American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - T

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A Caanite royal city, Jos 12:21, in the territory of Issachar, but
assigned to Manesseh, Jos 17:11; 21:25. There is still a small place
called Taannuk on the south border of the plain of Esdraelon, four
miles southeast of the site of Megiddo, which is usually named with
Taanach, Jud 1:27; 5:19; 1Ki 4:12.


To beat the tabret, a small drum or tambourine. The word is used in Na
2:7 of women beating their breasts in sign of grief.


Burning, so named on account of the fire which fell upon the
Israelites for their murmings while encamped here, Nu 11:1-3 De 9:22.


A tent, booth, pavilion, or temporary dwelling. For its general
meaning and uses, see TENT. In the Scriptures it is employed more
particularly of the tent made by Moses at the command of God, for the
place of religious worship of the Hebrews, before the building of the
temple. The directions of God, and the account of the execution of
them, are contained in Ex 25:1-40, and the following chapters. This is
usually called the tabernacle of the congregation, or tent of
assembly, and sometimes the tabernacle of the testimony.

The tabernacle was of an oblong rectangular form, thirty cubits long,
ten broad, and ten in height, Ex 26.15-30; 36.20-30; that is, about
fifty-five feet long, eighteen broad, and eighteen high. The two sides
and the western end were formed of boards of shittim wood, overlaid
with thin plates of gold, and fixed in solid sockets or vases of
silver. Above, they were secured by bars of the same wood overlaid
with gold, passing through rings of gold which were fixed to the
boards. On the east end, which was the entrance, there were no boards,
but only five pillars of shittim wood, whose chapters and fillets were
overlaid with gold and their hooks of gold, standing in five sockets
of brass. The tabernacle thus erected was covered with four different
kinds of curtains. The first and inner curtain was composed of fine
linen, magnificently embroidered with figures of cherubim, in shades
of blue, purple, and scarlet; this formed the beautiful ceiling. The
next covering was made of fine goats' hair; the third of rams' skins
or morocco dyed red; and the fourth and outward covering of a thicker
leather. See BADGERS' SKINS. We have already said that the east end of
the tabernacle had no boards, but only five pillars of shittim wood;
it was therefore closed with a richly embroidered curtain suspended
from these pillars, Ex 27:16.

Such was the external appearance of the sacred tent, which was divided
into two apartments by means of four pillars of shittim wood overlaid
with gold, like the pillars before described, two cubits and a half
distant from each other; only they stood in sockets of silver instead
of brass, Ex 26:32 36:36; and on these pillars was hung a veil, formed
of the same materials as the one placed at the east end, Ex 26:31-33
36:35 Heb 9:3. The interior of the tabernacle was thus divided, it is
generally supposed, in the same proportions as the temple afterwards
built according to its model; two-thirds of the whole length being
allotted to the first room, or the Holy Place, and one-third to the
second, or Most Holy Place. Thus the former would be twenty cubits
long, ten wide, and ten high, and the latter ten cubits every way. It
is observable, that neither the Holy nor the Most Holy place had any
window. Hence the need of the candlestick in the one, for the service
that was performed therin.

The tabernacle thus described stood in an open space or court of an
oblong form, one hundred cubits in length, and fifty in breadth,
situated due east and west, Ex 27:18. This court was surrounded with
pillars of brass, filleted with silver, and placed at the distance of
five cubits from each other, twenty on each side and ten on each end.
Their sockets were of brass, and were fastened to the earth with pins
of the same metal, Ex 38:10,17,20. Their height was probably five
cubits, that being the length of the curtains that were suspended on
them, Ex 28:18. These curtains, which formed an enclosure round the
court, were of fine twined white linen yarn, Ex 27:9 38:9,16, except
that at the entrance on the east end, which was of blue and purple and
scarlet and fine white twined linen, with cords to draw it either up
or aside when the priests entered the court, Ex 27:16 38:18. Within
this area stood the altar of burntofferings, and the laver with its
foot or base. This altar was placed in a line between the door of the
court and the door of the tabernacle, but nearer the former, Ex
40:6,29; the laver stood the altar of burnt-offering and the door of
the tabernacle, Ex 38:8. In this court all the Israelites presented
their offerings, vows, and prayers.

But although the tabernacle was surrounded by the court, there is no
reason to think that it stood in the center of it. It is more probable
that the area at the east end was fifty cubits square; and indeed a
less space than that could hardly suffice for the work that was to be
done there, and for the persons who were immediately to attend the
service. We now proceed to notice the furniture which the tabernacle

In the Holy Place to which none but priests were admitted, Heb 9:6,
were three objects worthy of notice: namely, the altar of incense, the
table for the show-bread, and the candlestick for the showbread, and
the candlestick for the lights, all of which have been described in
their respective places. The altar of incense was placed in the middle
of the sanctuary, before the veil, Ex 30:6-10 40:26-27; and on it the
incense was burnt morning and evening, Ex 30:7,8. On the north side of
the altar of incense, that is, on the right hand of the priest as he
entered, stood the table for the show-bread, Ex 26:35 40:22,23; and on
the south side of the Holy Place, the golden candlestick, Ex 25:31-39.
In the Most Holy Place, into which only the high priest entered once a
year, Heb 9:7, was the ark, covered by the mercy-seat and the

The gold and silver employed in decorating the tabernacle are
estimated at not less than a million of dollars. The remarkable and
costly structure thus described was erected in the wilderness of
Sinai, on the first day of the first month of the second year, after
the Israelites left Egypt, Ex 40.17; and when erected was anointed,
together with its furniture, with holy oil, Ex 40:9-11, and sanctified
by blood, Ex 24:6-8 Heb 9:21. The altar of burnt offerings,
especially, was sanctified by sacrifices during seven days, Ex 29:37;
while rich donations were given by the princes of the tribes for the
service of the sanctuary, Nu 7:1.

We should not omit to observe, that the tabernacle was so constructed
as to be taken to pieces and put together again, as occasion required.
This was indispensable; it being designed to accompany the Israelites
during their travels in the wilderness. With it moved and rested the
pillar of fire and of cloud. As often as Israel removed, the
tabernacle was taken to pieces by the priests, closely covered, and
borne in regular order by the Levites, Nu 4:1-49. Wherever they
encamped, it was pitched in the midst of their tents, which were set
up in a quadrangular form, under their respective standards, at a
distance from the tabernacle of two thousand cubits; while Moses and
Aaron, with the priests and Levites, occupied a place between them.

How long this tabernacle existed we do not know. During the conquest
it remained at Gilgal, Jos 4:19 10:43. After the conquest it was
stationed for many years at Shiloh, Jos 18:1 1Sa 1:3. In 2Sa 6:17, and
1Ch 15:1, it is said that David had prepared and pitched a tabernacle
in Jerusalem for the ark, which before had long been at
Kirjath-jearim, and then in the house of Obed-edom, 1Ch 13:6,14 2Sa
6:11,12. In 1Ch 21:29, it is said that the tabernacle of Moses was
still at Gibeon at that time; and it would therefore seem that the ark
had long been separated from it. The tabernacle still remained at
Gibeon in the time of Solomon, who sacrificed before it, 2Ch 1:3,13.
This is the last mention made of it; for apparently the tabernacle
brought with the ark into the temple, 2Ch 5:5, was the tent in which
the ark had been kept on Zion, 2Ch 1:4 5:2.

Feast of Tabernacles. This festival derives its name from the booths
in which the people dwelt during its continuance, which were
constructed of the branches and leaves of trees, on the roofs of their
houses, in the courts, and also in the streets. Nehemiah describes the
gathering of palm-branches, olive branches, myrtlebranches, etc., for
this occasion, from the Mount of Olives. It was one of the three great
festivals of the year, at which all the men of Israel were required to
be present, De 16:16. It was celebrated during eight days, commencing
on the fifteenth day of the month Tishri, that is, fifteen days after
the new moon in October; and the first and last days were particularly
distinguished, Le 23:34-43 Ne 8:14-18. This festival was instituted in
memory of the forty years' wanderings of the Israelites in the desert,
Le 23:42,43, and also as a season of gratitude and thanksgiving for
the gathering in of the harvest; whence it is also called the Feast of
the Harvest, Ex 23:16 34:22. The season was an occasion of rejoicing
and feasting. The public sacrifices consisted of two rams and fourteen
lambs on each of the first seven days, together with thirteen bullocks
on the first day, twelve on the second, eleven on the third, ten on
the fourth, nine on the fifth, eight on the sixth, and seven on the
seventh; while on the eighth day one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs
were offered, Nu 29:12-39. On every seventh year, the law of Moses was
also read in public, in the presence of all the people, De 31:10-13 Ne

To these ceremonies the later Jews added a libation of water mingled
with wine, which was poured upon the morning sacrifice of each day.
The priests, having filled a vessel of water from the fountain of
Siloam, bore it through the water gate to the temple, and there, while
the trumpets and horns were sounding, poured it upon the sacrifice
arranged upon the altar. This was probably done as a memorial of the
abundant supply of water which God afforded to the Israelites during
their wanderings in the desert; and perhaps with reference to
purification from sin, 1Sa 7:6. This was accompanied with the singing
of Isa 12:1-6: "With joy shall ye draw water from the wells of
salvation;" and may naturally have suggested our Savior's announcement
while attending this festival, "If any man thirst, let him come unto
me and drink," Joh 7:37,38. The first and eighth days of the festival
were Sabbaths to the Lord, in which there was a holy convocation, and
in which all labor was prohibited, Le 23:39 Nu 29:12,35; and as the
eighth was the last festival day celebrated in the course of each
year, it appears to have been esteemed as peculiarly important and






An isolated mountain of Galilee, on the northeastern side of the plain
of Esdraelon, an arm of which extends beyond the mountain in the same
direction. It is of limestone formation, conical in form, and
well-wooded, especially on the north side, with fine oaks and other
trees and odoriferous plants. It rises 1,350 feet above the plain at
its base, which is 400 feet above the Mediterranean, and by a winding
path on the north-west side one may ride to its summit in an hour.
There is a small oblong plain on the summit, surrounded by a larger
but less regular tract, perhaps a mile inn circumference. The prospect
from Mount Tabor is extensive and beautiful. Dr. Robinson and many
others speak of it as one of the finest in Paletine; and Lord Nugent
declared it the most splendid he could recollect having ever seen from
any natural height. See Jer 46:18. Its general features are the same
as those of the view from the heights of Nazareth, five miles to the
west. See NAZARETH. Glimpses of the Mediterranean appear over the high
grounds, which intervene. In the plain at the southern base of the
mountain are the sources of the brook Kishon, and the villages Endor
and Nain, famous in Bible history. Besides the fertile expanse of
Esdraelon, and mounts Carmel, Gilboa, etc., on its borders, the view
embraces a portion of the sea of Galilee in the northeast; and towards
the north the mountains of Galilee, with the town of Safed crowning
the highest of them all, recalling the proverb which it is said to
have first suggested, "A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid."
Still farther to the north and east, the snowcrowned head of Hermon
overlooks the fifty miles which intervene, Ps 80:12.

On the summit of Tabor a fortified town anciently stood, probably of
the same name, 1Ch 6:77. This was in existence, and was garrisoned by
the Romans in the time of Christ, which conflicts with the tradition
that makes Tabor the scene of the transfiguration. Ruins of ancient
walls enclose the area of the summit; and at various points there are
remains of fortifications and dwellings, some of which are of the age
of the crusaders, and others of more ancient date. Tabor lay on the
borders of Issachar and Zebulun, Jos 19:12,22. The host of Barak
encamped upon it, before the battle with Sisera, Jud 4:6,12,14. At a
later day it appears to have been desecrated by idolatry, Ho 5:1.


Ge 31:27 Isa 5:12, a sort of small drum or tambourine, played as an
accompaniment to singing. See TIMBREL.


Golden and brazen clasps, uniting the separate curtain of the
tabernacle, Ex 26:6,11.


A palm-tree, 1Ki 9:18, a city founded by Solomon in the desert of
Syria, on the borders of Arabia Dessert, towards the Euphrates, 2Ch
8:4. It was remote from human habitations, on an oasis in the midst of
a dreary wilderness; and it is probable that Solomon built it to
facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of
water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Arabian desert. It was
about one hundred and twenty miles northeast of Damascus, more than
half the distance to the Euphrates. The original name was preserved
till the time of Alexander, who extended his conquests to this city,
which then exchanged its name Tadmor for that of Palmyra, both
signifying that it was a "city of palms." It submitted to the Romans
about the year 130, and continued in alliance with them during a
period of one hundred and fifty years. In the third century the famous
queen Zenobia reigned here over all the adjacent provinces, till
conquered and carried captive to Rome by Aurelian. When the Saracens
triumphed in the East, they acquired possession of this city, and
restored its ancient name. It is still called Thadmor. Of the time of
its ruin there is no authentic record; but it is thought, with some
probability, that its destruction occurred during the period in which
it was occupied by the Saracens.

Of its appearance in modern times Messrs. Wood and Dawkins, who
visited it in 1751, thus speak: "It is scarcely possible to imagine
anything more striking than this view. So great a number of Corinthian
pillars, mixed with so little wall or solid building, afforded a most
romantic variety of prospect." Volney observes, "In the space covered
by these ruins, we sometimes find a palace, of which nothing remains
but the court and walls; sometimes a temple, whose peristyle is half
thrown down; and now a portico, a gallery, a triumphal arch. If from
this striking scene we cast our eyes upon the ground, another almost
as varied presents itself. On which side soever we look, the earth is
strowed with vast stones half buried, with broken entablatures,
mutilated friezes, disfigured reliefs, effaced sculptures, violated
tombs, and altars defiled by the dust." Most of the edifices the ruins
of which are above described, date from the first three centuries of
the Christian era; while shapeless mounds of rubbish, covered with
soil and herbage, contain the only memorials of the Tadmor of Solomon.
The city was situated under and east of a ridge of barren hills, and
its other sides were separated only by a wall from the open desert. It
was originally about ten miles in circumference; but such have been
the destructions effected by time, that the boundaries are with
difficulty traced and determined.


Jer 2:16, or Tahpanhes, Jer 43:7,9, or Tegaphnehes, Eze 30:18, the
name of an Egyptian city, for which the Seventy put Taphne, and the
Greek historians Daphne. This city lay in the vicinity of Pelusium,
towards the southwest, on the western bank of the Pelusiac branch of
the Nile, and is therefore called by Herodotus the Pelusiac Daphne. To
this city Johanan and many of the Jews retired, after the destruction
of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, taking with them the prophet Jeremiah,
Jer 43:7-9 44:1. That Tahapanes was a large and important city, is
apparent from the threats uttered against it by Eze 30:18. According
to some, Hanes, in Isa 30:4, is an abbreviated name of the same city.


Sometimes means a number, verified by counting, Ex 5:8,18; 1Ch 9:28.


This was a weight used among the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, but varying
exceedingly in different countries and in different parts of the same
country. The Jewish talent is usually estimated at about 125 pounds
troy weight, though others estimate it a little less then 114 pounds
troy. The common Attic talent was equal, on the usual estimate, to
about 56 lbs. 11 oz. troy. In the New Testament, a talent is a
denomination of money, which was anciently reckoned by weight. The
value of the talent, therefore, varied in different countries, in
proportion to the different weights of the talent. The Jewish talent
appear, from Ex 38:25,26, to have been equal to 3,000 shekels; and as
the shekel is estimated at about fifty cents, the value of the talent
would be about 1,5000 dollars. The Attic talent is usually reckoned at
about 225 pounds sterling, or 1,000 dollars, though others make it
only about 860 dollars. The talent spoken of in the New Testament is
probably the Jewish, and is used only of an indefinitely large sum, Mt
18:24; 25:14-30.


King of Geshur, on the borders of Palestine and Syria. David married
Maacha his daughter, the mother of Tamar and Absalom. The latter
avenged the wrongs of his sister Tamar by the murder of Amnon, and
then took refuge at the court of his grandfather, where he remained
three years, 2Sa 3:3,13,14.


A palm-tree,

1. A Canaanitish woman, mother of Pharez and Zarah, Ge 38:1-30.

2. A daughter of David. See TALMAI.

3. A daughter of Absalom, 2Sa 14:27.


A Syrian idol, mentioned in Eze 8:14, where the women are represented
as weeping for it. It is generally supposed that Tammuz was the same
deity as the Phoenician Adonis, and perhaps the Egyptian Osiris. The
fabled death and restoration of Adonis, supposed to symbolize the
departure and return of the sun, were celebrated at the summer
solstice first with lamentation, and then with rejoicing and obscene


Cloth for hangings and bed-covers, covered with ornamental needlework,
Pr 7:16.


1. Now Teffuh, a town among the hills northwest of Hebron, Jos 1:17;

2. Another city of Judah, southwest of Hebron, Jos 15:34.

3. A town on the line of Ephraim and Manesseh, Jos 15:34.

4. A descendant of Caleb, 1Ch 2:43.


A noxious plant of the grass family, supposed to mean the darnel, the
"infelix lolium" of Virgil, now called Siwan or Zowan by the Arabs. It
grows among the wheat everywhere in Palestine, and bears a great
resemblance to it while growing, so much so that before they head out
the two plants can hardly be distinguished. The grains are found two
or three together in a dozen small husks scattered on a rather long
head. The Arabs do not separate the darnel from the wheat, unless by
means of a fan or sieve after threshing, Mt 13:25- 30. If left to
mingle with the bread, it occasions dizziness, and often acts as an


1Sa 17:6, a small round shield. The same word in 1Sa 17:45 is
translated a shield, and elsewhere a javelin. See ARMOR.


1. The second son of Javan, Ge 10:4.

2. Tartessus, an ancient city between two mouths of the Guadalquiver,
in the south of Spain. It was a Phoenician colony, and was the most
celebrated emporium in the west to which the Hebrews and Phoenicians
traded. That Tarshish was situated in the west is evident from Ge
10:4, where it is joined with Elisha, Kittim, and Dodanim. See also Ps
72:10. According to Eze 38:13, it was an important place of trade;
according to Jer 10:9, it exported silver, and according to Eze
27:12,25, silver, iron, tin, and lead to the Tyrian markets. They
embarked for this place from Joppa, Jon 1:3-4. In Isa 23:1,6,10, it is
evidently represented as an important Phoenician colony. It is named
among other distant states, in Isa 66:19. All these notices agree with

In some of these passages, however, Tarshish may be used as a general
expression, applicable to all the distant shores of Europe; and thus
the custom may have arisen of designating as "ships of Tarshish" any
large merchant ships bound on long voyages in any direction. The
English term Indiaman is very similarly used. Whether the ships fitted
out by Solomon at Ezion-geber on the Red sea, sailed around Africa to
Tarshish in Spain, or gave the name of Tarshish to some place in India
of Ethiopia, as the discovers of America gave it the eastern names
India and Indians, cannot now be determined, 1Ki 10:22 22:48,49 2Ch
9:21 20:26 Isa 23:1,14 60:9.


The name of a celebrated city, the metropolis of Cilicia, in the
southeastern part of Asia Minor; situated six miles from the
Mediterranean, on the banks of the river Cydnus, which flowed through
and divided it into two parts. Tarsus was distinguished for the
culture of Greek literature and philosophy, so that at one time, in
its schools and in the number of its learned men, it was the rival of
Athens and Alexandria. In reward for its exertions and sacrifices
during the civil wars of Rome, Tarsus was made a free city of
Augustus. It was the privilege of such cities that they were governed
by their own laws and magistrates, and were not subjected to tribute,
to the jurisdiction of a Roman governor, nor to the power of a Roman
garrison, although they acknowledged the supremacy of the Roman
people, and were bound to aid them against their enemies.

That the freedom of Tarsus, however, was not equivalent to being a
Roman citizen, appears from this, that the tribune, although he knew
Paul to be a citizen of Tarsus, Ac 21:39, yet ordered him to be
scourged, Ac 22:24, but desisted from his purpose when he learned that
Paul was a Roman citizen, Ac 22:27. It is therefore probable that the
ancestors of Paul had obtained the privilege of Roman citizenship in
some other way, Ac 9:30 11:25 22:3. It is now called Tarsous; and
though much decayed and full of ruins, is estimated to contain a
population in summer of 7,000, and in winter of 30,000, chiefly Turks.
During the excessive heat of summer, a large part of the people repair
to the high lands of the interior.


An idol, introduced by the Avites into Samaria, 2Ki 17:31.


An Assyrian general, sent to Jerusalem with Rabshakeh, by Sennacherib,
2Ki 18:17; and perhaps the same who captured Ashdod in the reign of
Sargon, Isa 20:1.


A governor of Samaria under Darius, whose administration was
characterized by great justice and moderation towards the Jews, Ezr
5:1-6:22, B. C. 519.


A village thirty-three miles south of Rome, mentioned by Cicero, and
still called Tre Tavern. See APPI FORUM APPI.


Small urns or Lachrymatorises, of thin glass or simple pottery, and
containing the tears of mourners at funerals, used to be placed in the
sepulchres of the dead at Rome and in Palestine, where they are found
in great numbers on opening ancient tombs. This custom is illustrative
of Ps 56:8, which shows that God is ever mindful of the sorrows of his
people. In Re 7:17 he is represented as tenderly wiping all tears from
their eyes, or removing for ever all their grief.


Es 2:16, the tenth month of the Hebrew sacred year, commencing with
the new moon in January.




The lime or linden. See OAK.


Jer 6:1, a city of Judah, now in ruins, situated on an extended
height, twelve miles south of Jerusalem. Here originated the wise
woman who was Joab's agent, 2Sa 14:2, and Amos the prophet, Am 1:1. It
was inhabited by Christians in the time of the crusades.

The wilderness of Tekoa, mentioned in 2Ch 20:20, inclines toward the
Dead Sea.


A place on the river Chebar in Mesopotamia, where a colony of captive
Jews was located, Eze 3:15. A town called Thallaba is still found in
that region.


An Ishmaelite tribe and district, in the north of Arabia Deserta
towards Damascus, Ge 25:15. It is associated with Dedan, Isa 21:14;
Jer 25:23, and was famous for its caravans, Job 6:19. The region is
still called Tema by the Arabs.


South, a city and region in Eastern Idumaea, settled by Teman the
grandson of Esau, Ge 36:11,15,42 Am 1:12 Hab 3:3. The men of Teman, Ge
36:34, like others of the Edomites, had the reputation of great
wisdom, Jer 49:7,20 Ob 1:21. Compare the sayings of Eliphaz the
Temanite in the book of Job.


A building hallowed by the special presence of God, and consecrated to
his worship. The distinctive idea of a temple, contrasted with all
other buildings, is that it is the dwelling-place of a deity; and
every heathen temple had its idol, but the true and living God dwelt
"between the cherubim" in the Holy of Holies at Jerusalem. Hence,
figuratively applied, a temple denotes the church of Christ, 2Th 2:4
Re 3:12; heaven, Ps 11:4 Re 7:15; and the soul of the believer, in
which the Holy Spirit dwells, 1Co 3:16,17 6:19 2Co 6:16.

After the Lord had instructed David that Jerusalem was the place he
had chosen in which to fix his dwelling, that pious prince began to
realize his design of preparing a temple for the Lord that might be
something appropriate to His divine majesty. But the honor was
reserved for Solomon his son and successor, who was to be a peaceful
prince, and like David, who had shed much blood in war. David,
however, applied himself to collect great quantities of gold, silver,
brass, iron, and other materials for this undertaking, 2Sa 1:1-25
7:1-29 1Ch 22:1-19.

The place chosen for erecting this magnificent structure was Mount
Moriah, Ge 2:2,14 2Ch 3:1, the summit of which originally was unequal,
and its sides irregular; but it was a favorite object of the Jews to
level and extend it. The plan and the whole model of this structure
was laid by the same divine architect as that of the tabernacle,
namely, God himself; and it was built much in the same form as the
tabernacle, but was of much larger dimensions. The utensils for the
sacred service were also the same as those used in the tabernacle,
only several of them were larger, in proportion to the more spacious
edifice to which they belonged. The foundations of this magnificent
edifice were laid by Solomon, in the year B. C. 1011, about four
hundred and eighty years after the exodus and the building of the
tabernacle; and it was finished B. C. 1004, having occupied seven
years and six months in the building. It was dedicated with peculiar
solemnity to the worship of Jehovah, who condescended to make it the
place for the special manifestation of his glory, 2Ch 5:1-7:22. The
front or entrance to the temple was on the eastern side, and
consequently facing the Mount of Olives, which commanded a noble
prospect of the building. The temple itself, strictly so called, which
comprised the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies, formed
only a small part of the sacred precincts, being surrounded by
spacious courts, chambers, and other apartments, which were much more
extensive than the temple itself. It should be observed that the word
temple does not always denote the central edifice itself, but in many
passages some of the outer courts are intended.

From the descriptions which are handed down to us of the temple of
Solomon, it is utterly impossible to obtain so accurate an idea of its
relative parts and their respective proportions, as to furnish such an
account as may be deemed satisfactory to the reader. Hence we find no
two writers agreeing in their descriptions. The following account may
give a general idea of the building.

The Temple itself was seventy cubits long; the Porch being ten cubits,
1Ki 6:3, the Holy place forty cubits, 1Ki 6:17, and the Most Holy
place, twenty cubits, 2Ch 3:8. The width of the Porch, Holy, and Most
Holy places was thirty cubits, 1Ki 6:2; but the height of the porch
was much greater, being no less than one hundred and twenty cubits,
2Ch 3:4, or four times the height of the rest of the building. The
Most Holy place was separated from the Sanctuary by an impervious
veil, Lu 23:45, and was perhaps wholly dark, 1Ki 8:12, but for the
glory of the Lord which filled it. To the north and south sides, and
the west end of the Holy and Most Holy places, or all around the
edifice, from the back of the porch on one side, to the back of the
porch on the other side, certain buildings were attached. These were
called side chambers, and consisted of three stories, each five cubits
high, 1Ki 6:10, and joined to the wall of the temple without. Thus the
three stories of side chambers, when taken together, were fifteen
cubits high, and consequently reached exactly to half the height of
the side walls and end of the temple; so that there was abundance of
space above these for the windows which gave light to the temple, 1Ki

Solomon's temple appears to have been surrounded by two main courts:
the inner court, that "of the Priests," 1Ki 6:36 2Ch 4:9; and the
outer court, that "of Israel;" these were separated by a "middle wall
of partition," with lodges for priests and Levites, for wood, oil,
etc., 1Ch 28:12. The ensuing description is applicable to the temple
courts in the time of our Lord.

The "court of the Gentiles" was so called because it might be entered
by persons of all nations. The chief entrance to it was by the east or
Shushan gate, which was the principal gate of the temple. It was the
exterior court, and by far the largest of all the courts belonging to
the temple, and is said to have covered a space of more than fourteen
acres. It entirely surrounded the other courts and the temple itself;
and in going up to the temple from its east or outer gate, one would
cross first this court, then the court of the Women, then that of
Israel, and lastly that of the Priests. This outmost court was
separated from the court of the women by a wall three cubits high of
lattice work, and having inscriptions on its pillars forbidding
Gentiles and unclean persons to pass beyond it, on pain of death, Ac
21:28 Eph 2:13,14. From this court of the Gentiles our Savior drove
the persons who had established a cattle-market in it, for the purpose
of supplying those with sacrifices who came from a distance, Mt
21:12-13. We must not overlook the beautiful pavement of variegated
marble, and the "porches" or covered walks, with columns supported
magnificent galleries, with which this court was surrounded. Those on
the east, west, and north sides were of the same dimensions; but that
on the south was much larger. The porch called Solomon's Joh 10:23 Ac
3:11, was on the east side or front of this court, and was so called
because it was built by this prince, upon a high wall rising from the
alley of Kidron.

The "court of the Women," called in Scripture the "new court," 2Ch
20:5, and the "outer court," Eze 46:21, separated the court of the
Gentiles from the court of Israel, extending along the east side only
of the latter. It was called the court of the women because it was
their appointed place of worship, beyond which they might not go,
unless when they brought a sacrifice, in which case they went forward
to the court of Israel. The gate which led into this court from that
of the Gentiles, was "the Beautiful gate" of the temple, mentioned in
Ac 3:2,10; so called, because the folding doors, lintel, and
side-posts were all overlaid with Corinthian brass. The worshipper
ascended to its level by a broad flight of steps. It was in this court
of the women, called the "treasury," that our Savior delivered his
striking discourse to the Jews, related in Joh 8:1-20. It was into
this court also that the Pharisee and the publican went to pray, Lu
18:10-13, and hither the lame man followed Peter and John, after he
was cured- the court of the women being the ordinary place of worship
for those who brought no sacrifice, Ac 3:8. From thence, after
prayers, he went back with them, through the "Beautiful gate" of the
temple, where he had been lying, and through the sacred fence, into
the court of the Gentiles, where, under the eastern piazza, or
Solomon's porch, Peter preached Christ crucified. It was in the same
court of the women that the Jews laid hold of Paul, when they judged
him a violator of the temple by taking Gentiles within the sacred
fence, Ac 21:26-29.

The "court of Israel" was separated from the court of the women by a
wall thirty-two and a half cubits high on the outside, but on the
inside only twenty-five. The reason of which difference was, that as
the rock on which the temple stood became higher on advancing
westward, the several courts naturally became elevated in proportion.
The ascent into this court from the east was by a flight of fifteen
steps, of a semicircular form, and the magnificent gate Nicanor. On
these steps the Levites stood in singing the "songs of degrees." The
whole length of the court from east to west was one hundred and
eighty-seven cubits, and the breadth from north to south, one hundred
and thirty-five cubits. In this court, and the piazza which surrounded
it, the Israelites stood in solemn and reverent silence while their
sacrifices were burning in the inner court, and while the services of
the sanctuary were performed, Lu 1:8-11,21,22.

Within this court, and surrounded by it, was the "court of the
Priests;" one hundred and sixty-five cubits long and one hundred and
nineteen cubits wide, and raised two and a half cubits above the
surrounding court, from which it was separated by pillars and a
railing. Within this court stood the brazen altar on which the
sacrifices were consumed, the molten sea in which the priests washed,
and the ten brazen lavers for washing the sacrifices; also the various
utensils and instruments for sacrificing, which are enumerated in 2Ch
4:1-22. It is necessary to observe here, that although the court of
the Priests was not accessible to all Israelites, as that of Israel
was to all the priests, yet they might enter it for three several
purposes: to lay their hands on the animals which they offered, or to
kill them, or to wave some part of them.

From the court of the Priests, the ascent to the temple was by a
flight of twelve steps, each half a cubit in height, which led into
the sacred porch. Of the dimensions of this in Solomon's temple, as
also of the Sanctuary and Holy of Holies, we have already spoken. It
was within the door of the porch, and in the sight of those who stood
in the courts immediately before it, that the two pillars, Jachiin and
Boaz, were placed, 2Ch 3:17 Eze 40:49.

The temple of Solomon retained its pristine splendor but thirtythree
years, when it was plundered by Shishak king of Egypt, 1Ki 14:25,26
2Ch 12:9. After this period it underwent sundry profanities and
pillages from Hazael, Tiglath-pileser, Sennacherib, etc., 2Ki 12:1-21
16:1-20 18:1-37; and was at length utterly destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar
king of Babylon, B. C. 588, after having stood according to Usher,
four hundred and twenty-four years, three months, and eight days.

After lying in ruins for fifty-two years, the foundations of the
second temple were laid by Zerubbabel, and the Jews who had availed
themselves of the privilege granted by Cyrus and returned to
Jerusalem, Ezr 1:1-4 2:1 3:8-10. After various hindrances, it was
finished and dedicated twenty-one years after it was begun, B. C. 515,
Ezr 6:15-16. The dimensions of this temple in breadth and height were
double those of Solomon's. The weeping of the people at the laying of
the foundation, therefore, Ezr 3:12-13, and the disparaging manner in
which they spoke of it, when compared with he first one, Hag 2:3, were
occasioned by its inferiority not in size, but in glory. It wanted the
five principal things which could invest it with this: namely, the ark
and mercy seat, the divine presence or visible glory, the holy fire on
the altar, the urim and thummin, and the Spirit of prophecy. In the
year B. C. 163, this temple was plundered and profaned by Antiochus
Epiphanes, who ordered the discontinuance of the daily sacrifice,
offered swine's flesh upon the altar, and completely suspended the
worship of Jehovah. Thus it continued for three years, when it was
repaired and purified by Judas Maccabaeus, who restored the divine
worship, and dedicated it anew.

Herod, having slain all the Sanhedrim, except two, in the first year
of his reign, B. C. 37, resolved to atone for it by rebuilding and
beautifying the temple. This he was the more inclined to do, both from
the peace which he enjoyed, and the decayed state of the edifice.
After employing two years in preparing the materials for the work, the
temple of Zerubbabel was pulled down, B. C. 17, and fortysix years
before the first Passover of Christ's ministry. Although this temple
was fit for divine service in nine years and a half, yet a great
number of laborers and artificers were still employed in carrying on
the outbuildings all the time of our Savior's abode on earth. His
presence fulfilled the predictions in Hag 2:9 Mal 3:1. The temple of
Herod was considerably larger than that of Zerubbabel, as that of
Zerubbabel was larger than Solomon's. For whereas the second temple
was seventy cubits long, sixty broad, and sixty high, this was one
hundred cubits long, seventy broad, and one hundred high. The porch
was raised to the height of one hundred cubits, and was extended
fifteen cubits beyond each side of the rest of the building. All the
Jewish writers praise this temple exceedingly for its beauty and the
costliness of its workmanship. It was built of white marble,
exquisitely wrought, and with stones of large dimensions, some of them
twenty-five cubits long, eight cubits high, and twelve cubits thick.
To these there is no doubt a reference in Mr 13:1 Lu 21:5: "And as he
went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master,
see what manner of stones, and what buildings are here!" Luke says,
"goodly stones." See a description of the ornaments of one of its
gates under VINE.

This splendid building, which rose like a mount of gold and of snow,
and was once the admiration and envy of the world, has forever passed
away. According to our blessed Lord's prediction, that "there should
not be left one stone upon another that should not be thrown down," Mr
13:2, the whole structure above ground was completely demolished by
the Roman soldiers, under Titus, A. D. 70. The temple area is now
occupied by two Turkish mosques, into which, until recently, neither
Jew nor Christian was permitted to enter. Beneath the vast area of
El-Haram still exist immense arched ways and vaults of unknown date;
also a large and deep well, and other indications that the temple
always possessed a copious and perennial supply of water, derived
perhaps in part from Gihon by Hezekiah's aqueduct, and in part from
Solomon's pools, and flowing off through the fountain of the Virgin
and the pool of Siloam. In the outer walls of the present area are
seen at several places stones of vast size, evidently belonging to the
ancient walls. Near the southwest corner certain huge stones mark the
beginning of an arch, a part of the stately bridge which anciently
connected the temple are with Mount Zion; and a little north of this
spot is the celebrated wailing-place of the Jews. See WALL.

In the time of the kings, a regular guard of Levites was always on
duty at the temple, 1Ch 26:1-32 2Ch 23:19. During the supremacy of the
Romans there was a Roman garrison in the strong tower of Antonia,
which, with its various courts and fortifications, adjoined the temple
area on the north, and was connected with it by passages both above
and under ground, Joh 18:12 Ac 4:1 5:26 21:31-40.

The utmost veneration and love were always cherished towards the
temple by pious Jews, Ps 84:1-12. All the people also, from various
motives, gloried in it, many with a bigoted and idolatrous regard.
Hence the charge of blaspheming the temple, which was found the most
effectual means of enraging the populace against Christ and his
followers, Mt 26:61 27:40 Joh 2:19,20 Ac 6:13 21:27-30.


To make trial of, Lu 10:25, and usually to present inducements to sin.
Satan is the great tempter, seeking thus most effectually to destroy
men's souls, 1Ch 21:1 Job 1:1-2:13 Mt 4:1 1Th 3:5. Men are also led
into sin by their own evil inclinations and by other men, Jas 1:14-15.
God, being holy and desirous of men's holiness, does not thus tempt
them, Jas 1:13; but he makes trial of them, to prove, exercise, and
establish their graces, Ge 22:1 Jas 1:2-3. Christ stands ready to
support his people under any possible temptation, 1Co 10:13 Heb 2:18
4:15 2Pe 2:19. Yet they are not to rush into temptation unbidden, Lu
11:4. Men tempt God by presumptuously experimenting on his providence
or his grace, or by distrusting him, Ex 17:2,7 Isa 7:12 Mt 4:7 Ac 5:9
15:10. Sore afflictions are often called temptations or trials, as
they are frequently the occasion of sin, Mt 6:13 Lu 8:13 22:28 Jas
1:12 1Pe 1:6,7.

Christ, at the outset of his public ministry, was violently assailed
by the tempter, who thus displayed his effrontery and his blindness,
hoping perhaps that the human soul of the Redeemer would be left
unaided by his divinity, Mt 4:1-25. The temptations are to be
understood as real transactions, and not as visions. The tempter was
baffled, and left him for a season, to meet a like rebuff on every
future assault, Lu 4:13 22:53 Joh 14:30. The Savior triumphed, and
paradise was regained.


Dwelling in tents was very general in ancient times among Eastern
nations, Ge 4:20; their way of life being pastoral, locomotion became
necessary for pasturage, and dwellings adapted for such a life became
indispensable, Isa 38:12. The patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
dwelt in tents, Ge 18:1 Heb 11:9; and on the exodus of the Israelites
from Egypt, throughout their peregrinations until they obtained the
promised land, and to some extent afterwards, they adopted the same
kind of habitation. See BOOTHS. Hence the expression. "Every man to
his tents, O Israel," etc.,

Jud 7:8 2Sa 20:1 2Ki 8:21. Indeed, the people of the East, men, women,
and children, lived very much in the open air, as is obvious from the
New Testament narratives. And the same is true of them at the present
day. The Midianites, the Philistines, the Syrains, the descendants of
Ham, the Hagarites, and the Cushanites are mentioned in Scripture as
living in tents. But the people most remarkable for this unsettled and
wandering mode of life are the Arabs, who from the time of Ishmael to
the present have continued the custom of dwelling in tents. Amid the
revolutions which have transferred kingdoms from one possessor to
another, these wandering tribes still dwell in tents, unsubdued and
wild as was their progenitor. This kind of dwelling is not, however,
confined to the Arabs, but is used throughout the continent of Asia.
The word tent is formed from the Latin, "to stretch;" tents being
usually made of canvas stretched out, and sustained by poles with
cords secured to pegs driven into the ground. The "nail of the tent"
with which Jael pierced the head of Sisera was such a tent-pin, Jud
4:21. See also Isa 33:20 40:22 54:2. The house of God, and heaven, are
spoken of in Scripture as the tent or tabernacle of Jehovah, Ps 15:1
61:4 84:1 Heb 8:2 9:11; and the body as the tabernacle of the soul,
taken down by death, 2Co 5:1 2Pe 1:13. Says Lord Lindsay, "There is
something very melancholy in our morning flitting. The tentpins are
plucked up, and in a few minutes a dozen holes, a heap or two of
ashes, and the marks of the camels' knees in the sand, soon to be
obliterated, are the only traces left of what has been for a while our
home." "Often," says M'Cheyne, "we found ourselves shelterless before
being fully dressed. What a type of the tent of our body! Ah, how
often is it taken down before the soul is made meet for the
inheritance of he saints in light." A tent is also put for its
inmates, Hab 3:7 Zec 12:7.

Tents are of various colors; black, as tents of Kedar, Ps 120:5 So
1:5; red, as of scarlet cloth; yellow, as of gold shining brilliantly;
white, as of canvas. They are also of various shapes; some circular,
others of an oblong figure, not unlike the bottom of a ship turned
upside down. In Syria, the tents are generally made of cloth of goats'
hair, woven by women, Ex 35:26. Those of the Arabs are of black goats'
hair. Some other nations adopt the same kind, but it is not common.
The Egyptian and Moorish inhabitants of Askalon are said to use white
tents; and D'Arvieux mentions that the tent of an Arab emir he visited
was distinguished from the rest by its being of white cloth. An Arab
sheikh will have a number of tents, of himself, his family, servants,
and visitors; as in patriarchal times Jacob had separate tents for
himself, for Leah, Rachel, and their maids, Ge 31:33 Jud 4:17.
Usually, however, one tent suffices for a family; being divided, if
large, into several apartments by curtains.


That is, tenth part, corresponding to the Hebrew assaron, or the tenth
part of an ephah. It may therefore be the same as the omer, about five
pints, Le 23:17.


The son of Nahor, and father of Nahor, Haran, and Abraham, Ge 11:24,
begot Abraham at the age of seventy-two years, in Ur of the Chaldeans.
Upon Abraham's first call to remove into the land of promise, Terah
and all his family went with him as far as Haran, in Mesopotamia,
about B. C. 1918, Ge 11:31-32. He died there the same year, aged two
hundred and seventy-five years. Scripture intimates plainly that Terah
had fallen into idolatry, or had for a time mingled some idolatrous
practices with the worship of the true God, Jos 24:2,14; and some
think that Abraham himself at fist did the same thing; but that
afterwards God, being gracious to him, convinced him of the vanity of
this worship, and that he undeceived his father Terah.


Small idols or superstitious figures, from the possession, adoration,
and consultation of which extraordinary benefits were expected. See
margin 2Ki 23.24; Ezekiel 21.21. The Eastern people are still much
addicted to this superstition of talismans. The ancient teraphim
appear to have been household gods, and their worship was sometimes
blended with that of Jehovah, Jud 17:1-13.

They seem in one case to have resembled the human form in shape and
size, 1Sa 19:13,16. The images of Rachel, Ge 31:19,30, were teraphim.
So Jud 17:5 18:14, 20 Ho 3:4.


See OAK.


A Christian whom Paul employed as his amanuensis in writing the
epistle to the Romans, Ro 16:22.


A Roman orator or advocate, whom the Jews employed to bring forward
their accusation against Paul, before the Roman procurator at
Caesarea, probably because they were themselves unacquainted with the
modes of proceeding in the Roman courts, Ac 24:1-2.


In Scripture, usually signifies covenant, and not a man's last will,
Mt 26:28. Both meanings are blended, however, in Heb 9:16-17. Paul
speaks of the New Testament, or covenant, in the blood of the
Redeemer; and calls the law the old covenant, and the gospel the new
covenant, 1Co 1:1-16:24 11:25 2Co 3:6,14 Heb 7:22 10:1-39 12:24. See


The whole revelation of God, testifying to man what he is to believe,
do, and hope, Ps 19:7 119:88,99 1Co 1:6 Re 1:2. The two stone tables
of the law were a visible "testimony" or witness of God's covenant
with his people; and hence the ark of the covenant was called
sometimes the testimony, or the ark of the testimony, Ex 25:22 34:29.
See ARK.


Is strictly the ruler of the fourth part of a state or province; but
in the New Testament it is a general title applied to those who
governed any part of a kingdom or province, with an authority subject
only to that of the Roman emperor. Thus Herod the Great and his
brother were at one time, in early life, constituted tetrarchs of
Judea by Antony. At the death of Herod the Great, he left half his
kingdom to Archelaus, with the title of ethnarch; while the other half
was divided between two of his other sons. Herod Antipas and Philip,
with the title of tetrarchs. See HEROD 1 and 2.

In the same manner Lysanias is also said to have been tetrarch of
Abilene, Lu 3:1. It is Herod Antipsas who is called the tetrarch in Mt
14:1 Lu 3:19 9:7 Ac 13:1. As the authority of the tetrarch was similar
to that of the king, so the general term king is also applied to
Herod, Mt 14:9 Mr 6:14.


A surname of the apostle Jude. See JUDAS 2.




See AMMON, or No-Ammon, or No.


An Ephraimite town near Sheshem, at the siege of which Abimelech was
killed, Jud 9:50-55; 2Sa 11:21.


Ex 20:15 Pr 22:22, under the Mosaic law, was punished by exacting a
double or a quadruple restitution, which was secured if necessary by
the sale of the goods or services of the thief to the requisite
amount, Ex 22:1-8,23 2Sa 12:6 Pr 6:30,31 Lu 19:8. A night-robber might
lawfully be slain in the act; and a man-stealer was to be punished by
death, Ex 21:16 22:2.


Friend of God, an honorable person to whom the evangelist Luke
addressed his gospel, and the Acts of the Apostles, Lu 1:3; Ac 1:1. We
can only say of him, in general, that most probably he was a man of
some note, who lived out of Palestine, and had abjured paganism in
order to embrace Christianity.


These were the earliest of Paul's epistles, and were written from
Corinth, in A. D. 52 and 53. In the first epistle, Paul rejoices over
Timothy's good report of the faith of Christians at Thessalonica; and
confirms them against the persecutions and temptations they would
meet, by discussing the miraculous testimony of God to the truth of
the gospel, 1Th 1:5-10; the character of its preachers, 1Th 2:13; the
holiness of its precepts, 1Th 4:1-12; and the resurrection of Christ
and his people, 1Th 4:13-5:11. The remainder of the epistle consists
of practical exhortations.

In the second epistle, he corrects certain errors into which they were
falling, particularly respecting the second coming of Christ. This, he
shows, must be preceded by the career of "the man of sin," "the son of
peredition," "whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all
power and signs and lying wonders;" who usurps divine authority over
the church, and "opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is
called God." The exact fulfillment in the Romish church of these
predictions, at first so contrary to human anticipation, proves that
the apostle wrote by inspiration.


A city and seaport of the second part of Macedonia, at the head of the
Thermaic gulf. When Emilius Paulus, after his conquest of Macedonia,
divided the country into four districts, this city as made the capital
of the second division, and was the station of a Roman governor and
questor. It was anciently called Therma. It was inhabited by Greeks,
Romans, and Jews, from among whom the apostle Paul gathered a numerous
church. There was a large number of Jews resident in their city, where
they had a synagogue, in which Paul, A. D. 52, preached to them on
three successive Sabbaths. Some of the Jews determined to maltreat the
apostle, and surrounded the house in which they believed he was
lodging. The brethren, however, secretly led Paul and Silas out of the
city, towards Berea, and they escaped from their enemies, Ac 17:1-34.
Thessalonica, now called Saloniki, is at present a wretched town, but
has a population of about 70,000 persons, one-third of whom are Jews.

When Paul left Macedonia for Athens and Corinth, he left behind him
Timothy and Silas, at Thessalonica, that they might confirm those in
the faith who had been converted under his ministry. He afterwards
wrote to the church of the Thessalonians two epistles. See PAUL.


An insurgent, Jew, mentioned by Gamaliel, A. D. 33, as of the
preceding generation, Ac 5:36-37, and therefore not to be confounded
with a Theudas of A. D. 44, mentioned by Josephus. The period
following the death of Herod the Great was full of revolts. Theudas
was also a common name, answering to the Hebrew Matthew, under which
name Josephus speaks of an unsuccessful reformer who was burnt in the
latter part of Herod's reign.


The mode of taking an oath, alluded to in Ge 24:2-9 47:29-31, was
significant of the swearer's obligation to obedience. Jacob's thigh
was disabled by the Angel, to show the patriarch that his prevalence
was through his faith and prayer, not through force, Ge 32:25-31.
Smiting the thigh was a gesture of self-condemnation and grief, Jer
31:19 Eze 21:12. Warriors wore their swords upon the left thigh,
unless left-handed in readiness for use, Jud 3:15-21 Ps 45:3 So 3:8;
so too they may have borne their names and titles, not only on their
shields, but on their swords, or on the rove or mailed coat covering
the thigh, Re 19:16. "Hip and thigh," Jud 15:8, seems to mean utterly
and irrecoverably.


Under these terms, together with brambles, briers, and nettles, are
included numerous troublesome plants, many of them with thorns, well
fitted to try the husbandman's patience, Ge 3:18. Plants of this class
were a symbol of desolation, Pr 24:31, and were often used as fuel, Ps
58:9 Ec 7:6 Isa 33:12. They also served for hedges, Ho 2:6. A petty
village on the plain of Jericho is now protected against Arab horsemen
by a hedge of thorny Nubk branches.

Dr. Eli Smith, visiting the plain where Gideon once threatened to tear
the flesh of the princes of Succoth with thorns and briers, noticed
such plants there of remarkable size, some of the thistles rising
above his head on horseback, Jud 8:7. Few of the Hebrew terms can now
be affixed with certainty to particular varieties among the many found
in Syria. The plant of which the thorny crown of the Savior was made,
with the design to mock rather than to torture him, is supposed to
have been the Zizyphus Spina Christi, a common tree with dark and
glossy leaves, having many small and sharp spines on its round and
pliant branches, Mt 27:29 Joh 19:2-3. Paul's "thorn in the flesh," 2Co
12:7-10, may have been some bodily infirmity, unfavorable to the
success of his public ministrations. Compare Ga 4:13-14 2Co 10:10.


The apostle, Mt 10:3, called in Greek Didymus, that is, a twin, Joh
20:24, was probably a Galilean, as well as the other apostles; but the
place of his birth, and the circumstances of his calling, are unknown,
Lu 6:13-15. He appears to have been of an impulsive character,
sincerely devoted to Christ, ready to act upon his convictions, and
perhaps slow to be convinced, as he at first doubted our Lord's
resurrection, Joh 11:16; 14:5-6; 20:19-29. Several of the fathers
inform us that he preached in the Indies; and others say that he
preached in Cush, or Ethiopia, near the Caspian sea.

There are nominal Christians in the East Indies, who bear the name of
St. Thomas, because they report that this apostle preached the gospel
there. They dwell in a peninsula of the Indus, on this side the gulf.




The phrase "three days and three nights," Mt 12:40, was equivalent in
Hebrew to the English "three days;" the Jews employing the expression
"a day and a night" to denote our "day" of twentyfour hours. Nor did
"three days," 1Sa 30:13, literally "this third day," according to
their usage, necessarily include the whole of three days, but a part
of three days, a continuous period including one whole day of
twenty-four hours, and a portion of the day preceding it and the day
following it. Compare Ge 7:12,17 1Sa 30:12-13.


Was anciently and is still performed in the East, sometimes with a

Ru 2:17 Isa 28:27; sometimes by treading out the grain with unmuzzled
oxen, De 25:4, but more generally by means of oxen dragging an uncouth
instrument over the sheaves of grain. See CORN.

The instrument most used in Palestine at this time is simply two short
planks fastened side by side and turned up in front, like our common
stone-sledge, having sharp stones or irons projecting from the under
side, Isa 28:27 41:15 Am 1:3. The Egyptian mode is thus described by
Niebuhr: "They use oxen, as the ancients did, to beat out their corn,
by trampling upon the sheaves, and dragging after them a clumsy
machine. This machine is not, as in Arabia, a stone cylinder, nor a
plank with sharp stones, as in Syria, but a sort of sledge, consisting
of three rollers fitted with irons, which turn upon axles. A farmer
chooses out a level spot in his fields, and has his corn carried
thither in sheaves, upon asses or dromedaries. Two oxen are then yoked
in a sledge; a driver gets upon it, and drives them backward and
forward upon the sheaves; and fresh oxen succeed in the yoke from time
to time." By this operation, the straw is gradually chopped fine and
the grain released. Meanwhile the whole is repeatedly turned over by
wooden pitchforks with three or more prongs, and in due time thrown
into a heap in the center of the floor. The machine thus described is
called a moreg, and answers to the Hebrew morag mentioned in 2Sa 24:22
1Ch 21:23.

When the grain is well loosened from the straw by the treading of
oxen, with or without one of the instruments above mentioned, the
whole heap is next thrown with forks several yards against the wind,
which blowing away the chaff, the grain falls into a heap by itself,
2Ki 13:7; and if necessary, the process is repeated. For this purpose
the threshing-floors are in the open air, Jud 6:37, and often on high
ground, like that of Araunah on Mount Moriah, 1Ch 21:15, that the wind
may aid more effectually in winnowing the grain, Jer 4:11-12, which is
afterwards sometimes passed through a sieve for farther cleansing. The
ground is prepared for use as a threshing-floor by being smoothed off,
and beaten down hard. While the wheat was carefully garnered, the
straw and chaff were gathered up for fuel; a most instructive
illustration of the day of judgment, Mt 3:12.


An established emblem of kingly dignity and power, used by sovereigns
on all stale occasions. That of Solomon was of ivory, overlaid with
gold; having six broad steps, every one guarded by a golden lion at
each end, 1Ki 10:18-20. Heaven is called God's throne, and the earth
his footstool, Isa 66:1. His throne is also sublimely described as
everlasting, and as built upon justice and equity, Ps 45:6; 97:2. See
also Isa 6:2-4; Eze 1:1- 28. Christ is on the throne forever, as the
King of heaven, Ps 110:1; He 1:8; Re 3:21; and his faithful disciples
will partake of his kingly glory, Lu 22:30; Re 4:4; 5:10. He forbade
men lightly to swear by heaven or its throne, as they were thus
irreverent to God, Mt 5:34; 23:22.




And lightning are significant manifestations of the power of God, and
emblems of his presence, Ex 19:16 1Sa 2:10 12:17 Ps 18:13. Thunder is
poetically called "the voice of the Lord" in the sublime description
of a thunder-storm in Ps 29:11;

"The voice of the Lord is upon the waters;

The God of glory thundereth;

The Lord is upon many waters.

The voice of the Lord is powerful;

The voice of the Lord is full of majesty.

The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars;

Yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon," etc.

See also Job 37:1-5 40:9 Jer 10:13. In illustration of Ps 29:9,
Moffat, while describing the thunder-storms of South Africa, say that
the antelopes flee in consternation; and that he has observed the
Bechuanas starting off early on the morning following such a storm in
quest of young antelopes prematurely born. In Ps 78:48, "hot
thunderbolts" means lightning.


A city of Lydia, in Asia Minor, a Macedonian colony, anciently called
Pelopia and Euhippia, now Ak-hisar. It was situated on the confines of
Lydia and Mysia, near the river Lycus, between Sardis and Pergamos. It
was the seat of one of "the seven churches," Re 1:11; 2:18,24. The art
of dyeing purple was particularly cultivated at Thyatira, as appears
from an inscription recently found there; and it still sends to
Smyrna, sixty miles southwest, large quantities of scarlet cloth, Ac
16:14. Ak-hissar is a poor town, with six thousand inhabitants,
chiefly Turks.


Re 18:12, the wood of the Thyia or Thuja Articulata of Linnaeus, an
aromatic evergreen tree, resembling the cedar, and found in Libya,
near Mount Atlas. The wood was used in burning incense, and under the
name of citron-wood was highly prized by the Romans for ornamental
wood-work. It yields the sanderach resin of commerce.


A city of Galilee, founded by Herod Antipas, and namely by him in
honor of the emperor Tiberius. A more ancient and greater city,
perhaps Chinneroth, seems previously to have flourished and gone to
ruin near the same site, on the south. Tiberias was situated on the
western shore of the lake of Gennesareth, about two hours' ride from
the place where the Jordan issues from the lake. In the vicinity of
the city were hot springs, which were much celebrated. The lake is
also sometimes, called from the city, the sea of Tiberias, Joh 6:1,23
21:1. See SEA 4.

After the destruction of Jerusalem, Tiberias was celebrated as the
seat of a flourishing school of Jewish learning. The crusaders held it
for a time, and erected a church, in which the Arabs have since housed
their cattle. Modern Tubariyeh lies on a narrow undulating plain
between the high table-land and the sea. It was half destroyed by an
earthquake in 1837, and has a population of only twenty-five hundred
souls, nearly one-third of whom are Jews. The walls are little more
than heaps of ruins, the castle is much shattered, and the place has
an aspect of extreme wretchedness and filth. As the Arabs say, "The
king of the fleas holds his court at Tubariyeh." South of the town are
numerous remains of the ancient city or cities extending for a mile
and a half, nearly to the hot springs. The waters of these springs are
nauseous and salt, and too hot for immediate use, 136 degrees to 144
degrees; but the baths are much resorted to for the cure of rheumatic
diseases, etc.


Claudius Drusus Nero, the second emperor of Rome, was the son of
Livia, and stepson of Augustus; and being adopted by that emperor, he
succeeded to his throne, A. D. 14. He was at first moderate and just,
but soon became infamous for his vices and crimes, and died A. D. 37,
after a cruel reign of twenty-two and a half years. It was in the
fifteenth year of his reign that John the Baptist commenced his
ministry; and the crucifixion of Jesus took place in the third or
fourth year after, Lu 3:1. This emperor is several times casually
mentioned under the title of Caesar, Lu 20:22-25; 23:2; Joh 19:12. His
subjects were commanded to pay divine worship to his images.


An unsuccessful competitor with Omri the general, for the throne of
Israel, during three years after the death of Elah, 1Ki 16:18- 23.


Apparently the chief of several allied tribes, with whom he joined
Chedorlaomer in the invasion of the vale of Siddim, Mount Seir, etc.,
and was defeated by Abraham, Ge 14:1-6.


King of Assyria, was invited by Ahaz king of Judah to aid him against
the kings of Syria and Israel, 2Ki 16:7-10. This he did, but exacted
also a heavy tribute from Ahaz, so as to distress him without helping
him, 2Ch 28:20-21. From the kingdom of Israel, also, he carried off
the inhabitants of many cities captive, and placed them in various
parts of his kingdom, B. C. 740, 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:29, thus fulfilling
unconsciously the predictions of Isaiah, Isa 7:17 8:4. He is supposed
to be meant by Jareb, the pleader, in Ho 5:13 10:6. He reigned
nineteen years at Nineveh, and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser.


A broad and thin brick, usually made of fine clay, and hardened in the
fire. Such tiles were very common in the region of the Euphrates and
Tigris, (See BABYLON), and offered to the exiled prophet Ezekiel the
most natural and obvious means of depicting the siege of Jerusalem,
Eze 4:1. Great numbers of similar rude sketches of places, as well as
of animals and men, are found on the tiles recently exhumed from the
ancient mounds of Assyria, interspersed among the wedge-shaped
inscriptions with which one side of the tile is usually crowded. At
Nineveh Layard found a large chamber stored full of such inscribed
tiles, like a collection of historical archives, Ezr 6:1. They are
usually about a foot square, and three inches thick.


An instrument of music, early and often mentioned in Scripture, Ge
31:27 Job 21:12. The Hebrews called it toph, under which name they
comprehended all kinds of drums, tabors, and tambourines. We do not
find that the Hebrews used it in their wars, but only at their public
rejoicing, Ex 15:20 Isa 24:8; and it was commonly employed by the
women, Ps 62:12. It consisted, and still consists, of a small circular
rim or hoop, over which a skin is drawn. The rim is also hung with
small bells. The timbrel is used as an accompaniment to lively music,
being shaken and beaten with the knuckles in time. After the passage
of the Red sea, Miriam, sister of Moses, took a timbrel, and began to
play and dance with the women, Ex 15:20. The daughter of Jephthah came
to meet her father with timbrels and other musical instruments, Jud
11:34. See MUSIC.


Besides the ordinary uses of this word, the Bible sometimes employs it
to denote a year, as in Da 4:16; or a prophetic year, consisting of
three hundred and sixty natural year, a day being taken for a year.
Thus in Da 7:25 12:7, the phrase "a time, times, and the dividing of a
time" is supposed to mean three and a half prophetic years, or 1,260
natural years. This period is elsewhere paralleled by the expression,
"forty-two months," each month including thirty years, Re 11:2-3
12:6,14 13:5.


A secondary wife of Eliphaz the son Esau, a name which recurs in the
records of the Idumaena tribes, Ge 36:12,22,40; 1Ch 1:36,51.


An ancient city of the Canaanites, Ge 38:12-14; on the borders of
Judah and Dan after the conquest, Jos 15:10 19:43. It was for a long
time subject to the Philistines, and Samson's wife was a Timnite, Jud
14:1-5 2Ch 28:18. Its deserted site, now called Tibneh, lies three
miles southwest of Zorah.


Or Timnath-Heres, Jud 2:9, a town in Ephraim, which yielded to Joshua
a home, an income, and a burial-place, Jos 19:50; 24:30. The site the
Jewish leader is supposed to have chosen, now called Tibneh, lies in a
rough and mountainous region on the road from Gophna to Antipatris.


A disciple of Paul. He was of Derbe or Lystra, both cities of
Lycaonia, Ac 16:1 14:6. His father was a Greek, but his mother a
Jewess, 2Ti 1:5 3:15. The instructions and prayers of his pious mother
and grandmother, and the preaching of Paul during his first visit to
Lystra, A. D. 48, resulted in the conversion of Timothy and his
introduction to the ministry which he so adorned. He had witnessed the
sufferings of Paul, and loved him as his father in Christ, 1Ti 1:2 2Ti

When the apostle returned to Lystra, about A. D. 51, the brethren
spoke highly of the merit and good disposition of Timothy; and the
apostle determined to take him along with him, for which purpose he
circumcised him at Lystra, Ac 16:3. Timothy applied himself to labor
in the gospel, and did Paul very important services through the whole
course of his preaching. Paul calls him not only his dearly beloved
son, but also his brother, the companion of his labors, and a man of
God; observing that none was more united with him in heart and mind
than Timothy, Ro 16:21 1Co 4:17 2:1 Col 1:1 1Ti 1:2,18. Indeed, he was
selected by Paul as his chosen companion in his journeys, shared for a
time his imprisonment at Rome, Heb 13:23, and was afterwards left by
him at Ephesus, to continue and perfect the work which Paul had begun
in that city, 1Ti 1:3 3:14. He appears to have possessed in a very
high degree the confidence and affection of Paul, and is therefore
often mentioned by him in terms of warm commendation, Ac 16:1 17:14,15
18:5 19:22 20:4 2Ti 3:10 4:5.

EPISTLES TO TIMOTHY. The first of these Paul seems to have written
subsequently to his first imprisonment at Rome, and while he was in
Macedonia, having left Timothy at Ephesus, 1Ti 1:2, A. D. 64. The
second appears to have been addressed to Timothy in northwestern Asia
Minor, during Paul's second imprisonment and in anticipation of
martyrdom, A. D. 67. This dying charge of the faithful apostle to his
beloved son in the gospel, the latest fruit of his love for him and
for the church, we study with deep emotions. Both epistles are most
valuable and instructive documents for the direction and admonition of
every Christian, and more especially of ministers of the gospel. With
the epistle to Titus, they form the three "pastoral epistles," as they
are called.


A metal known and used at an early period, Nu 31:22, and brought by
the Tyrians from Tarshish, Eze 27:12. In Isa 1:25 it means the alloy
of lead, tin, and other base admixtures in silver ore, separated from
the pure silver by smelting.


The ancient Thapsacus, an important city on the western bank of the
Euphrates, which constituted the northeastern extremity of Solomon's
dominions, 1Ki 4:24. The ford at this place being the last one on the
Euphrates towards the south, its possession was important to Solomon
in his design to attract the trade of the East to Palestine. Hence the
building of Tadmor on the desert route. Perhaps the same city is meant
in 2Ki 15:16, though some understand here a city of the same name near


A son of Japeth, supposed to have been the forefather of the ancient
Thracians, Ge 10:2.


Or "little moons," are thought to have been ornaments of the neck,
worn not by women only, Isa 3:18, but by men, and even on the necks of
camels, Jud 8:21,26. Some supposed the tire, in Eze 24:17, was an
ornamented headdress.


King of Ethiopia, or Cuch, and of Egypt. This prince, at the head of a
powerful army, attempted to relieve Hezekiah, when attacked by
Sennarcherib, 2Ki 19:9, but the Assyrian army was routed before he
came up, Isa 37:19, B. C. 712. He is undoubtedly the Tarcus of
Manetho, and the Tearcho of Strabo, the third and last king of the
twenty-fifth or Ethiopian dynasty. It is supposed that he is the
Pharaoh intended in Isa 30:2; and that Isa 19:1-25 depicts the anarchy
which succeeded his reign. He was a powerful monarch, ruling both
Upper and lower Egypt, and extending his conquests far into Asia and
towards the "pillars of Hercules" in the west. His name and victories
are recorded on an ancient temple at Medinet Abou, in upper Egypt;
whence also the representation above given of his head was copied by


Perhaps meaning severe or august, a title of honor borne by Zerubbabel
and Nehemiah as Persian governors of Judea, Ezr 2:63; Ne 7:65.


Pleasant, So 6:4, a city of the Canaanites, Jos 12:24, and afterwards
of the tribe of Manasseh or Ephraism; and the royal seat of the kings
of Israel from the time of Jeroboam to the reign of Omri, who built
the city of Samaria, which then became the capital of this kingdom,
1Ki 15:21,33 16:6,23 2Ki 15:14,16. Its exact location is unknown.


From Tishbe in the tribe of Naphtali, where Elijah was born, 1Ki 17:1.
It is mentioned in one of the apocryphal books.


The first month of the Jewish civil year, and the seventh of the
ecclesiastical; called, in 1Ki 8:2, Ethanim, which see; and answering
nearly to our October. On the first day of Tishri the feast of
Trumpets occurred; on the tenth, the great day of Expiation; and on
the fifteenth, the feast of Tabernacles commenced.


A tenth, the proportion of a man's income devoted to sacred purposes
from time immemorial, Ge 14:20 28:22. This was prescribed in the
Mosaic law, Nu 31:31. A twofold tithe was required of each Jewish
citizen. The first consisted of one-tenth of the produce of his
fields, trees, flocks, and herds, to be given to God as the sovereign
Proprietor of all things and as the king of the Jews, Le 27:30-32 1Sa
8:15,17. The proceeds of this tax were devoted to the maintenance of
the Levites in their respective cities, Nu 18:21-24. A person might
pay this tax in money, adding one-fifth to its estimated value. The
Levites paid a tenth part of what they received to the priests, Nu
18:26-28. The second tithe required of each landholder was one-tenth
of the nine parts of his produce remaining after the first tithe, to
be expended at the tabernacle or temple in entertaining the Levites,
his own family, etc., changing it first into money, if on account of
his remoteness he chose to do so, De 12:17-19,22-29 14:22-27. Every
third year a special provision was made for the poor, either out of
this second tithe or in addition to it, De 14:28-29. These tithes were
not burdensome; but the pious Israelite found himself the richer for
their payment, though it does not seem to have been enforced by any
legal penalties. The system of tithes was renewed both before and
after the captivity, 2Ch 31:5,6,12 Ne 10:37 12:44 13:5; but they were
not always regularly paid, and hence the divine blessing was withheld,
Mal 3:8-12. The Pharisees were scrupulously exemplary in paying their
tithes, but neglected the more important duties of love to God and
man, Mt 23:23.

The principle of the ancient tithes, namely, that ministers of the
gospel and objects of benevolence should be provided for by the whole
people of God, according to their means, is fully recognized in
Scripture as applicable to the followers of Christ. He sent his
servants forth, two and two, without provisions or purses, to receive
their support from the people, since "the laborer is worthy of his
hire," Mt 10:9-14 Lu 10:4-8,16. Paul also reasons in the same way, 1Co
9:13,14 Ga 6:6. For purpose of piety and beneficence, he directed the
Corinthians, and virtually all Christians, to lay aside from their
income, on the first day of the week, as the Lord had prospered them,
1Co 16:2. There is no reason to doubt that the early Christians gave
more freely of their substance than did the ancient Jews, Ac 4:34-36
2Co 8:1-4.


A very small particle; literally, a small horn; the minute tip at the
extremity of some Hebrew letters, Mt 5:18. In transcribing the Hebrew
Scriptures, the Jews exacted the utmost accuracy. Every page and every
line must contain just so much; and he most trivial defect vitiated
the whole roll, and compelled the scribe to begin his task anew. Yet
the extreme care thus expressed for the perfect integrity of the
letter of God's word is but a feeble illustration of the Savior's care
for the same word-every truth, every threatening, and every promise
has the most perfect guarantee possible: "It is easier for heaven and
earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail," Lu 16:17.


A distinguished Christian minister of Greek origin, Ga 2:3; converted
under the preaching of Paul, Tit 1:4, whose companion and fellow-labor
he became, 2Co 8:23. He joined Paul and Barnabas in the mission from
Antioch to Jerusalem, Ac 15:2 Ga 2:1; and subsequently was sent to
Corinth and labored with success, 2Co 8:6 12:18. He did not rejoin the
apostle at Troas, as was expected, but at Philippi, 2Co 2:12,13 7:6;
and soon after resumed his labors at Corinth in connection with a
general effort for the relief of poor Christians in Judea, taking with
him Paul's second epistle, 2Co 8:6,16,17.

Some eight or ten years later, we find him left by the apostle at
Crete, to establish and regulate the churches of that island, Tit 1:5.
Here he received the Epistle to Titus from Paul, then at Ephesus,
inviting him to Nicopolis, Tit 3:12; whence he went into the
neighboring Dalmatia, before Paul was finally imprisoned at Rome, 2Ti
4:10. Tradition makes him labor for many years in Crete, and die there
at an advanced age. His character seems to have been marked by
integrity, discretion, and a glowing zeal. He was trusted and beloved
by Paul, whose epistle to him is similar in its contents to the first
epistle to Timothy, and was probably written not long after it, A. D.


A district beyond Jordan, where Jephthah took refuge when expelled
from Gilead, Jud 11:3,5. Its location is not known.


An Ammonite prince, in league with Sanballat and the Samaritans
against the pious Jews, who were rebuilding the ruined temple, Ne
2:10; 4:3. His threats and treachery were employed in vain. During
Nehemiah's absence, Tobiah was unlawfully established by some of the
chief men of Judah, his relatives, in a fine apartment of the new
temple; but was ignominiously expelled on the governor's return, Ne
6:17-19; 13:1-9.


A descendant of Japheth, Ge 10:3, supposed to have given his name to
the region of Asia afterwards called Armenia, Eze 38:15,16. It was
celebrated for its horses and mules; and the men of Togarmah, like the
modern Armenians, were an industrious, peaceable, and trafficking
people, Eze 27:14.


King of Hamath in Syria, sent his son to rejoice with David on his
victories over Hadadezer king of Zobah, 2Sa 8:9-11; 1Ch 18:9.


1.The eldest son of Issachar, and head of a family, Ge 46:13; Nu

2. Of the tribe of Issachar, judge of Israel, at Shamir in Mount
Ephraim, for twenty-three years after the death of Abimelech, Jud




A precious stone of wine-yellow color, with occasional pale tinges of
green or red. It was one of the twelve gems in the high priest's
breastplate, Ex 28:17; 39:10, and was a highly prized product of Cush,
or Southern Arabia, Job 28:19; Eze 28:13.




The Greek word usually denotes men who had charge of instruments of
torture, by which unwilling witnesses were compelled to testify, and
the agonies of execution in some cases were protracted. The same men,
however, were keepers of prisons and jails; and it is probably with
reference only to their office as jailers that the word is used in Mt


Le 11:29. The Hebrew word rather denotes a species of lizard, so named
in the original for its slowness of motion.


Were erected not only in the outer walls and on the heights within
cities, Jud 9:47-49 Ps 48:12 Lu 13:4, but along the frontiers of a
country, at points where the approach of an enemy could be descried at
a distance, Jud 9:17 Isa 21:6-9 Eze 33:2-6. A tower afforded a refuge
to the surrounding inhabitants, in case of invasion; and often, when
most of a city was subdued, the tower or citadel remained impregnable.

So God is a strong and safe protector of his people, Ps 18:2 61:8 Pr
18:10. A slight tower or look-out was often erected for the keeper of
a vineyard or flock, 2Ch 26:10 Isa 5:2 Mic 4:8 Mt 21:33; and travelers
in Palestine see them in use at this day.


In the time of Christ, was, as its name imports, a rugged province,
lying on the northeast border of Palestine, south of Damascus, between
the mountains of Arabia Deserta on the east, and Iturea, Auranitis,
and Batania on the west and south, Lu 3:1. Herod the Great subdued the
robbers that infested it; and after his death it was governed by
Philip his son, and then by Herod Agrippa.


Col 2:8 Tit 1:14, a doctrine, sentiment, or custom not found in the
Bible, but transmitted orally from generation to generation from some
presumed inspired authority. In patriarchal times, much that was
valuable and obligatory was thus preserved. But tradition has long
been superseded by the successive and completed revelations of God's
will which form the inspired Scriptures, the only perfect and
sufficient rule of belief and practice. With this, even before the
time of the Savior, Isa 8:20, all traditions were to be compared, as
being of no value if they conflicted with it, added to it, or took
from it, Re 22:19. The Jews had numerous unwritten traditions, which
they affirmed to have been delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, and by
him transmitted to Joshua, the judges, and the prophets. After their
wars with the Romans under Adrian and Severus, in view of their
increasing dispersion over the earth, the Jews desired to secure their
traditions by committing them to writing. Accordingly Rabbi Judah "the
Holy," composed the Mishna, or second law, the most ancient collection
of the Hebrew traditions, about A. D. 190-220.

To this text two commentaries were afterwards added: the Gemara of
Jerusalem, probably about A. D. 370; and the Gemara of Babylon, A. D.
500; forming, with the Mishna, the Talmud of Jerusalem and that of
Babylon. The contents of these voluminous works poorly remunerate the
student of the laborious task of reading them. Our Savior severely
censured the adherents of such legendary follies in his own day, and
reproached them with preferring the traditions of the elders to the
law of God itself, and superstitiously adhering to vain observances
while they neglected the most important duties, Mt 15:1-20 Mr 7:1-13.
The traditions of the Romish church, with less apology than the
ancient Jews had before the New Testament was written, are still more
in conflict with the word of God, and still more deserving of the
Savior's condemnation.

In 2Th 2:15 3:6, "tradition" means inspired instructions from the lips
of those who received them from God, and were authorized to dispense
them in his name. These apostolic sayings were obligatory only on
those who received them as inspired directly from the apostles. Had
any of them come down to our times, the only means of endorsing them
must be by showing their agreement with the word of God, since
inspiration and miracles have ceased.


A state of the human system distinguished from dreaming and revery; it
is one in which the bodily senses are licked up and almost
disconnected from the spirit, which is occupied either with phantasms,
as in trances produced by disease, or, as in ancient times, with
revelations from God. Numerous instances are mentioned in Scripture:
as that of Balaam, Nu 24:4,16; those of Peter and Paul, Ac 10:10 22:17
2Co 12:1-4. Compare also Ge 2:21-24 15:12-21 Job 4:13-21.


Mt 17:1-9 2Pe 1:16-18. This remarkable event in the life of Christ
probably took place on Hermon or some other mountain not far from
Caesarea Philippi; the tradition which assigns it to Tabor not being
sustained. See TABOR.

The whole form and raiment of the Savior appeared in supernatural
glory. The Law and the Prophets, in the persons of Moses and Elijah,
did homage to the Gospel. By communing with Christ on the theme most
momentous to mankind, his atoning death, they evinced the harmony that
exists between the old and new dispensations, and the sympathy between
heaven and earth; while the voice from heaven in their hearing gave
him honor and authority over all. Besides its great purpose, the
attestation of Christ's Messiahship and divinity, this scene
demonstrated the continued existence of departed spirits in an unseen
world, furnished in the Savior's person an emblem of humanity
glorified, and aided in preparing both him and his disciples for their
future trials.


Kings were wont to store their possessions and guard what they most
valued in well-fortified cities, hence called treasure-cities, Ex
1:11; 1Ch 27:25; Ezr 5:17. "Treasures in the field," Jer 41:8, were
provisions, etc., buried, as is the custom in many parts of the world,
in subterranean pits. Numerous ruined granaries of this kind are still
found in the vicinity of Bethshean. The "pilgrim fathers" in like
manner found heaps of corn buried in the ground by the Indians. In
consequence also of the great insecurity of property in the East, it
seems to have been usual from the earliest times to hide in the ground
gold and jewels; and the owners being killed or driven away, or
forgetting the place of deposit, these hidden treasures remain till
chance or search brings them to light. They are much sought for by the
Arabs at this day, and are believed by them to be the object travelers
from the West have in view in exploring ancient ruins, Job 3:21; Pr
2:4; Mt 13:44. But a few years since, some workmen digging in a garden
at Sidon, discovered several copper pots, filled with gold coin from
the mint of Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander, unmixed with any
of later date. This lost treasure, worth many thousands of dollars,
had remained apparently undisturbed over two thousand years.


Were frequently used as types of kings, or men of wealth and power, Ps
37:35 Isa 2:13 Da 4:10-26 Zec 11:1,2. The "tree of knowledge of good
and evil" bore the forbidden fruit, by eating of which Adam fatally
increased his knowledge- of good by its loss, of sin and woe by actual
experience, Ge 2:9,17. The "tree of life" may have been both an
assurance and a means of imparting life, a seal of eternal holiness
and bliss, if man had not sinned. Compare Re 22:2.


A passage of approach to the walls of a besieged city, like a deep
ditch; the earth thrown up constituting a wall. The Redeemer, weeping
over Jerusalem a few days before he was crucified under its walls,
said, "The days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a
trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every
side," Lu 19:43. The Romans fulfilled this prediction by enclosing the
entire city of Jerusalem by a wall, that the Jews might neither escape
nor be relieved from without. In 1Sa 26:5, "trench" appears to mean
the circle formed by camp equipage. See CAMP, ENCAMPMENTS.


An injury done to another, with more or less culpability. The Mosaic
law required a trespasser not only to make satisfaction to the person
injured, but by an offering at the altar to reconcile himself to the
divine Governor, Le 5:1-19; 6:1-7; Ps 51:4. Christ repeatedly
declares, that in order to be forgiven of God, we must be forgiving to
men, Mt 6:14,15, and that no brother must have aught against us, Mt


Jacob having twelve sons, who were heads of so many families, which
together formed a great nation, each of these families was called a
tribe. But this patriarch on his death-bed adopted Ephraim and
Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph, and would have them also to
constitute two tribes in Israel, Ge 48:5. Instead of twelve tribes,
there were now thirteen, that of Joseph being two. However, in the
distribution of lands by Joshua under the order of God, they reckoned
but twelve tribes and made but twelve lots; of the tribe of Levi,
being appointed to the sacred service, had no share in the
distribution of the land, but received certain cities to dwell in,
with the first-fruits, tithes, and oblations of the people. Each tribe
had its own leaders and tribunals; and the whole twelve, in their
early history, constituted a republic somewhat resembling the United
States. In the division made by Joshua of the land of Canaan, Reuben,
Gad, and half of Manasseh had their lot beyond Jordan, east; all the
other tribes, and the remaining half of Manasseh had their
distribution on this side the river, west.

The twelve tribes continued united as one state, one people, and one
monarchy, till after the death of Solomon, when ten of the tribes
revolted from the house of David, and formed the kingdom of Israel.


Every Jew throughout the world was required to pay an annual tribute
or capitation-tax of half a shekel, about twenty-five cents, in
acknowledgment of God's sovereignty and for the maintenance of the
temple service, Ex 30:12-15. It was with reference to this that Christ
says, in effect, Mt 17:25,26, "If this tribute be levied in the name
of The Father, then I, The Son, am free."

In other New Testament passages, tribute means the tax levied by the
Romans. On the question of paying tribute to foreigners and idolaters,
Mt 22:16-22, Christ gave a reply which neither party could stigmatize
as rebellious, or as unpatriotic and irreligious. By themselves using
Caesar's currency, both parties acknowledged the fact of his
supremacy. Christ warns them to render to all men their dues; and
above all to regard the claims of him whose superscription is on every
thing, 1Co 10:31 1Pe 2:9,13.


A maritime city of Mysia, in the northwest part of Asia Minor,
situated on the Egean coast, at some distance south of the supposed
site of ancient Troy. The adjacent region, including all the coast
south of the Hellespont, is also called Troas, or the Troad. The city
was a Macedonian and Roman colony of much promise, and was called
Alexandria Troas. The Turks call its ruins Eski Stamboul, the old
Constantinople. Its remains, in the center of a forest of oaks, are
still grand and imposing. The apostle Paul was first at Troas for a
short time in A. D. 52, and sailed thence into Macedonia, Ac 16:8-11.
At his second visit, in A. D. 57, he labored with success, 2Co
2:12-13. At his third recorded visit he tarried but a week; at the
close of which the miraculous raising of Eutychus to life took place,
Ac 20:5-14, A. D. 58. See also 2Ti 4:13.


The name of a town and promontory of Ionia, in Asia Minor, between
Ephesus and the mouth of the Meander, opposite to Samos. The
promontory is a spur of Mount Mycale, Ac 20:15.


Isa 65:11. See GAD 3.


A disciple of Paul, a Gentile and an Ephesian by birth, came to
Corinth with the apostle, and accompanied him in his whole journey to
Jerusalem, A. D. 58, Ac 20:4. When the apostle was in the temple
there, the Jews laid hold of him, crying out, "He hath brought Greeks
into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place;" because, having
seen him in the city accompanied by Trophimus, they imagined that he
had introduced him into the temple.

Some years afterwards, Paul writes that he had left him sick at
Miletus, 2Ti 4:20. This did not occur at Paul's former visit to
Millets, since Trophimus went with him to Jerusalem; nor on the voyage
to Rome, for they did not go near Millets. It is therefore one of the
circumstances which prove that Paul was released, and revisited Asia
Minor, Crete, Macedonia, and perhaps Spain, before his second
imprisonment and death. Of Trophimus nothing farther is known.


An old word for think, Lu 17:9.


The Lord commanded Moses to make two trumpets of beaten silver, for
the purpose of calling the people together when they were to decamp,
Nu 10:2. They used these trumpets to proclaim the beginning of the
civil year, of the sabbatical year, Le 23:24 Nu 29:1, and of the
jubilee, Le 25:9-10. See MUSIC.

The feast of Trumpets was kept on the first day of the seventh month
of the sacred year, which was the first of the civil year, called
Tishri. The beginning of the year was proclaimed by sound of trumpet,
Le 23:24 Nu 29:1; and the day was kept solemn, all servile business
being forbidden. In addition to the daily and the monthly sacrifices,
Nu 28:11-15, a solemn holocaust was offered in the name of the whole
nation, of a bullock, a ram, a kid, and seven lambs of the same year,
with offerings of flour and wine, as usual with these sacrifices.
Scripture does not mention the occasion of appointing this feast.


Female disciples at Rome, apparently sisters, and very useful in the
work of evangelization, Ro 16:12.


Son of Lamech and Zillah, inventor of the art of forging metals, Ge


A Son of Japheth, Ge 10:2; supposed to have been the originator of the
Tybareni, who occupied the northeastern part of Asia Minor. They were
a warlike people, and brought slaves and copper vessels to the market
of Tyre, Isa 66:19; Eze 27:13; 32:26; 38:2; 39:1.


Or Turtle, the Columba Turtur; a distinct bird from the common dove or
pigeon, smaller and differently marked, and having a soft and
plaintive note, Isa 59:11 Eze 7:16. It is a bird of passage, Jer 8:7,
leaving Palestine for a short trip to the south, and returning early
in spring, So 2:12. It is timid and fond of seclusion, and pines in
captivity, Ps 11:1. The law allowed it as a burnt or sin-offering by
the poor, Le 1:14 5:7 Mt 21:22, and in several cases of purification,
etc., Le 12:6-8 14:22 Nu 6:10 Lu 2:24. Before the giving of the law,
Abraham offered birds, which he divided the other victims he left the
birds entire, Ge 15:9.


A disciple employed by the apostle Paul to carry his letters to
several churches. He was of the province of Asia, and accompanied Paul
in his journey from Corinth to Jerusalem, Ac 20:4. He carried the
epistle to the Colossians, that to the Ephesians, and the first to
Timothy. The apostle calls him the Lord, and his companion in the
service of God, Eph 6:21,22 Col 4:7,8 2Ti 4:12, and had intentions of
sending him into Crete, in the absence of Titus, Tit 3:12.


In Greek tupos, a word denoting some resemblance, and translated
"figure" in Ro 4:15, "ensample" in Php 3:17, "manner" in Ac 23:25, and
"form" in Ro 6:17. So also Moses was to make the tabernacle according
to the type or model he had seen in the mount, Ac 7:44. In the more
general use of the word, a scriptural type is a prophetic symbol, "a
shadow of good things to come," Heb 10:1, "but the body is Christ,"
Col 2:17. The typical character of the old dispensation is its most
distinguishing feature. For Example, the paschal lamb and all the
victims sacrificed under the law were types of the Lamb of God, and
illustrated his great atonement; showing that guilt deserved death,
and could only be atoned for by the blood of an acceptable sacrifice.
But they were also intended to foretell the coming of their great

The Old Testament types include persons, officers, objects, events,
rites, and places. Thus Adam and Melchizedek, the prophetic and the
priestly office, manna and the brazen serpent, the smitten rock and
the passage over Jordan, the Passover and the Day of Atonement, Canaan
and the cities of refuge are scriptural types of Christ.

However striking the points of resemblance which an Old Testament
event or object may present to something in the New Testament, it is
not properly a type unless it was so appointed by God, and thus has
something of a prophetic character. Due care should therefore be taken
to distinguish between an illustration and a type.


The name of a person at Ephesus, in whose school Paul publicly
proposed and defended the doctrines of the gospel, Ac 19:9. By some he
is thought to have been a Greek sophist, a teacher of rhetoric or
philosophy, converted to Christianity; while others suppose him to
have been a Jewish doctor or rabbi, who had a public school.


A rock, the celebrated emporium of Phoenicia, the seat of immense
wealth and power, situated on the coast of the Mediterranean, within
the limits of the tribe of Asher, as assigned by Joshua, Jos 19:29,
though never reduced to subjection. Tyre was a "daughter of Zidon,"
but rapidly gained an ascendancy over this and all the other cities of
Phoenicia, which it retained with few exceptions to the last. It is
mentioned by neither Moses nor Homer; but from the time of David
onward, reference is frequently made to it in the books of the Old
Testament. There was a close alliance between David and Hiram king of
Tyre, which was afterwards continued in the reign of Solomon; and it
was from the assistance afforded by the Tyrians, both in artificers
and materials, that the house of David, and afterwards the temple,
were principally built, 2Sa 5:11 1Ki 5:1-18 1Ch 14:1-17 2Ch 2:3 9:10.

The marriage of Ahab king of Israel with Jezebel, a royal princess of
Phoenicia, brought great guilt and endless misfortunes on the ten
tribes; for the Tyrians were gross idolaters, worshippers of Baal and
Ashtoreth, and addicted to all the vices of heathenism. Secular
history informs us that Tyre possessed the empire of the seas, and
drew wealth and power from numerous colonies on the shores of the
Mediterranean and Atlantic. The inhabitants of Tyre are represented in
the Old Testament as filled with pride and luxury, and all the sins
attendant on prosperity and immense wealth; judgments are denounced
against them in consequence of their idolatry and wickedness; and the
destruction of their city by Nebuchadnezzar is foretold, which is also
described as accomplished, Isa 23:13 Eze 26:7 27:1-28:19 29:18. After
this destruction as it would seem, the great body of the inhabitants
withdrew to "insular Tyre," on an island opposite the former city,
about thirty stadia from the main land. This had been a sort of port
or suburb of the main city, but was soon enlarged into a new Tyre, and
became opulent and powerful; it was fortified with such strength, and
possessed resources so abundant, as to be able to withstand the utmost
efforts of Alexander the Great for the space of seven months. It was
at length taken by him in 332 B. C., having been first united to the
mainland by an immense causeway, made of the ruins of the old city,
the site of which was thus laid bare, in remarkable fulfillment of
prophecy: "And they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust
in the midst of the water;" "and thou shalt be no more; though thou be
sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again," Eze 26:12,21. The
ships of Tyre returned from long voyages to find it not only taken but
"devoured with fire," Isa 23:1,14 Zec 9:4. After many subsequent
reverses of fortune, and various changes of masters, Tyre at last fell
under the dominion of the Romans, and continued to enjoy a degree of
commercial prosperity, though the deterioration of its harbor, and the
rise of Alexandria and other maritime cities, have made it decline
more and more. Savior once journeyed into the region of Tyre and
Sidon, Mt 15:21; and a Christian church was here established before A.
D. 58, Ac 21:37. Compare Mt 11:21-22.

The church prospered for several centuries, and councils were held
here; and during this period Tyre was still a strong fortress, as it
was also in the age of the crusaders, by whom it was only taken
twenty-five years after they had gained Jerusalem. Since its
reconquest by the Turks, it has been in a ruinous condition, and often
almost without inhabitants. At present it is a poor town, called Sur,
slightly defended by its walls, and having a population of less than
three thousand. It occupies the east side of what was formerly the
island, one mile long and half a mile from the shore, thus enclosing
two so-called harbors separated by Alexander's causeway, which is now
a broad isthmus. The only real harbor is on the north; but even this
is too shallow to admit any but the smallest class of vessels. It is
filled and the north coast of the island lined with stone columns,
whose size and countless number evince the former magnificence of this
famous city. But its old glory is gone for ever, and a few fishermen
spread their nets amid its ruins, in the place of the merchant princes
of old.

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