Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary - A



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A


Alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as Omega is the last.
These letters occur in the text of Rev 1:8,11 21:6 22:13 - and are
represented by "Alpha" and "Omega" respectively (omitted in R.V.,
1:11) They mean "the first and last." Comp. Heb 12:2 Isa 41:4 44:6.
Rev 1:11,17 2:8 - In the symbols of the early Christian Church these
two letters are frequently combined with the cross or with Christ's
monogram to denote his divinity.

See CROSS 00928.


Aaron


The eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi Exo 6:20.
Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others mountain of
strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three years before his
brother Moses, and a number of years after his sister Miriam
Exo 2:1,4 7:7 - He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab of
the house of Judah Exo 6:23 1Ch 2:10 - by whom he had four sons,
Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

When the time for the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt drew nigh,
he was sent by God Exo 4:14,27-30 - to meet his long-absent
brother, that he might co-operate with him in all that they were
required to do in bringing about the Exodus. He was to be the
"mouth" or "prophet" of Moses, i.e., was to speak for him, because
he was a man of a ready utterance Exo 7:1-2,9-10,19 - He was
faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his interviews with
Pharaoh. When the ransomed tribes fought their first battle with
Amalek in Rephidim, Moses stood on a hill overlooking the scene of
the conflict with the rod of God in his outstretched hand. On this
occasion he was attended by Aaron and Hur, his sister's husband, who
held up his wearied hands till Joshua and the chosen warriors of
Israel gained the victory Exo 17:8-13.

Afterwards, when encamped before Sinai, and when Moses at the
command of God ascended the mount to receive the tables of the law,
Aaron and his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, along with seventy of the
elders of Israel, were permitted to accompany him part of the way,
and to behold afar off the manifestation of the glory of Israel's
God Exo 19:24 24:9-11 - While Moses remained on the mountain with
God, Aaron returned unto the people; and yielding through fear, or
ignorance, or instability of character, to their clamour, made unto
them a golden calf, and set it up as an object of worship Exo 32:4.
Psa 106:19 - On the return of Moses to the camp, Aaron was sternly
rebuked by him for the part he had acted in this matter; but he
interceded for him before God, who forgave his sin Deu 9:20.

On the mount, Moses received instructions regarding the system of
worship which was to be set up among the people; and in accordance
therewith Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the priest's office
Lev 8:1 - Lev 9:1 - Aaron, as high priest, held henceforth the
prominent place appertaining to that office. When Israel had reached
Hazeroth, in "the wilderness of Paran," Aaron joined with his sister
Miriam in murmuring against Moses, "because of the Ethiopian woman
whom he had married," probably after the death of Zipporah. But the
Lord vindicated his servant Moses, and punished Miriam with leprosy
Num 12:1 - Aaron acknowledged his own and his sister's guilt,
and at the intercession of Moses they were forgiven.

Twenty years after this, when the children of Israel were encamped
in the wilderness of Paran, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram conspired
against Aaron and his sons; but a fearful judgment from God fell
upon them, and they were destroyed, and the next day thousands of
the people also perished by a fierce pestilence, the ravages of
which were only stayed by the interposition of Aaron Num 16:1.
That there might be further evidence of the divine appointment of Aaron
to the priestly office, the chiefs of the tribes were each required to
bring to Moses a rod bearing on it the name of his tribe. And these,
along with the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi, were laid up
overnight in the tabernacle, and in the morning it was found that while
the other rods remained unchanged, that of Aaron "for the house of
Levi" budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds Num 17:1-10 - This rod
was afterwards preserved in the tabernacle Heb 9:4 - as a memorial
of the divine attestation of his appointment to the priesthood.

Aaron was implicated in the sin of his brother at Meribah Num 20:8-13.
and on that account was not permitted to enter the Promised Land.
When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the edge of the land of
Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron and his son Eleazar to
the top of that mountain, in the sight of all the people. There he
stripped Aaron of his priestly vestments, and put them upon Eleazar;
and there Aaron died on the top of the mount, being 123 years old
Num 20:23-29 - Comp. Deu 10:6 32:50 - and was "gathered unto
his people." The people, "even all the house of Israel," mourned for
him thirty days. Of Aaron's sons two survived him, Eleazar, whose
family held the high-priesthood till the time of Eli; and Ithamar,
in whose family, beginning with Eli, the high-priesthood was held
till the time of Solomon. Aaron's other two sons had been struck
dead Lev 10:1-2 - for the daring impiety of offering "strange
fire" on the alter of incense.

The Arabs still show with veneration the traditionary site of
Aaron's grave on one of the two summits of Mount Hor, which is
marked by a Muslim chapel. His name is mentioned in the Koran,
and there are found in the writings of the rabbins many fabulous
stories regarding him. He was the first anointed priest. His
descendants, "the house of Aaron," constituted the priesthood in
general. In the time of David they were very numerous 1Ch 12:27.
The other branches of the tribe of Levi held subordinate positions
in connection with the sacred office. Aaron was a type of Christ in
his official character as the high priest. His priesthood was a
"shadow of heavenly things," and was intended to lead the people of
Israel to look forward to the time when "another priest" would arise
"after the order of Melchizedek" Heb 6:20.

See MOSES 02602.


Aaronites


The descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the father
of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of
David at Hebron 1Ch 12:27 - Eleazar Num 3:32 - and at a later period
Zadok 1Ch 27:17 - was their chief.


Abaddon


Destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, i.e.,
destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" Rev 9:11 - It is
rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22 31:12 26:6 Pr 15:11 27:20 - In the
last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word
"Abaddon." We may regard this word as a personification of the idea
of destruction, or as sheol, the realm of the dead.


Abagtha


One of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus's court Est 1:10 2:21.


Abana


Stony (Heb. marg. "Amanah," perennial), the chief river of Damascus
2Ki 5:12 - Its modern name is Barada, the Chrysorrhoas, or "golden
stream," of the Greeks. It rises in a cleft of the Anti-Lebanon
range, about 23 miles north-west of Damascus, and after flowing
southward for a little way parts into three smaller streams, the
central one flowing through Damascus, and the other two on each side
of the city, diffusing beauty and fertility where otherwise there
would be barrenness.


Abarim


Regions beyond; i.e., on the east of Jordan, a mountain, or rather a
mountain-chain, over against Jericho, to the east and south-east of
the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab. From "the top of Pisgah", i.e.,
Mount Nebo (q.v.), one of its summits, Moses surveyed the Promised
Land Deu 3:27 32:49 - and there he died Deu 34:1,5 - The Israelites had
one of their encampments in the mountains of Abarim Num 33:47,48.
after crossing the Arnon.


Abba


This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New Testament
Mar 14:36 Ro 8:15 Gal 4:6 - and in each case is followed by its Greek
equivalent, which is translated "father." It is a term expressing
warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in
our language. It has passed into European languages as an
ecclesiastical term, "abbot."


Abda


Servant.
1. The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the tribute
1Ki 4:6 - i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy").
2. A Levite of the family of Jeduthun Neh 11:17 - also called
Obadiah 1Ch 9:16.


Abdeel


Servant of God, Jer 36:26 - the father of Shelemiah.


Abdi


My servant.
1. 1Ch 6:44.
2. 2Ch 29:12.
3. Ezr 10:26.


Abdiel


Servant of God, 1Ch 5:15 - a Gadite chief.


Abdon


Servile.
1. The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel
Jud 12:13-15 - He is probably the Bedan of 1Sa 12:11.
2. The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin
1Ch 8:30 9:36.
3. The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the
prophetess Huldah to ascertain from her the meaning of the
recently discovered book of the law 2Ch 34:20 - He is called
Achbor in 2Ki 22:12.
4. One of the "sons" of Shashak 1Ch 8:23 - This is the name also of
a Levitical town of the Gershonites, in the tribe of Asher
Jos 21:30 1Ch 6:74 - The ruins of Abdeh, some 8 miles north-east
of Accho, probably mark its site.


Abednego


Servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of
Daniel's three companions Dan 2:49 - With Shadrach and Meshach, he was
delivered from the burning fiery furnace Dan 3:12-30.

See SHADRACH 03301.


Abel


1. (Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and Eve.
He was put to death by his brother Cain Gen 4:1-16 - Guided
by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were
trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of
time" (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each
of them offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labours.
Cain, as a husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel,
as a shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock. "The Lord had
respect unto Abel and his offering; but unto Cain and his
offering he had not respect" Gen 4:3-5 - On this account Cain
was angry with his brother, and formed the design of putting
him to death; a design which he at length found an opportunity
of carrying into effect Gen 4:8-9 - Comp 1Jo 3:12.

There are several references to Abel in the New Testament. Our
Saviour speaks of him as "righteous" Mat 23:35 - "The blood
of sprinkling" is said to speak "better things than that of
Abel" Heb 12:24 - i.e., the blood of Jesus is the reality of
which the blood of the offering made by Abel was only the type.
The comparison here is between the sacrifice offered by Christ
and that offered by Abel, and not between the blood of Christ
calling for mercy and the blood of the murdered Abel calling
for vengeance, as has sometimes been supposed. It is also said
Heb 11:4 - that "Abel offered unto God a more excellent
sacrifice than Cain." This sacrifice was made "by faith;" this
faith rested in God, not only as the Creator and the God of
providence, but especially in God as the great Redeemer, whose
sacrifice was typified by the sacrifices which, no doubt by the
divine institution, were offered from the days of Adam
downward. On account of that "faith" which looked forward to
the great atoning sacrifice, Abel's offering was accepted of
God. Cain's offering had no such reference, and therefore was
rejected. Abel was the first martyr, as he was the first of our
race to die.
2. Abel (Heb. 'abhel), lamentation 1Sa 6:18 - the name given to
the great stone in Joshua's field whereon the ark was "set
down." The Revised Version, however, following the Targum and
the LXX., reads in the Hebrew text a stone), and accordingly
translates "unto the great stone, whereon they set down the
ark." This reading is to be preferred.
3. Abel (Heb. 'abhel), a grassy place, a meadow. This word enters
into the composition of the following words:
a. Abel-beth -maachah See 23016.
b. Abel-cheramin See 23017.
c. Abel-meholah See 23018.
d. Abel-mizraim See 23019.
e. Abel-shittim See 23020.


Abel-beth-maachah


Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in
the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a
place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother
in Israel", i.e., a metropolis 2Sa 20:19 - It was besieged by Joab
2Sa 20:14 - by Benhadad 1Ki 15:20 - and by Tiglath-pileser
2Ki 15:29 - about B.C. 734 It is elsewhere called Abel-maim,
meadow of the waters, 2Ch 16:4 - Its site is occupied by the
modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of the
brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into the
Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.


Abel-cheramim


Jud 11:33 - (R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village of
the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.


Abel-meholah


Meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and
residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean 1Ki 4:12 - in
the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady el-Maleh emerges into the
valley of the Jordan, "the rich meadow-land which extends about 4
miles south of Beth-shean; moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was
found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan valley from
Horeb 1Ki 19:16 - It is now called 'Ain Helweh.


Abel-mizraim


Meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e., on the
west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here the Egyptians
mourned seventy days for Jacob Gen 50:4-11 - Its site is unknown.


Abel-shittim


Meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" Num 25:1.
Jos 2:1 Mic 6:5 - a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of
Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of
the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the
Jordan Num 33:49 22:1 26:3 31:12 - comp. Num 25:1 31:16.


Abez


Tin, or white, a town in the tribe of Issachar Jos 19:20 - at the north
of the plain of Esdraelon. It is probably identified with the ruins
of El-Beida.


Abia


My father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam Mat 1:7.
instead of Abiah 1Ch 7:8 - In Luk 1:5 - the name refers to the head
of the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which David divided the
priests 1Ch 24:10.


Abi-albon


Father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard of
thirty mighty men 2Sa 23:31 - called also Abiel 1Ch 11:32.


Abiasaph


Father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three sons of
Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites Exo 6:24 - called
Ebisaph 1Ch 6:37.


Abiathar


Father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech the
high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent
from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he
escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was
then in the cave of Adullam 1Sa 22:20-23 23:6 - He remained with
David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader
1Sa 30:7.

When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high
priest 1Ch 15:11 1Ki 2:26 - and the "king's companion" 1Ch 27:34.
Meanwhile Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made high priest.
These appointments continued in force till the end of David's reign
1Ki 4:4 - Abiathar was deposed (the sole historical instance of
the deposition of a high priest) and banished to his home at
Anathoth by Solomon, because he took part in the attempt to raise
Adonijah to the throne. The priesthood thus passed from the house of
Ithamar 1Sa 2:30-36 1Ki 1:19 2:26-27 - Zadok now became sole high
priest.

In Mar 2:26 - reference is made to an occurrence in "the days of
Abiathar the high priest." But from 1Sa 22:1 - we learn
explicitly that this event took place when Ahimelech, the father of
Abiathar, was high priest. The apparent discrepancy is
satisfactorily explained by interpreting the words in Mark as
referring to the life-time of Abiathar, and not to the term of his
holding the office of high priest. It is not implied in Mark that he
was actual high priest at the time referred to. Others, however,
think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at that time
Lev 24:9 - a priest, and that he either himself gave them to
David, or persuaded his father to give them.


Abib


An ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain Exo 13:4 23:15 - the
first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the seventh of the civil
year. It began about the time of the vernal equinox, on 21 March.
It was called Nisan, after the Captivity Neh 2:1 - On the fifteenth day
of the month, harvest was begun by gathering a sheaf of barley, which
was offered unto the Lord on the sixteenth Lev 23:4-11.


Abida


Or Abi'dah, father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons of
Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah 1Ch 1:33 - and
apparently the chief of an Arab tribe.


Abidan


Father of judgment; judge, head of the tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus
Num 1:11 2:22.


Abieezer


Father of help; i.e., "helpful."
1. The second of the three sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of
Gilead. He was the grandson of Manasseh 1Ch 7:18 - From his
family Gideon sprang Jos 17:2 - comp. Jud 6:34 8:2 - He was
also called Jeezer Num 26:30.
2. One of David's thirty warriors 2Sa 23:27 - comp. 1Ch 27:12.
3. The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus Num 1:12.


Abiel


Father (i.e., "possessor") of God "pious."
1. The son of Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of
Saul 1Sa 14:51 1Ch 8:33 9:39 - In 1Sa 9:1 - he is called the
"father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish.
2. An Arbathite, one of David's warriors 1Ch 11:32 - called also
Abi-albon 2Sa 23:31.


Abiezrite


Father of help, a descendant of Abiezer Jud 6:11,24 8:32.


Abigail


Father (i.e., "leader") of the dance, or "of joy."
1. The sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite
1Ch 2:16-17 - She was the mother of Amasa 2Sa 17:25.
2. The wife of the churlish Nabal, who dwelt in the district of
Carmel 1Sa 25:3 - She showed great prudence and delicate
management at a critical period of her husband's life. She was
"a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance."
After Nabal's death she became the wife of David 1Sa 25:14-42.
and was his companion in all his future fortunes 1Sa 27:3 30:5.
2Sa 2:2 - By her David had a son called Chileab 2Sa 3:3.
elsewhere called Daniel 1Ch 3:1.


Abihail


Father of might.
1. Num 3:35.
2. 1Ch 2:29.
3. 1Ch 5:14.
4. The second wife of King Rehoboam 2Ch 11:18 - a descendant of
Eliab, David's eldest brother.
5. The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai Est 2:15.


Abihu


Father of Him; i.e., "worshipper of God", the second of the sons of
Aaron Exo 6:23 Lev 3:2 Num 26:60 1Ch 6:3 - Along with his three brothers
he was consecrated to the priest's office Exo 28:1 - With his father and
elder brother he accompanied the seventy elders part of the way up
the mount with Moses Exo 24:1,9 - On one occasion he and Nadab his
brother offered incense in their censers filled with "strange" (i.e.,
common) fire, i.e., not with fire taken from the great brazen altar
Lev 6:9 - etc., and for this offence they were struck dead, and were
taken out and buried without the camp Lev 10:1-11 - comp.
Num 3:4 26:61 1Ch 24:2 - It is probable that when they committed this
offence they were intoxicated, for immediately after is given the law
prohibiting the use of wine or strong drink to the priests.


Abihud


Father (i.e., "possessor") of renown.
1. One of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin 1Ch 8:3 - called
also Ahihud 1Ch 8:7.
2. A descendant of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim Mat 1:13.
("Abiud"); called also Juda Luk 3:26 - and Obadiah 1Ch 3:21.


Abijah, Abiah, Abia


Father (i.e., "possessor or worshipper") of Jehovah.
1. 1Ch 7:8.
2. 1Ch 2:24.
3. The second son of Samuel 1Sa 8:2 1Ch 6:28 - His conduct, along
with that of his brother, as a judge in Beer-sheba, to which
office his father had appointed him, led to popular discontent,
and ultimately provoked the people to demand a royal form of
government.
4. A descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, a chief of one of the
twenty-four orders into which the priesthood was divided by
David 1Ch 24:10 - The order of Abijah was one of those which did
not return from the Captivity Ezr 2:36-39 Neh 7:39-42 12:1.
5. The son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne of Judah
1Ch 3:10 - He is also called Abijam 1Ki 14:31 15:1-8.
He began his three years' reign 2Ch 12:16 13:1-2 - with a
strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten tribes
to their allegiance. His address to "Jeroboam and all Israel,"
before encountering them in battle, is worthy of being
specially noticed 2Ch 13:5-12 - It was a very bloody
battle, no fewer than 500,000 of the army of Israel having
perished on the field. He is described as having walked "in
all the sins of his father" 1Ki 15:3 2Ch 11:20-22 - It is
said in 1Ki 15:2 - that "his mother's name was Maachah, the
daughter of Abishalom;" but in 2Ch 13:2 - we read, "his
mother's name was Michaiah, the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah."
The explanation is that Maachah is just a variation of the
name Michaiah, and that Abishalom is probably the same as
Absalom, the son of David. It is probable that "Uriel of
Gibeah" married Tamar, the daughter of Absalom 2Sa 14:27.
and by her had Maachah. The word "daughter" in 1Ki 15:2.
will thus, as it frequently elsewhere does, mean
grand-daughter.
6. A son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. On account of his
severe illness when a youth, his father sent his wife to consult
the prophet Ahijah regarding his recovery. The prophet, though
blind with old age, knew the wife of Jeroboam as soon as she
approached, and under a divine impulse he announced to her that
inasmuch as in Abijah alone of all the house of Jeroboam there
was found "some good thing toward the Lord," he only would come
to his grave in peace. As his mother crossed the threshold of
the door on her return, the youth died, and "all Israel mourned
for him" 1Ki 14:1-18.
7. The daughter of Zechariah 2Ch 29:1 - comp. Isa 8:2 - and
afterwards the wife of Ahaz. She is also called Abi 2Ki 18:2.
8. One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin 1Ch 7:8 - "Abiah,"
A.V.


Abijam


Father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings of the
king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called Abijah
1Ki 15:1,7,8.

See ABIJAH 00036.


Abilene


A plain, a district lying on the east slope of the Anti-Lebanon range;
so called from its chief town, Abila Luk 3:1 - which stood in the Suk
Wady Barada, between Heliopolis (Baalbec) and Damascus, 38 miles
from the former and 18 from the latter. Lysanias was governor
or tetrarch of this province.


Abimael


Father of Mael, one of the sons or descendants of Joktan, in Northern
Arabia Gen 10:28 1Ch 1:22.


Abimelech


My father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the Philistine
kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings.
1. The Philistine king of Gerar in the time of Abraham Gen 20:1-18.
By an interposition of Providence, Sarah was delivered from his
harem, and was restored to her husband Abraham. As a mark of
respect he gave to Abraham valuable gifts, and offered him a
settlement in any part of his country; while at the same time he
delicately and yet severely rebuked him for having practised a
deception upon him in pretending that Sarah was only his sister.
Among the gifts presented by the king were a thousand pieces of
silver as a "covering of the eyes" for Sarah; i.e., either as an
atoning gift and a testimony of her innocence in the sight of
all, or rather for the purpose of procuring a veil for Sarah to
conceal her beauty, and thus as a reproof to her for not having
worn a veil which, as a married woman, she ought to have done. A
few years after this Abimelech visited Abraham, who had removed
southward beyond his territory, and there entered into a league
of peace and friendship with him. This league was the first of
which we have any record. It was confirmed by a mutual oath at
Beer-sheba Gen 21:22-34.
2. A king of Gerar in the time of Isaac, probably the son of the
preceeding Gen 26:1-22 - Isaac sought refuge in his territory
during a famine, and there he acted a part with reference to his
wife Rebekah similar to that of his father Abraham with
reference to Sarah. Abimelech rebuked him for the deception,
which he accidentally discovered. Isaac settled for a while
here, and prospered. Abimelech desired him, however, to leave
his territory, which Isaac did. Abimelech afterwards visited him
when he was encamped at Beer-sheba, and expressed a desire to
renew the covenant which had been entered into between their
fathers Gen 26:26-31.
3. A son of Gideon Jud 9:1 - who was proclaimed king after the death
of his father Jud 8:33-9:6 - One of his first acts was to murder
his brothers, seventy in number, "on one stone," at Ophrah. Only
one named Jotham escaped. He was an unprincipled, ambitious
ruler, often engaged in war with his own subjects. When engaged
in reducing the town of Thebez, which had revolted, he was struck
mortally on his head by a mill-stone, thrown by the hand of a
woman from the wall above. Perceiving that the wound was mortal,
he desired his armour-bearer to thrust him through with his
sword, that it might not be said he had perished by the hand of a
woman Jud 9:50-57.
4. The son of Abiathar, and high priest in the time of David
1Ch 18:16 - In the parallel passage, 2Sa 8:17 - we have the
name Ahimelech, and Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech. This most
authorities consider the more correct reading.
5. Achish, king of Gath, in the title of Psa 34:1 - Comp.
1Sa 21:10-15.


Abinadab


Father of nobleness; i.e., "noble."
1. A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the
covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the
land of the Philistines 1Sa 7:1 - It remained there twenty years,
till it was at length removed by David 1Sa 7:1-2 1Ch 13:7.
2. The second of the eight sons of Jesse 1Sa 16:8 - He was with Saul
in the campaign against the Philistines in which Goliath was
slain 1Sa 17:13.
3. One of Saul's sons, who peristed with his father in the battle
of Gilboa 1Sa 31:2 1Ch 10:2.
4. One of Solomon's officers, who "provided victuals for the king
and his household." He presided, for this purpose, over the
district of Dor 1Ki 4:11.


Abinoam


Father of kindness, the father of Barak Jud 4:6 5:1.


Abiram


Father of height; i.e., "proud."
1. One of the sons of Eliab, who joined Korah in the conspiracy
against Moses and Aaron. He and all the conspirators, with their
families and possessions (except the children of Korah), were
swallowed up by an earthquake Num 16:1-33 26:9 Psa 106:17.
2. The eldest son of Hiel the Bethelite, who perished prematurely
in consequence of his father's undertaking to rebuild Jericho
1Ki 16:34 - according to the words of Joshua Jos 6:26.

See JERICHO 02036.


Abishag


Father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem,
distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to David in
his old age. She became his wife 1Ki 1:3-4,15 - After David's death
Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, to entreat the king
to permit him to marry Abishag. Solomon suspected in this request an
aspiration to the throne, and therefore caused him to be put to death
1Ki 2:17-25.


Abishai


Father of (i.e., "desirous of") a gift, the eldest son of Zeruiah,
David's sister. He was the brother of Joab and Asahel 2Sa 2:18.
1Ch 2:16 - Abishai was the only one who accompanied David when he
went to the camp of Saul and took the spear and the cruse of water
from Saul's bolster 1Sa 26:5-12 - He had the command of one of
the three divisions of David's army at the battle with Absalom
2Sa 18:2,5,12 - He slew the Philistine giant Ishbi-benob, who
threatened David's life 2Sa 21:15-17 - He was the chief of the
second rank of the three "mighties" 2Sa 23:18-19 1Ch 11:20,21.
and on one occasion withstood 300 men, and slew them with his own
spear 2Sa 23:18 - Abishai is the name of the Semitic chief who
offers gifts to the lord of Beni-Hassan.


Abishua


Father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate."
1. The grandson of Benjamin 1Ch 8:4.
2. The son of Phinehas the high priest 1Ch 6:4-5,50 Ezr 7:5.


Abishur


Father of the wall; i.e., "mason", one of the two sons of Shammai of
the tribe of Judah 1Ch 2:28-29.


Abital


Father of dew; i.e., "fresh", David's fifth wife 2Sa 3:4.


Abitub


Father of goodness, a Benjamite 1Ch 8:11.


Abjects


Psa 35:15 - the translation of a Hebrew word meaning smiters; probably,
in allusion to the tongue, slanderers. (Comp.) Jer 18:18.


Ablution


Or washing, was practised,
1. When a person was initiated into a higher state: e.g., when
Aaron and his sons were set apart to the priest's office, they
were washed with water previous to their investiture with the
priestly robes Lev 8:6.
2. Before the priests approached the altar of God, they were
required, on pain of death, to wash their hands and their feet
to cleanse them from the soil of common life Exo 30:17-21 - To
this practice the Psalmist alludes, Psa 26:6.
3. There were washings prescribed for the purpose of cleansing from
positive defilement contracted by particular acts. Of such
washings eleven different species are prescribed in the
Levitical law (Lev 12:1-Lev 15:33)
4. A fourth class of ablutions is mentioned, by which a person
purified or absolved himself from the guilt of some particular
act. For example, the elders of the nearest village where some
murder was committed were required, when the murderer was
unknown, to wash their hands over the expiatory heifer which was
beheaded, and in doing so to say, "Our hands have not shed this
blood, neither have our eyes seen it" Deu 21:1-9 - So also Pilate
declared himself innocent of the blood of Jesus by washing his
hands Mat 27:24 - This act of Pilate may not, however, have been
borrowed from the custom of the Jews. The same practice was
common among the Greeks and Romans. The Pharisees carried the
practice of ablution to great excess, thereby claiming
extraordinary purity Mat 23:25 Mar 7:1-5 - refers to the ceremonial
ablutions. The Pharisees washed their hands "oft," more
correctly, "with the fist" (R.V., "diligently"), or as an old
father, Theophylact, explains it, "up to the elbow." (Compare
also) Mar 7:4 Lev 6:28 11:32-36 15:22.

See WASHING 03788.


Abner


Father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle of
Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army 1Sa 14:50 17:55 20:25.
He first introduced David to the court of Saul after the victory over
Goliath 1Sa 17:57 - After the death of Saul, David was made king over
Judah, and reigned in Hebron. Among the other tribes there was a
feeling of hostility to Judah; and Abner, at the head of Ephraim,
fostered this hostility in the interest of the house of Saul, whose
son Ish-bosheth he caused to be proclaimed king 2Sa 2:8 - A state of
war existed between these two kings. A battle fatal to Abner, who was
the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with David's army under
Joab at Gibeon 2Sa 2:12 - Abner, escaping from the field, was
overtaken by Asahel, who was "light of foot as a wild roe," the
brother of Joab and Abishai, whom he thrust through with a back
stroke of his spear 2Sa 2:18-32 - Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the
impropriety of taking to wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of
King Saul, he found an excuse for going over to the side of David,
whom he now professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over
all Israel. David received him favourably, and promised that he would
have command of the armies. At this time Joab was absent from Hebron,
but on his return he found what had happened. Abner had just left the
city; but Joab by a stratagem recalled him, and meeting him at the
gate of the city on his return, thrust him through with his sword
2Sa 3:27, 31-39 4:12 - Comp. 1Ki 2:5,32 - David lamented in pathetic
words the death of Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a
great man fallen this day in Israel?" 2Sa 3:33-38.


Abomination


This word is used,
1. To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as
defiled when they ate with strangers Gen 43:32 - The Jews
subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to
eat or drink with foreigners Joh 18:28 Act 10:28 11:3.
2. Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians Gen 46:34.
This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, arose probably
from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had formerly been held
in oppressive subjection by a tribe of nomad shepherds (the
Hyksos), who had only recently been expelled, and partly also
perhaps from this other fact that the Egyptians detested the
lawless habits of these wandering shepherds.
3. Pharaoh was so moved by the fourth plague, that while he refused
the demand of Moses, he offered a compromise, granting to the
Israelites permission to hold their festival and offer their
sacrifices in Egypt. This permission could not be accepted,
because Moses said they would have to sacrifice "the abomination
of the Egyptians" Exo 8:26 - i.e., the cow or ox, which all the
Egyptians held as sacred, and which they regarded it as
sacrilegious to kill.
4. Dan 11:31 - in that section of his prophecies which is generally
interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to
fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, "And
they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."
Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be erected on the altar
of burnt-offering, on which sacrifices were offered to Jupiter
Olympus. (Comp. 1 Macc. 1:57) This was the abomination of
the desolation of Jerusalem. The same language is employed in
Dan 9:27 - comp. Mat 24:15 - where the reference is
probably to the image-crowned standards which the Romans set
up at the east gate of the temple (A.D. 70) and to which
they paid idolatrous honours. "Almost the entire religion of
the Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing
by the ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other
gods." These ensigns were an "abomination" to the Jews, the
"abomination of desolation." This word is also used
symbolically of sin in general Isa 66:3 - an idol Isa 44:19.
the ceremonies of the apostate Church of Rome Rev 17:4 - a
detestable act Eze 22:11.


Abraham


Father of a multitude, son of Terah, named Gen 11:27 - before his
older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the
promises. Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred
in his native country of Chaldea. He then, with his father and his
family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto
dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode fifteen
years. The cause of his migration was a call from God Act 7:2-4 - There
is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it is implied,
however, in Gen 12:1 - While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the
age of 205 years. Abram now received a second and more definite call,
accompanied by a promise from God Gen 12:1-2 - whereupon he took his
departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing whither he
went" Heb 11:8 - He trusted implicitly to the guidance of Him who had
called him. Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand
souls, entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents. Passing along
the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his first
encampment at Sichem Gen 12:6 - in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh,
between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south. Here he received
the great promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," etc.
Gen 12:2-3,7 - This promise comprehended not only temporal but also
spiritual blessings. It implied that he was the chosen ancestor of the
great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago predicted Gen 3:15.
Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to
the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns
about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah." He again
moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the
Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down
into Egypt. This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race
which now held the Egyptians in bondage. Here occurred that case of
deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of
Pharaoh Gen 12:18 - Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him
with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. He
returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver,
and in gold" Gen 12:8-13:2 - Comp. Psa 105:13, 14 - The whole
party then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near
Bethel. Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram
about water and pasturage. Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the
pasture-ground. Comp. 1Co 6:7 - He chose the well-watered plain in
which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and
nephew were separated. Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a
repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the
plain or "oak-grove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. He finally settled
here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called
"the oak of Mamre" Gen 13:18 - This was his third resting-place in
the land. Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in
Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who
brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot
had removed. This tribute was felt by the inhabitants of these cities
to be a heavy burden, and after twelve years they revolted. This
brought upon them the vengeance of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with
him four other kings. He ravaged the whole country, plundering the
towns, and carrying the inhabitants away as slaves. Among those thus
treated was Lot. Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew,
Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318 armed
men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol,
he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the
Jordan. They attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the
range of Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then
returned, bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away.
Returning by way of Salem, i.e., Jerusalem, the king of that place,
Melchizedek, came forth to meet them with refreshments. To him Abram
presented a tenth of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a
priest of the most high God Gen 14:18-20 - In a recently discovered
tablet, dated in the reign of the grandfather of Amraphel Gen 14:1.
one of the witnesses is called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or
Abram. Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made
to him by God were repeated and enlarged Gen 13:14 - "The word of the
Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time) "came to him"
Gen 15:1 - He now understood better the future that lay before the
nation that was to spring from him. Sarai, now seventy-five years old,
in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as
a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be
reckoned as her own. Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was
regarded as the heir of these promises Gen 16:1 - When Ishmael
was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and
fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that
purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham
Gen 17:4-5 - and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of
the covenant. It was then announced that the heir to these covenant
promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years
old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac. At the same
time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to
Sarah. On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his design,
Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were
circumcised Gen 17:1 - Three months after this, as Abraham sat in
his tent door, he saw three men approaching. They accepted his
proffered hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the
fare which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was
none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of
men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah,
who was rebuked for her unbelief. Abraham accompanied the three as they
proceeded on their journey. The two angels went on toward Sodom; while
the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him
the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city. The
patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. But as not
even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city
would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and
early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it
as the "smoke of a furnace" Gen 19:1-28 - After fifteen years'
residence at Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among
the Philistines, near to Gerar. Here occurred that sad instance of
prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King
Gen 20:1.
See ABIMELECH 00040.

Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar, and
moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba. It was
probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred
years old. A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar,
whose son, Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir.
Sarah insisted that both Hagar and her son should be sent away. This
was done, although it was a hard trial to Abraham Gen 21:12.
See HAGAR 01583.
See ISHMAEL 01903.

At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of perhaps
twenty-five years. These years of peace and happiness were spent at
Beer-sheba. The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe
test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up
Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the
mountains of Moriah. His faith stood the test Heb 11:17-19 - He
proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the
command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the
altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a
ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and
offered in his stead. From this circumstance that place was called
Jehovah-jireh, i.e., "The Lord will provide." The promises made to
Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of
God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and
returned to his home at Beer-sheba Gen 22:19 - where he resided
for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron. Some years after
this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old. Abraham acquired now
the needful possession of a burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by
purchase from the owner of it, Ephron the Hittite Gen 23:1.
and there he buried Sarah. His next care was to provide a wife for
Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his steward, Eliezer, to Haran
(or Charran,) Act 7:2 - where his brother Nahor and his family
resided Gen 11:31 - The result was that Rebekah, the daughter of
Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac Gen 24:1.
Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of
six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children
of the east" Jud 6:3 - and later as "Saracens." At length all his
wanderings came to an end. At the age of 175 years, 100 years after
he had first entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in
the old family burying-place at Machpelah Gen 25:7-10 - The
history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the ancient
world, and references to it are interwoven in the religious
traditions of almost all Eastern nations. He is called "the friend
of God" Jas 2:23 - "faithful Abraham" Gal 3:9 - "the father of us
all" Rom 4:16.


Abraham's Bosom


Luk 16:22-23 - refers to the custom of reclining on couches at
table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which
brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who
sat or reclined above him. To "be in Abraham's bosom" thus meant to
enjoy happiness and rest Mat 8:11 Luk 16:23 - at the banquet in
Paradise.
See BANQUET 00434.
See MEALS 02451.


Abram


Exalted father.
See ABRAHAM 00054.


Abronah


R.V., one of Israel's halting-places in the desert Num 33:34-35 - just
before Ezion-gaber. In A.V., "Ebronah."


Absalom


Father of peace; i.e., "peaceful" David's son by Maacah 2Sa 3:3 - comp.
1Ki 1:6 - He was noted for his personal beauty and for the
extra-ordinary profusion of the hair of his head 2Sa 14:25-26 - The
first public act of his life was the blood-revenge he executed
against Amnon, David's eldest son, who had basely wronged Absalom's
sister Tamar. This revenge was executed at the time of the
festivities connected with a great sheep-shearing at Baal-hazor.
David's other sons fled from the place in horror, and brought the
tidings of the death of Amnon to Jerusalem. Alarmed for the
consequences of the act, Absalom fled to his grandfather at Geshur,
and there abode for three years 2Sa 3:3 13:23-38 - David mourned his
absent son, now branded with the guilt of fratricide. As the result
of a stratagem carried out by a woman of Tekoah, Joab received
David's sanction to invite Absalom back to Jerusalem. He returned
accordingly, but two years elapsed before his father admitted him
into his presence 2Sa 14:28 - Absalom was now probably the oldest
surviving son of David, and as he was of royal descent by his mother
as well as by his father, he began to aspire to the throne. His
pretensions were favoured by the people. By many arts he gained their
affection; and after his return from Geshur 2Sa 15:7 - (marg., R.V.) he
went up to Hebron, the old capital of Judah, along with a great body
of the people, and there proclaimed himself king. The revolt was so
successful that David found it necessary to quit Jerusalem and flee
to Mahanaim, beyond Jordan; where upon Absalom returned to Jerusalem
and took possession of the throne without opposition. Ahithophel, who
had been David's chief counsellor, deserted him and joined Absalom,
whose chief counsellor he now became. Hushai also joined Absalom, but
only for the purpose of trying to counteract the counsels of
Ahithophel, and so to advantage David's cause. He was so far
successful that by his advice, which was preferred to that of
Ahithophel, Absalom delayed to march an army against his father, who
thus gained time to prepare for the defence. Absalom at length
marched out against his father, whose army, under the command of
Joab, he encountered on the borders of the forest of Ephraim. Twenty
thousand of Absalom's army were slain in that fatal battle, and the
rest fled. Absalom fled on a swift mule; but his long flowing hair,
or more probably his head, was caught in the bough of an oak, and
there he was left suspended till Joab came up and pierced him through
with three darts. His body was then taken down and cast into a pit
dug in the forest, and a heap of stones was raised over his grave.
When the tidings of the result of that battle were brought to David,
as he sat impatiently at the gate of Mahanaim, and he was told that
Absalom had been slain, he gave way to the bitter lamentation: "O my
son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O
Absalom, my son, my son!" 2Sa 18:33 - Comp. Exo 32:32 Ro 9:3.
Absalom's three sons 2Sa 14:27 - comp. 2Sa 18:18 - had all died
before him, so that he left only a daughter, Tamar, who became the
grandmother of Abijah.


Acacia


(Heb. shittim) Exo 25:5 - R.V. probably the Acacia seyal (the gum-arabic
tree); called the "shittah" tree Isa 41:19 - Its wood is called
shittim wood Exo 26:15,26 25:10,13,23,28 - etc. This species (A. seyal)
is like the hawthorn, a gnarled and thorny tree. It yields the
gum-arabic of commerce. It is found in abundance in the Sinaitic
peninsula.


Accad


The high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has
been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the
north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the cities of
Nimrod's kingdom Gen 10:10 - It stood close to the Euphrates,
opposite Sippara.
See SEPHARVAIM 03277.

It is also the name of the country of which this city was the
capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. The Accadians who
came from the "mountains of the east," where the ark rested,
attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian
inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black
faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. They
invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and also
the cuneiform system, in which they wrote many books partly on
papyrus and partly on clay. The Semitic Babylonians (the white race"),
or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a
second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country;
and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language,
although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be
studied by the educated classes of Babylonia. A large portion of the
Ninevite tablets brought to light by Oriental research consists of
interlinear or parallel translations from Accadian into Assyrian;
and thus that long-forgotten language has been recovered by
scholars. It belongs to the class of languages called agglutinative,
common to the Tauranian race; i.e., it consists of words "glued
together," without declension of conjugation. These tablets in a
remarkable manner illustrate ancient history. Among other notable
records, they contain an account of the Creation which closely
resembles that given in the book of Genesis, of the Sabbath as a day
of rest, and of the Deluge and its cause.

See BABYLON 00409.
See CHALDEA 00758.


Accho


Sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe of
Asher, but never acquired by them Jud 1:31 - It was known to the
ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from Ptolemy the
king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100 Here Paul landed on his
last journey to Jerusalem Act 21:7 - During the crusades of the
Middle Ages it was called Acra; and subsequently, on account of its
being occupied by the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was
called St. Jean d'Acre, or simply Acre.


Accuser


Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" Rev 12:10 - Comp.
Job 1:6 Zec 3:1 - as seeking to uphold his influence among men by
bringing false charges against Christians, with the view of
weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which they are
identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser of men before
God, laying to their charge the violations of the law of which they
were guilty, and demanding their punishment. The same Greek word,
rendered "accuser," is found in Joh 8:10 - (but omitted in the
Revised Version); Act 23:30,35 24:8 25:16,18 - in all of which
places it is used of one who brings a charge against another.


Aceldama


The name which the Jews gave in their proper tongue, i.e., in Aramaic,
to the field which was purchased with the money which had been given
to the betrayer of our Lord. The word means "field of blood." It was
previously called "the potter's field" Mat 27:7-8 Act 1:19 - and was
appropriated as the burial-place for strangers. It lies on a narrow
level terrace on the south face of the valley of Hinnom. Its modern
name is Hak ed-damm.


Achaia


The name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on the
north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied by the
Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea, and the south
of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces (Macedonia being the
other) into which they divided the country when it fell under their
dominion. It is in this latter enlarged meaning that the name is
always used in the New Testament Act 18:12, 27 19:21 Ro 15: 26 16:5.
etc. It was at the time when Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles
under the proconsular form of government; hence the appropriate title
given to Gallio as the "deputy," i.e., proconsul, of Achaia Act 18:12.


Achaicus


1Co 16:17 - one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with
Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for
the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church. These
three probably were the bearers of the letter from Corinth to the
apostle to which he alludes in 1Co 7:1.


Achan


Called also Achar, i.e., one who troubles 1Ch 2:7 - in commemoration of
his crime, which brought upon him an awful destruction Jos 7:1 - On
the occasion of the fall of Jericho, he seized, contrary to the
divine command, an ingot of gold, a quantity of silver, and a costly
Babylonish garment, which he hid in his tent. Joshua was convinced
that the defeat which the Israelites afterwards sustained before Ai
was a proof of the divine displeasure on account of some crime, and
he at once adopted means by the use of the lot for discovering the
criminal. It was then found that Achan was guilty, and he was stoned
to death in the valley of Achor. He and all that belonged to him were
then consumed by fire, and a heap of stones was raised over the
ashes.


Achbor


Gnawing mouse.
1. An Edomitish king Gen 36:38 1Ch 1:49.
2. One of Josiah's officers sent to the prophetess Huldah to
inquire regarding the newly-discovered book of the law
2Ki 22:12,14 - He is also called Abdon 2Ch 34:20.


Achish


Angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the
Philistine kings.
1. The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul
1Sa 21:10-15 - He is called Abimelech in the superscription of
Psa 34:1 - It was probably this same king to whom David a
second time repaired at the head of a band of 600 warriors,
and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on war against
the surrounding tribes 1Sa 27:5-12 - Achish had great
confidence in the valour and fidelity of David 1Sa 28:1-2.
but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit him to
go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts 1Sa 29:2-11.
David remained with Achish a year and four months.
2. Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing, to
whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go to
Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon
put him to death 1Ki 2:39-46.


Achmetha


Ezr 6:2 - called Ecbatana by classical writers, the capital of northern
Media. Here was the palace which was the residence of the old Median
monarchs, and of Cyrus and Cambyses. In the time of Ezra, the Persian
kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon. But Cyrus held his court at
Achmetha; and Ezra, writing a century after, correctly mentions the
place where the decree of Cyrus was found.


See ECBATANT 01122.


Achor


Trouble, a valley near Jericho, so called in consequence of the
trouble which the sin of Achan caused Israel Jos 7:24,26 - The
expression "valley of Achor" probably became proverbial for that
which caused trouble, and when Isaiah Isa 65:10 - refers to it he uses
it in this sense: "The valley of Achor, a place for herds to lie down
in;" i.e., that which had been a source of calamity would become a
source of blessing. Hosea also Hos 2:15 - uses the expression in the
same sense: "The valley of Achor for a door of hope;" i.e., trouble
would be turned into joy, despair into hope. This valley has been
identified with the Wady Kelt.


Achsah


Anklet, Caleb's only daughter 1Ch 2:49 - She was offered in marriage
to the man who would lead an attack on the city of Debir, or
Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who accordingly
obtained her as his wife Jos 15:16-19 Jud 1:9-15.


Achshaph


Fascination, a royal city of the Canaanites, in the north of Palestine
Jos 11:1 12:20 19:25 - It was in the eastern boundary of the tribe of
Asher, and is identified with the modern ruined village of Kesaf or
Yasif, N.E. of Accho.


Achzib


Falsehood.
1. A town in the Shephelah, or plain country of Judah Jos 15:44.
probably the same as Chezib of Gen 38:5 - = Ain Kezbeh.
2. A Phoenician city (the Gr. Ecdippa), always retained in their
possession though assigned to the tribe of Asher
Jos 19:29 Jud 1:31 - It is identified with the modern es-Zib,
on the Mediterranean, about 8 miles north of Accho.


Acre


Is the translation of a word (tse'med), which properly means a yoke,
and denotes a space of ground that may be ploughed by a yoke of oxen
in a day. It is about an acre of our measure Isa 5:10 1Sa 14:14.


Acts of the Apostles


The title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of
the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise" Act 1:1 - It was
early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy Ghost," and "The
Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains properly no account of any of
the apostles except Peter and Paul. John is noticed only three times;
and all that is recorded of James, the son of Zebedee, is his execution
by Herod. It is properly therefore not the history of the "Acts of the
Apostles," a title which was given to the book at a later date, but of
"Acts of Apostles," or more correctly, of "Some Acts of Certain
Apostles." As regards its authorship, it was certainly the work of
Luke, the "beloved physician" (comp.) Luk 1:1-4 Act 1:1 - This is the
uniform tradition of antiquity, although the writer nowhere makes
mention of himself by name. The style and idiom of the Gospel of Luke
and of the Acts, and the usage of words and phrases common to both,
strengthen this opinion. The writer first appears in the narrative in
Act 16:11 - and then disappears till Paul's return to Philippi two years
afterwards, when he and Paul left that place together Act 20:6 - and the
two seem henceforth to have been constant companions to the end. He
was certainly with Paul at Rome Col 4:14 Act 28:1-16 - Thus he wrote
a great portion of that history from personal observation. For what lay
beyond his own experience he had the instruction of Paul. If, as is
very probable, 2 Tim. was written during Paul's second imprisonment at
Rome, Luke was with him then as his faithful companion to the last
2Ti 4:11 - Of his subsequent history we have no certain information.
The design of Luke's Gospel was to give an exhibition of the character
and work of Christ as seen in his history till he was taken up from his
disciples into heaven; and of the Acts, as its sequel, to give an
illustration of the power and working of the gospel when preached among
all nations, "beginning at Jerusalem." The opening sentences of the
Acts are just an expansion and an explanation of the closing words of
the Gospel. In this book we have just a continuation of the history of
the church after Christ's ascension. Luke here carries on the history
in the same spirit in which he had commenced it. It is only a book of
beginnings, a history of the founding of churches, the initial steps in
the formation of the Christian society in the different places visited
by the apostles. It records a cycle of "representative events." All
through the narrative we see the ever-present, all-controlling power of
the ever-living Saviour. He worketh all and in all in spreading abroad
his truth among men by his Spirit and through the instrumentality of
his apostles. The time of the writing of this history may be gathered
from the fact that the narrative extends down to the close of the
second year of Paul's first imprisonment at Rome. It could not
therefore have been written earlier than A.D. 61 or 62 nor later than
about the end of A.D. 63 Paul was probably put to death during his
second imprisonment, about A.D. 64 or, as some think, 66 The place
where the book was written was probably Rome, to which Luke accompanied
Paul. The key to the contents of the book is in Act 1:8 - "Ye shall be
witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria,
and unto the uttermost part of the earth." After referring to what had
been recorded in a "former treatise" of the sayings and doings of Jesus
Christ before his ascension, the author proceeds to give an account of
the circumstances connected with that event, and then records the
leading facts with reference to the spread and triumphs of Christianity
over the world during a period of about thirty years. The record
begins with Pentecost (A.D. 33) and ends with Paul's first imprisonment
(A.D. 63 or 64) The whole contents of the book may be divided into
these three parts:
1. Chaps. 1-12 describing the first twelve years of the Christian
church. This section has been entitled "From Jerusalem to
Antioch." It contains the history of the planting and extension
of the church among the Jews by the ministry of Peter.
2. Chaps. 13-21 Paul's missionary journeys, giving the history of
the extension and planting of the church among the Gentiles.
3. Chaps. 21-28 Paul at Rome, and the events which led to this.
Chaps. 13-28 have been entitled "From Antioch to Rome." In this
book it is worthy of note that no mention is made of the writing
by Paul of any of his epistles. This may be accounted for by the
fact that the writer confined himself to a history of the
planting of the church, and not to that of its training or
edification. The relation, however, between this history and the
epistles of Paul is of such a kind, i.e., brings to light so
many undesigned coincidences, as to prove the genuineness and
authenticity of both, as is so ably shown by Paley in his - Horae
Paulinae -. "No ancient work affords so many tests of veracity;
for no other has such numerous points of contact in all
directions with contemporary history, politics, and topography,
whether Jewish, or Greek, or Roman." Lightfoot.

See PAUL 02871.


Adah


Ornament.
1. The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother of Jabal and
Jubal Gen 4:19, 20, 23.
2. The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the
Hittite Gen 36:2,4 - called also Bashemath Gen 26:34.


Adam


Red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same
meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was the name
given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history
and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses
Gen 1:27-Ge 5:32 - "God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image,
in the image of God created he him; male and female created he
them." Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created. He was
formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and God
breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and gave him dominion
over all the lower creatures Gen 1:26 2:7 - He was placed after
his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate it, and to enjoy
its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the tree of the knowledge
of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou
eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." The first recorded act of
Adam was his giving names to the beasts of the field and the fowls
of the air, which God brought to him for this end. Thereafter the
Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and while in an
unconscious state took one of his ribs, and closed up his flesh
again; and of this rib he made a woman, whom he presented to him
when he awoke. Adam received her as his wife, and said, "This is now
bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman,
because she was taken out of Man." He called her Eve, because she
was the mother of all living. Being induced by the tempter in the
form of a serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam,
and he also did eat. Thus man fell, and brought upon himself and his
posterity all the sad consequences of his transgression. The
narrative of the Fall comprehends in it the great promise of a
Deliverer Gen 3:15 - the "first gospel" message to man. They were
expelled from Eden, and at the east of the garden God placed a
flame, which turned every way, to prevent access to the tree of life
Gen 3:1-24 - How long they were in Paradise is matter of mere
conjecture. Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her
first-born, and called him Cain. Although we have the names of only
three of Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth, yet it is obvious
that he had several sons and daughters Gen 5:4 - He died aged
930 years. Adam and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human
race. Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity
of the human race. The investigations of science, altogether
independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that God
"hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the
face of the earth" Act 17:26 - Comp. Rom 5:12-12 1Co 15:22-49.


Adamah


Red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern Damieh,
on the west side of the sea of Tiberias Jos 19:33,36.


Adamant


(Heb. shamir), Eze 3:9 - The Greek word adamas means diamond. This
stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard steel. It
is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of the truth
Zec 7:12 - and of hard-heartedness against the truth Jer 17:1.


Adam a Type


The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come."
On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam. This
typical relation is described in Rom 5:14-19.


Adam, The City of


Is referred to in Jos 3:16 - It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west
bank of Jordan 1Ki 4:12 - At this city the flow of the water was
arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites'
passing over Jos 3:16.


Adar


Large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the
ecclesiastical year of the Jews Est 3:7,13 8:12 9:1,15,17,19,21 - It
included the days extending from the new moon of our March to the new
moon of April. The name was first used after the Captivity. When the
season was backward, and the lambs not yet of a paschal size, or the
barley not forward enough for abib, then a month called Veadar, i.e.,
a second Adar, was intercalated.


Adbeel


Miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and head of
an Arabian tribe Gen 25:13 1Ch 1:29.


Addar


Ample, splendid, son of Bela 1Ch 8:3 - called also "Ard" Gen 46:21.


Adder


Psa 140:3 Ro 3:13 - ("asp") is the rendering of,
1. Akshub ("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper,
found only in this passage.
2. Pethen ("twisting") a viper or venomous serpent identified with
the cobra (Naja haje) Psa 58:4 91:13 - elsewhere "asp."
3. Tziphoni ("hissing") Pro 23:32 - elsewhere rendered "cockatrice,"
Isa 11:8 14:29 59:5 Jer 8:17 - as it is here in the margin of the
Authorized Version. The Revised Version has "basilisk." This may
have been the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and
most dangerous of the vipers of Palestine.
4. Shephiphon ("creeping"), occurring only in Gen 49:17 - the small
speckled venomous snake, the "horned snake," or cerastes. Dan
is compared to this serpent, which springs from its
hiding-place on the passer-by.

See BASILISK 00465.
See COCKATRICE 00854.
See SERPENT 03287.


Addi


Ornament, Luk 3:28 - the son of Cosam, and father of Melchi, one of the
progenitors of Christ.


Addon


Low, one of the persons named in Neh 7:61 - who could not "shew their
father's house" on the return from captivity. This, with similar
instances Neh 7:63 - indicates the importance the Jews attached to
their genealogies.


Adiel


Ornament of God.
1. The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer under David and
Solomon 1Ch 27:25.
2. A family head of the tribe of Simeon 1Ch 4:36.
3. A priest 1Ch 9:12.


Adin


Effeminate.
1. Ezr 8:6.
2. Neh 10:16.


Adina


Slender, one of David's warriors 1Ch 11:42 - a Reubenite.


Adino


The Eznite, one of David's mighty men 2Sa 23:8.

See JASHOBEAM 01978.


Adjuration


A solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation
of speaking or acting as if under an oath 1Sa 14:24 Jos 6:26.
1Ki 22:16 - We have in the New Testament a striking example of this
Mat 26:63 Mar 5:7 - where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow
his true character. It would seem that in such a case the person so
adjured could not refuse to give an answer. The word "adjure", i.e.,
cause to swear is used with reference to the casting out of demons
Act 19:13.


Admah


Earth, one of the five cities of the vale of Siddim Gen 10:19 - It was
destroyed along with Sodom and Gomorrah Gen 19:24 Deu 29:23 - It is
supposed by some to be the same as the Adam of Jos 3:16 - the name of
which still lingers in Damieh, the ford of Jordan.

See ZEBOIM 03885.


Adnah


Delight.
1. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag
1Ch 12:20.
2. A general under Jehoshaphat, chief over 300,000 men 2Ch 17:14.


Adonibezek


Lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of the
chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the armies of
Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a captive to
Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut off. He confessed
that God had requited him for his like cruelty to the seventy kings
whom he had subdued Jud 1:4-7 - comp. 1Sa 15:33.


Adonijah


My Lord is Jehovah.
1. The fourth son of David 2Sa 3:4 - After the death of his elder
brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he became heir-apparent to the
throne. But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him.
Adonijah, however, when his father was dying, caused himself to
be proclaimed king. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to
give orders that Solomon should at once be proclaimed and
admitted to the throne. Adonijah fled and took refuge at the
altar, and received pardon for his conduct from Solomon on the
condition that he showed himself "a worthy man" 1Ki 1:5-53 - He
afterwards made a second attempt to gain the throne, but was
seized and put to death 1Ki 2:13-25.
2. A Levite sent with the princes to teach the book of the law to
the inhabitants of Judah 2Ch 17:8.
3. One of the "chiefs of the people" after the Captivity Neh 10:16.


Adonikam


Whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel"
Ezr 2:13 - His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666 came
up to Jerusalem Ezr 8:13.


Adoniram (Adoram)


1Ki 12:18 - the son of Abda, was "over the tribute," i.e.,
the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to death by the people of
Israel 1Ki 4:6 5:14 12:18.


Adoni-zedec


Lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the time
when the Israelites invaded Palestine Jos 10:1,3 - He formed a
confederacy with the other Canaanitish kings against the Israelites,
but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was engaged in besieging the
Gibeonites. The history of this victory and of the treatment of the
five confederated kings is recorded in Jos 10:1-27 - Comp.
Deu 21:23 - Among the Tell Amarna tablets
See EGYPT 01137.
are some very interesting letters from Adoni-zedec to the King of
Egypt. These illustrate in a very remarkable manner the history
recorded in Jos 23:1-16 - and indeed throw light on the wars of
conquest generally, so that they may be read as a kind of commentary
on the book of Joshua. Here the conquering career of the Abiri
(i.e., Hebrews) is graphically described: "Behold, I say that the
land of the king my lord is ruined", "The wars are mighty against
me", "The Hebrew chiefs plunder all the king's lands", "Behold, I
the chief of the Amorites am breaking to pieces." Then he implores
the king of Egypt to send soldiers to help him, directing that the
army should come by sea to Ascalon or Gaza, and thence march to
Wru-sa-lim (Jerusalem) by the valley of Elah.


Adoption


The giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who
is not a son by birth.
1. Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses Exo 2:10 - and
Mordecai Esther Est 2:7.
2. National. God adopted Israel Exo 4:22 Deu 7:6 Hos 11:1 Ro 9:4.
3. Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the
number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers of all
the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the
new relations into which the believer is introduced by
justification, and the privileges connected therewith, viz., an
interest in God's peculiar love Joh 17:23 Ro 5:5-8 - a spiritual
nature 2Pe 1:4 Joh 1:13 - the possession of a spirit becoming
children of God 1Pe 1:14 2Jo 1:4 Ro 8:15-21 Gal 5:1 Heb 2:15.
present protection, consolation, supplies Luk 12:27-32 Joh 14:18.
1Co 3:21-23 2Co 1:4 - fatherly chastisements Heb 12:5-11 - and
a future glorious inheritance Rom 8:17,23 Jas 2:5 Php 3:21.


Adoram


See ADONIRAM 00098.


Adore


To worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration
among the Jews were putting off the shoes Exo 3:5 Jos 5:15 - and
prostration Gen 17:3 Psa 95:6 Isa 44:15,17,19 46:6 - To "kiss the Son"
in Psa 2:12 - is to adore and worship him. See Dan 3:5-6 - The word
itself does not occur in Scripture.


Adrammelech


Adar the king.
1. An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of
Sepharvaim 2Ki 17:31 - and brought by the Sepharvite colonists
into Samaria.
See Anammelech 00227.
2. A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria 2Ki 19:37 Isa 37:38.


Adramyttium


A city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was
called AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged
to this city Act 27:2 - He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia,
whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. It was a rare thing
for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy. It
still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some traffic.


Adria


Act 27:27 - R.V., "the sea of Adria", the Adriatic Sea, including in
Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and
Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the - Mare Superum - of the
Romans, as distinguished from the - Mare Inferum - or Tyrrhenian Sea.


Adriel


Flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave
in marriage his daughter Merab 1Sa 18:19 - The five sons that sprang
from this union were put to death by the Gibeonites 2Sa 21:8-9 - Here
it is said that Michal "brought up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons,
either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother, or
that for "Michal" we should read "Merab," as in 1Sa 18:19.


Adullam


One of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma
Jos 12:15 15:35 - It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of
Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over
Goliath 1Sa 17:2 - and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns
which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt 2Ch 11:7 - It was called
"the glory of Israel" Mic 1:15 - The Cave of Adullam has been
discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and
about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500
feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David
gathered together "every one that was in distress, and every one
that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" 1Sa 22:2.
Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men.
According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between
Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.


Adullamite


An inhabitant of the city of Adullam Gen 38:1,12,20.


Adultery


Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit
intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was
an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried
woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong,
as well as a great sin. The Mosaic law Num 5:11-31 - prescribed that
the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of
jealousy." There is, however, no recorded instance of the application
of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations
with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about
a divorce. It has been inferred from Joh 8:1-11 - that this sin became
very common during the age preceding the destruction of Jerusalem.
Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery
spiritually Jer 3:6,8,9 Eze 16:32 Hos 1:2:3 Rev 2:22 - An apostate
church is an adulteress Isa 1:21 Eze 23:4,7,37 - and the Jews are
styled "an adulterous generation" Mat 12:39 - Comp Rev 12:1.

See FORNICATION 01376.


Adummim


The red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
toward Gilgal, mentioned Jos 15:7 18:17 - It was nearly half-way
between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of
Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in
the parable of the Good Samaritan Luk 10:30-37 - Recently a new
carriage-road has been completed, and carriages for the first time
have come along this road from Jerusalem.


Adversary


(Heb. satan), an opponent or foe 1Ki 5:4 11:14,23,25 Luk 13:17 - one
that speaks against another, a complainant Mat 5:25 Luk 12:58 - an enemy
Luk 18:3 - and specially the devil 1Pe 5:8.

See SATAN 03228.


Advocate


(Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by
defending or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times
to the Holy Ghost Joh 14:16 15:26 16:7 - where the Greek word is
rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is applied to Christ in 1Jo 2:1.
where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering
which it should have in all the places where it occurs. Tertullus
"the orator" Act 24:1 - was a Roman advocate whom the Jews
employed to accuse Paul before Felix.


AEnon


Springs, a place near Salim where John baptized Joh 3:23 - It was
probably near the upper source of the Wady Far'ah, an open valley
extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of springs. A
place has been found called 'Ainun, four miles north of the springs.


Affection


Feeling or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" Rom 1:26 - and
"inordinate affection" Col 3:5 - Christians are exhorted to set their
affections on things above Col 3:2 - There is a distinction between
natural and spiritual or gracious affections Eze 33:32.


Affinity


Relationship by alliance 2Ch 18:1 - or by marriage 1Ki 3:1.
Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated
Lev 18:6-17 - Consanguinity is relationship by blood.


Afflictions


Common to all Job 5:7 14:1 Psa 34:19 - are for the good of men
Jas 1:2-3,12 2Co 12:7 - and the glory of God 2Co 12:7-10 1Pe 4:14.
and are to be borne with patience by the Lord's people Psa 94:12.
Pro 3:12 - They are all directed by God Lam 3:33 - and will result
in the everlasting good of his people 2Co 4:16-18 - in Christ
Jesus Rom 8:35-39.


Agabus


A "prophet," probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He
prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine Act 11:27-28 - Many
years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of the bonds
and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he persist in
going thither Act 21:10-12.


Agag


Flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the
Egyptian.
1. A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam Num 24:7 - He lived
at the time of the Exodus.
2. Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully, but
whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in
retributive justice Jud 1:1 - to be brought out and cut in
pieces 1Sa 15:8-33 - Comp. Exo 17:11, Num 14:45.


Agagite


A name applied to Haman and also to his father Est 3:1,10 8:3,5.
Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.


Agate


(Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest
Exo 28:19 39:12 - the second in the third row. This may be the agate
properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably
brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa 54:12 - and Eze 27:16.
this word is the rendering of the Hebrew cadcod, which means "ruddy,"
and denotes a variety of minutely crystalline silica more or less in
bands of different tints. This word is from the Greek name of a stone
found in the river Achates in Sicily.


Age


Used to denote the period of a man's life Gen 47:28 - the maturity of
life Joh 9:21 - the latter end of life Job 11:17 - a generation of
the human race Job 8:8 - and an indefinite period Eph 2:7 3:5,21.
Col 1:26 - Respect to be shown to the aged Lev 19:32 - It is a
blessing to communities when they have old men among them
Isa 65:20 Zec 8:4 - The aged supposed to excel in understanding
Job 12:20 15:10 32:4,9 1Ki 12:6,8 - A full age the reward of
piety Job 5:26 Ge 15:15.


Agee


Fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty men
2Sa 23:11.


Agony


Contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish
is the reflection on evil that is already past, while agony is a
struggle with evil at the time present. It is only used in the New
Testament by Luk 22:44 - to describe our Lord's fearful struggle in
Gethsemane. The verb from which the noun "agony" is derived is used
to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [agonize] to
enter" Luk 13:24 - "Then would my servants fight" [agonize]
Joh 18:36 - Comp. 1Co 9:25 Col 1:29 4:12 1Ti 6:12 2Ti 4:7.
where the words "striveth," "labour," "conflict," "fight," are the
renderings of the same Greek verb.


Agriculture


Tilling the ground Gen 2:15 4:2-3,12 - and rearing cattle were the chief
employments in ancient times. The Egyptians excelled in agriculture.
And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised
Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable
development of this art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the
Mosaic commonwealth.

The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:-
1. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the
autumnal equinox.) Marchesvan. Kisleu, former half. Early
rain due first showers of autumn.
2. UNRIPE TIME. Kisleu, latter half. Tebet. Sebat, former half.
3. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half. Adar. [Veadar.] Nisan,
former half. Latter rain due Deu 11:14 Jer 5:24 Hos 6:3.
Zec 10:1 Jas 5:7 Job 29:23.
4. HARVEST TIME. Nisan, latter half. (Beginning about vernal
equinox. Barley green. Passover.) Ijar. Sivan, former half.,
Wheat ripe. Pentecost.
5. SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half. Tammuz. Ab,
former half.
6. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half. Elul. Tisri, former half.,
Ingathering of fruits. The six months from the middle of Tisri
to the middle of Nisan were occupied with the work of
cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with the
gathering in of the fruits.

The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills
and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine
richly productive Psa 1:3 65:10 Pr 21:1 Isa 30:25 32:2,20 Hos 12:11.
and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its
fertility to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was
an abundant population, measures of wheat year by year" were sent to
Hiram in exchange for timber 1Ki 5:11 - and in large quantities also
wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded
Eze 27:17 - The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold Gen 26:12.
Mat 13:23 - Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful Num 13:23 - and
the vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit
Deu 33:24 - Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted,
it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year,
when all agricultural labour would entirely cease Lev 25:1-7 Deu 15:1-10.
It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds Deu 22:9 - A
passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he
was not permitted to carry away any Deu 23:24-25 Mat 12:1 - The poor
were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings. A
forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor. (See)
Lev 19:9-10 Deu 24:19.

Agricultural implements and operations. The sculptured monuments and
painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject,
and on the general operations of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple
construction were known in the time of Moses Deu 22:10 - comp.
Job 1:14 - They were very light, and required great attention to keep
them in the ground Luk 9:62 - They were drawn by oxen Job 1:14.
cows 1Sa 6:7 - and asses Isa 30:24 - but an ox and an ass must not
be yoked together in the same plough Deu 22:10 - Men sometimes
followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods Isa 28:24 - The
oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the end, so
that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also Jud 3:31.
1Sa 13:21 - When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over
the field Mat 13:3-8 - The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 - was
not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more
than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated spots the seed was
trampled in by cattle Isa 32:20 - but doubtless there was some kind
of harrow also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the
field. The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by
the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to
circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves
Gen 37:7 Lev 23:10-15 Ru 2:7,15 Job 24:10 Jer 9:22 Mic 4:12.
which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in
barns Mat 6:26 - The process of threshing was performed generally by
spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and
cattle to tread repeatedly over them Deu 25:4 Isa 28:28 - On
occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose Rut 2:17 Isa 28:27.
There was also a "threshing instrument" Isa 41:15 Amo 1:3 - which was
drawn over the corn. It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing
roller or sledge 2Sa 24:22 1Ch 21:23 Isa 3:15 - It was somewhat like
the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument. When the grain was
threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind Jer 4:11.
and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops Isa 30:24 - The shovel and
the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Psa 35:5 Job 21:18 Isa 17:13.
The refuse of straw and chaff was burned Isa 5:24 - Freed from
impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used
Deu 28:8 Pr 3:10 Mat 6:26 13:30 Luk 12:18.


Agrippa I


The grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Bernice.
The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of the
territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the
title of king Herod"), and finally of that of Antipas, who was
banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he became ruler over the
whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of the early Christians. He
slew James, and imprisoned Peter Act 12:1-4 - He died at Caesarea,
being "eaten of worms" Act 12:23 - A.D. 44. (Comp. Josephus,
Ant. xix. 8)


Agrippa II


Son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27 He was the brother
of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48 invested him
with the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem, and
made him governor (A.D. 50 of Chalcis. He was afterwards raised to
the rank of king, and made governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and
Lysanias Act 25:13 26:2,7 - It was before him that Paul delivered
(A.D. 59 his speech recorded in Act 26:1-29 - His private life was very
profligate. He died (the last of his race) at Rome, at the age of
about seventy years, A.D. 100

See FESTUS, PORCIUS 01326.


Ague


The translation in Lev 26:16 - (R.V., "fever") of the Hebrew word
kaddah'ath, meaning "kindling", i.e., an inflammatory or burning
fever. In Deu 28:22 - the word is rendered "fever."


Agur


Gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in
Pro 30:1-33 - Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.


Ah!


An exclamation of sorrow or regret Psa 35:25 Isa 1:4,24.
Jer 1:6 22:18 Mar 15:29.


Aha!


An exclamation of ridicule Psa 35:21 40:15 70:3 - In Isa 44:16 - it
signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25 - R.V.


Ahab


Father's brother.
1. The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of
Israel. His history is recorded in 1Ki 16:1-22:53 - His
wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil influence
over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he added
the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah
(q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account
kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He
undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of
Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a
complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and
was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all
the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other
concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some
cause Ahab renewed war 1Ki 22:3 - with Ben-hadad by
assaulting the city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet
Micaiah warned him that he would not succeed, and that the
400 false prophets who encouraged him were only leading him to
his ruin. Micaiah was imprisoned for thus venturing to
dissuade Ahab from his purpose. Ahab went into the battle
disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his
enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn at a venture" pierced
him, and though stayed up in his chariot for a time he died
towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy 1Ki 21:19 - was
fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years. Because of his
idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is referred to as
pre-eminently the type of a wicked king
2Ki 8:18 2Ch 22:3 Mic 6:16.
2. A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah Jer 29:21 - of whom
nothing further is known.


Ahasuerus


There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture.
1. The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan 9:1 - This was
probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history,
the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.
2. The king mentioned in Ezr 4:6 - probably the Cambyses of profane
history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529)
3. The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of
Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and
Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was in all probability
the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius
(B.C. 485) In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name
Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years
(B.C. 486) He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of more
than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with him.
Leonidas, with his famous 300 arrested his progress at the
Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by
Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this
invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.


Ahava


Water, the river Ezr 8:21 - by the banks of which the Jewish exiles
assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon.
In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which
flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia.
It has, however, been supposed to be the name of a place Ezr 8:15.
now called Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.


Ahaz


Possessor.
1. A grandson of Jonathan 1Ch 8:35 9:42.
2. The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah 2Ki 16:1.
Isa 7:1-Isa 9:21 2Ch 28:1 - He gave himself up to a life of
wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and
warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help
against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who
threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to
the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating subjection
to the Assyrians 2Ki 16:7,9 15:29 - He also introduced among
his people many heathen and idolatrous customs Isa 8:19 38:8.
2Ki 23:12 - He died at the age of thirty-five years, after
reigning sixteen years (B.C. 740 and was succeeded by his son
Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness he was "not brought into the
sepulchre of the kings."


Ahaziah


Held by Jehovah.
1. The son and successor of Ahab. He followed the counsels of his
mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness the ways of his
father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from under his
authority 2Ki 3:5-7 - He united with Jehoshaphat in an attempt to
revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which proved a failure
2Ch 20:35-37 - His messengers, sent to consult the god of Ekron
regarding his recovery from the effects of a fall from the
roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the way by Elijah, who
sent them back to tell the king that he would never rise from
his bed 1Ki 22:51-2Ki 1:18.
2. The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah. Called
Jehoahaz 2Ch 21:17 25:23 - and Azariah 2Ch 22:6 - Guided by his
idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was disastrous
2Ki 8:24-29 9:29 - He joined his uncle Jehoram, king of
Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of Damascus; but
was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to escape, and
had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died 2Ki 9:22-28.
He reigned only one year.


Ahiam


Mother's brother, one of David's thirty heroes 2Sa 23:33 1Ch 11:35.


Ahiezer


Brother of help; i.e., "helpful."
1. The chief of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus
Num 1:12 2:25 10:25.
2. The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David at
Ziklag 1Ch 12:3.


Ahihud


Brother (i.e., "friend") of union.
1. A son of Bela, the son of Benjamin 1Ch 8:7.
2. Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief of the
tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend
the division of Canaan among the tribe Num 34:27.


Ahijah


Brother (i.e., "friend") of Jehovah.
1. One of the sons of Bela 1Ch 8:7 - R.V. In A.V. called "Ahiah."
2. One of the five sons of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson of
Judah 1Ch 2:25.
3. Son of Ahitub 1Sa 14:3,18 - Ichabod's brother; the same probably
as Ahimelech, who was high priest at Nob in the reign of Saul
1Sa 22:11 - Some, however, suppose that Ahimelech was the brother
of Ahijah, and that they both officiated as high priests, Ahijah
at Gibeah or Kirjath-jearim, and Ahimelech at Nob.
4. A Pelonite, one of David's heroes 1Ch 11:36 - called also Eliam
2Sa 23:34.
5. A Levite having charge of the sacred treasury in the temple
1Ch 26:20.
6. One of Solomon's secretaries 1Ki 4:3.
7. A prophet of Shiloh 1Ki 11:29 14:2 - called the "Shilonite," in
the days of Rehoboam. We have on record two of his remarkable
prophecies, 1Ki 11:31-39 - announcing the rending of the ten
tribes from Solomon; and 1Ki 14:6-16 - delivered to Jeroboam's
wife, foretelling the death of Abijah the king's son, the
destruction of Jeroboam's house, and the captivity of Israel
"beyond the river." Jeroboam bears testimony to the high esteem
in which he was held as a prophet of God 1Ki 14:2-3.


Ahikam


Brother of support helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to consult
the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery of the book of
the law 2Ki 22:12-14 2Ch 34:20 - He was the son of Shaphan, the royal
secretary, and the father of Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the
destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians 2Ki 25:22 Jer 40:5-16 43:6.
On one occasion he protected Jeremiah against the fury of Jehoiakim
Jer 26:24 - It was in the chamber of another son (Germariah) of
Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people Jeremiah's
roll.


Ahimaaz


Brother of anger irascible.
1. The father of Ahinoam, the wife of Saul 1Sa 14:50.
2. The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest
1Ch 6:8,53 - On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he
remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in
conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in
Jerusalem 2Sa 15:24-37 17:15-21 - He was swift of foot, and
was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of
Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from
telling him of his death 2Sa 18:19-33.


Ahiman


Brother of a gift liberal.
1. One of the three giant Anakim brothers whom Caleb and the spies
saw in Mount Hebron Num 13:22 - when they went in to explore the
land. They were afterwards driven out and slain
Jos 15:14 Jud 1:10.
2. One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile 1Ch 9:17.


Ahimelech


Brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar
1Sa 22:20-23 - He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In
1Ch 18:16 - he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as
Ahiah 1Sa 14:3,18 - He was the twelfth high priest, and
officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his
companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from
Saul 1Sa 21:1-9 - He was summoned into Saul's presence, and
accused, on the information of Doeg the Edomite, of disloyalty
because of his kindness to David; whereupon the king commanded that
he, with the other priests who stood beside him (86 in all), should
be put to death. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in
the most cruel manner 1Sa 22:9-23 - Possibly Abiathar had a son
also called Ahimelech.


Ahinadab


Brother of liberality liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers
appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise
supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to
the district of Mahanaim 1Ki 4:14 - east of Jordan.


Ahinoam


Brother of pleasantness pleasant.
1. The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul 1Sa 14:50.
2. A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David 1Sa 25:43 27:3 - She was
the mother of Amnon 2Sa 3:2 1Sa 30:5,18 2Sa 2:2.


Ahio


Brotherly.
1. One of the sons of Beriah 1Ch 8:14.
2. One of the sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite 1Ch 8:31 9:37.
3. One of the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by the
side of the ark, he walked before it guiding the oxen which drew
the cart on which it was carried, after having brought it from
his father's house in Gibeah 1Ch 13:7 2Sa 6:3-4.


Ahira


Brother of evil unlucky, or my brother is friend, chief of the tribe
of Naphtali at the Exodus Num 1:15 2:29.


Ahishar


Brother of song singer, the officer who was "over the household" of
Solomon 1Ki 4:6.


Ahithophel


Brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his
sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted
David Psa 41:9 55:12-14 - and espoused the cause of Absalom
2Sa 15:12 - David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in
order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel 2Sa 15:31-37.
This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any
influence, and accordingly he at once left the camp of Absalom and
returned to Giloh, his native place, where, after arranging his
wordly affairs, he hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre
of his fathers 2Sa 17:1-23 - He was the type of Judas Psa 41:9.


Ahitub


Brother of goodness good.
1. The son of Phinehas. On the death of his grandfather Eli he
succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself
succeeded by his son Ahijah 1Sa 14:3 22:9,11-12,20.
2. The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the
extermination of the family of Ahimelech 1Ch 6:7-8 2Sa 8:17.


Ahlab


Fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician
border Jud 1:31 - north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly
identified with Giscala, now el-Jish.


Ahoah


Brotherly, one of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin 1Ch 8:4 - He is
also called Ahiah 1Ch 8:7 - and Iri 1Ch 7:7 - His descendants were
called Ahohites 2Sa 23:9,28.


Ahohite


An epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains 1Ch 27:4 - to his
son Eleazar, one of David's three mightiest heroes 2Sa 23:9 1Ch 11:12.
and to Zalmon, one of the thirty 2Sa 23:28 1Ch 11:29 - from their
descent from Ahoah.


Aholah


She has her own tent, a name used by Eze 23:4-5,36,44 - as a symbol of
the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This kingdom is described as a
lewdwoman, an adulteress, given up to the abominations and idolatries
of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Because of her crimes, she was
carried away captive, and ceased to be a kingdom.
(Comp.) Psa 78:67-69 1Ki 12:25-33 2Ch 11:13-16.


Aholiab


Tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to the
work of preparing materials for the tabernacle Exo 31:6 35:34 .
Exo 36:1-2 38:23.


Aholibah


My tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied
symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship of
the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of foreign
nations. Eze 23:4,11,22,36,44.


Aholibamah


Tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of Beeri
Anah Gen 26:34 36:2 - when she became the wife of Esau. A district
among the mountains of Edom, probably near Mount Hor, was called
after her name, or it may be that she received her name from the
district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her
three sons.


Ai


Ruins.
1. One of the royal cities of the Canaanites Jos 10:1 Ge 12:8 13:3.
It was the scene of Joshua's defeat, and afterwards of his
victory. It was the second Canaanite city taken by Israel
Jos 7:2-5 8:1-29 - It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the
Benjamites Ezr 2:28 Neh 7:32 11:31 - It lay to the east of
Bethel, "beside Beth-aven." The spot which is most probably
the site of this ancient city is Haiyan, 2 miles east from
Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged valley,
extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.
2. A city in the Ammonite territory Jer 49:3 - Some have thought
that the proper reading of the word is Ar Isa 15:1.


Aijeleth, Shahar


Hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Psa 22:1 - It is
probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which the
psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the name some
instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the
psalm.


Air


The atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky 1Th 4:17.
Rev 9:2 16:17 - This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew
- ruah - Job 41:16 - elsewhere it is the rendering of - shamaiyim -,
usually translated "heavens." The expression "to speak into the air"
1Co 14:9 - is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the
air" 1Co 9:26 - denotes to labour in vain.


Ajalon


And Aij'alon, place of deer.
1. A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from
which, however, they could not drive the Amorites Jud 1:35 - It
was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites 1Ch 6:69.
It was not far from Beth-shemesh 2Ch 28:18 - It was the
boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is
frequently mentioned in Jewish history 2Ch 11:10 1Sa 14:31.
1Ch 8:13 - With reference to the valley named after the town,
Joshua uttered the celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still
on Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" Jos 10:12.
It has been identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the
Beth-horon pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek
(q.v.) speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by
the invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly
afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging
the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.
2. A city in the tribe of Zebulun Jud 12:12 - the modern Jalun,
three miles north of Cabul.


Akkub


(another form of Jacob).
1. The head of one of the families of Nethinim Ezr 2:45.
2. A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from
Babylon 1Ch 9:17 Ezr 2:42 Neh 7:45.
3. A descendant of David 1Ch 3:24.


Akrabbim


Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the
pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which
there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine. Scorpions
are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the name Num 34:4.
It is called "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Jos 15:3 - and "the ascent of
Akrabbim" in Num 34:4.

See MAALEH-ACKRABBIM 02344.


Alabaster


Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of
"ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a
woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of
Simon the leper Mat 26:7 Mar 14:3 Luk 7:37 - These boxes were made from a
stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the
Greeks gave them the name of the city where they were made. The name
was then given to the stone of which they were made; and finally to
all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman
"broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the
long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone
resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very easily
wrought into boxes. Mark says Mar 14:5 - that this box of ointment was
worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of the value of
sevenpence halfpenny of our money, and therefore worth about 10
pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day's wage of a labourer
Mat 20:2 - say two shillings of our money, then the whole would be
worth about 30 pounds, so costly was Mary's offering.


Alamoth


Virgins, a musical term 1Ch 15:20 - denoting that the psalm which bears
this inscription Psa 46:1 - was to be sung by soprano or female voices.


Alarm


A particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to
the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness Num 10:5-6 - a call
to arms, or a war-note Jer 4:19 49:2 Zep 1:16.


Alemeth


Covering.
1. One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin 1Ch 7:8.
2. One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz 1Ch 8:36.
3. A sacerdotal city of Benjamin 1Ch 6:60 - called also Almon
Jos 21:18 - now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.


Alexander


Man-defender.
1. A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John
were examined before the Sanhedrim Act 4:6.
2. A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ
Mar 15:21.
3. A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised
there by the preaching of Paul Act 19:33 - The Jews put him
forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no
sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is
possible that this man was the same as the following.
4. A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated
certain heresies regarding the resurrection 1Ti 1:19 2Ti 4:14.
and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul
excommunicated him 1Ti 1:20 - comp. 1Co 5:5.

See PHILETUS 02935.


Alexander the Great


The king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in
Daniel by the "belly of brass" Dan 2:32 - and the leopard and the
he-goat Dan 7:6 11:3-4 - He succeeded his father Philip, and died at
the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323 His
empire was divided among his four generals.


Alexandria


The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder,
Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333 It was for a long period the
greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been
destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the
residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned
in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos,
eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city
Act 18:24 - Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where
they had a synagogue Act 6:9 - at the time of Stephen's martyrdom.
At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this
city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was
burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642) It was here that the Hebrew Bible
was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint version,
from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in
executing it. It was, however, not all translated at one time. It
was begun B.C. 280 and finished about B.C. 200 or 150

See VERSION 03768.


Algum


2Ch 2:8 9:10-11 - the same as almug 1Ki 10:11.


Alien


A foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not
entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he
resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens.
1. Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed
property.
2. Strangers dwelling in another country without being naturalized
Lev 22:10 Psa 39:12 - Both of these classes were to enjoy, under
certain conditions, the same rights as other citizens
Lev 19:33-34 Deu 10:19 - They might be naturalized and permitted
to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to
circumcision and abandoning idolatry Deu 23:3-8.
3. This term is used Eph 2:12 - to denote persons who have no
interest in Christ.


Allegory


Used only in Gal 4:24 - where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac
the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it
allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan 2Sa 12:1-4.
addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm
there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt,"
etc. In Ecc 12:2-6 - there is a striking allegorical description of old
age.


Alleluia


The Greek form Rev 19:1,3-4,6 - of the Hebrew Hallelujah Praise ye
Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms
(Psa 106:1 111:1 112:1 113:1 - etc.).


Alliance


A treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual
advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish
princes Gen 14:13 - also with Abimelech Gen 21:22-32 - Joshua and the
elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites
Jos 9:3-27 - When the Israelites entered Palestine they were
forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the
country Lev 18:3-4 20:22-23 - Solomon formed a league with Hiram
1Ki 5:12 - This "brotherly covenant" is referred to 250 years
afterwards Amo 1:9 - He also appears to have entered into an
alliance with Pharaoh 1Ki 10:28-29 - In the subsequent history of
the kingdoms of Judah and Israel various alliances were formed
between them and also with neighbouring nations at different times.
From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the
blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was cut in
two (except birds), and between these two parts the persons
contracting the alliance passed Gen 15:10 - There are frequent
allusions to this practice Jer 34:18 - Such alliances were called
"covenants of salt" Num 18:19 2Ch 13:5 - salt being the symbol of
perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a memorial of the alliance
between Laban and Jacob Gen 31:52 - The Jews throughout their
whole history attached great importance to fidelity to their
engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the violators of them
Jos 9:18 2Sa 21:1-2 Eze 17:16.


Allon


Oak.
1. The expression in the Authorized Version of Jos 19:33 - "from
Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised
Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some
remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as
a landmark.
2. The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who
expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor 1Ch 4:37.


Allon-bachuth


Oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah,
Rebekah's nurse, was buried Gen 35:8 - Large trees, from their rarity
in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks.
This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of
Deborah" Jud 4:5.


Almodad


Immeasurable, the first named of the sons of Joktan Gen 10:26 - the
founder of an Arabian tribe.


Almon


Hidden, one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin Jos 21:18 - called
also Alemeth 1Ch 6:60.


Almond


A native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it
resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink
colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, - shaked -,
signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its
putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and
sometimes even in January. In Ecc 12:5 - it is referred to as
illustrative, probably, of the haste with which old age comes. There
are others, however, who still contend for the old interpretation
here. "The almond tree bears its blossoms in the midst of winter, on
a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms (reddish or flesh-coloured
in the beginning) seem at the time of their fall exactly like white
snow-flakes. In this way the almond blossom is a very fitting symbol
of old age, with its silvery hair and its wintry, dry, barren,
unfruitful condition." In Jer 1:11 - "I see a rod of an almond tree
[shaked] for I will hasten [shaked] my word to perform it" the word
is used as an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons Gen 43:11.
to take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land, almonds,
etc., as a present to Joseph, probably because this tree was not a
native of Egypt. Aaron's rod yielded almonds Num 17:8 Heb 9:4 - Moses
was directed to make certain parts of the candlestick for the ark of
carved work "like unto almonds" Exo 25:33-34 - The Hebrew word - luz -,
translated "hazel" in the Authorized Version Gen 30:37 - is rendered in
the Revised Version "almond." It is probable that - luz - denotes the
wild almond, while - shaked - denotes the cultivated variety.


Alms


Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The Mosaic
legislation Lev 25:35 Deu 15:7 - tended to promote a spirit of charity,
and to prevent the occurrence of destitution among the people. Such
passages as these, Psa 41:1 112:9 Pr 14:31 Isa 10:2 Amo 2:7.
Jer 5:28 Eze 22:29 - would also naturally foster the same
benevolent spirit. In the time of our Lord begging was common
Mar 10:46 Act 3:2 - The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their
almsgivings Mat 6:2 - The spirit by which the Christian ought to be
actuated in this duty is set forth in 1Jo 3:17 - A regard to the
state of the poor and needy is enjoined as a Christian duty Luk 3:11.
Luk 6:30 Mat 6:1 Act 9:36 10:2,4 - a duty which was not neglected by the
early Christians Luk 14:13 Act 20:35 Gal 2:10 Ro 15:25-27 1Co 16:1-4.
They cared not only for the poor among themselves, but contributed also
to the necessities of those at a distance Act 11:29 24:17 2Co 9:12.
Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in this Joh 13:29.
In modern times the "poor-laws" have introduced an element which
modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge this Christian
duty.


Almug


1Ki 10:11-12 - algum 2Ch 2:8 9:10-11 - in the Hebrew occurring
only in the plural - almuggim - (indicating that the wood was brought
in planks), the name of a wood brought from Ophir to be used in the
building of the temple, and for other purposes. Some suppose it to
have been the white sandal-wood of India, the Santalum album of
botanists, a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar coasts.
It is a fragrant wood, and is used in China for incense in
idol-worship. Others, with some probability, think that it was the
Indian red sandal-wood, the pterocarpus santalinus, a heavy,
fine-grained wood, the Sanscrit name of which is valguka. It is
found on the Coromandel coast and in Ceylon.


Aloes


(Heb. 'ahalim), a fragrant wood Num 24:6 Psa 45:8 Pr 7:17 So 4:14 - the
Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly
gum or perfume extracted from the wood. It is found in China, Siam,
and Northern India, and grows to the height sometimes of 120 feet.
This species is of great rarity even in India. There is another and
more common species, called by Indians aghil, whence Europeans have
given it the name of Lignum aquile, or eagle-wood. Aloewood was used
by the Egyptians for embalming dead bodies. Nicodemus brought it
(pounded aloe-wood) to embalm the body of Christ Joh 19:39 - but
whether this was the same as that mentioned elsewhere is uncertain.
The bitter aloes of the apothecary is the dried juice of the leaves
Aloe vulgaris.


Alphaeus


1. The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the
epistle Mat 10:3 Mar 3:18 Luk 6:15 Act 1:13 - and the husband of
Mary Joh 19:25 - The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or
Clopas (q.v.).
2. The father of Levi, or Matthew Mar 2:14.


Altar


(Heb. mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth
Exo 20:24 - or unwrought stone Exo 20:25 - on which sacrifices were
offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous places
Gen 22:9 Eze 6:3 2Ki 23:12 16:4 23:8 Act 14:13 - The word is used
in Heb 13:10 - for the sacrifice offered upon it--the sacrifice
Christ offered. Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens
one bearing the inscription, "To the unknown God" Act 17:23 - or
rather "to an [i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this
inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the
apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of
Athens." The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah Gen 8:20.
Altars were erected by Abraham Gen 12:7 13:4 22:9 - by Isaac
Gen 26:25 - by Jacob Gen 33:20 35:1,3 - and by Moses Exo 17:15.
"Jehovah-nissi". In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple,
two altars were erected.
1. The altar of burnt offering Exo 30:28 - called also the "brasen
altar" Exo 39:39 - and "the table of the Lord" Mal 1:7 - This
altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Exo 27:1-8.
It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in breadth, and
3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood, and was
overlaid with plates of brass. Its corners were ornamented
with "horns" Exo 29:12 Lev 4:18 - In Exo 27:3 - the various
utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were
made of brass. (Comp.) 1Sa 2:13-14 Lev 16:12 Num 16:6-7 - In
Solomon's temple the altar was of larger dimensions 2Ch 4:1.
Comp. 1Ki 8:22,64 9:25 - and was made wholly of brass,
covering a structure of stone or earth. This altar was renewed
by Asa 2Ch 15:8 - It was removed by Ahaz 2Ki 16:14 - and
"cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose reign it
was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away by the
Babylonians Jer 52:17 - After the return from captivity it
was re-erected Ezr 3:3,6 - on the same place where it had
formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Macc. 4:47.) When Antiochus Epiphanes
pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away.
Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its
place till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (70 A.D.).
The fire on the altar was not permitted to go out Lev 6:9.
In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome,
which occupies the site of the old temple, there is a rough
projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its
extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its
highest part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This
rock seems to have been left intact when Solomon's temple was
built. It was in all probability the site of the altar of
burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a cave, which may
probably have been the granary of Araunah's threshing-floor
1Ch 21:22.
2. The altar of incense Exo 30:1-10 - called also "the golden altar"
Exo 39:38 Num 4:11 - stood in the holy place "before the vail that
is by the ark of the testimony." On this altar sweet spices were
continually burned with fire taken from the brazen altar. The
morning and the evening services were commenced by the high
priest offering incense on this altar. The burning of the
incense was a type of prayer Psa 141:2 Rev 5:8 8:3-4 - This altar
was a small movable table, made of acacia wood overlaid with
gold Exo 37:25-26 - It was 1 cubit in length and breadth, and
2 cubits in height. In Solomon's temple the altar was similar
in size, but was made of cedar-wood 1Ki 6:20 7:48.
overlaid with gold. In Eze 41:22 - it is called "the altar
of wood." Comp. Exo 30:1-6 - In the temple built after the
Exile the altar was restored. Antiochus Epiphanes took it
away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1
Macc. 1:23 4:49) Among the trophies carried away by Titus on
the destruction of Jerusalem the altar of incense is not
found, nor is any mention made of it in Heb 9:1 - It
was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel appeared
to him Luk 1:11 - It is the only altar which appears in the
heavenly temple Isa 6:6 Rev 8:3-4.


Altaschith


Destroy not, the title of Psa 57:1 58:1 59:1 75:1 - It was probably the
name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be
chanted.


Alush


One of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the Hebrews
rested on their way to Sinai Num 33:13-14 - It was probably situated on
the shore of the Red Sea.


Amalek


Dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau
Gen 36:12 1Ch 1:36 - the chief of an Idumean tribe Gen 36:16 - His
mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the descendants of Esau
had seized.


Amalekite


A tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red
Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for
they existed in the days of Abraham Gen 14:7 - They were probably a
tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled
in Arabia. "They dwelt in the land of the south from Havilah until
thou comest to Shur" Num 13:29 1Sa 15:7 - They were a pastoral, and
hence a nomadic race. Their kings bore the hereditary name of Agag
Num 24:7 1Sa 15:8 - They attempted to stop the Israelites when they
marched through their territory Deu 25:18 - attacking them at Rephidim
Exo 17:8-13 - comp. Deu 25:17 1Sa 15:2 - They afterwards attacked the
Israelites at Hormah Num 14:45 - We read of them subsequently as in
league with the Moabites Jud 3:13 - and the Midianites Jud 6:3 - Saul
finally desolated their territory and destroyed their power
1Sa 14:48 15:3 - and David recovered booty from them 1Sa 30:18-20.
In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called Sute, in those of
Egypt Sittiu, and the Amarna tablets include them under the general
name of Khabbati, or "plunderers."


Amana


Perennial.
1. The Hebrew margin of 2Ki 5:12 - gives this as another reading of
Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus.
2. A mountain Son 4:8 - probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus,
at the base of which are the sources of the Abana.


Amariah


Said by Jehovah.
1. One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar 1Ch 6:7,52 - He was
probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar's line prior to
the transfer of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar.
2. A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses 1Ch 23:19 24:23.
3. A "chief priest" who took an active part in the reformation
under Jehoshaphat 2Ch 19:11 - probably the same as mentioned in
1Ch 6:9.
4. 1Ch 6:11 Ezr 7:3.
5. One of the high priests in the time of Hezekiah 2Ch 31:15.
6. Zep 1:1.
7. Neh 11:4.
8. Neh 10:3.
9. Ezr 10:42.


Amasa


Burden.
1. The son of Abigail, a sister of king David 1Ch 2:17 2Sa 17:25.
He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his
cousin Joab 2Sa 19:13 - who afterwards treacherously put him to
death as a dangerous rival 2Sa 20:4-12.
2. A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim 2Ch 28:12 - in the reign of
Ahaz.


Amasai


Burdensome.
1. A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel 1Ch 6:25,35.
2. The leader of a body of men who joined David in the "stronghold,"
probably of Adullam 1Ch 12:18.
3. One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of
trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom 1Ch 15:24.
4. The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who took a
prominent part at the instance of Hezekiah in the cleansing of
the temple 2Ch 29:12.


Amashai


The son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and
do the work of the temple Neh 11:13.


Amasiah


Burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri, who
willingly offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over thousands
under Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:16 - comp. Jud 5:9.


Amaziah


Strengthened by Jehovah.
1. A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the descendants of Ethan the
Merarite 1Ch 6:45.
2. The son and successor of Joash, and eighth king of the separate
kingdom of Judah 2Ki 14:1-4 - He began his reign by punishing
the murderers of his father. 2Ch 25:3-5 - He was the first
to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which
he did in his attempt to bring the Edomites again under the
yoke of Judah 2Ch 25:5-6 - He was commanded by a prophet of
the Lord to send back the mercenaries, which he did
2Ch 25:7-10,13 - much to their annoyance. His obedience to
this command was followed by a decisive victory over the
Edomites 2Ch 25:14-16 - Amaziah began to worship some of
the idols he took from the Edomites, and this was his ruin,
for he was vanquished by Joash, king of Israel, whom he
challenged to battle. The disaster he thus brought upon Judah
by his infatuation in proclaiming war against Israel probably
occasioned the conspiracy by which he lost his life
2Ki 14:8-14,19 - He was slain at Lachish, whither he had fled,
and his body was brought upon horses to Jerusalem, where it
was buried in the royal sepulchre 2Ki 14:19-20 2Ch 25:27,28.
3. A priest of the golden calves at Bethel Amo 7:10-17.
4. The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs in the time of
Hezekiah 1Ch 4:34.


Ambassador


In the Old Testament the Hebrew word - tsir -, meaning "one who goes on
an errand," is rendered thus Jos 9:4 Pr 13:17 Isa 18:2 Jer 49:14 Ob 1:1.
This is also the rendering of - melits -, meaning "an interpreter," in
2Ch 32:31 - and of - malak -, a "messenger," in 2Ch 35:21 Isa 30:4.
Isa 33:7 Eze 17:15 - This is the name used by the apostle as designating
those who are appointed by God to declare his will 2Co 5:20 Eph 6:20.
The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had recourse
to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract alliances Jos 9:4.
to solicit favours Num 20:14 - to remonstrate when wrong was done
Jud 11:12 - to condole with a young king on the death of his father
2Sa 10:2 - and to congratulate a king on his accession to the throne
1Ki 5:1 - To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who
sent him 2Sa 10:5.


Amber


Eze 1:4,27 8:2 - Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by
the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some
translate the word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in
Rev 1:15 2:18 - It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The
word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which
is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging to the mineral kingdom
though of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.


Ambush


Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the
inhabitants that he gained an easy victory Jos 8:4-26 - Shechem was
taken in this manner Jud 9:30-45 - Comp. Jer 51:12.


Amen


This Hebrew word means firm, and hence also faithful Rev 3:14 - In
Isa 65:16 - the Authorized Version has "the God of truth," which
in Hebrew is "the God of Amen." It is frequently used by our Saviour
to give emphasis to his words, where it is translated "verily."
Sometimes, only, however, in John's Gospel, it is repeated, "Verily,
verily." It is used as an epithet of the Lord Jesus Christ Rev 3:14.
It is found singly and sometimes doubly at the end of prayers
Psa 41:13 72:19 89:52 - to confirm the words and invoke the
fulfilment of them. It is used in token of being bound by an oath
Num 5:22 Deu 27:15-26 Neh 5:13 8:6 1Ch 16:36 - In the primitive
churches it was common for the general audience to say "Amen" at the
close of the prayer 1Co 14:16 - The promises of God are Amen;
i.e., they are all true and sure 2Co 1:20.


Amethyst


One of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
Exo 28:19 39:12 - and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
Rev 21:20 - The ancients thought that this stone had the power of
dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and hence its
Greek name formed from - a -, "privative," and - methuo -, "to get
drunk." Its Jewish name, - ahlamah' -, was derived by the rabbins from
the Hebrew word - halam -, "to dream," from its supposed power of
causing the wearer to dream. It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz,
varying to a dark purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also
in different parts of Europe.


Amittai


True, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher
2Ki 14:25 Jon 1:1.


Ammah


A cubit, the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai reached as the sun
went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner 2Sa 2:24 - It lay to the
east of Gibeon.


Ammi


My people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel Hos 2:1-23.
Comp. Hos 1:9 Eze 16:8 Ro 9:25-26 1Pe 2:10.


Ammiel


People of God.
1. One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to search the land of
Canaan Num 13:12 - He was one of the ten who perished by the
plague for their unfavourable report Num 14:37.
2. The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house Mephibosheth
resided 2Sa 9:4-5 17:27.
3. The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and afterwards of
David 1Ch 3:5 - He is called Eliam in 2Sa 11:3.
4. One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite 1Ch 26:5.


Ammihud


People of glory; i.e., "renowned."
1. The father of the Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the
Exodus Num 1:10 2:18 7:48,53.
2. Num 34:20.
3. Num 34:28.
4. The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after
the murder of Amnon 2Sa 13:37.
5. The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai 1Ch 9:4.


Amminadab


Kindred of the prince.
1. The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah
Num 1:7 2:3 7:12,17 10:14 - His daughter Elisheba was married
to Aaron Exo 6:23.
2. A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi 1Ch 6:22 - called also
Izhar 1Ch 6:2,18.
3. Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite 1Ch 15:10,11.


Amminadib


A person mentioned in Son 6:12 - whose chariots were famed for their
swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in
the Revised Version "my princely people."


Ammishaddai


People of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of the
Danites at the time of the Exodus Num 1:12 2:25 - This is one of the
few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai, "Almighty."


Ammizabad


People of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and chief
captain of the host under David 1Ch 27:6.


Ammon


Another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot Gen 19:38 - This name
is also used for his posterity Psa 83:7.


Ammonite


The usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot Gen 19:38.
From the very beginning Deu 2:16-20 - of their history till they are
lost sight of Jud 5:2 - this tribe is closely associated with the
Moabites Jud 10:11 2Ch 20:1 Zep 2:8 - Both of these tribes hired
Balaam to curse Israel Deu 23:4 - The Ammonites were probably more of a
predatory tribe, moving from place to place, while the Moabites were
more settled. They inhabited the country east of the Jordan and north
of Moab and the Dead Sea, from which they had expelled the Zamzummims
or Zuzims Deu 2:20 Ge 14:5 - They are known as the Beni-ammi
Gen 19:38 - Ammi or Ammon being worshipped as their chief god.
They were of Semitic origin, and closely related to the Hebrews in
blood and language. They showed no kindness to the Israelites when
passing through their territory, and therefore they were prohibited
from "entering the congregation of the Lord to the tenth generation"
Deu 23:3 - They afterwards became hostile to Israel Jud 3:13.
Jephthah waged war against them, and "took twenty cities with a very
great slaughter" Jud 11:33 - They were again signally defeated by
Saul 1Sa 11:11 - David also defeated them and their allies the
Syrians 2Sa 10:6-14 - and took their chief city, Rabbah, with
much spoil 2Sa 10:14 12:26-31 - The subsequent events of their
history are noted in 2Ch 20:25 26:8 Jer 49:1 Eze 25:3,6 - One of
Solomon's wives was Naamah, an Ammonite. She was the mother of
Rehoboam 1Ki 14:31 2Ch 12:13 - The prophets predicted fearful
judgments against the Ammonites because of their hostility to Israel
Zep 2:8 Jer 49:1-6 Eze 25:1-5,10 Amo 1:13-15 - The national idol
worshipped by this people was Molech or Milcom, at whose altar they
offered human sacrifices 1Ki 11:5,7 - The high places built for
this idol by Solomon, at the instigation of his Ammonitish wives,
were not destroyed till the time of Josiah 2Ki 23:13.


Amnon


Faithful.
1. One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of Ezra 1Ch 4:20.
comp. 1Ch 4:17.
2. The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel 1Ch 3:1 2Sa 3:2.
Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great crime in the
matter of Tamar 2Sa 13:28-29.


Amon


Builder.
1. The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The prophet Micaiah
was committed to his custody 1Ki 22:26 2Ch 18:25.
2. The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He restored
idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast down.
Zephaniah Zep 1:4 3:4,11 - refers to the moral depravity
prevailing in this king's reign. He was assassinated
2Ki 21:18-26 2Ch 33:20-25 - by his own servants, who conspired
against him.
3. An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and the head
of a ram, referred to in Jer 46:25 - where the word "multitudes"
in the Authorized Version is more appropriately rendered "Amon"
in the Revised Version. In Nah 3:8 - the expression "populous No"
of the Authorized version is rendered in the Revised Version
"No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis.
4. Neh 7:59.


Amorites


Highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of one of
the sons of Canaan Gen 14:7 - called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian
and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all
Syria, including Palestine, is known as "the land of the Amorites."
The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount
of the Amorites" Deu 1:7,19,20 - They seem to have originally occupied
the land stretching from the heights west of the Dead Sea Gen 14:7 - to
Hebron Gen 14:13 - Comp. Gen 13:8 Deu 3:8 4:46-48 - embracing "all
Gilead and all Bashan" Deu 3:10 - with the Jordan valley on the
east of the river Deu 4:49 - the land of the "two kings of the
Amorites," Sihon and Og Deu 31:4 Jos 2:10 9:10 - The five kings of
the Amorites were defeated with great slaughter by Joshua Jos 10:10.
They were again defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua, who smote
them till there were none remaining Jos 11:8 - It is mentioned as
a surprising circumstance that in the days of Samuel there was peace
between them and the Israelites 1Sa 7:14 - The discrepancy
supposed to exist between Deu 1:44 Num 14:45 - is explained by the
circumstance that the terms "Amorites" and "Amalekites" are used
synonymously for the "Canaanites." In the same way we explain the
fact that the "Hivites" of Gen 34:2 - are the "Amorites" of
Gen 48:22 - Comp. Jos 10:6 11:19 2Sa 21:2 - also Num 14:45.
with Deu 1:44 - The Amorites were warlike mountaineers. They are
represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair,
blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. They are supposed to
have been men of great stature; their king, Og, is described by
Moses as the last "of the remnant of the giants" Deu 3:11 - Both
Sihon and Og were independent kings. Only one word of the Amorite
language survives, "Shenir," the name they gave to Mount Hermon
Deu 3:9.


Amos


Borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets. He was a native of
Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of
Bethlehem. He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a
prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees,"
R.V. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was
contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea Amo 1:1 7:14-15 Zec 14:5 - who
survived him a few years. Under Jeroboam II. the kingdom of Israel
rose to the zenith of its prosperity; but that was followed by the
prevalence of luxury and vice and idolatry. At this period Amos was
called from his obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's
retributive justice, and to call them to repentance. The Book of Amos
consists of three parts:
1. The nations around are summoned to judgment because of their
sins Amo 1:1-15, 2:1-3 - He quotes Joe 3:16.
2. The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel, is
described Amo 2:4-6:14.
3. In Amo 7:1-9:10 - are recorded five prophetic visions.
a. The first two Amo 7:1-6 - refer to judgments against the
guilty people.
b. The next two Amo 7:7-9 8:1-3 - point out the ripeness of
the people for the threatened judgements. Amo 7:10-17.
consists of a conversation between the prophet and the
priest of Bethel.
c. The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel
Amo 9:1-10 - to which is added the promise of the
restoration of the kingdom and its final glory in the
Messiah's kingdom.
The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to natural
objects and to agricultural occupations. Other allusions show also
that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child of nature."
These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of teeth" [i.e., want
of bread] Amo 4:6 - "The excellency of Jacob" Amo 6:8 8:7 - "The
high places of Isaac" Amo 7:9 - "The house of Isaac" Amo 7:16.
"He that createth the wind" Amo 5:26 - Quoted, Act 7:42.


Amoz


Strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah 2Ki 19:2,20 20:1 Isa 1:1 2:1.
As to his personal history little is positively known. He is supposed
by some to have been the "man of God" spoken of in 2Ch 25:7,8.


Amphipolis


City on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military station,
through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to
Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from Philippi Act 17:1.


Amplias


A Roman Christian saluted by Paul Rom 16:8.


Amram


Kindred of the High; i.e., "friend of Jehovah."
1. The son of Kohath, the son of Levi. He married Jochebed, "his
father's sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses
Exo 6:18,20 Num 3:19 - He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years
Exo 6:20 - His descendants were called Amramites Num 3:27.
1Ch 26:23.
2. Ezr 10:34.


Amraphel


King of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of
Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the
plain Gen 14:1,4 - It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is
the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on recently-discovered monuments.

See CHEDORLAOMER 00781.

After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule,
and made Babylon his capital.


Anab


Grape-town, one of the cities in the mountains of Judah, from which
Joshua expelled the Anakim Jos 11:21 15:50 - It still retains its
ancient name. It lies among the hills, 10 miles south-south-west of
Hebron.


Anah


Speech.
1. One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean tribe, called a
Horite, as in course of time all the branches of this tribe were
called from their dwelling in caves in Mount Seir Gen 36:20,29.
1Ch 1:38.
2. One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of Esau's
wife Aholibamah Gen 36:18,24.


Anak


Long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim Jos 15:13 21:11.
Heb. - Anok -.


Anakim


The descendants of Anak Jos 11:21 Num 13:33 Deu 9:2 - They dwelt in the
south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Hebron Gen 23:2 Jos 15:13.
In the days of Abraham Gen 14:5-6 - they inhabited the region
afterwards known as Edom and Moab, east of the Jordan. They were
probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before
the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as
the Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable
warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the
land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have identified
them with the Nephilim, the "giants" Gen 6:4 Num 13:33 - of the
antediluvian age. There were various tribes of Anakim Jos 15:14.
Joshua finally expelled them from the land, except a remnant that
found a refuge in the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod Jos 11:22 - The
Philistine giants whom David encountered 2Sa 21:15-22 - were
descendants of the Anakim.

See GIANTS 01474.


Anamim


The name of an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim
Gen 10:13 1Ch 1:11.


Anammelech


One of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who colonized
Samaria 2Ki 17:31 - The name means "Anu is king." It was a female
deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech (q.v.) was the male
representing the sun.

See Adrammelech 00103.


Anan


Cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return
from Babylon Neh 10:26.


Ananiah


Protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of Benjamin
between Nob and Hazor Neh 11:32 - It is probably the modern Beit
Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.


Ananias


A common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah.
1. One of the members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired
with his wife Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell
down and immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood
Act 5:5 - By common agreement the members of the early Christian
community devoted their property to the work of furthering the
gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the
possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the
apostles Act 4:36-37 - Ananias might have kept his property had he
so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren in the
common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all, as he
said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it for his
own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given it all.
"The offence of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of God,
vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard of the
corruption which they were bringing into the society. Such sin,
committed in despite of the light which they possessed, called
for a special mark of divine indignation."
2. A Christian at Damascus Act 9:10 - He became Paul's instructor;
but when or by what means he himself became a Christian we have
no information. He was "a devout man according to the law,
having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at Damascus
Act 22:12.
3. The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the
procuratorship of Felix Act 23:2,5,24 - He was so enraged at
Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience
before God until this day," that he commanded one of his
attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this
unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee,
thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high
priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered,
"I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" Act 23:5.
This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is
scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so
public a fact. The expression may mean
a. that Paul had at the moment overlooked the honour due to the
high priest; or
b. as others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had
said, "The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest
a tyrant and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and
have heard his voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not
to be, the voice of the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on
Acts, - in loco -.)
c. Others think that from defect of sight Paul could not
observe that the speaker was the high priest. In all this,
however, it may be explained, Paul, with all his
excellency, comes short of the example of his divine
Master, who, when he was reviled, reviled not again.


Anath


An answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one of
the judges of Israel Jud 3:31.


Anathema


Anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or
set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is
- anath(ee)ma -, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in
Luk 21:5 - where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form - anathema -
is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word - herem -, derived
from a verb which means
1. to consecrate or devote; and
2. to exterminate. Any object so devoted to the Lord could not be
redeemed Num 18:14 Lev 27:28-29 - and hence the idea of
exterminating connected with the word. The Hebrew verb (haram)
is frequently used of the extermination of idolatrous nations.
It had a wide range of application. The - anathema - or - herem -
was a person or thing irrevocably devoted to God Lev 27:21,28.
and "none devoted shall be ransomed. He shall surely be put to
death" Lev 27:29 - The word therefore carried the idea of devoted
to destruction Num 21:2-3 Jos 6:17 - and hence generally it meant
a thing accursed. In Deu 7:26 - an idol is called a - herem -
- anathema -, a thing accursed. In the New Testament this word
always implies execration. In some cases an individual denounces
an anathema on himself unless certain conditions are fulfilled
Act 23:12,14,21 - "To call Jesus accursed" [anathema] 1Co 12:3.
is to pronounce him execrated or accursed. If any one preached
another gospel, the apostle says, "let him be accursed" Gal 1:8,9.
i.e., let his conduct in so doing be accounted accursed. In
Rom 9:3 - the expression "accursed" (anathema) from Christ,
i.e., excluded from fellowship or alliance with Christ, has
occasioned much difficulty. The apostle here does not speak of
his wish as a possible thing. It is simply a vehement
expression of feeling, showing how strong was his desire for
the salvation of his people. The anathema in 1Co 16:22.
denotes simply that they who love not the Lord are rightly
objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings; they
are guilty of a crime that merits the severest condemnation;
they are exposed to the just sentence of "everlasting
destruction from the presence of the Lord."


Anathoth


The name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of Benjamin
Jos 21:18 - The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the
towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as
deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was the native place of
Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" 2Sa 23:27 - and of Jehu, another
of his mighty men 1Ch 12:3 - It is chiefly notable, however, as
the birth-place and usual residence of Jeremiah Jer 1:1 11:21-23,
29:27 32:7-9 - It suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and
only 128 men returned to it from the Exile Neh 7:27 Ezr 2:23 - It lay
about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. It has been identified with the
small and poor village of 'Anata, containing about 100 inhabitants.


Anchor


From Act 27:29,30,40 - it would appear that the Roman vessels carried
several anchors, which were attached to the stern as well as to the
prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had two teeth or flukes.
In Heb 6:19 - the word is used metaphorically for that which supports
or keeps one steadfast in the time of trial or of doubt. It is an
emblem of hope. "If you fear, Put all your trust in God: that anchor
holds."


Ancient Of Days


An expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of Daniel
Dan 7:9,13,22 - in the sense of eternal. In contrast with all
earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.


Andrew


Manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of
Bethsaida in Galilee Joh 1:44 - and was the brother of Simon Peter
Mat 4:18 10:2 - On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then
was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" Joh 1:40 - and
Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the
first of his disciples. After he had been led to recognize Jesus as
the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to
Jesus. The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a while
their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the stated
attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment Mat 4:18,19.
Mar 1:16-17 - Very little is related of Andrew. He was one of the
confidential disciples Joh 6:8 12:22 - and with Peter, James, and John
inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming Mar 13:3.
He was present at the feeding of the five thousand Joh 6:8-9 - and he
introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus Joh 12:22 - but of his
subsequent history little is known. It is noteworthy that Andrew
thrice brings others to Christ,
1. Peter;
2. the lad with the loaves; and
3. certain Greeks.
These incidents may be regarded as a key to his character.


Andronicus


Man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellow prisoner
of Paul Rom 16:7 - "of note among the apostles."


Anem


Two fountains, a Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar 1Ch 6:73 - It
is also called En-gannim (q.v.) in Jos 19:21 - the modern Jenin.


Aner


A boy.
1. A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those of Abraham
in pursuit of Chedorlaomer Gen 14:13,24.
2. A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family
1Ch 6:70.


Angel


A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and
hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his
purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger Job 1:14 1Sa 11:3.
Luk 7:24 9:52 - of prophets Isa 42:19 Hag 1:13 - of priests
Mal 2:7 - and ministers of the New Testament Rev 1:20 - It is also
applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence 2Sa 24:16,17.
2Ki 19:35 - the wind Psa 104:4 - But its distinctive application
is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on
his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature
but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre
Gen 18:2,22 - Comp. Gen 19:1 - to Jacob at Peniel Gen 32:24,30.
to Joshua at Gilgal Jos 5:13,15 - of the Angel of the Lord, were
doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of
the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of
the Son of God.
1. The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be
discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not
treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous
incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their
personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as
Gen 16:7,10,11 Jud 13:1-21 Mat 28:2-5 Heb 1:4 - etc. These
superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc.
Dan 7:10 Mat 26:53 Luk 2:13 Heb 12:22-23 - They are also
spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power
Zec 1:9,11 Dan 10:13 12:1 1Th 4:16 Jude 1:9 Eph 1:21 Col 1:16.
2. As to their nature, they are spirits Heb 1:14 - like the soul of
man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels"
Luk 20:36 - and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it
was always in a human form Gen 18:2 19:1,10 Luk 24:4 Act 1:10 - and
the titles that are applied to them of God,") Job 1:6 38:7.
Dan 3:25 - comp. Dan 3:28 - and to men Luk 3:38 - seem all to
indicate some resemblance between them and the human race.
Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures Job 4:18.
Mat 24:36 1Pe 1:12 - As finite creatures they may fall under
temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the
cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know
only that "they left their first estate" Mat 25:41 Rev 12:7,9.
and that they are "reserved unto judgement" 2Pe 2:4 - When the
manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its
excellence Psa 78:25 - Angels never die Luk 20:36 - They are
possessed of superhuman intelligence and power Mar 13:32.
2Th 1:7 Psa 103:20 - They are called "holy" Luk 9:26.
"elect" 1Ti 5:21 - The redeemed in glory are "like unto the
angels" Luk 20:36 - They are not to be worshipped Col 2:18.
Rev 19:10.
3. Their functions are manifold.
a. In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence
Exo 12:23 Psa 104:4 Heb 11:28 1Co 10:10 2Sa 24:16 1Ch 21:16.
2Ki 19:35 Act 12:23.
b. They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great
work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic
appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From
that time onward there are frequent references to their
ministry on earth Gen 18:1 - Gen 19:1 - Gen 24:7,40.
Gen 28:12 32:1 - They appear to rebuke idolatry Jud 2:1-4.
to call Gideon Jud 6:11-12 - and to consecrate Samson
Jud 13:3 - In the days of the prophets, from Samuel
downward, the angels appear only in their behalf
1Ki 19:5 2Ki 6:17 Zec 1:1-6:15 Dan 4:13,23 10:10,13,20,21.
The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of
angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service
while here. They predict his advent Mat 1:20 Luk 1:26-38.
minister to him after his temptation and agony Mat 4:11.
Luk 22:43 - and declare his resurrection and ascension
Mat 28:2-8 Joh 20:12-13 Act 1:10-11 - They are now
ministering spirits to the people of God Heb 1:14 Psa 34:7.
Psa 91:11 Mat 18:10 Act 5:19 8:26 10:3 12:7 27:23 - They
rejoice over a penitent sinner Luk 15:10 - They bear the
souls of the redeemed to paradise Luk 16:22 - and they
will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great
day Mat 13:39,41,49 16:27 24:31 - The passages Psa 34:7.
Mat 18:10 - usually referred to in support of the idea that
every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such
meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry
of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger,
and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to
minister even to children and to the least among Christ's
disciples. The "angel of his presence" Isa 63:9 - Comp.
Exo 23:20-21 32:34 33:2 Num 20:16 - is probably rightly
interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people.
Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel
Luk 1:19.

See CHERUB 00791.
See SERAPHIM 03282.


Anger


The emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that
presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original
susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily
sinful. It may, however, become sinful when causeless, or excessive,
or protracted Mat 5:22 Eph 4:26 Col 3:8 - As ascribed to God, it merely
denotes his displeasure with sin and with sinners Psa 7:11.


Anim


Fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:50 - now el-Ghuwein,
near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.


Animal


An organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law
divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction
seems to have existed before the Flood Gen 7:2 - The clean could be
offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs
and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean
quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law Deu 14:3-20 Lev 11:1.


Anise


This word is found only in Mat 23:23 - It is the plant commonly known by
the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the botanist. This
name dill is derived from a Norse word which means to soothe, the
plant having the carminative property of allaying pain. The common
dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an annual growing wild in the
cornfields of Spain and Portugal and the south of Europe generally.
There is also a species of dill cultivated in Eastern countries known
by the name of shubit. It was this species of garden plant of which
the Pharisees were in the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires
that the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an
umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway, its leaves, which are
aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise is the
Pimpinella anisum.


Anna


Grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a "prophetess,"
like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah 2Ch 34:22 - After seven years of
married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she
daily attended the temple services. When she was eighty-four years
old, she entered the temple at the moment when the aged Simeon
uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he had
fulfilled his ancient promise in sending his Son into the world
Luk 2:36,37.


Annas


Was high priest A.D. 7 In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the
daughter of Annas Joh 18:13 - was raised to that office, and probably
Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor
of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with
Caiaphas Luk 3:2 - By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for
life Num 3:10 - and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman
procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high
priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief
questioning of him Joh 18:19-23 - was sent to Caiaphas, when some
members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took
place Mat 26:57-68 - This examination of our Lord before Annas is
recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before
which Peter and John were brought Act 4:6.


Anoint


The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the
Hebrews.
1. The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy
or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest Exo 29:29.
Lev 4:3 - and of the sacred vessels Exo 30:26 - The high priest
and the king are thus called "the anointed" Lev 4:3,5,16 6:20.
Psa 132:10 - Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him
1Sa 16:13 2Sa 2:4 - etc. Prophets were also anointed
1Ki 19:16 1Ch 16:22 Psa 105:15 - The expression, "anoint the
shield" Isa 21:5 - refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the
leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use
in war.
2. Anointing was also an act of hospitality Luk 7:38,46 - It was the
custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil,
as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies Deu 28:40.
Rut 3:3 2Sa 14:2 Psa 104:15 - etc. This custom is continued among
the Arabians to the present day.
3. Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the
sick, and also to wounds Psa 109:18 Isa 1:6 Mar 6:13 Jas 5:14.
4. The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed Mar 14:8 Luk 23:56.
5. The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah
Psa 2:2 Dan 9:25-26 - because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost
Isa 61:1 - figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" Psa 45:7.
Heb 1:9 - Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One Joh 1:41.
Act 9:22 17:2-3 18:5,28 - the Messiah of the Old Testament.


Ant


(Heb. nemalah, from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy),
referred to in Pro 6:6 30:25 - as distinguished for its prudent habits.
Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw
their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the
latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant
gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for
future use; a habit that has been observed in ants in Texas, India,
and Italy.


Antichrist


Against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The word is
used only by the apostle John. Referring to false teachers, he says
1Jo 2:18,22 4:3 2Jo 1:7 - "Even now are there many antichrists."
1. This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the "king of
fierce countenance" Dan 7:24-25 8:23-25.
2. It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of by our
Lord Mat 24:5,23-24.
3. To the "man of sin" described by Paul 2Th 2:3-4,8-10.
4. And to the "beast from the sea" Rev 13:1 17:1-18.


Antioch


1. In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the
Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was
the metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of
the Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and
Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman
empire. It was called the "first city of the East."
Christianity was early introduced into it Act 11:19,21,24.
and the name "Christian" was first applied here to its
professors Act 11:26 - It is intimately connected with the
early history of the gospel Act 6:5 11:19,27-28,30 12:25.
Act 15:22-35 Gal 2:11-12 - It was the great central point whence
missionaries to the Gentiles were sent forth. It was the
birth-place of the famous Christian father Chrysostom, who died
A.D. 407 It bears the modern name of Antakia, and is now a
miserable, decaying Turkish town. Like Philippi, it was raised
to the rank of a Roman colony. Such colonies were ruled by
"praetors", R.V. marg., Act 16:20,21.
2. In the extreme north of Pisidia; was visited by Paul and
Barnabas on the first missionary journey Act 13:14 - Here they
found a synagogue and many proselytes. They met with great
success in preaching the gospel, but the Jews stirred up a
violent opposition against them, and they were obliged to leave
the place. On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the
purpose of confirming the disciples Act 14:21 - It has been
identified with the modern Yalobatch, lying to the east of
Ephesus.


Antiochus


The name of several Syrian kings from B.C. 280 to B.C. 65 The most
notable of these were,
1. Antiochus the Great, who ascended the throne B.C. 223 He is
regarded as the "king of the north" referred to in Dan 11:13-19.
He was succeeded (B.C. 187 by his son, Seleucus Philopater,
spoken of by Daniel Dan 11:20 - as "a raiser of taxes", in the
Revised Version, "one that shall cause an exactor to pass
through the glory of the kingdom."
2. Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the Illustrious,
succeeded his brother Seleucus (B.C. 175) His career and
character are prophetically described by Daniel Dan 11:21-32 - He
was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he organized an
expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, putting vast
multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most cruel manner.
From this time the Jews began the great war of independence
under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success,
defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them.
Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person,
threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he
was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B.C. 164)


Antipas


1. Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan wife
Malthace. He was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea during the
whole period of our Lord's life on earth Luk 23:7 - He was a
frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many
infamous crimes Mar 8:15 Luk 3:19 13:31-32 - He beheaded John
the Baptist Mat 14:1-12 - at the instigation of Herodias, the
wife of his half-brother Herod-Philip, whom he had married.
Pilate sent Christ to him when he was at Jerusalem at the
Passover Luk 23:7 - He asked some idle questions of him, and
after causing him to be mocked, sent him back again to Pilate.
The wife of Chuza, his house-steward, was one of our Lord's
disciples Luk 8:3.
2. A "faithful martyr" Rev 2:13 - of whom nothing more is certainly
known.


Antipatris


A city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in honour of
his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and Lydda, two miles
inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem. To this
place Paul was brought by night Act 23:31 - on his way to Caesarea,
from which it was distant 28 miles. It is identified with the modern,
Ras-el-Ain, where rise the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in
Palestine.


Antonia


A fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple area.
It is called "the castle" Act 21:34,37 - From the stairs of this castle
Paul delivered his famous speech to the multitude in the area below
Act 22:1-21 - It was originally a place in which were kept the
vestments of the high priest. Herod fortified it, and called it
Antonia in honour of his friend Mark Antony. It was of great size,
and commanded the temple. It was built on a plateau of rock,
separated on the north from the hill Bezetha by a ditch about 30
feet deep and 165 feet wide.


Antothite


An inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1Ch 11:28 12:3 - In
2Sa 23:27 - it is Anethothite; in 1Ch 27:12 - Anetothite. (R.V.,
"Anathothite.")


Anvil


The rendering of the Hebrew word "beaten," found only in Isa 41:7.


Ape


An animal of the monkey tribe 1Ki 10:22 2Ch 9:21 - It was brought from
India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and was called by the
Hebrews - koph -, and by the Greeks - kepos -, both words being just the
Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi, i.e., swift, nimble, active.
No species of ape has ever been found in Palestine or the adjacent
regions.


Apelles


A Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes Rom 16:10 - and styles "approved
in Christ."


Apharsachites


A company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in Samaria
Ezr 5:6 6:6.


Apharsites


Another of the tribes removed to Samaria Ezr 4:9 - or perhaps the same
as the preceding.


Aphik


Jud 1:31 - Aphek Jos 13:4 19:30 - stronghold.
1. A city of the tribe of Asher. It was the scene of the licentious
worship of the Syrian Aphrodite. The ruins of the temple,
"magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty",
are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon,
near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12
miles east of Gebal.
2. A city of the tribe of Issachar, near to Jezreel 1Sa 4:1 29:1.
comp. 1Sa 28:4.
3. A town on the road from Damascus to Palestine, in the level
plain east of Jordan, near which Benhadad was defeated by the
Israelites 1Ki 20:26,30 2Ki 13:17 - It has been identified with
the modern Fik, 6 miles east of the Sea of Galilee, opposite
Tiberias.


Apocalypse


The Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).


Apocrypha


Hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found
a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament,
and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the
sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any
sense parts of the inspired Word.
1. They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who
frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles
confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which
was the same in all respects as we now have it.
2. These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during
the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which
oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the
Christian era.
3. The contents of the books themselves show that they were no part
of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen
books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q.v.),
the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the
Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc. The New
Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature,
which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and
is utterly unworthy of regard.


Apollonia


A city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from which it
was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed through it on
their way to Thessalonica Act 17:1.


Apollos


A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and
eloquent Act 18:24 - R.V., "learned". He came to Ephesus (about A.D.
49 where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue Act 18:26 - although he
did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah. Aquila
and Priscilla instructed him more perfectly in "the way of God",
i.e., in the knowledge of Christ. He then proceeded to Corinth, where
he met Paul Act 18:27 19:1 - He was there very useful in watering the
good seed Paul had sown 1Co 1:12 - and in gaining many to Christ. His
disciples were much attached to him 1Co 3:4-7,22 - He was with Paul at
Ephesus when he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians; and Paul
makes kindly reference to him in his letter to Titus Tit 3:13 - Some
have supposed, although without sufficient ground, that he was the
author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.


Apollyon


Destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented by the
locusts Rev 9:11 - It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon
(q.v.).


Apostle


A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once used
as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father
Heb 3:1 Joh 20:21 - It is, however, generally used as designating the
body of disciples to whom he intrusted the organization of his church
and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called
Mat 10:1-5 Mar 3:14 6:7 Luk 6:13 9:1 - We have four lists of the
apostles, one by each of the synoptic evangelists Mat 10:2-4 Mar 3:16.
Luk 6:14 - and one in the Acts Act 1:13 - No two of these lists,
however, perfectly coincide. Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom,"
and by the gift of his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and
governors of his church Joh 14:16,17,26 15:26-27 16:7-15 - To them, as
representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the gospel
to every creature" Mat 28:18-20 - After his ascension he communicated
to them, according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them
for the discharge of their duties Act 2:4 1Co 2:16 2:7,10,13 2Co 5:20.
1Co 11:2 - Judas Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression,
and Matthias was substituted in his place Act 1:21 - Saul of Tarsus was
afterwards added to their number Act 9:3-20 20:4 26:15-18 1Ti 1:12 2:7.
2Ti 1:11 - Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two
Jameses Act 12:2,17 15:13 21:18 - but beyond this we know nothing from
authentic history of the rest of the original twelve. After the
martyrdom of James the Greater Act 12:2 - James the Less usually
resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the uncircumcision,
" usually travelled as a missionary among the Gentiles Gal 2:8 - It
was characteristic of the apostles and necessary
1. that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to testify of
him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge
Joh 15:27 Act 1:21-22 1Co 9:1 Act 22:14,15.
2. They must have been immediately called to that office by Christ
Luk 6:13 Gal 1:1.
3. It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and
thus secured against all error and mistake in their public
teaching, whether by word or by writing Joh 14:26 16:13.
1Th 2:13.
4. Another qualification was the power of working miracles
Mar 16:20 Act 2:43 1Co 12:8-11 - The apostles therefore could
have had no successors. They are the only authoritative
teachers of the Christian doctrines. The office of an apostle
ceased with its first holders. In 2Co 8:23 Php 2:25 - the word
"messenger" is the rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere
rendered "apostle."


Apothecary


Rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in
Exo 30:25 37:29 Ec 10:1 - The holy oils and ointments were prepared by
priests properly qualified for this office. The feminine plural form
of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectionaries" in 1Sa 8:13.


Apparel


In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female attire
was not very marked. The statute forbidding men to wear female
apparel Deu 22:5 - referred especially to ornaments and head-dresses.
Both men and women wore
1. an under garment or tunic, which was bound by a girdle. One who
had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" 1Sa 19:24.
Job 24:10 Isa 20:2 - Those in high stations sometimes wore two
tunics, the outer being called the "upper garment"
1Sa 15:27 18:4 24:5 Job 1:20.
2. They wore in common an over-garment Isa 3:22 1Ki 19:13 2Ki 2:13.
a loose and flowing robe. The folds of this upper garment could
be formed into a lap Rut 3:15 Psa 79:12 Pr 17:23 Luk 6:38 - Generals
of armies usually wore scarlet robes Jud 8:26 Na 2:3 - A form of
conspicuous raiment is mentioned in Luk 20:46 - comp. Mat 23:5.
Priests alone wore trousers. Both men and women wore turbans.
Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for
festive occasions Isa 3:22 Zec 3:4 - and for presents
Gen 45:22 Es 4:4 6:8,11 1Sa 18:4 2Ki 5:5 10:22 - Prophets and
ascetics wore coarse garments Isa 20:2 Zec 13:4 Mat 3:4.


Appeal


A reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses
established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that
appeals could be made from a lower to a higher Exo 18:13-26 - Under the
Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the
tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome
Act 25:11-12,21,25 - Paul availed himself of the privilege of a Roman
citizen in this matter.


Apphia


Increasing, a female Christian at Colosse Phm 1:2 - supposed by some to
have been the wife of Philemon.


Appii Forum


i.e., "the market of Appius" Act 28:15 - R.V., a town on the road, the
"Appian Way," from Rome to Brundusium. It was 43 miles from Rome. Here
Paul was met by some Roman Christians on his way to the capital. It was
natural that they should halt here and wait for him, because from this
place there were two ways by which travellers might journey to Rome.


Apple


(Heb. tappuah, meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or quince is
intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of
apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of
Palestine Joe 1:12 - and frequently referred to in Canticles, and
noted for its beauty Son 2:3,5 8:5 - There is nothing to show that it
was the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil." Dr. Tristram has
suggested that the apricot has better claims than any other
fruit-tree to be the apple of Scripture. It grows to a height of
30 feet, has a roundish mass of glossy leaves, and bears an orange
coloured fruit that gives out a delicious perfume. The "apple of the
eye" is the Heb. - ishon -, meaning manikin, i.e., the pupil of the eye
Pro 7:2 - Comp. the promise, Zec 2:8 - the prayer, Psa 17:8 - and
its fulfilment, Deu 32:10 - The so-called "apple of Sodom" some have
supposed to be the Solanum sanctum (Heb. hedek), rendered "brier"
(q.v.) in Mic 7:4 - a thorny plant bearing fruit like the
potato-apple. This shrub abounds in the Jordan valley.

See ENGEDI 01207.


Apron


Found in the Authorized Version in Gen 3:7 - of the bands of fig-leaves
made by our first parents. In Act 19:12 - it denotes the belt or
half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the waist for the
purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In marg. of
Authorized Version, Rut 3:15 - correctly rendered instead of "vail."
(R.V., "mantle.")


Aquila


Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met
on his first visit to Corinth Act 18:2 - Along with his wife Priscilla
he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree (A.D. 50) by Claudius
commanding all Jews to leave the city. Paul sojourned with him at
Corinth, and they wrought together at their common trade, making
Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On Paul's departure from Corinth after
eighteen months, Aquila and his wife accompanied him to Ephesus,
where they remained, while he proceeded to Syria Act 18:18,26.
When they became Christians we are not informed, but in Ephesus they
were 1Co 16:19 - Paul's "helpers in Christ Jesus." We find them
afterwards at Rome Rom 16:3 - interesting themselves still in the
cause of Christ. They are referred to some years after this as being
at Ephesus 2Ti 4:19 - This is the last notice we have of them.


Arab


Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:52 - now Er-Rabiyeh.


Arabah


Plain, in the Revised Version of 2Ki 14:25 Jos 3:16 8:14 2Sa 2:29 4:7.
(in all these passages the A.V. has "plain"); Amo 6:14 - (A.V.
"wilderness"). This word is found in the Authorized Version only in
Jos 18:18 - It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan
flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by
the Arabs el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending
10 miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah
on the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah.


Arabia


Arid, an extensive region in the south-west of Asia. It is bounded on
the west by the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, on the south by the
Indian Ocean, and on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates.
It extends far into the north in barren deserts, meeting those of
Syria and Mesopotamia. It is one of the few countries of the world
from which the original inhabitants have never been expelled. It was
anciently divided into three parts:
1. Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility. It
embraced a large portion of the country now known by the name of
Arabia. The Arabs call it Yemen. It lies between the Red Sea and
the Persian Gulf.
2. Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great Wilderness" of the
Arabs. From this name is derived that which is usually given to
the nomadic tribes which wander over this region, the
"Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin,"
3. Arabia Petraea, i.e., the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky
mountains and stony plains. It comprehended all the north-west
portion of the country, and is much better known to travellers
than any other portion.
This country is, however, divided by modern geographers into
1. Arabia Proper, or the Arabian Peninsula;
2. Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and
3. Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the
Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites Gen 14:6.
etc., but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known
as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or
Mount Seir. The whole land appears Gen 10:1 - to have been
inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage,
Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at
length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the
general designation of Arabs. The modern nation of Arabs is
predominantly Ishmaelite. Their language is the most developed
and the richest of all the Semitic languages, and is of great
value to the student of Hebrew. The Israelites wandered for
forty years in Arabia. In the days of Solomon, and subsequently,
commercial intercourse was to a considerable extent kept up with
this country 1Ki 10:15 2Ch 9:14 17:11 - Arabians were present in
Jerusalem at Pentecost Act 2:11 - Paul retired for a season into
Arabia after his conversion Gal 1:17 - This country is frequently
referred to by the prophets Isa 21:11 42:11 Jer 25:24 - etc.


Arad


1. Now Tell Arad, a Canaanite city, about 20 miles south of Hebron.
The king of Arad "fought against Israel and took of them
prisoners" when they were retreating from the confines of Edom
Num 21:1 33:40 Jud 1:16 - It was finally subdued by Joshua
Jos 12:14.
2. One of the sons of Beriah 1Ch 8:15.


Aram


The son of Shem Gen 10:22 - according to Gen 22:21 - a grandson of Nahor.
In Mat 1:3-4 Luk 3:33 - this word is the Greek form of Ram, the father of
Amminadab 1Ch 2:10 - The word means high, or highlands, and as the name
of a country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast
of Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the Syria
and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans. In Gen 25:20 31:20,24 Deu 26:5.
the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean" (R.V., marg.). Damascus became
at length the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended
under the designation "Aram" or "Syria."


Aram-naharaim


Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in)
Gen 24:10 - the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and
the Euphrates on the west Psa 60:1 - (title); called also the "field
of Aram" Hos 12:12 - R.V., i.e., the open country of Aram; in the
Authorized Version, "country of Syria." Padan-aram (q.v.) was a
portion of this country.


Aram-zobah


Psa 60:1 - (title), probably the region between the Euphrates and the
Orontes.


Aran


Wild goat, a descendant of Seir the Horite Gen 36:28.


Ararat


Sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the
mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided Gen 8:4.
The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South
Armenia. In 2Ki 19:37, Isa 37:38 - the word is rendered "Armenia" in
the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "Land of Ararat."
In Jer 51:27 - the name denotes the central or southern portion of
Armenia. It is, however, generally applied to a high and almost
inaccessible mountain which rises majestically from the plain of the
Araxes. It has two conical peaks, about 7 miles apart, the one
14,300 feet and the other 10,300 feet above the level of the plain.
Three thousand feet of the summit of the higher of these peaks is
covered with perpetual snow. It is called Kuh-i-nuh, i.e., "Noah's
mountain", by the Persians. This part of Armenia was inhabited by a
people who spoke a language unlike any other now known, though it may
have been related to the modern Georgian. About B.C. 900 they
borrowed the cuneiform characters of Nineveh, and from this time we
have inscriptions of a line of kings who at times contended with
Assyria. At the close of the seventh century B.C. the kingdom of
Ararat came to an end, and the country was occupied by a people who
are ancestors of the Armenians of the present day.


Araunah


Agile; also called Ornan 1Ch 21:15 - a Jebusite who dwelt in Jerusalem
before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying angel, sent to
punish David for his vanity in taking a census of the people, was
stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor belonging to
Araunah which was situated on Mount Moriah. Araunah offered it to
David as a free gift, together with the oxen and the threshing
instruments; but the king insisted on purchasing it at its full price
2Sa 24:24 1Ch 21:24-25 - for, according to the law of sacrifices, he
could not offer to God what cost him nothing. On the same place
Solomon afterwards erected the temple 2Sa 24:16 2Ch 3:1.

See ALTAR 00185.


Arba


Four, a giant, father of Anak. From him the city of Hebron derived its
name of Kirjath-arba, i.e., the city of Araba Jos 14:15 15:13 21:11.
Gen 13:18 23:2.

See HEBRON 01712.


Arbathite


A name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one of
David's warriors 2Sa 23:31 1Ch 11:32 - probably as being an inhabitant
of Arabah Jos 15:61 - a town in the wilderness of Judah.


Arch


An architectural term found only in Eze 40:16,21-22,26,29 - There is no
absolute proof that the Israelites employed arches in their
buildings. The arch was employed in the building of the pyramids of
Egypt. The oldest existing arch is at Thebes, and bears the date B.C.
1350 There are also still found the remains of an arch, known as
Robinson's Arch, of the bridge connecting Zion and Moriah.

See TYROPOEON VALLEY 03738.


Archangel


1Th 4:16 Jude 1:9 - the prince of the angels.


Archelaus


Ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan
woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas at Rome. He
inherited from his father a third part of his kingdom viz., Idumea,
Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called "king" Mat 2:22 - It was for
fear of him that Joseph and Mary turned aside on their way back from
Egypt. Till a few days before his death Herod had named Antipas as
his successor, but in his last moments he named Archelaus.


Archer


A shooter with the bow 1Ch 10:3 - This art was of high antiquity
Gen 21:20 27:3 - Saul was wounded by the Philistine archers 1Sa 31:3.
The phrase "breaking the bow" Hos 1:5 Jer 49:35 - is equivalent to taking
away one's power, while "strengthening the bow" is a symbol of its
increase Gen 49:24 - The Persian archers were famous among the ancients
Isa 13:18 Jer 49:35 50:9,14,29,42.

See BOW 00631.


Archevite


One of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria Ezr 4:9 - the
men of Erech.


Archi


A city on the boundary of Ephraim and Benjamin Jos 16:2 - between
Bethel and Beth-horon the nether.


Archippus


Master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's Phm 1:2 - whom he
exhorts to renewed activity Col 4:17 - He was a member of Philemon's
family, probably his son.


Archite


The usual designation of Hushai 2Sa 15:32 17:5,14 1Ch 27:33 - who was a
native of Archi. He was "the king's friend", i.e., he held office
under David similar to that of our modern privy councillor.


Arcturus


Bear-keeper, the name given by the ancients to the brightest star in
the constellation Bootes. In the Authorized Version Job 9:9 38:32 - it
is the rendering of the Hebrew word which probably designates the
constellation the Great Bear. This word is supposed to be derived
from an Arabic word meaning night-watcher, because the Great Bear
always revolves about the pole, and to our nothern hemisphere never
sets.


Ard


Descent, a grandson of Benjamin Num 26:38-40 - In 1Ch 8:3 - he is
called Addar. His descendants are mentioned in Num 26:40.


Ardon


Descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first wife
Azubah 1Ch 2:18.


Areopagite


A member of the court of Areopagus Act 17:34.


Areopagus


The Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it denotes
also the council or court of justice which met in the open air on the
hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens,
on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was
constituted by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief
magistrates who were then in office, and the ex-archons of blameless
life. On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable
address to the "men of Athens" Act 17:22-31.


Aretas


The father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His
daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering
into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip,
his half-brother Luk 3:19-20 Mar 6:17 Mat 14:3 - This led to a war
between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed
(A.D. 36 Aretas, taking advantage of the complications of the
times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37)
took possession of Damascus 2Co 11:32 - comp. Act 9:25 - At this time
Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.


Argob


Stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
miles by 20 rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of Bashan; a
region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the extreme. On this
"island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over by Og. It is called
Trachonitis rugged region") in the New Testament Luk 3:1 - These
cities were conquered by the Israelites Deu 3:4 1Ki 4:13 - It is
now called the Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable
in a space of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and
massive. Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron; the
doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by ponderous
bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called the
'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have more than once entered
a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable
house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the
ancient cities of Bashan are perfect, as if only finished yesterday.
The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, and even the window-shutters
in their places. These ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the
very oldest specimens of domestic architecture in the world"
(Porter's Giant Cities).

See BASHAN 00461.


Arieh


The lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at
Samaria 2Ki 15:25 - by the conspirator Pekah.


Ariel


The lion of God.
1. One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the
sanctuary Ezr 8:16.
2. A symbolic name for Jerusalem Isa 29:1-2,7 - as "victorious under
God," and in Eze 43:15-16 - for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel) of
burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.


Arimathea


A "city of the Jews" Luk 23:51 - the birth-place of Joseph in whose
sepulchre our Lord was laid Mat 27:57,60 Joh 19:38 - It is probably the
same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel
1Sa 1:1,19 - Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in
Benjamin Mat 2:18.


Arioch


Lion-like, venerable.
1. A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer
Gen 14:1,9 - The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches
See CHALDEA 00758.
show the true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name
meant "servant of the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into
Rimsin, "Have mercy, O moon-god."
2. Dan 2:14.


Aristarchus


Best ruler, native of Thessalonica Act 20:4 - a companion of Paul
Act 19:29 27:2 - He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome
Col 4:10 Phm 1:24.


Aristobulus


A Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans Rom 16:10 - whose
"household" is saluated.


Ark


1. Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300
cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high Gen 6:14-16 - an
oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side
and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building
Gen 5:32 7:6 - It was intended to preserve certain persons
and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over
the earth. It contained eight persons Gen 7:13 2Pe 2:5 - and
of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean" one pair,
and of birds seven pairs of each sort Gen 7:2-3 - It was in
the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping
roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was
swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found
existing among all nations.
2. The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid Exo 2:3.
is called in the Hebrew - teebah -, a word derived from the Egyptian
- teb -, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and with
pitch. The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus reed.
3. The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, which is
the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose
Gen 50:26 2Ki 12:9-10 - It is distinguished from all others
by such titles as the "ark of God" 1Sa 3:3 - "ark of the
covenant" Jos 3:6 Heb 9:4 - "ark of the testimony" Exo 25:22.
It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad
and high and two cubits long, and covered all over with the
purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat, was
surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides
were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered
poles by which the ark could be carried Num 7:9 10:21 4:5,19,20.
1Ki 8:3,6 - Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two
cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other Num 7:89.
Lev 16:2 - Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed
the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool
Exo 25:18-20 37:1-9 - The ark was deposited in the "holy of
holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which
it was carried touched the veil which separated the two
apartments of the tabernacle 1Ki 8:8 - The two tables of
stone which constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's
covenant with the people Deu 31:26 - the "pot of manna"
Exo 16:33 - and "Aaron's rod that budded" Num 17:10 - were laid
up in the ark Heb 9:4.
See TABERNACLE 03559.
The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" Lam 2:1.
During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the
priests in advance of the host Num 4:5-6 10:33-36 Psa 68:1 132:8.
It was borne by the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which
separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host to pass
over Jos 3:15-16 4:7,10-11,17-18 - It was borne in the
procession round Jericho Jos 6:4,6,8,11-12 - When carried it
was always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue
cloth, and carefully concealed even from the eyes of the
Levites who carried it. After the settlement of Israel in
Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a
season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli,
between 300 and 400 years Jer 7:12 - when it was carried
into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed,
victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines
1Sa 4:3-11 - who sent it back after retaining it seven
months 1Sa 5:7-8 - It remained then at Kirjath-jearim
1Sa 7:1-2 - till the time of David (twenty years), who
wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of
removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death
for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in
consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in
Gath-rimmon for three months 2Sa 6:1-11 - at the end of
which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem,
where it was kept till a place was prepared for it 2Sa 6:1-16|.
It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple 1Ki 8:6-9.
When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the
temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and
destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The
absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points
in which it was inferior to the first temple.


Arkite


Gen 10:17 1Ch 1:15 - a designation of certain descendants from the
Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north
of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.


Arm


Used to denote power Psa 10:15 Eze 30:21 Jer 48:25 - It is also used
of the omnipotence of God Exo 15:16 Psa 89:13 98:1 77:15 Isa 53:1.
Joh 12:38 Act 13:17.


Armageddon


Occurs only in Rev 16:16 - (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically
designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God
Almighty" Rev 16:14 - shall be fought. The word properly means the
"mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between
Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the
Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).


Armenia


High land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2Ki 19:37 - in Revised
Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western
Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of
Noah rested after the Deluge Gen 8:4 - It is for the most part high
table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and
the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of ancient
Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in Jer 51:27.
Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a
contraction for Armenia.

See ARARAT 00284.


Armoni


Inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and
Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by
them 2Sa 21:8,9.


Armour


Is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment, both
offensive and defensive.
1. The offensive weapons were different at different periods of
history.
a. The "rod of iron" Psa 2:9 - is supposed to mean a mace or
crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a strong
arm.
b. The "maul" Pro 25:18 - cognate Hebrew word rendered
"battle-axe" in Jer 51:20 - and "slaughter weapon" in
Eze 9:2 - was a war-hammer or martel.
c. The "sword" is the usual translation of - hereb -, which properly
means "poniard." The real sword, as well as the dirk-sword
(which was always double-edged), was also used 1Sa 17:39.
2Sa 20:8 1Ki 20:11.
d. The spear was another offensive weapon Jos 8:18 1Sa 17:7.
e. The javelin was used by light troops Num 25:7-8 1Sa 13:22.
Saul threw a javelin at David 1Sa 19:9-10 - and so virtually
absolved him from his allegiance.
f. The bow was, however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows
were carried in a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the
moment of action Gen 27:3 48:22 Psa 18:34.
g. The sling was a favourite weapon of the Benjamites 1Sa 17:40.
1Ch 12:2 - Comp. 1Sa 25:29.
2. Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the shield
or buckler.
a. There were the great shield or target (the - tzinnah -), for
the protection of the whole person Gen 15:1 Psa 47:9 1Sa 17:7.
Pro 30:5.
b. The buckler (Heb. - mageen -) or small shield 1Ki 10:17.
Eze 26:8 - In Psa 91:4 - "buckler" is properly a roundel
appropriated to archers or slingers.
c. The helmet Eze 27:10 1Sa 17:38 - a covering for the head
d. The coat of mail or corselet 1Sa 17:5 - or habergeon
Neh 4:1.
e. Harness or breat-plate Rev 9:9 - for the covering of the back
and breast and both upper arms Isa 59:17 Eph 6:14.
f. The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth,
were also for the covering of the body.
g. Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of
David 1Sa 17:6.
h. Reference is made by Paul Eph 6:14-17 - to the panoply of a
Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like
oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not
the small round shield. There is no armour for the back, but
only for the front.


Armour-bearer


An officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not
only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of
danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies
Jud 9:54 1Sa 14:7 16:21 31:6.


Armoury


The place in which armour was deposited when not used Neh 3:19.
Jer 50:25 - At first each man of the Hebrews had his own arms, because
all went to war. There were no arsenals or magazines for arms till the
time of David, who had a large collection of arms, which he
consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle 1Sa 21:9 2Sa 8:7-12.
1Ch 26:26,27.


Army


The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order Exo 13:18.
"harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion,
with its own banner and leader Num 2:2 10:14 - In war the army was
divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains
Num 31:14 - and also into families Num 2:34 2Ch 25:5 26:12 - From the
time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the
Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often
engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a
bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a
standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors
1Sa 13:2 14:52 24:2 - David also had a band of soldiers around him
1Sa 23:13 25:13 - To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and
the Pelethites 2Sa 15:18 20:7 - At first the army consisted only of
infantry 1Sa 4:10 15:4 - as the use of horses was prohibited Deu 17:16.
but chariots and horses were afterwards added 2Sa 8:4 1Ki 10:26,28-29.
1Ki 9:19 - In 1Ki 9:22 - there is given a list of the various gradations
of rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and
maintenance of the army were at the public expense 2Sa 17:28-29.
1Ki 4:27 10:16-17 Jud 20:10 - At the Exodus the number of males above
twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 Exo 12:37 - In David's
time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 2Sa 24:9.


Arnon


Swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan,
separating it from the land of Moab Deu 3:8,16 - This river (referred
to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead,
and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine
it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost
dry in summer. It is now called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites
extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok.


Aroer


Ruins.
1. A town on the north bank of the Arnon Deu 4:48 Jud 11:26.
2Ki 10:33 - the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon
Jos 12:2 - It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead
Sea.
2. One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad Num 32:34 - "before
Rabbah" Jos 13:25 - the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the
history of Jephthah Jud 11:33 - and of David 2Sa 24:5 - (Comp.)
Isa 17:2 2Ki 15:29.
3. A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba,
to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the
Amalekites at Ziklag 1Sa 30:26,28 - It was the native city of
two of David's warriors 1Ch 11:44 - It is now called Ar'arah.


Arpad


Isa 10:9 36:19 37:13 - also Arphad, support, a Syrian city near Hamath,
along with which it is invariably mentioned 2Ki 19:13 18:34 Isa 10:9.
and Damascus Jer 49:23 - After a siege of three years it fell (B.C.
742 before the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.


Arphaxad


Son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age of
438 years Gen 11:10-13 1Ch 1:17-18 Luk 3:36 - He dwelt in Mesopotamia,
and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the
progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to recognize in the word
the name of the country nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans.
Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name
of Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.


Arrows


At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are
sometimes figuratively put for lightning Deu 32:23,42 Psa 7:13 18:14,
Psa 144:6 Zec 9:14 - They were used in war as well as in the chase
Gen 27:3 49:23 - They were also used in divination Eze 21:21 - The
word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted
by God Job 6:4 34:6 Psa 38:2 Deu 32:23 - Comp. Eze 5:16 - or of some
sudden danger Psa 91:5 - or bitter words Psa 64:3 - or false testimony
Pro 25:18.


Artaxerxes


The Greek form of the name of several Persian kings.
1. The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple Ezr 4:7 - He
was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
2. The king mentioned in Ezr 7:1 - in the seventh year (B.C. 458)
of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
(B.C. 464) the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later,
permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.


Artificer


A person engaged in any kind of manual occupation Gen 4:22 Isa 3:3.


Artillery


1Sa 20:40 - (Heb. keli, meaning "apparatus;" here meaning collectively
any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In Revised Version,
"weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin artillaria equipment
of war.


Arvad


Wandering, Eze 27:8 - a small island and city on the coast of Syria,
mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre. The
inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written Aruada or
Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.


Asa


Physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third king
of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of God, and
in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying immoralities, out of
the land 1Ki 15:8-14 - The Lord gave him and his land rest and
prosperity. It is recorded of him, however, that in his old age, when
afflicted, he "sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians" (comp.)
Jer 17:5 - He died in the forty-first year of his reign, greatly
honoured by his people 2Ch 16:1-13 - and was succeeded by his son
Jehoshaphat.


Asahel


Made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was
celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against
Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was put to
death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle 2Sa 2:18,19.
He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men 2Sa 23:24 1Ch 11:26.
Others of the same name are mentioned 2Ch 17:8 31:13 Ezr 10:15.


Asaph


Convener, or collector.
1. A Levite; one of the leaders of David's choir 1Ch 6:39 - Psalms
50 and 73-83 inclusive are attributed to him. He is mentioned
along with David as skilled in music, and a "seer" 2Ch 29:30.
The "sons of Asaph," mentioned in 1Ch 25:1 2Ch 20:14 - and
Ezr 2:41 - were his descendants, or more probably a class of
poets or singers who recognized him as their master.
2. The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah 2Ki 18:18,37.
3. The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah requested
from Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him timber for the
temple at Jerusalem Neh 2:8.


Ascension


See CHRIST 00818.


Asenath


An Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph Gen 41:45 - She
was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim Gen 41:50-52 46:20.


Ash


(Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned only Isa 44:14 - (R.V., "fir
tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate
versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs - aran -, found still in
the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of the
mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is not known
in Syria.


Ashdod


Stronghold, a Philistine city Jos 15:47 - about midway between Gaza and
Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It was one of the chief seats
of the worship of Dagon 1Sa 5:5 - It belonged to the tribe of Judah
Jos 15:47 - but it never came into their actual possession. It was
an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine,
and hence was strongly fortified 2Ch 26:6 Isa 20:1 - Uzziah took it,
but fifty years after his death it was taken by the Assyrians (B.C.
758) According to Sargon's record, it was captured by him in B.C. 711)
The only reference to it in the New Testament, where it is called
Azotus, is in the account of Philip's return from Gaza Act 8:40 - It
is now called Eshdud.


Ashdoth-pisgah


Deu 3:17 Jos 12:3 13:20 - in Authorized Version, but in Revised Version
translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deu 4:49 - it is translated in the
Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The name Ashdoth is
translated "springs" in the Authorized Version, but "slopes" in the
Revised Version, of Jos 10:40 12:8 - It has been identified with the
springs under Mount Nebo, now called 'Ayun Musa.


Asher


Happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
Gen 30:13 - Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its
holding a place in the list of the tribes Gen 35:26 46:17 Ex 1:4 - etc.
It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during the thirty-eight
years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through
the desert was between Dan and Naphtali Num 2:27 - The boundaries of
the inheritance given to it, which contained some of the richest soil
in Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in
Jos 19:24-31 Jud 1:31-32 - Asher and Simeon were the only tribes
west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge for the nation.
Anna the prophetess was of this tribe Luk 2:36.


Asherah


And pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of
the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish
goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was
the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an
image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols are
frequently alluded to in Scripture Exo 34:13 Jud 6:25 2Ki 23:6.
1Ki 16:33 - etc. These images were also sometimes made of silver or
of carved stone 2Ki 21:7 - "the graven image of Asherah," R.V.

See GROVE 01556.


Ashes


The ashes of a red heifer burned entire Num 19:5 - when sprinkled on the
unclean made them ceremonially clean Heb 9:13 - To cover the head with
ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation 2Sa 13:19.
Est 4:3 Jer 6:26 - etc. To feed on ashes Isa 44:20 - means to seek that
which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes
the unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Comp.) Hos 12:1.


Ashkelon


=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines
Jos 13:3 1Sa 6:17 - It stood on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12
miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in
Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II., the oppressor of the
Hebrews. In the time of the judges Jud 1:18 - it fell into the
possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retaken by
the Philistines 2Sa 1:20 - who were not finally dispossessed till the
time of Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from
Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets
foretold its destruction Jer 25:20 47:5,7 - It became a noted place in
the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a bloody battle
between the Saracens and the Crusaders. It was beseiged and taken by
Richard the Lion-hearted, and "within its walls and towers now
standing he held his court." Among the Tell Amarna tablets
See EGYPT 01137.
are found letters or official despatches from Yadaya, "captain of
horse and dust of the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt,
dated from Ascalon. It is now called 'Askalan.


Ashkenaz


One of the three sons of Gomer Gen 10:3 - and founder of one of the
tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in connection with
Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat must have been in
Armenia Jer 51:27 - probably near the Black Sea, which, from their
founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.


Ashpenaz


The master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar Dan 1:3 - the "Rabsaris" of
the court. His position was similar to that of the Kislar-aga of the
modern Turkish sultans.


Ashtaroth


A city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og Deu 1:4 Jos 12:4 13:12 9:10 - It
was in the half-tribe of Manasseh Jos 13:12 - and as a Levitical city
was given to the Gershonites 1Ch 6:71 - Uzzia, one of David's valiant
men 1Ch 11:44 - is named as of this city. It is identified with Tell
Ashterah, in the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700 The
name Beesh-terah Jos 21:27 - is a contraction for Beth-eshterah, i.e.,
"the house of Ashtaroth."


Ashteroth Karnaim


Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim Gen 14:5 - It may
be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called "Karnaim", i.e., the
"two-horned" (the crescent moon). The Samaritan version renders the
word by "Sunamein," the present es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of
Damascus.


Ashtoreth


The moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive
principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently
associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity
Jud 10:6 1Sa 7:4 12:10 - These names often occur in the plural
(Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues
or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of as
Ashtoreth of the Zidonians. She was the Ishtar of the Accadians and
the Astarte of the Greeks 1Ki 11:5,33 2Ki 23:13 - There was a temple
of this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul 1Sa 31:10.
Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great deities of the
Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte. Solomon introduced the
worship of this idol 1Ki 11:33 - Jezebel's 400 priests were probably
employed in its service 1Ki 18:19 - It was called the "queen of
heaven" Jer 44:25.


Ashurites


Mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king 2Sa 2:9.


Asia


Is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which embraced
the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus was the
capital, in Act 2:9 6:9 16:6 19:10,22 20:4,16,18 - etc., and probably
Asia Minor in Act 19:26-27 21:27 24:18 27:2 - Proconsular Asia
contained the seven churches of the Apocalypse Rev 1:11 - The "chiefs
of Asia" Act 19:31 - were certain wealthy citizens who were annually
elected to preside over the games and religious festivals of the
several cities to which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were
Paul's friends.


Asnapper


Probably the same as Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos of the Greeks),
styled the "great and noble" Ezr 4:10 - was the son and successor
(B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was "luxurious, ambitious, and
cruel, but a magnificent patron of literature." He formed at Nineveh
a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000 These are now
mostly in the British Museum. They throw much light on the history
and antiquities of Assyria. Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of
literature, and the conqueror of Elam. Towards the middle of his
reign his empire was shaken by a great rebellion headed by his
brother in Babylon. The rebellion was finally put down, but Egypt was
lost, and the military power of Assyria was so exhausted that it
could with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians who poured over
Western Asia.

See NINEVEH 02735.


Asp


(Heb. pethen), Deu 32:33 Job 20:14,16 Isa 11:8 - It was probably the
Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very poisonous Rom 3:13 - (Gr.
aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as the - uraeus -, and it was found
in the desert and in the fields. The peace and security of Messiah's
reign is represented by the figure of a child playing on the hole of
the asp.

See ADDER 00085.


Ass


Frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated species
we read of,
1. The she ass (Heb. 'athon), so named from its slowness
Gen 12:16 45:23 Num 22:23 1Sa 9:3.
2. The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western
Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a
strong ass Gen 49:14 - It was forbidden to yoke together an ass
and an ox in the plough Deu 22:10.
3. The ass's colt (Heb. 'air), mentioned Jud 10:4 12:14 - It is
rendered "foal" in Gen 32:15 49:11 - Comp. Job 11:12 Isa 30:6.
The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew the cud
Lev 11:26 - Comp. 2Ki 6:25 - Asses constituted a
considerable portion of wealth in ancient times Gen 12:16.
Gen 30:43 1Ch 27:30 Job 1:3 42:12 - They were noted for their
spirit and their attachment to their master Isa 1:3 - They
are frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by
Abraham Gen 22:3 - Balaam Num 22:21 - the disobedient prophet
1Ki 13:23 - the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in
number Jud 12:14 - Zipporah Exo 4:20 - the Shunammite
2Ki 4:24-25 - etc. Zechariah Zec 9:9 - predicted our Lord's
triumphal entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon
a colt," etc. Mat 21:5 - R.V. Of wild asses two species are
noticed,
a. that called in Hebrew mentioned Job 39:5 Dan 5:21 - noted for
its swiftness; and
b. that called - pe're -, the wild ass of Asia Job 39:6-8.
Job 6:5 11:12 Isa 32:14 Jer 2:24 14:6 - etc. The wild ass
was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme shyness.
In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to a
wild ass Gen 16:12 - (Here the word is simply rendered
"wild" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version,
"wild-ass among men".)


Asshur


Second son of Shem Gen 10:22 1Ch 1:17 - He went from the land of Shinar
and built Nineveh, etc. Gen 10:11-12 - He probably gave his name to
Assyria, which is the usual translation of the word, although the
form Asshur is sometimes retained Num 24:22,24 Eze 27:23 - etc. In
Gen 2:14 - "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original
capital of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat,
on the west bank of the Tigris. This city was founded by Bel-kap-kapu
about B.C. 1700 At a later date the capital was shifted to Ninua, or
Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank of the river.

See CALAH 00688.
See NINEVEH 02735.


Assos


A sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia, on the
north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither on foot
along the Roman road from Troas Act 20:13-14 - a distance of 20
miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by sea. The island
of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles distant.


Assurance


The resurrection of Jesus Act 17:31 - is the "assurance" (Gr. pistis,
generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that his
revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full assurance [Gr.
plerophoria, 'full bearing'] of faith" Heb 10:22 - is a fulness of
faith in God which leaves no room for doubt. The "full assurance of
understanding" Col 2:2 - is an entire unwavering conviction of the
truth of the declarations of Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the
part of any one of conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The
"full assurance of hope" Heb 6:11 - is a sure and well-grounded
expectation of eternal glory 2Ti 4:7-8 - This assurance of hope is the
assurance of a man's own particular salvation. This infallible
assurance, which believers may attain unto as to their own personal
salvation, is founded on the truth of the promises Heb 6:18 - on the
inward evidence of Christian graces, and on the testimony of the
Spirit of adoption Rom 8:16 - That such a certainty may be attained
appears from the testimony of Scripture Rom 8:16 1Jo 2:3 3:14 - from
the command to seek after it Heb 6:11 2Pe 1:10 - and from the fact
that it has been attained 2Ti 1:12 4:7-8 1Jo 2:3 4:16 - This full
assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It is the result of
faith, and posterior to it in the order of nature, and so frequently
also in the order of time. True believers may be destitute of it.
Trust itself is something different from the evidence that we do
trust. Believers, moreover, are exhorted to go on to something beyond
what they at present have when they are exhorted to seek the grace of
full assurance Heb 10:22 2Pe 1:5-10 - The attainment of this grace is
a duty, and is to be diligently sought. "Genuine assurance naturally
leads to a legitimate and abiding peace and joy, and to love and
thankfulness to God; and these from the very laws of our being to
greater buoyancy, strength, and cheerfulness in the practice of
obedience in every department of duty." This assurance may in various
ways be shaken, diminished, and intermitted, but the principle out of
which it springs can never be lost.

See FAITH 01302.


Assyria


The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original
capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and
was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region
lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as
to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian
mountains. It was founded in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and
became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke
of its Babylonian masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The
Assyrians were Semites Gen 10:22 - but in process of time non-Semite
tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military people, the
"Romans of the East." Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria
little is positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the
greatest of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the
kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and advanced
as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be regarded as the
founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this the Assyrians
gradually extended their power, subjugating the states of Northern
Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II. marched
an army against the Syrian states, whose allied army he encountered
and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of
Damascus and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the
Assyrian king marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. He
besieged and took that city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and
the cities of Tyre and Sidon. About a hundred years after this (B.C.
745 the crown was seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who
assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into
Syria, which had by this time regained its independence, and took
(B.C. 740) Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and
reduced Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath,
and thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a
yearly tribute. In B.C. 738 in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel,
Pul invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute 2Ki 15:19.
Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against Israel and
Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by means of a present
of gold and silver 2Ki 16:8 - who accordingly "marched against
Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death, and besieged the city
itself." Leaving a portion of his army to continue the siege, "he
advanced through the province east of Jordan, spreading fire and
sword," and became master of Philistia, and took Samaria and
Damascus. He died B.C. 727 and was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV.,
who ruled till B.C. 722 He also invaded Syria 2Ki 17:5 - but was
deposed in favour of Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief
of the army, who took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years,
and so put an end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away
into captivity, B.C. 722 2Ki 17:1-6,24 18:7,9 - He also overran the
land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem Isa 10:6,12,22,24,34.
Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C. 705) the son and successor
of Sargon 2Ki 18:13 19:37 Isa 7:17-18 - and then of Esar-haddon, his
son and successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and
kept him for some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all
the Assyrian kings made the seat of his government 2Ki 19:37.
Isa 37:38 - Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and
in Ezr 4:10 - is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria
had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the
kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia,
and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. At
length, however, its power declined. In B.C. 727 the Babylonians
threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the
powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan 2Ki 20:12 - who, after
twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom,
and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames
of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes
successfully asserted their independence (B.C. 625) and Assyria fell
according to the prophecies of Isaiah Isa 10:5-19 - Nahum Nah 3:19 - and
Zeph 3:13 - and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed
ceased to recognize the "great king" 2Ki 18:19 Isa 36:4 - attests
(about B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be
a nation.

See NINEVEH 02735.
See BABYLON 00409.


Astrologer


Dan 1:20 2:2,10,27 - etc. Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter, one who
professes to divine future events by the appearance of the stars.
This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was positively
forbidden to the Jews Deu 4:19 18:10 Isa 47:13.


Astronomy


The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry
firmanent Amo 5:8 Psa 19:1 - In the Book of Job, which is the oldest
book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are
distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star"
Rev 2:28 - comp. Isa 14:12 - the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion,"
"Arcturus," the "Great Bear" Amo 5:8 Job 9:9 38:31 - "the crooked
serpent," Draco Job 26:13 - the Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and
Pollux" Act 28:11 - The stars were called "the host of heaven"
Isa 40:26 Jer 33:22 - The oldest divisions of time were mainly based
on the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the
"ordinances of heaven" Gen 1:14-18 Job 38:33 Jer 31:35 33:25 - Such
observations led to the division of the year into months and the
mapping out of the appearances of the stars into twelve portions,
which received from the Greeks the name of the "zodiac." The word
"Mazzaroth" Job 38:32 - means, as the margin notes, "the twelve
signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical observations were also necessary
among the Jews in order to the fixing of the proper time for sacred
ceremonies, the "new moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions are
found to the display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry
heavens Psa 8:1 - Psa 19:1-6 Isa 51:6 - etc.


Asuppim


1Ch 26:15,17 - Authorized Version; but in Revised Version,
"storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In
Neh 12:25 - the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg. "treasuries"
or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."


Atad


Buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their way
from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob, made for
seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this account the
Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" Gen 50:10-11 - It was probably near
Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble" in Jud 9:14-15 - and "thorns"
in Psa 58:9.


Ataroth


Crowns.
1. A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead Num 32:3.
2. A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin Jos 16:2,7 - called
also Ataroth-adar Jos 16:5 - Now ed-Da'rieh.
3. "Ataroth, the house of Joab" 1Ch 2:54 - a town of Judah inhabited
by the descendants of Caleb.


Ater


Shut; lame.
1. Ezr 2:16.
2. Neh 10:17.
3. Ezr 2:42.


Athaliah


Whom God afflicts.
1. The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king
of Judah 2Ki 8:18 - who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab"
2Ch 21:6 - called "daughter" of Omri 2Ki 8:26 - On the death of
her husband and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself
on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except
Joash, the youngest 2Ki 11:1-2 - After a reign of six years she
was put to death in an insurrection 2Ki 11:20 2Ch 21:6.
2Ch 22:10-12 23:15 - stirred up among the people in connection
with Josiah's being crowned as king.
2. Ezr 8:7.
3. 1Ch 8:26.


Athens


The capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world,
the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of
Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty Act 17:21 - and
were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a
sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a
god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary journey Paul
visited this city Act 17:15 - comp. 1Th 3:1 - and delivered in the
Areopagus his famous speech Act 17:22-31 - The altar of which Paul
there speaks as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God"
Act 17:23 - was probably one of several which bore the same
inscription. It is supposed that they originated in the practice of
letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on
the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at
the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."


Atonement


This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New
Testament except in Rom 5:11 - where in the Revised Version the word
"reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent
occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the
state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is
reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from
the death of Christ. But the word is also used to denote that by
which this reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ
itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this sense to
make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for his offences
Exo 32:30 Lev 4:26 5:16 Num 6:11 - and, as regards the person, to
reconcile, to propitiate God in his behalf. By the atonement of
Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins. But
in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself, and
not the means by which it is effected. When speaking of Christ's
saving work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the
theologians of the Reformation, is to be preferred to the word
"atonement." Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in
behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of
God. Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these
were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit, but were in
our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or
substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar
bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now consistent
with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors. Expiation has
been made for sin, i.e., it is covered. The means by which it is
covered is vicarious satisfaction, and the result of its being
covered is atonement or reconciliation. To make atonement is to do
that by virtue of which alienation ceases and reconciliation is
brought about. Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the
ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify
the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the
obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The
reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners toward
God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected
by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with
the other attributes of his character his love might flow forth in
all its fulness of blessing to men. The primary idea presented to us
in different forms throughout the Scripture is that the death of
Christ is a satisfaction of infinite worth rendered to the law and
justice of God (q.v.), and accepted by him in room of the very
penalty man had incurred. It must also be constantly kept in mind
that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love
to guilty men Joh 3:16 Ro 3:24-25 Eph 1:7 1Jo 1:9 4:9 - The atonement
may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute but in a
relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved, there is no other way
than this which God has devised and carried out Exo 34:7 Jos 24:19.
Psa 5:4 7:11 Na 1:2,6 Ro 3:5 - This is God's plan, clearly revealed;
and that is enough for us to know.


Atonement, Day of


The great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the
nation, "the fast" Act 27:9 - and the only one commanded in the law of
Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev 16:3-10.
Lev 23:26-32 Num 29:7-11 - It was kept on the tenth day of the month
Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted
from sunset to sunset.

See AZAZEL 00374.


Augustus


The cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus,
during whose reign Christ was born Luk 2:1 - His decree that "all the
world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus'
being born, according to prophecy Mic 5:2 - in Bethlehem. This name
being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to
him by the senate (B.C. 27) was borne by succeeding emperors. Before
his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire
Luk 3:1 - by whom he was succeeded.


Augustus' Band


Act 27:1 - literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name
given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band"
or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.


Ava


A place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria
2Ki 17:24 - It is probably the same with Ivah 2Ki 18:34 19:13.
Isa 37:13 - It has been identified with Hit on the Euphrates.


Aven


Nothingness; vanity.
1. Hosea speaks of the "high places of Aven" Hos 10:8 - by which he
means Bethel. He also calls it Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of
vanity" Hos 4:15 - on account of the golden calves Jeroboam had
set up there 1Ki 12:28.
2. Translated by the LXX. "On" in Eze 30:17 - The Egyptian
Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.).
3. In Amo 1:5 - it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern Baalbec.


Avenger of Blood


(Heb. goel, from verb gaal, "to be near of kin," "to redeem"), the
nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and duty to
slay the murderer 2Sa 14:7,11 - if he found him outside of a city of
refuge. In order that this law might be guarded against abuse, Moses
appointed six cities of refuge Exo 21:13 Num 35:13 Deu 19:1,9 - These
were in different parts of the country, and every facility was afforded
the manslayer that he might flee to the city that lay nearest him for
safety. Into the city of refuge the avenger durst not follow him. This
arrangement applied only to cases where the death was not premeditated.
The case had to be investigated by the authorities of the city, and the
wilful murderer was on no account to be spared. He was regarded as an
impure and polluted person, and was delivered up to the - goel -
Deu 19:11-13 - If the offence was merely manslaughter, then the fugitive
must remain within the city till the death of the high priest Num 35:25.


Avim


A people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments" on
the south-west corner of the sea-coast Deu 2:23 - They were subdued and
driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of them is afterwards
found in Jos 13:3 - where they are called Avites.


Awl


An instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of boring
the ear of a slave Exo 21:6 Deu 15:17 - in token of his volunteering
perpetual service when he might be free. (Comp.) Psa 40:6 Isa 50:5.


Axe


Used in the Authorized Version of Deu 19:5 20:19 1Ki 6:7 - as the
translation of a Hebrew word which means "chopping." It was used for
felling trees Isa 10:34 - and hewing timber for building. It is the
rendering of a different word in Jud 9:48, 1Sa 13:20-21, Psa 74:5.
which refers to its sharpness. In 2Ki 6:5 - it is the translation of a
word used with reference to its being made of iron. In Isa 44:12 - the
Revised Version renders by "axe" the Hebrew - maatsad -, which means a
"hewing" instrument. In the Authorized Version it is rendered
"tongs." It is also used in Jer 10:3 - and rendered "axe." The
"battle-axe" (army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jer 51:20 - was
probably, as noted in the margin of the Revised Version, a "maul" or
heavy mace. In Psa 74:6 - the word so rendered means "feller." (See the
figurative expression in) Mat 3:10 Luk 3:9.


Azal


Zec 14:5 - should perhaps be rendered "very near" "the way of escape
shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote some place near
the western extremity of the valley here spoken of near Jerusalem.


Azariah


Whom Jehovah helps.
1. Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah 1Ch 2:8.
2. Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as high
priest 1Ch 6:9 1Ki 4:2 - in the days of Solomon. He officiated at
the consecration of the temple 1Ch 6:10.
3. The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah and Asa
1Ch 6:10,11.
4. High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah 2Ki 14:21.
2Ch 26:17-20 - He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah,
Amos, and Joel.
5. High priest in the days of Hezekiah 2Ch 31:10-13 - Of the house
of Zadok.
6. Several other priests and Levites of this name are mentioned
1Ch 6:36 Ezr 7:1 1Ch 9:11 Neh 3:23 - etc.
7. The original name of Abed-nego Dan 1:6-7,11,16 - He was of the
royal family of Judah, and with his other two companions
remarkable for his personal beauty and his intelligence as well
as piety.
8. The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa
2Ch 15:1 - He stirred up the king and the people to a great
national reformation.


Azazel


Lev 16:8,10,26 - Revised Version only here; rendered "scape-goat" in the
Authorized Version). This word has given rise to many different views.
Some Jewish interpreters regard it as the name of a place some 12
miles east of Jerusalem, in the wilderness. Others take it to be the
name of an evil spirit, or even of Satan. But when we remember that
the two goats together form a type of Christ, on whom the Lord "laid
the iniquity of us all," and examine into the root meaning of this
word (viz., "separation"), the interpretation of those who regard the
one goat as representing the atonement made, and the other, that "for
Azazel," as representing the effect of the great work of atonement
(viz., the complete removal of sin), is certainly to be preferred.
The one goat which was "for Jehovah" was offered as a sin-offering,
by which atonement was made. But the sins must also be visibly
banished, and therefore they were symbolically laid by confession on
the other goat, which was then "sent away for Azazel" into the
wilderness. The form of this word indicates intensity, and therefore
signifies the total separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. It
was important that the result of the sacrifices offered by the high
priest alone in the sanctuary should be embodied in a visible
transaction, and hence the dismissal of the "scape-goat." It was of
no consequence what became of it, as the whole import of the
transaction lay in its being sent into the wilderness bearing away
sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness to the demerit of sin
and the need of the blood of atonement, so the goat "for Azazel" was
to witness to the efficacy of the sacrifice and the result of the
shedding of blood in the taking away of sin.


Azaziah


Whom Jehovah strengthened.
1. One of the Levitical harpers in the temple 1Ch 15:21.
2. The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the Ephraimites
1Ch 27:20.
3. One who had charge of the temple offerings 2Ch 31:13.


Azekah


Dug over, a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah Jos 15:35.
where the five confederated Amoritish kings were defeated by Joshua
and their army destroyed by a hailstrom Jos 10:10-11 - It was one of
the places re-occupied by the Jews on their return from the Captivity
Neh 11:30.


Azel


Noble, a descendant of king Saul 1Ch 8:37 9:43,44.


Azmaveth


Strong as death.
1. One of David's thirty warriors 2Sa 23:31.
2. An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and
Solomon 1Ch 27:25.
3. A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem Neh 12:29 Ezr 2:24.
4. 1Ch 8:36.


Azotus


The Grecized form Act 8:40 - etc. of Ashdod (q.v.).


Azubah


Deserted.
1. The wife of Caleb 1Ch 2:18,19.
2. The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat
1Ki 22:42.


Azur and Azzur


Helper.
1. The father of Hananiah, a false prophet Jer 28:1.
2. The father of Jaazaniah Eze 11:1.
3. One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return
from Babylon Neh 10:17.


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