of law and humanity are called a bridle.


This word occurs frequently, and is the translation of several
different terms.
1. Mic 7:4 - it denotes a species of thorn shrub used for hedges. In
Pro 15:19 - the word is rendered "thorn" (Heb. - hedek -,
"stinging"), supposed by some to be what is called the "apple of
Sodom" (q.v.).
2. Eze 28:24 - - sallon' -, properly a "prickle," such as is found on
the shoots of the palm tree.
3. Isa 55:13 - probably simply a thorny bush. Some, following the
Vulgate Version, regard it as the "nettle."
4. Isa 5:6 7:23-25 - etc., frequently used to denote thorny shrubs
in general. In Isa 10:17 27:4 - it means troublesome men.
5. In Heb 6:8 - the Greek word (tribolos) so rendered means
"three-pronged," and denotes the land caltrop, a low throny
shrub resembling in its spikes the military "crow-foot." Comp.
Mat 7:16 - "thistle."


Jer 46:4 51:3 - an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of
armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised
Version has "coat of mail."


An inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of
the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of
fire and brimstone Gen 19:24-25 - In Isa 34:9 - allusion is made to the
destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes
destruction or punishment Job 18:15 Isa 30:33 34:9 Psa 11:6 Eze 38:22.
It is used to express the idea of excruciating torment in
Rev 14:10 19:20 20:10.


A torrent.
1. Applied to small streams, as the Arnon, Jabbok, etc. Isaiah
Isa 15:7 - speaks of the "book of the willows," probably the
2. It is also applied to winter torrents Job 6:15 Num 34:5.
Jos 15:4,47 - and to the torrent-bed or wady as well as to the
torrent itself Num 13:23 1Ki 17:3.
3. In Isa 19:7 - the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised


1. In the natural and common sense Mat 1:2 Luk 3:1,19.
2. A near relation, a cousin Gen 13:8 14:16 Mat 12:46 Joh 7:3.
Act 1:14 Gal 1:19.
3. Simply a fellow-countryman Mat 5:47 Act 3:22 Heb 7:5.
4. A disciple or follower Mat 25:40 Heb 2:11,12.
5. One of the same faith Amo 1:9 Act 9:30 11:29 1Co 5:11 - whence the
early disciples of our Lord were known to each other as
6. A colleague in office Ezr 3:2 1Co 1:1 2Co 1:1.
7. A fellow-man Gen 9:5 19:7 Mat 5:22,23,24 7:5 Heb 2:17.
8. One beloved or closely united with another in affection
2Sa 1:26 Act 6:3 1Th 5:1 - Brethren of Jesus Mat 12:46,50.
Mar 3:31-32 Gal 1:19 1Co 9:5 - etc., were probably the younger
children of Joseph and Mary. Some have supposed that they may
have been the children of Joseph by a former marriage, and
others that they were the children of Mary, the Virgin's sister,
and wife of Cleophas. The first interpretation, however, is the
most natural.


A rumour or report Jer 10:22 - R.V. "rumour;" Nah 3:19.


A vessel to draw water with Isa 40:15 - used figuratively, probably, of
a numerous issue Num 24:7.


1. A portable shield 2Sa 22:31 1Ch 5:18.
2. A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used
once figuratively Psa 91:4.
3. A large shield protecting the whole body Psa 35:2 Eze 23:24 26:8.
4. A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the
Authorized Version 1Ch 12:8 - but correctly in the Revised
Version "spear." The leather of shields required oiling
2Sa 1:21 Isa 21:5 - so as to prevent its being injured by
moisture. Copper ("brass") shields were also in use 1Sa 17:6 .
1Ki 14:27 - Those spoken of in 1Ki 10:16 14:26 - were probably of
massive metal. The shields David had taken from his enemies were
suspended in the temple as mementoes 2Ki 11:10.

See ARMOUR 00315.
See SHIELD 03368.


Among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the
country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their
dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan
Deu 6:10 Num 13:19 - Phoenician artists 2Sa 5:11 1Ki 5:6,18 - assisted at
the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem.
Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the temple after the
Exile Ezr 3:7 - In Gen 11:3,9 - we have the first recorded instance of
the erection of buildings. The cities of the plain of Shinar were
founded by the descendants of Shem Gen 10:11-12,22 - The Israelites
were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents Gen 47:3 - but from
the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and
in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much building
was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed
at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor 1Ki 9:15,24 - Many of
the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various
buildings. Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and
built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in
Jerusalem Luk 21:5 - The instruments used in building are mentioned as
the plumb-line Amo 7:7 - the measuring-reed Eze 40:3 - and the saw
1Ki 7:9 - Believers are "God's building" 1Co 3:9 - and heaven is
called "a building of God" 2Co 5:1 - Christ is the only foundation of
his church 1Co 3:10-12 - of which he also is the builder Mat 16:18.


Rainy, the eighth ecclesiastical month of the year 1Ki 6:38 - and the
second month of the civil year; later called Marchesvan (q.v.).

See MONTH 02592.


1. The translation of a word which is a generic name for horned
cattle Isa 65:25 - It is also rendered "cow" Eze 4:15 - "ox"
Gen 12:16.
2. The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox
kind, without distinction of age or sex Hos 12:11 - It is rendered
"cow" Num 18:17 - and "ox" Lev 17:3.
3. Another word is rendered in the same way Jer 31:18 - It is also
translated "calf" Lev 9:3 Mic 6:6 - It is the same word used of
the "molten calf" Exo 32:4,8 - and "the golden calf" 1Ki 12:28.
4. In Jud 6:25 Isa 34:7 - the Hebrew word is different. It is the
customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hos 14:2 - the
Authorized Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."


1. In Isa 58:5 - the rendering of a word which denotes
"belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which
it grows Isa 18:2 - It was sometimes platted into ropes
Job 41:2 - A.V., "hook," R.V., "rope," lit. "cord of rushes").
2. In Exo 2:3 Isa 18:2 - (R.V., "papyrus") this word is the
translation of the Hebrew - gome -, which designates the plant as
absorbing moisture. In Isa 35:7 Job 8:11 - it is rendered
"rush." This was the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was
anciently very abundant in Egypt. The Egyptians made garments
and shoes and various utensils of it. It was used for the
construction of the ark of Moses Exo 2:3,5 - The root portions of
the stem were used for food. The inside bark was cut into
strips, which were sewed together and dried in the sun, forming
the papyrus used for writing. It is no longer found in Egypt,
but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh,
and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret.

See CANE 00710.
See RUSH 03164.


Mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah 2Ch 26:15.
Zep 1:16 Psa 48:13 Isa 26:1 - There are five Hebrew words so rendered
in the Authorized Version, but the same word is also variously


1. A bundle of twigs Exo 12:22.
2. Bunch or cake of raisins 2Sa 16:1.
3. The "bunch of a camel" Isa 30:6.


1. A load of any kind Exo 23:5.
2. A severe task Exo 2:11.
3. A difficult duty, requiring effort Exo 18:22.
4. A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature.
Isa 13:1 17:1 Hab 1:1 - etc.


The first burial we have an account of is that of Sarah Gen 23:1.
The first commercial transaction recorded is that of the purchase of
a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to Ephron "four hundred
shekels of silver current money with the merchants." Thus the
patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only
part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and
Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah," beside Sarah his wife
Gen 25:9 - Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried under Allon-bachuth,
"the oak of weeping" Gen 35:8 - near to Bethel. Rachel died, and was
buried near Ephrath; "and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave"
Gen 35:16-20. Isaac was buried at Hebron, where he had died
Gen 35:27-29. Jacob, when charging his sons to bury him in the cave of
Machpelah, said, "There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there
they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah"
Gen 49:31 - In compliance with the oath which he made him swear unto him
Gen 47:29-31 - Joseph, assisted by his brethren, buried Jacob in the
cave of Machpelah Gen 50:2,13 - At the Exodus, Moses "took the bones of
Joseph with him," and they were buried in the "parcel of ground"
which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hamor Jos 24:32 - which
became Joseph's inheritance Gen 48:22 1Ch 5:1 Joh 4:5 - Two burials
are mentioned as having taken place in the wilderness. That of Miriam
Num 20:1 - and that of Moses, "in the land of Moab" Deu 34:5-6,8.
There is no account of the actual burial of Aaron, which probably,
however, took place on the summit of Mount Hor Num 20:28-29.
Joshua was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah"
Jos 24:30 - In Job we find a reference to burying-places, which
were probably the Pyramids Job 3:14-15 - The Hebrew word for
"waste places" here resembles in sound the Egyptian word for
"pyramids." Samuel, like Moses, was honoured with a national burial
1Sa 25:1. Joab 1Ki 2:34 - "was buried in his own house in the
wilderness." In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons
we meet for the first time with the practice of burning the dead
1Sa 31:11-13 - The same practice is again referred to by Amo 6:10.
Absalom was buried "in the wood" where he was slain 2Sa 18:17-18.
The raising of the heap of stones over his grave was intended to mark
abhorrence of the person buried (comp.) Jos 7:26 8:29. There was no
fixed royal burying-place for the Hebrew kings. We find several royal
burials taking place, however, "in the city of David" 1Ki 2:10.
1Ki 11:43 14:31 15:8 22:50 2Ki 14:19-20 15:38 2Ch 21:19-20 24:25 - etc.
Hezekiah was buried in the mount of the sepulchres of the sons of
David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour
at his death" 2Ch 32:33 - Little is said regarding the burial of
the kings of Israel. Some of them were buried in Samaria, the capital
of their kingdom 2Ki 10:35 13:9 14:16 - Our Lord was buried in a
new tomb, hewn out of the rock, which Joseph of Arimathea had
prepared for himself Mat 27:57-60 Mar 15:46 Joh 19:41-42 - The grave
of Lazarus was "a cave, and a stone lay on it" Joh 11:38 - Graves
were frequently either natural caverns or artificial excavations
formed in the sides of rocks Gen 23:9 Mat 27:60 - and coffins were
seldom used, unless when the body was brought from a distance.

Burnt Offering

Hebrew - olah -; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire,
and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every
offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a
"whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and
apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the
sacrifices offered by Abel Gen 4:3-4 - here called - minhah -; i.e., "a
gift"), Noah Gen 8:20 - Abraham Gen 22:2,7-8,13 - and by the Hebrews
in Egypt Exo 10:25 - The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the
occasions and the manner in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered.
There were "the continual burnt offering" Exo 29:38-42 Lev 6:9-13 - "the
burnt offering of every sabbath," which was double the daily one
Num 28:9-10 - "the burnt offering of every month" Num 28:11-15.
the offerings at the Passover Num 28:19-23 - at Pentecost Lev 23:16.
the feast of Trumpets Lev 23:23-25 - and on the day of Atonement
Lev 16:1 - On other occasions special sacrifices were offered, as
at the consecration of Aaron Exo 29:1 - and the dedication of the
temple 1Ki 8:5-62-64 - Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted
Lev 1:13 - and were offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne
1Ch 29:21 - and at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah
2Ch 29:31-35 - These offerings signified the complete dedication of
the offerers unto God. This is referred to in Rom 12:1.

See ALTAR 00185.
See SACRIFICE 03179.


In which Jehovah appeared to Moses in the wilderness Exo 3:2 Act 7:30.
It is difficult to say what particular kind of plant or bush is here
meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia. The words "in the bush"
in Mar 12:26 Luk 20:37 - mean "in the passage or paragraph on the bush;"
i.e., in Exo 3:1.


Properly a servant in charge of the wine Gen 40:1-13 41:9 - The Hebrew
word, - mashkeh -, thus translated is rendered also (plural)
"cup-bearers" 1Ki 10:5 2Ch 9:4. Nehemiah Neh 1:11 - was cup-bearer to
king Artaxerxes. It was a position of great responsibility and honour
in royal households.


(Heb. hemah), curdled milk Gen 18:8 Jud 5:25 2Sa 17:29 - or butter in
the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs
kaimak, a semi-fluid Job 20:17 29:6 Deu 32:14 - The words of Pro 30:33.
have been rendered by some "the pressure [not churning] of milk
bringeth forth cheese."


1. The second son of Nahor and Milcah, and brother of Huz Gen 22:21.
Elihu was one of his descendants Job 32:2.
2. One of the chiefs of the tribe of Gad 1Ch 5:14.
3. A district in Arabia Petrea Jer 25:23.


The father of the prophet Ezekiel Eze 1:3.


In the expression "by myself" (A.V.,) 1Co 4:4 - means, as rendered in
the Revised Version, "against myself."

By and By

Immediately Mat 13:21 - R.V., "straightway;" Luk 21:9.


Only in Jud 5:6 Psa 125:5 - literally "winding or twisted roads."
The margin has "crooked ways."


Hebrew - millah - Job 30:9 - a word or speech, and hence object of talk;
Hebrew - mashal - Psa 44:14 - a proverb or parable. When it denotes a
sharp word of derision, as in Deu 28:37 1Ki 9:7 2Ch 7:20 - the Hebrew
- sheninah - is used. In Jer 24:9 - it is rendered "taunt."

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