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A rich herdsman of Mesopotamia, son of Bethuel, and grandson of Mahor,
Abraham's brother, Ge 24:28-31. His character is shown in the gladness
with which he gave his sister Rebekah in marriage to the only son of
his rich uncle, Abraham, Ge 24:30,50; and in his deceitful and
exacting treatment of Jacob his nephew and son-inlaw, against which
Jacob defended himself by cunning as well as fidelity. When the
prosperity of the one family and the jealousy of the other rendered
peace impossible, Jacob, at the command of God, secretly departed, to
go to Canaan. Laban pursued him; but being warned by God to do him no
harm, returned home after making a treaty of peace. He seems to have
known and worshipped God, Ge 24:50 30:27 31:53; but the "gods" or
teraphim which Rachel stole from her father, Ge 31:30,34, show that he
was not without the taint of idolatry.


A city in the southwest part of Judah, Jos 10:3,5,31; fortified by
Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:9, and strong enough to resist for a time the whole
army of Sennacherib, 2Ki 18:17 19:8 2Ch 32:1,9,21 Mic 1:13. It was
here that king Amaziah was slain, 2Ki 14:19. For a wonderful
confirmation of the truth of Scripture, see SENNACHERIB.


Ge 28:12-17. The comforting vision of the heavenly ladder shown to the
fugitive Jacob, assured him of the omnipresent providence of God, and
of his communication of all needed good to his people in the desert of
this world, Heb 1:14. It was also an assurance that there was a way
open from earth to heaven, as well as from heaven to earth; and we may
see in it an illustration of the nature of Christ, in which heaven and
earth meet; and of his work, which brings man home to God.


See DAN.


See MEROM and SEA. That most terrible description of hell, as a lake
burning with fire and brimstone, Re 19:20 21:8, recalls the fire and
sea in which Sodom was consumed and swallowed up.


The young of the sheep, and also the kid of the goat, Ex 12:5, Christ
is the Lamb of God, Joh 1:29, as being the accepted sacrifice for
human sin. The sacrifices of the Old Testament were an ordained and
perpetual foreshadowing not only of his spotless holiness and his
unresisting meekness, Isa 53:4-9. He is described in Re 5:6 12:11, as
wearing the form of a sacrificial lamb in heaven itself. See PASSOVER


1. Ge 4:18-24, a descendant of Cain, in the fifth generation, and
ancestor of numerous posterity distinguished for a skill in
agriculture, music, and several mechanic arts. He is the first
polygamist on record. His address to his two wives is the oldest
specimen of poetry extant, and is a good illustration of Hebrew

"Adah and Zillah,
Hear my voice;
Ye wives of Lamech,
Hearken unto my speech.
I have slain a man
To my wounding,
And [or even] a young man
To my hurt.

If Cain shall be avenged Seven-fold,
Truly Lamech Seventy and seven fold."

Many explanations of this abrupt fragment have been suggested. The
most satisfactory, perhaps, is that Lamech had accidentally or in
self-defense killed a man, and was exposed to the vengeance of "the
avenger of blood;" but quiets the fears of his wives by saying of Cain
under heavy penalties, Ge 4:15, much more would he guard the life of
Lamech who was comparatively innocent.

2. The son of Methuselah, and father of Noah; he lived seven hundred
and seventy-seven years, and died only five years before the flood, Ge


An elegiac poem, composed by the prophet on occasion of the
destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. The first two chapters
principally describe the calamities of a the sieges of Jerusalem; the
third deplores the persecution which Jeremiah himself had suffered;
and fourth adverts to the ruin and desolation of the city and temple,
and the misfortune of Zedekiah; and the fifth is a kind of form of
prayer for the Jews in their captivity. At the close, the prophet
speaks of the cruelty of the Edomites, who had insulted Jerusalem in
her misery, and threatens them with the wrath of God, B. C. 586.

The first four chapters of the Lamentations are in the acrostic form;
every verse beginning with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in regular
order. The first, second, and fourth chapters contain twentytwo verses
each, according to the letters of the alphabet; the third chapter has
three successive verses beginning with the same letter, making
sixty-six in all. Moreover, all the verses in each chapter are nearly
of the same length. The fifth chapter is not acrostic. See LETTERS.
The style of Jeremiah's Lamentations is lively, tender, pathetic, and
affecting. It was the talent of this prophet to write melancholy and
moving elegies, 2Ch 35:25; and never was a subject more worthy of
tears, nor treated with more tender and affecting sentiments. One
would think, as it has often been said, that every letter was written
with a tear, and every word was the sob of a broken heart. Yet he does
not forget that a covenant God still reigns.


The lamps of the ancients, sometimes called "candles" in our Bible,
were cups and vessels of many convenient and graceful shapes; and
might be carried in the hand, or set upon a stand. See CANDLESTICK.
The lamp was fed with vegetable oils, tallow, wax, etc., and was kept
burning all night. The poorest families, in some parts of the East,
still regard this as essential to health and comfort. A darkened house
therefore forcibly told of the extinction of its former occupants, Job
18:5,6 Pr 13:9 20:20 Jer 25:10,11; while a constant light was
significant of prosperity and perpetuity, 2Sa 21:17 1Ki 11:36 Ps
132:17. Lamps to be carried in the streets presented a large surface
of wicking to the air, and needed to be frequently replenished from a
vessel of oil borne in the other hand, Mt 25:3,4. Torches and
lanterns, Joh 18:3, were very necessary in ancient cities, the streets
of which were never lighted.


Fences and walls seem to have been little used in Judea, Mr 2:23,
though gardens were sometimes inclosed. The ancient and permanent
limits, therefore, of individual property in the open field, Ru 2:3,
were marked by trees or heaps of stones at the corners; and as it was
easy, by removing these, to encroach on a neighbor's ground, a
peculiar form of dishonesty arose, requiring a severe punishment, De
19:14 Pr 22:28 Ho 5:10.


One of the distinguishing gifts of God to man, essential to all high
enjoyment and improvement in social life, and to be prized and used in
a manner worthy of its priceless value for the glory of God and the
benefit of mankind. The original language was not the growth of a mere
faculty of speech in man, but a creation of gift of God. Adam and Eve
when created knew how to converse with each other and with the
Creator. For some two thousand years, "the whole earth was of one
language and of one speech," Ge 11:1. But about one hundred years
after the flood, according to the common chronology, and later
according to others, God miraculously "confounded the language" of the
Cushite rebels at Babel; and peopling the earth by these scattered
families of diverse tongues, He frustrated the designs and promoted
his own. There are now several hundreds of languages and dialects
spoken on the earth, and infidels have hence taken occasion to
discredit the Bible doctrine of the unity of the human race. It is
found, however, that these languages are distributed in several great
classes, which have striking affinities with each other; and as
comparative philology extends its researches, it finds increasing
evidence of the substantial oneness of the human race and of the truth
of Scripture.

The miracle performed at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost was the
reverse of that at Babel, Ac 2:1-18, and beautifully illustrated the
tendency of the gospel to introduce peace and harmony where sin has
brought discord, and to reunite all the tribes of mankind in one great

To the student of the Bible, one of the most important subjects is the
character and history of the original languages in which that holy
book was written. In respect to the original Greek of the New
Testament, some remarks have been made under the article GREECE. The
Hebrew language, in which the Old Testament was written, is but one of
the cluster of cognate languages, as belonging particularly to the
descendants of Shem. A proper knowledge of the Hebrew, therefore,
implies also an acquaintance with these of the kindred dialects.

The Shemitic languages may be divided into three principal dialects,
namely, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, and the Arabic. 1. The Aramaean,
spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, is subdivided into the
Syriac and Chaldee dialects sometimes called also the West and East
Aramaean. 2. The Hebrew or Canaanites dialect, Isa 19:18, was spoken
in Palestine, and probably with little variation in Phoenicia and the
Phoenician colonies, as for instance, at Carthage and other places.
The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too
much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively
these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. 3. The
Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resemblance, comprises,
in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a spoken language, and
is spread over a vast extent of country; but so far as we are
acquainted with its former state, it appears more anciently to have
been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia.

These languages are distinguished from European tongues by several
marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from
right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end;
the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic,
consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are
written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of
pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the language are, in general,
verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various
dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the
past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are
generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they
have a relation. These various dialects form substantially one
language, of which the original home was Western Asia. That they have
all diverged from one parent stock is manifest, but to determine which
of them has undergone the fewest changes would be a difficult
question. The language of Noah and his son Shem was substantially that
of Adam and all the antediluvians. Shem and Heber were contemporary
with Abraham, and transmitted, as we have good reason to believe,
their common tongue to the race of Israel; for it is not to be assumed
that at the confusion of Babel no branch of the human family retained
the primitive language. It does not appear that the descendants of
Shem were among the builders of Babel, Ge 10:8-10.

The oldest records that are known to exist are composed in the Hebrew
language. It flourished in its purest form in Palestine, among the
Phoenicians and Hebrews, until the period of the Babylonish exile;
soon after which it declined, and finally was succeeded by a kind of
Hebraeo-Aramaean dialect, such as was spoken in the time of our Savior
among the Jews. The West Aramaean had flourished before this for a
long time in the east and north of Palestine; but it now advanced
farther west, and during the period that the Christian churches of
Syria flourished, it was widely extended. It is at present almost a
dead language, and has been so for several centuries. The Hebrew may
be regarded as having been a dead language, except among a small
circle of literati, for about the space of two thousand years. Our
knowledge of Arabic literature extends back very little beyond the
time of Mohammed. But the followers of this pretended prophet have
spread the dialect of the Koran over vast portions of the world.
Arabic is now the vernacular language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in
a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa;
while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in
Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary.

The remains of the ancient Hebrew tongue are contained in the Old
Testament and in the few Phoenician and Punic words and inscriptions
that have been here and there discovered. The remains of the Aramaean
are extant in a variety of books. In Chaldee, we have a part of the
books of Daniel and Ezra, Da 2:4-7:28 Ezr 4:8-6:18 7:12-26, which are
the most ancient of any specimens of this dialect. The Targum of
Onkelos, that is, the translation of the Pentateuch into Chaldee,
affords the next and purest specimen of that language. The oldest
specimen of this language that we have is contained in the Peshito, or
Syriac version of the Old and New Testament, made perhaps within a
century after the time of Christ. A multitude of writers in this
dialect have flourished, many of whose writings are probably still
extant, although but few have been printed in Europe. In Arabic, there
exists a great variety of manuscripts and books, historical,
scientific, and literary. A familiar knowledge of this and its kindred
dialects throws much valuable light on the Old Testament Scriptures.


A large and opulent city of Asia Minor, the metropolis of Phrygia
Pacatiana. It was situated on the river Lycus, not far above its
junction with the Meander, and in the vicinity of Colosse and
Hierapolis. Its earlier name was Diopolis; but after being enlarged by
Antiochus II, it was called Laodicea, from his wife Lodice. About A.
D. 65 or 66, this city, together with Hieropolis and Colosse, was
destroyed by an earthquake, but was quickly rebuilt by Marcus
Aurelius. It is now in ruins, and the place is called Eskihissar, or
the old castle. A Christian church was early gathered here. It was
addressed by Paul in his letter to Colosse, and in another now lost,
Col 2:1 4:13-16, though some think the "Epistle to the Ephesians" is
the one alluded to. The church at Laodicea was probably visited by
Paul, A. D. 63, and is one of the seven which received special
messages from Christ after his ascension, Re 1:11 3:14-22. We know
little of its after-history, except that an important council was held
there near the middle of the fourth century, and that some form of
Christianity lingered there until the time of the Turks.


Supposed to mean the hoopoe, a beautiful migratory bird of filthy
habits and a loud, hoarse voice; pronounced unclean by Moses, Le
11:19. It is about the size of a thrush; its beak is long, black, thin
and a little hooked; its legs gray and short. On its head is a tuft of
feathers of different colors, which it raises or lowers as it pleases.
Its neck and breast are somewhat reddish, and its wings and tail
black, with white streaks.


A city near Fair-Havens, on the south side of Crete. Paul passed it on
his voyage to Rome, Ac 27:8.




To extol, by words of praise or in song, Ro 15:11.


A large circular vessel, cast from the polished brass mirrors
contributed by the Hebrew women, and placed between the door of the
tabernacle and the altar of burnt-offering, with water for the
necessary sacred ablutions, Ex 30:18-21 28:8 40:7 30:1 32:35.

For the temple of Solomon, besides the vast brazen sea for the use of
the priests, (see SEA SEA), ten lavers were made for cleansing the
sacrifices, 2Ch 4:6. Each laver contained about three hundred gallons,
and was supported above a highly elaborate and beautiful base, 1Ki
7:27-39. They were stationed within the court of the priests, in front
of the temple, five on each side. See TEMPLE.


In the Bible, signifies sometimes the whole word of God, Ps 19:7-11
119:1-176 Isa 8:20; sometimes the Old Testament, Joh 10:34 15:25, and
sometimes the five books of Moses, which formed the first of the three
divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, Lu 24:44 Ac 13:15. The Pentateuch
was probably "the law," a copy of which every king was to transcribe
for himself and study, and which was to be made known to young and
old, in public and in private, De 6:7 17:18,19 31:9-19,26. In other
places the Mosaic institutions as a whole are intend by "the law," in
distinction from the gospel, Joh 1:17 Ac 25:8.

When the word refers to the Law of Moses, careful attention to the
context is sometimes requisite to judge whether the civil, the
ceremonial, or the moral law is meant. The ceremonial or ritual laws,
concerning the forms of worship, sacrifices, priests, purifications,
etc., were designed to distinguish the Jewish nation from the heathen,
and to foreshadow the gospel dispensation. They were annulled after
Christ's ascension, Ge 3:24 Eph 2:15 Heb 9:1-28 10:1-22. The civil
laws, Ac 23:2 24:6, were for the government of the Jews as a nation,
and included the Ten Commandments. The whole code was adapted with
consummated wisdom to the condition of the Jews, and has greatly
influenced all wise legislation in later years. Its pious, humane, and
just spirit should characterize every code of human laws. The moral
law, De 5:22 Mt 5:17,18 Lu 10:26,27, is more important than the
others, from its bearings on human salvation. It was written by the
Creator on the conscience of man, and sin has never fully erased it,
Ro 1:19 2:12-15. It was more fully taught to the Hebrews, especially
at Mount Sinai, in the Ten Commandments, and is summed up by Christ in
loving God supremely and our neighbor as ourselves, Mt 22:37-40. It
was the offspring of love to man, Ro 7:10,12; required perfect
obedience, Ga 3:10 Jas 2:10; and is of universal and perpetual
obligation. Christ confirmed and enforced it, Mt 5:17-20, showing its
demands of holiness in the heart, applying it to a variety of cases,
and supplying new motives to obedience, by revealing heaven and hell
more clearly, and the gracious guidance of the Holy Spirit. Some have
argued from certain passages of Scripture that this law is no longer
binding upon Christians; that they "are not under the law, but under
grace," Ro 6:14,15 7:4,6 Ga 3:13,25 5:18; and the perversion of these
passages leads men to sin and perish because grace abounds. Rightly
understood, they harmonize with the declarations of the Savior, Mt
5:17. To the soul that is in Christ, the law is no longer the arbiter
of doom; yet is still comes to him as the divinely appointed teacher
of that will of God in which he now delights, Ps 119:97 Mt 5:48 11:30.

The word "law" sometimes means an inward guiding and controlling
power. The "law in the mind" and the "law in the members," mean the
holy impulses of a regenerated should and the perverse inclinations of
the natural heart, Ro 7:21-23. Compare also Ro 8:2 9:31 Jas 1:25 2:12.


Men who devoted themselves to the study and explanation of the Jewish
law, particularly of the traditionary or oral law. They belonged
mostly to the sect of the Pharisees, and fell under the reproof of our
Savior for having taken from the people the key of knowledge. They
were as the blind leading the blind, Mt 28:20 Lu 10:25 11:52. See


1. A friend and disciple of Christ, brother of Martha and Mary, with
whom he resided at Bethany near Jerusalem. Our Savior had a high
regard for the family, and often visited them; and when Lazarus was
dangerously ill, word was sent to Christ, "Lord, behold, he whom thou
lovest is sick." The Savior reached Bethany after he had lain four
days in his grave, and restored him to life by a word, "Lazarus, come
forth." This public and stupendous miracle drew so many to Christ,
that his enemies sought to put both him and Lazarus to death, Joh
11:1-57 12:1-11. The narrative displays Christ as a tender and
compassionate friend, weeping for and with those he loved, and at the
same time as the Prince of life, beginning his triumph over death and
the grave. Happy are they who, in view of their own death, or that of
friends, can know that they are safe in Him who says, "I am the
resurrection and the life;" and, "because I live, ye shall live also."

2. The helpless beggar who lay at the rich man's gate in one of
Christ's most solemn and instructive parables. The one, though poor
and sorely afflicted, was a child of God. The other described as
selfindulgent rather than vicious or criminal was living without God
in the enjoyment of every earthly luxury. Their state in this life was
greatly in contrast with their real character before God, which was
revealed in the amazing changes of their condition at death, Lu
16:19-31. See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM. Our Savior plainly teaches us, in this
parable, that both the friends and the foes of God know and begin to
experience their doom immediately after death, and that it is in both
cases unchangeable and eternal.


There are early allusions to this well-known metal in Scripture. The
Egyptians "sank as lead" in the Red Sea, Ex 15:10; Nu 31:22; Eze
27:12. Job refers to its use in preserving a permanent record of
events, by being melted and poured into letters deeply cut in a rock,
Job 19:24. Leaden tablets also were used by the ancients for similar
records. This metal was employed, before the use of quicksilver was
known, in purifying silver; and the process by which these metals are
purged from their dross, illustrates God's discipline of his people,
Jer 6:29,30; Eze 22:17-22.


The elder daughter of Laban, and the first wife of Jacob, though less
beloved than her sister Rachel. She had, through life, the remembrance
of the deceit by which her father had imposed her upon Jacob. She was
the mother of seven children, among whom were Reuben- Jacob's
firstborn-and Judah, the ancestor of the leading tribe among the Jews,
of the royal line, and of our Lord, Ge 29:16-35; 30:1- 21. She is
supposed to have died before the removal of the family into Egypt, Ge


Falsehood, Ps 4:2; 5:6.


Sourdough which is kept over from one baking to another, in order to
raise the new dough. Leaven was forbidden in the Hebrews during the
seven days of the Passover, in memory of what their ancestors did when
they went out of Egypt, they being then obliged to carry unleavened
meal with them, and to make bread in haste, the Egyptians pressing
them to be gone, Ex 12:15,19. They were very careful in cleansing
their houses from it before this feast began, 1Co 5:6. God forbade
either leaven or honey to be offered to him in his temple, Le 2:11.
The pervading and transforming effect of leaven is used in
illustration of the like influence on society, exerted by the
purifying principles of the gospel, or by false doctrines and corrupt
men, Mt 12:23 16:6-12 1Co 5:6-8.


White, a long chain of mountains on the north of Palestine, so named
from the whitish limestone of which they are composed and in part
perhaps from their snowy whiteness in winter. It consists of two main
ridges running northeast and southwest, nearly parallel with each
other and with the coast of the Mediterranean. See view in SIDON. The
western ridge was called Libanus by the Greeks, and the eastern
AntiLibanus. Between them lies a long valley called Coele-Syria, that
is, Hollow Syria, and the "valley of Lebanon," Jos 11:17, at present
Bukkah. It opens towards the north, but is exceedingly narrow towards
the south, where the river Litany, anciently Orontes, issues form the
valley and flows west to the sea, north of Tyre. The western ridge is
generally higher than the eastern, and several of its peaks are
thought to be towards, 10,000 feet high. One summit, however, in the
eastern range, namely, Mount Hermon, now called Jebel-esh-Sheikh, is
higher still, and rises nearly into the region of perpetual ice. See
HERMON. An Arab poet says of the highest peak of Lebanon, "The Sannin
bears winter on his head, spring upon his shoulders, and autumn in his
bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet."

The Hebrew writers often allude to this sublime mountain range, Isa
10:34 35:2, rising like a vast barrier on their north, Isa 37:24. They
speak of its sea of foliage agitated by the gales, Ps 72:16; of its
noble cedars and other trees, Isa 60:13 Jer 22:23; of its innumerable
herds, the whole of which, however, could not atone for one sin, Isa
40:16; its snow-cold streams, Jer 18:14, and its balsamic perfume, Ho
14:5. Moses longed to enter the Holy Land, that he might "see that
goodly mountain and Lebanon," De 3:24,25; and Solomon says of the
Beloved, the type of Christ, "his countenance is as Lebanon," So 5:15.
"The tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus," So 7:4, is
brought to recollection by the accounts given by modern travelers of
the ruins of ancient temples, built of stones of vast size. Many such
ruinous temples have been discovered in different parts of Lebanon,
several of them on conspicuous points, high up in the mountains, where
the labor of erecting them must have been stupendous.

At present, Lebanon is inhabited by a hardy and turbulent race of
mountaineers. Its vast wilderness of mountains forms almost a world by
itself. Its western slopes particularly, rising by a succession of
terraces from the plain of the coast, are covered with vines, olives,
mulberries, and figs; and occupied, as well as the valleys among the
mountains, by numberless villages. Anti-Lebanon are Drues and
Maronites; the former Mohammedan mystics, and the latter bigoted
Romanists. Among them are interspersed many Greeks and Armenians.

For "cedar of Lebanon," see CEDAR.


See JUDAS 2.


Jud 21:19, a town of Ephraim, near Shiloh, between Bethel and Shechem.
Its name and site are preserved in the present village of Lubban.


A bulbous vegetable resembling the onion. The Hebrews complained in
the wilderness, that manna grew insipid to them; they longed for the
leeks and onions of Egypt, Nu 11:5. Hassel-quist says the karrat, or
leek, is surely one of those after which the Israelites pined; for is
has been cultivated in Egypt from time immemorial. The Hebrew word is
usually translated "grass" in the English Bible. Its original meaning
is supposed to be greens or grass.


Or dregs, the refuse and sediment of wine. Wines that have been
allowed to stand a long time on the lees, thereby acquire a superior
color and flavor. Hence such wines are used as a symbol of gospel
blessings, Isa 25:6; also of a nation or community that, from long
quiet and prosperity, has become rich and luxurious, and has settled
down in carnal security, Jer 48:11 Zep 1:12. To drink the dregs of the
cup of God's wrath, Ps 75:8 Isa 51:17, is to drink it to exhaustion;
that is, to suffer God's wrath without mitigation or end.


The number in a Roman legion varied at different periods, from three
thousand to more than twice that number. In the time of Christ a
legion contained six thousand, besides the cavalry. There were ten
cohorts in each legion; which were divided each into three maniples or
bands, and these into two centuries containing one hundred men each.
In the Bible a legion means a number indefinitely large. The Savior
cured a demoniac who called himself "Legion" as if possessed my
myriads of demons, Mr 5:9. The expression, "twelve legions of angels,"
Mt 26:53, illustrate the immensity of the heavenly host, and their
zealous devotion to Christ.




Jawbone, a place in Judah, where Samson was enabled to slay one
thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass, and where, in answer
to his petition, a fountain sprung up to relieve his thirst, Jud
15:9-19. Probably the Hebrew word Lehi in, should be left
untranslated, "God clave a hollow place that was in Lehi, and there
came water thereout." This spring he called En-hakkore, the fountain
of him that prayed. It continued to flow, and may even to this day be
testifying that God hears the cry of his people, and can turn a dry
land into springs of water for their use, Ge 21:19; Nu 20:11.


The author of Pr 31:1-31. Some suppose it to be an enigmatical name
for Solomon.


A species of pulse or bean. We find Esau longing for a mess of pottage
made of lentils, Ge 25:34. Augustine says, "Lentils are used as food
in Egypt, for this plant grows abundantly in that country, which
renders the lentils of Alexandria so valuable that they are brought
from thence to us, as if none were grown among us." In Barbary, Dr.
Shaw says "Lentils are dressed in the same manner as beans, dissolving
easily into a mass, and marking a pottage of a chocolate color." See
2Sa 17:28; 23:11.


A fierce wild beast of the feline genus, beautifully spotted with a
diversity of colors; it has small eyes, wide jaws, sharp teeth, round
ears, a large tail; five claws on the fore feet, and four on those
behind. It is swift, craft, and cruel; dangerous to all domestic
cattle, and even to man, Jer 5:6 13:23 Da 10:6 Ho 13:7 Hab 1:8. Its
name, leopard, implies that it has something of the lion and of the
panther in its nature. It seems from Scripture that the leopard could
not be rare in Palestine. Its Hebrew name occurs significantly in
several names of places; as Beth-nimrah, the haunt of leopards, Nu
32:36. So in Nimrah, Nimrim, and perhaps Nimrod the mighty hunter.
Isaiah, describing the happy reign of the Messiah, says, Isa 11:6,
"The leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young
lion and the fatling together." The spouse in the Canticles speaks of
the mountains of the leopards, So 4:8; that is to say, such as Lebanon
and Hermon, where wild beasts dwelt.


A person afflicted with leprosy. As it now exists, leprosy is a scaly
disease of the skin, occurring in several distinct forms and with many
degrees of severity; beginning with slight reddish eruptions, followed
by scales of a greyish white color, sometimes in circles an inch or
two in diameter, and at other times much larger; in many cases
attacking only the knees and elbows, in others the whole body; usually
not affecting the general health, but considered impossible of cure.
It is said not to be infectious; but is communicated from father to
son for several generations, gradually becoming less noticeable. It
corresponds in the main with the disease the symptoms and treatment of
which are so fully described in Le 13:14. There is little doubt,
however, that the ancient leprosy, in its more aggravated form, is to
be regarded as a plague or judgment from God, De 24:8. It was
peculiarly dreaded among the Jews as unclean and infectious; and also
as being a special infliction from Jehovah, as we know it to have been
in the cases of Miriam, Nu 12:10, Gehazi, 2Ki 5:27, and Uzziah, 2Ch
26:16-23. No remedies were effectual. The suffered was commended to
the priest, not to the physician; and was separated from many of the
privileges of society. We find that lepers associated chiefly with
each other, 2Ki 7:8 Lu 17:12. The term, "the plague of leprosy," is
applied not only to this disease in men, but to a similar infection
sometimes sent into houses and garments, Le 14:1-57. The exact nature
of this latter cannot be ascertained; but it bears the marks of a
special aggravation, as a judgment from God, of some evil not unknown
in that climate. It illustrates the awful result of moral corruption
in society, uncounteracted by the grace of God. The disease in all its
forms is a lively emblem of sin. This malady of the soul is also all
pervading, unclean, contagious, and incurable; it separates its victim
from God and heaven; it proves its existence by its increasing sway
and its fatal termination. But the Savior has shown his power to heal
the worst maladies of the soul by curing the leprosy with a word, Lu
17:12-19, and to admit the restored soul to all the privileges of the
sons of God.

ELEPHANTIASIS, supposed by some to have been the disease of Job, and
the "botch" or ulcer of Egypt, De 28:27,35, is a tuberculous malady
somewhat akin to the leprosy, but more dreadful. Its name is derived
from the dark, hard, and rough appearance of the skin; and from the
form of the feet, swollen, and despoiled of the toes. This horrid
malady infects the whole system; ulcers and dark scales cover the
body; and the hair, beard, fingers, and all the extremities drop off.
It is still met with in tropical countries, and was introduced into
Europe by the crusaders; but after occasioning dreadful navoc, and the
building of thousands of "hospitals for lepers," it disappeared or
changed its form.




Sometimes used in the Bible in the old English sense, that is, to
hinder, Isa 43:13; Ro 1:13.


Lu 23:38 The Hebrews have certain acrostic poems which begin with the
letters of the alphabet, ranged in order. The most considerable of
these is Ps 119:1-176, which contains twentytwo stanzas of eight
verses each, all acrostic; that is, the first eight begin with Aleph,
the next eight with Beth, and so on. Ps 25:1-22 34:1-22, have but
twenty-two verses each, beginning with the twentytwo letters of the
Hebrew alphabet. Others, as Ps 111:1-112:10, have one-half of the
verse beginning with one letter, and the other half with the next.
Thus, Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord,

Who delighteth greatly in his commandments.

The first half of the verse begins in the Hebrew with Aleph; the
second with Beth. Ps 37:1-40 145:21 are acrostic. La 1:1-5:22 are also
in acrostic verse, as well as Pr 31:8-31. In Joh 7:15, the word
"letters" means learning; the Jews said of Christ, Whence this man's
qualifications to teach us the Scriptures, since he has not learned of
the doctors of the law?

Paul speaks of "the letter" in distinction from "the spirit," Ro
2:27,29 7:6 2Co 3:6; contrasting the mere word of the law and its
outward observance, with its spiritual meaning, and cordial obedience
to it through the Spirit of Christ.

Epistolary correspondence seems to have been little practiced among
the ancient Hebrews. Some few letters are mentioned in the Old
Testament, 2Sa 11:14 Ezr 4:8. They were conveyed to their destination
by friends or travelers, Jer 29:3; or by royal couriers, 2Ch 30:6 Es
8:10. The letter was usually in the form of a roll, the last fold
being pasted down. They were sealed, 1Ki 21:8, and sometimes wrapped
in an envelope, or in a bag of costly materials and highly ornamented.
To send an open letter was expressive of contempt, Ne 6:5. In the New
Testament we have numerous examples of letters, from the pens of the


1. The third son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia; and father of
three sons, and of Jochebed the mother of Moses, Ge 29:34 Ex 6:16-20.
For his share in the treacherous massacre of the Shechemites, Ge
34:1-31, his father at death foreboded evil to his posterity, Ge
49:5-7; but as they afterwards stood forth on the Lord's side, Moses
was charged to bless them, Ex 32:26-29 De 33:8-11. The tribe of Levi
was, according to Jacob's prediction, scattered over all Israel,
having no share in the cities in the portions of other tribes. All the
tithes, first fruits, and offerings, presented at the temple, as well
as several parts of all the victims that were offered belonged to the
tribe of Levi. See LEVITES.

2. The apostle Matthew was also called Levi. See MATTHEW.


Ps 74:14 104:26, an aquatic monster described in the book of Job, Job
41:1-34. Probably the animal denoted is the crocodile, the terror of
the Nile; as BEHEMOTH, in Job 40:1-24, is the hippopotamus of the same

The crocodile is a native of the Nile, and other Asiatis and African
rivers; in some instances even thirty feet in length; of enormous
voracity and strength, as well as fleetness in swimming; attacks
mankind and the largest animals, with most daring impetuosity; when
taken by means of a powerful net, will often overturn the boats that
surround it; has proportionally the largest mouth of all monsters
whatever; moves both its jaws alike, the upper of which has not less
than thirty-six, and the lower thirty sharp, but strong and massy
teeth; and is furnished with a coat of mail so scaly and callous as to
resist the force of a musket-ball in every part, except under the
belly. The general character of the LEVIATHAN in fact seems so well to
apply to this animal, in modern as well as in ancient times the terror
of all the coasts and countries about the Nile, that it is unnecessary
to seek further. In several passages in the Bible, the king of Egypt
appears to be addressed as leviathan, Isa 27:1 Eze 29:3.

The following extract of a letter from an American gentleman in Manila
gives a graphic view of the strength and size of the crocodile: "My
last operation in the sporting line, was no less than killing a
crocodile, which for a year or two before had infested a village on
the borders of the lake, taking off horses and cows, and sometimes a
man. Having understood that he had killed a horse a day or two before,
and had taken him into a small river, I proceeded to the spot,
accompanied by my host, closed the mouth of the river with strong
nets, and attacked the huge brute with guns and spears. After
something of a desperate battle, we succeeded in driving him against
the nets, where, being considerably exhausted by the wounds he had
received from balls and lances, he got entangled, was dragged on
shore, and the coup de grace given to him. He measured twenty feet in
length, and from eleven to thirteen feet in circumference, the
smallest part being eleven and the largest thirteen. The head alone
weighed two hundred and seventy-five pounds. He had nearly the whole
of the horse in him, and the legs, with the hoofs, were taken out


All the descendants of Levi may be comprised under this name, Ex
6:16,25 Jos 3:3, (see LEVI LEVI;) but chiefly those who were employed
in the lower services in the temple, by which they were distinguished
from the priests, who were of the race of Levi by Aaron, and were
employed in higher offices, Nu 3:6-10 18:2-7. God chose the Levites
for the service of his tabernacle and temple, instead of the firstborn
of all Israel, to whom such duties naturally belonged, and who were
already sacred to God in memory of the great deliverance in Egypt. Ex
13:1-22 Nu 3:12,13,39-51. In the wilderness, the Levites took charge
of the tabernacle and its contents; and conveyed it from place to
place, each of the three families having a separate portion, Nu 1:51
4:1-49 1Ch 15:2,27. After the building of the temple they took charge
of the gates, of the sacred vessels, of the preparation of the
showbread and other offerings, and of the singing and instrumental
music, 1Ch 9:1-44 23:1-32 2Ch 29:1-36. They brought wood, water, etc.,
for the priests; aided them in preparing the sacrifices, and in
collecting and disbursing the contributions of the people, 2Ch
30:16,17 35:1. They were also the temple guards, Ne 13:13,22; and the
salutation and response in Ps 134:1-3 are thought by Bishop Lowth to
have been their song in the night. But besides their services in the
temple, they performed a very important part in teaching the people,
2Ch 30:22 Ne 8:7, among whom they were scattered, binding the tribes
together, and promoting virtue and piety. They studied the law, and
were the ordinary judges of the country, but subordinate to the
priests, 2Ch 17:9 19:8-11. God provided for the subsistence of the
Levites, by giving to them the tithe of corn, fruit, and cattle; but
they paid to the priests the tenth of their tithes; and as the Levites
possessed no estates in land, the tithes which the priests received
from them were considered as the first fruits which they were to offer
to the Lord, Nu 18:21-32. The payment of tithes to the Levites appears
not to have been enforced, but depended on the goodwill of the people;
hence the special charges laid on their brethren, not to forget them,
De 2:12,18,19.

God assigned for the habitation of the Levites forty-eight cities,
with fields, pastures, and gardens, Nu 35:1-34. Of these, thirteen
were given to the priests, all in the tribes near Jerusalem. Six of
the Levitical cities were appointed as cities of refuge, Jos
20:1-21:45. While the Levites were actually employed in the temple,
they were supported out of the provisions kept in store there, and out
of the daily offerings. The same privilege was granted to volunteers,
drawn to Jerusalem by the fervor of their love to God's service, De
12:18,19 18:6-8. The consecration of Levites was without much
ceremony. See Nu 8:5-22 2Ch 29:34.

The Levites wore no peculiar dress to distinguish them from other
Israelites, till the time of Agrippa. His innovation in this matter is
mentioned by Josephus, who remarked that the ancient customs of the
country were never forsaken with impunity.

The Levites were divided into different classes: the Gershomites,
Kohathites, and Merarites, Nu 3:17-20. They were still further divided
into courses, like the priests, 1Ch 23:1-26:32. At first, they entered
in full on their public duties at thirty years of age, Nu 4:3 8:25;
but David fixed the age for commencing at twenty years; and at fifty
they were exempt, 1Ch 23:24-27. The different courses of porters,
singers, guards, etc., were on duty in succession, one week at a time,
1Ch 23:1-26:32 2Ch 23:4,8 31:17 Ezr 3:8-12. After the revolt of the
ten tribes, a large portion of the Levites abandoned their cities in
Israel, and dwelt in Judah, 2Ch 11:12-14 13:9-11. After the captivity,
numbers of them returned from beyond the Euphrates to Judea, Ne
11:15-19 12:24-31. In the New Testament they are not often mentioned,
Lu 10:32 Joh 1:19 Ac 4:36. The "scribes" and "doctors," however, are
supposed to have belonged chiefly to this class.


The third book in the Pentateuch; called Leviticus, because it
contains principally the laws and regulations relating to the Levites,
priests, and sacrifices. The Hebrews call it "the priests' law." In
the first section, the various bloody and unbloody sacrifices are
minutely described: the burnt offering, the meat, sin, peace,
ignorance, and trespass offerings; the sins for which and the mode in
which they were to be offered. The fullness of these details not only
signified the importance of God's worship, but forbade all human
additions and changes, that might lead to idolatry. The whole scheme
was "a shadow of good things to come," typical of the Lamb "who
through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot unto God." Its
best commentary is the epistle to the Hebrews.

A full account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests,
is followed by the instructive narrative of Nadab and Abihu. Then are
given the laws respecting personal and ceremonial purifications, a
perpetual memento of the defilement of sin, and of the holiness of
God. Next follows a description of the great day of Expiation; after
which the Jews are warned against the superstitions, idolatry, etc.,
of the Canaanites; and laws are given guarding their morals, health,
and civil order. The observance of their distinguishing festivals is
enjoined upon them; and laws are given respecting the Sabbath and the
jubilee, vows and tithes. The warnings and promises in the latter part
of the book point their attention to the future, and aim to unite the
whole nation in serving their covenant God. The book is generally held
to be the work of Moses, though he was probably assisted by Aaron. Its
date is B. C. 1490. It contains the history of the first month of
their second year after leaving Egypt.


Ac 6:9. This word is from the Latin libertinus, which signifies a
freedman, that is, one who, having been a slave, either by birth or
capture, has obtained his freedom; or one born of a parent who was a
freedman. The "synagogue of the Libertines" stands connected with the
Cyrenians and Alexandrians, both of whom were of African origin; it is
therefore supposed by some, that the Libertines were of African origin
also. It is, however, most probable that this word denotes Jews who
had been taken captive by the Romans in war, and carried to Italy; and
having there been manumitted, were accustomed to visit Jerusalem in
such numbers as to erect a synagogue for their particular use; as was
the case with Jews from other cities mentioned in the context. They
originated the persecution against Stephen, which resulted in his
martyrdom. See SYNAGOGUE.


A city in the western part of Judah, not far from Lachish, conquered
by Joshua from the Canaanites, and assigned to the priests, Jos
10:29,30 15:42 21:13 1Ch 6:57. Its inhabitants revolted against the
idolatrous and cruel Jehoram, 2Ch 21:10. It was a strongly fortified
place, and under its walls the Assyrian army was miraculously cut off,
2Ki 19:8,9,35.


A country in the north of Africa, stretching along on the
Mediterranean between Egypt and Carthage, and running back somewhat
into the interior. The part adjoining Egypt was sometimes called Libya
Marmarica; and that around Cyrene, Cyrenaica, from its chief city; or
Pentapolitana, from its chief city; or Pentapolitana, from its five
cities, Cyrene, Apollonia, Berenice, Arsinoe, and Ptolemais. In these
cities great numbers of Jews dwelt in the time of Christ; and they,
with their Libyan proselytes, resorted to Jerusalem to worship, Ac
2:10. Libya received its name from the Lehabim of Lubim, Ge 10:13; a
warlike people, who assisted Shishak king of Egypt, and Zerah the
Ethiopian, in their wars against Judea, 2Ch 12:3 14:9 16:8 Da 11:43.
They were also allies of ancient Thebes, Na 3:9. Compare Jer 46:9 Eze
30:5. Libya fell at length under the power of Carthage; and
subsequently, of the Greeks, Romans, Saracens, and Turks.


The third plague of Egypt, Ex 8:16; Ps 105:31; peculiarly offensive to
the priests, who were obliged to shave and wash their entire body
every third day, lest they should carry any vermin into the temples.
According to many interpreters, lest they were the small stinging
gnats which abound in Egypt.


In the Bible, is either natural, Ge 3:17; spiritual, that of the
renewed soul, Ro 8:6; or eternal, a holy and blissful immortality, Joh
3:36 Ro 6:23. Christ is the great Author of natural life, Col 1:16;
and also of spiritual and eternal life; Joh 14:6 6:47. He has
purchased these by laying down his own life; and gives them freely to
his people, Joh 10:11,28. He is the spring of all their spiritual life
on earth, Ga 2:20; will raise them up at the last day; and make them
partakers for ever of his own life, Joh 11:25 14:19.


One of the most wonderful, cheering, and useful of all the works of
God; called into being on the first of the six days of creation, by
his voice: "Let there be light;" and there was light. No object better
illustrates whatever is pure, glorious, spiritual, joyful, and
beneficent. Hence the beauty and force of the expressions, "God is
light," 1Jo 1:5, and "the Father of lights," Jas 1:17; Christ is the
"Sun of righteousness," and "the light of the world," Joh 1:9 8:12. So
also the word of God is "a light," Ps 119:105; truth and Christians
are lights, Joh 3:19 12:36; prosperity is "light," Es 8:16; and heaven
is full of light, Re 21:23-25. The opposite of all these is




Probably the same with the jacinth, a stone in the high priest's
breastplate, Ex 28:19; 39:12, said to have been of a deep and
brilliant red color, with a tinge of yellow, and transparent.


Of this queenly plant, several varieties are found among the wild
flowers of Palestine, the profusion, beauty, and fragrance of which
are the delight of travelers. The lily is a spring flower, and appears
early in all parts of the Holy Land. It was introduced in the
ornamental work of the temple, 1Ki 7:19-26 2Ch 4:5. In canticles it is
often employed as a symbol of loveliness. More commonly it is applied
to the bride and her various perfections: So 2:1,2, where the bride
speaks, So 2:1, the bridegroom answers, So 2:2, and the bride again
responds, So 2:3. The bridegroom's lips are compared to lilies in So
5:13, and he is described as feeding among the lilies, So 2:16 6:3;
which typically represents Christ as delighting himself with the
graces of his people. From the lily our Savior had also drawn one of
his most striking figures: "Consider the lilies of the field, how they
grow;" "even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of
these. If God so clothe the grass of the field, shall he not much more
clothe you?" Mt 6:28. We must be careful not to confound the lily of
the valleys, So 2:1, which means simply the lily growing in valleys,
with our "lily of the valley," which belongs to another class of


As is well known, is made of the fine fibers of flax, and was much
used by the ancients. Four different words in Hebrew are translated in
our Bible, "Linen," "fine linen," and "silk:" PISHTAH, Jud 15:14 Eze
44:17,18; BAD BAD, worn by the priests, Ex 28:42 39:28, and by king
David, etc., 2Sa 6:14; SHESH, worn by Joseph when governor of Egypt,
Ge 41:42, and by the virtuous woman in Pr 31:22, (see SILK;) and BUTZ,
of which the veil of the temple and David's outer mantle were made,

1Ch 15:27 2Ch 2:14 3:14 5:12. These words may indicate different
qualities of linen, but are thought to mean in part cloth of different
materials, particularly the last two. Some think BUTZ, in Latin
byssus, denotes cotton cloth, and SHESH that made of hemp. See COTTON,
and FLAX. Fine linen was sometimes made of snowy whiteness, and was a
symbol of the purity of angels and of the redeemed church, Re 15:6


The cords used in measuring and settling the bounds of landed
property, Ps 16:6; Isa 34:17.


A Christian at Rome, whose salutation Paul sent to Timothy, 2Ti 4:21.


The well-known and noble king of beasts, frequently spoken of in
Scripture. He often exceeds eight feet in length and four feet in
height; and his majestic and dauntless aspect, his prodigious strength
and agility, and his peculiar roar, make him the terror of the
forests. Lions were common in Palestine, (See JORDAN), and the Hebrews
had seven different names for them, to distinguish the different ages,
etc. Five of these occur together in Job 4:10,11. See also Na 2:11,12.
The psalmist alludes to the stealthy creeping of the lion till he can
spring upon his prey, when he says of the crafty wicked man, "He lieth
in wait secretly as a lion in his den; .... he croucheth, and humbleth
himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones." The Bible reader
will remember the exploits of Samson and of David, Jud 14:5,6 1Sa
17:34-36, the story of the disobedient prophet slain by a lion, 1Ki
13:28, and of the obedient Daniel, safe in the lion's den, Da 6:1-28;
also the sublime image of Jehovah's care for his people, in Isa 31:4.

"The Lion of the tribe of Judah," Re 5:5, is Jesus Christ, who sprung
from the tribe of Judah and the race of David, and overcame death, the
world, and the devil. It is supposed that a lion was the device of the
tribe of Judah; whence this allusion, Ge 49:9.


A light, covered conveyance, resembling a sedan chair, or a palanquin;
borne by men, but oftener at the present day in Syria between two
mules or camels. Solomon's chariot, So 3:9, or bed, is supposed to
have been an elegant mule-litter. The Hebrew word translated litters
in Isa 66:20, is rendered wagons in Nu 7:3.


Le 3:4. This organ in man was regarded by the ancients as the seat of
the passions. Idolaters consulted the liver of the victim offered in
sacrifice, for purposes of divination, Eze 21:21.


A cold-blooded animal, with much resemblance to the serpent, but
having four feet. Large numbers are found in Syria, varying greatly in
size, appearance, and place of abode; some dwelling partly in water,
and others on the rocks of the desert, or among old ruins. Lizards
were unclean by the Levitical law, Le 11:30.


Jehovah, as the sole proprietor of the land occupied by the Jews,
required them, as one condition of its use, to grant liberal loans to
their poor brethren; and every seven years, the outstanding loans were
to become gifts, and could not be reclaimed. If a pledge was taken on
making a loan, it must be done with mercy and under certain benevolent
restrictions, Ex 22:25,27 De 15:1-11 23:19,20 24:6,10-13,17. The great
truth so prominent in this and similar features of the Mosaic laws,
ought to be restored to its fundamental place in our theories of
property; and no one who believes in God should act as the owner, but
only as the steward of what he possesses, all of which he is to use as
required by its great Owner. In the same spirit, our Savior enjoins
the duty of loaning freely, even to enemies, and without hope of
reward, Lu 6:34,35.


A voracious winged insect, belonging to the genus known among
naturalists as the Grylli, closely resembling the grasshopper, and a
great scourge in oriental countries in both ancient and modern times.
There are ten different names in the Hebrew Bible for insects of this
kind; but some of these probably designate different forms or stages
in life of the same species. The Bible represents their countless
swarms as directed in their flight and march by God, and used in the
chastisement of guilty nations, De 28:38-42 1Ki 8:37 2Ch 6:28. A swarm
of locusts was among the plagues of Egypt; they covered the whole
land, so that the earth was darkened, and devoured every green herb of
the earth, and the fruit of every tree which the hail had left, Ex
10:4-19. But the most particular description of this insect, and of
its destructive career, in the sacred writings, is in Joe 2:3-10. This
is one of the most striking and animated descriptions to be met with
in the whole compass of prophecy; and the double destruction to be
produced by locusts and the enemies of which they were the harbingers,
is painted with the most expressive force and accuracy. We see the
destroying army moving before us as we read, and see the desolation
spreading. It should also be mentioned, that the four insects
specified in Joe 1:4, the palmer-worm, the locust, the canker-worm,
and the caterpillar, are strictly, according to the Hebrew, only
different forms of locusts, some perhaps without wings, as mentioned
below. The following extracts from Dr. Shaw and Mr. Morier, which are
also corroborated by Niebuhr, Burckhardt, and other travelers, may
serve as a commentary upon this and other passages of Scripture.

Dr. Shaw remarks, "Those which I saw, were much bigger than our common
grasshoppers, and had brown spotted wings, with legs and bodies of a
bright yellow. Their first appearance was towards the end of March,
the wind having been some time from the south. In the middle of April,
their numbers were so vastly increased, that in the heat of the day
they formed themselves into large and numerous swarms, flew in the air
like a succession of clouds, and as the prophet Joel expresses it,
they darkened the sun. When the wind blew briskly, so that these
swarms were crowded by others, or thrown one upon another, we had a
lively idea of that comparison of the psalmist, Ps 109:23, of being
tossed up and down as the locust. In the month of May, these swarms
gradually retired into the Metijiah and other adjacent plains, where
they deposited their eggs. These were no sooner hatched, in June, than
each of the broods collected itself into a compact body of a furlong
or more square, and marching afterwards in a direct line towards the
sea, they let nothing escape them; eating up every thing that was
green and juicy, not only the lesser kinds of vegetables, but the vine
likewise, the fig-tree, the pomegranate, the palm, and the apple-tree,
even all the trees of the field, Joe 1:12; in doing which, kept their
ranks like men of war, climbing over, as they advanced, every tree or
wall that was in their way; nay, they entered into our very houses and
bedchambers like thieves. The inhabitants, to stop their progress,
made a variety of pits and trenches all over their fields and gardens,
which they filled with water; or else they heaped up therein heath,
stubble, and such like combustible matter, which were severally set on
fire upon the approach of the locusts. But this was all to no purpose,
for the trenches were quickly filled up and the fires extinguished by
infinite swarms succeeding one another, while the front was regarded
less of danger and the rear pressed on so close that a retreat was
altogether impossible. A day or two after one of these broods was in
motion, others were already hatched to march and glean after them,
gnawing off the very bark and the young branches of such trees as had
before escaped with the loss only of their fruit and foliage. So
justly have they been compared by the prophet to a great army; who
further observes, that the land is as the Garden of Eden before them,
and behind them a desolate wilderness."

Mr. Morier says, "On the 11th of June, while seated in our tents about
noon, we heard a very unusual noise, that sounded like the rustling of
a great wind at a distance. On looking up, we perceived an immense
cloud, here and there semi-transparent, in other parts quite black,
that spread itself all over the sky, and at intervals shadowed the
sun. These we soon found to be locusts, whole swarms of them falling
about us. These were of a red color, and I should suppose are the red
predatory locusts, one of the Egyptian plagues. As soon as they
appeared, the gardeners and husbandmen made loud shouts, to prevent
their settling on their grounds. They seemed to be impelled by one
common instinct, and moved in one body, which had the appearance of
being organized by a leader, Joe 2:7."

The locust was a "clean" animal for the Jews, Le 11:22, and might be
used for food. In Mt 3:4, it is said of John the Baptist, that "his
meat was locusts, and wild honey." They are still eaten in the East,
and regarded by some as a delicacy, though usually left to the poorest
of the people. Niebuhr remarks, "Locusts are brought to market on
mount Sumara I saw an Arab who had collected a whole sackful of the.
They are prepared in different ways. An Arab in Egypt, of whom we
requested that he would immediately eat locusts in our presence, threw
them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed they were roasted
enough, he took them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed
they were roasted enough, he took them by the legs and head, and
devoured the remainder at one mouthful. When the Arabs have them in
quantities, they roast or dry them in an oven, or boil the locusts,
and then dry them on the roofs of their houses. One sees there large
baskets full of them in the markets."

Burckhardt also relates the fact in a similar manner: "The Bedaween
eat locusts, which are collected in great quantities in the beginning
of April, when they are easily caught. After having been roasted a
little upon the iron plate on which bread is baked, they are dried in
the sun, and then put into large sacks, with the mixture of a little

In Re 9:7-10, there is a terrific description of symbolical locusts,
in which they are compared to war-horses, their hair to the hair of
women, etc. Niebuhr heard an Arab of the desert, and another in
Bagdad, make the same comparison. They likened "the head of the locust
to that of the horse; its breast to that of the lion; its feet to
those of the camel; its body to that of the serpent; its tail to that
of the scorpion; its antennae, if I mistake not, to the locks of hair
of a virgin; and so of other parts." In like manner, the Italians
still call locusts little horses, and the Germans hayhorses.






A Hebrew measure for liquids, containing five-sixths of a pint, Le




A pious Jewess, whose "unfeigned faith" Paul traces in her daughter
Eunice, and her grandson Timothy, 2Ti 1:5.


Or rather, mirrors, were anciently made of metal, chiefly copper, Ex
38:8; Job 37:18, melted and cast in a circular form, highly polished,
and attached to an ornamental handle. Similar mirrors have been found
in the ruins of ancient Egypt.


This name belongs to God by preeminence; and in this sense ought never
to be given to any creature. Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, the Son of
God, and equal with the Father, is often called Lord in Scripture,
especially in the writing of Paul. The word LORD LORD, in the English
Bible, when printed in small capitals, stands always for JEHOVAH in
the Hebrew. See JEHOVAH.


Called also "the breaking of bread," Ac 2:42 20:7, and the communion
of the body and blood of Christ, 1Co 10:16, is one of the two simple
ordinances of the Christian church; instituted by our Savior in the
most affecting circumstances on the Passover night in which he was
betrayed, to be observed by his followers until his second coming.
Bread and wine, the symbols of his body broken and his blood shed for
our redemption, are to be tasted by each communicant, to keep in mind
that great sacrifice, the foundation of all out hopes and the
strongest motive to a holy and devoted life. In the Lord's supper the
covenant is renewed between Christ and his people. It is also the
visible token of Christian fellowship; and all true believers, and
none but they, should claim to partake of it, 1Co 5:6-8. In it
Christians may expect and should seek to receive of the fullness of
Christ, grace for grace, 2Co 1:21,22 Eph 4:15,15; while those who
partake heedlessly incur great guilt, and may look for chastisement,
1Co 11:20-34. The dogma of the Romish church, that the bread is
changed into the very body and soul of Christ, which the priest offers
anew in sacrifice, is contrary to the Scripture and to all the senses,
as it is also to commonsense.




The son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham, followed his uncle from Ur,
and afterwards from Haran, to settle in Canaan, Ge 11:31 12:4-6 13:1.
Abraham always had a great affection for him, and when they could not
continue longer together in Canaan, because they both had large flocks
and their shepherds sometimes quarreled, Ge 13:5-7, he gave Lot the
choice of his abode. Lot chose the plain of Sodom, which appears then
to have been the most fertile parts of the land. Here he continued to
dwell till the destruction of Sodom and the adjacent cities. He was a
righteous man even in Sodom, 2Pe 2:7; but the calamities consequent
upon his choice of this residence-his capture by eastern marauders,
the molestation caused by his ungodly and vicious neighbors, the loss
of his property in the burning city, the destruction of his
sons-in-law and of his wife-if they do not prove that he regarded ease
and profit more than duty, show that the most beautiful and fruitful
land is not always the best; the profligacy of its citizens may sink
it into the abyss of perdition, and endanger all who have any concern
with it. Lot's wife, looking back with disobedient regrets, and
arrested by the threatened judgment midway in her flight to the
mountain, is an awful warning to all who turn their faces Zionward,
but are unwilling to leave all for Christ, Ge 19:1-38 Lu 17:32.


Were often cast by the Jews, as well as other ancient nations, with
the expectation, when God was appealed to, that he would so control
them as to give a right direction in doubtful cases, Ps 22:18 16:11
18:18. They were often used by the divine appointment. The portions of
the twelve tribes were thus assigned to them; and hence each tribe's
portion was called "the lot of its inheritance," Nu 26:55,56 Ps 125:3
Ac 8:21. The scapegoat was to be selected, and the other of the
priests' service determined by lot, Le 16:8 1Ch 24:5 25:8. By the same
means Achan, Jonathan, and Jonah were discovered, Jos 7:14 1Sa
14:41,42 Jon 1:7; and thus Matthias was designated by Christ to be an
apostle in the place of Judas, Ac 1:26. A common mode of casting lots
was by the use of pebbles, one or more of them being marked, and all
of them being shaken together in some fold of a garment, an urn, or a
helmet, before drawing, Pr 16:33 Joh 19:24. As the use of lots by one
who believes in the particular providence of God involves a solemn
appeal to the Disposer of all events, they should never be used on
trivial occasions; and in this day, a case can hardly occur when such
an appeal would be warranted. See PURIM.


HIM, 1Jo 4:16. Love is a chief attribute of Jehovah, the length and
breadth and height and depth of which are beyond comprehension, for
they are infinite, Eph 3:18,19. Between the three Persons of the
Godhead, love is unutterable full, perfect, and blissful; towards holy
angels and Christians, God's love is an infinite fatherly complacency
and affection; towards sinners, it is immeasurable compassion. It is
shown in all his works and ways, and dictated his holy law, but is
most signally displayed in the gospel, Joh 3:16. "Herein is love."

Holy love in man would make the whole heart and soul supremely delight
in and obey God, and cordially and practically love all beings
according to their character-the good with fellowship of soul, and the
evil with a Christ-like benevolence. Such a love would meet and fulfil
all the ends of the law, Mt 22:37-40 Ro 13:8-10. Without it, none can
enter heaven; and as the affections of every unrenewed heart are all
mixed with sin, being given to forbidden objects, or selfishly and
unduly given to objects not forbidden, we must be "born again" in
order to see God, Joh 3:3 1Jo 4:7,19 5:4.


Valleys, Isa 44:23; also the grave, or the abode of disembodied
spirits secluded from our view,

"That undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler returns." Ps
63:9 139:15 Eph 4:9.




The same with LUKE.


Light-bringer, the Latin name of the morning-star, or "son of the
morning." In the figurative language of Scripture, a brilliant star
denoted an illustrious prince, Nu 24:17. Christ was given to men as
the "bright and morning Star," Re 2:28; 22:16. The word Lucifer is
used once only in the English Bible, and then of the king of Babylon,
Isa 14:12. It is now commonly, though inappropriately, given to the
prince of darkness.


Of Cyrene, mentioned Ac 13:1, was on of the ministers and teachers of
the Christian church at Antioch, and probably a kinsman of Paul, Ro
16:21. He is supposed by some to be the same with the evangelist Luke;
but of this there is no evidence.


A son of Shem, Ge 10:22, and ancestor, it is thought, of the Lydians
in Asia Minor.


Descendants of Mizraim, Ge 10:13, dwelling in Africa, probably near
Ethiopia; they were famous bowmen, Isa 66:19, and are mentioned as
soldiers with the Ethiopians, Libyans, and Tyrians, Jer 46:9; Eze
27:10; 30:5.


The evangelist, probably the same person who is called by St. Paul,
"the beloved physician," Col 4:14. The name Luke, or Lucas, Phm 1:24,
is the same as Lucanus in Latin. Luke was the writer of the gospel,
which bears his name, and of the Acts of the Apostles, having been the
friend and companion of St. Paul in most of the journeys recorded in
the latter book. Thus, in Ac 16:11, he first uses the word "we," and
shows that he was with Paul at Troas and in his first Macedonian tour.
After they reach Philippe, an interval of separation occurs; but they
are again together at Philippi when Paul sails thence for Jerusalem,
and from that time he continues with the apostle in his labors,
voyages, and sufferings, to the close of his first imprisonment at
Rome, Ac 17:1 20:5,6,13-16 21:1-28:31 Phm 1:24 2Ti 4:11. His personal
history before and after this period of his companionship with Paul,
is unknown, or rests on uncertain traditions. His own narrative
contains the least possible mention of himself; yet we cannot doubt
that he was eminently useful to the early church, by his learning,
judgment, fidelity, and even his medical skill, besides leaving to the
church universal the invaluable legacy of his writings.


A word formed from the Latin luna, the moon, and thus corresponding to
the original Greek word and to the English "moonstruck;" applied to a
class of persons mentally and often corporally diseased, who were
believed to suffer most when the moon was full. Inanity, epilepsy, and
morbid melancholy were among the frequent effects of demoniac
possession, yet this possession existed independently of these
effects, and was a more dreadful calamity. Lunatics are expressly
mentioned in distinction from men possessed by evil spirits, Mt 4:24
17:15. See DEVILS.


Originally meant any longing desire, however innocent, De 12:15 14:26.
But, in tacit acknowledgment of the depravity of man's passions,
general usage soon attached the idea of guilt to the word; and now it
usually denotes carnal, lascivious desire. In Ga 5:17, we see that the
aspirations of the heart renewed by the Holy Spirit, oppose and will
subdue the native evil desires, 1Co 15:57; but in the unrenewed heart
these reign uncontrolled, lead to greater and greater outwards sin,
and secure eternal death, Jas 1:14,15.


The ancient name of a part at least of Bethel, Ge 28:19 Joh 16:2
18:13; afterwards given to a smaller place founded by a refugee from
Bethel, Jud 1:26. See Bethel, Jud 1:26. See BETHEL.


A small province of Asia Minor, bounded north by Galatia, east by
Cappadocia, south by Isauria and Cilicia, and west by Phrygia. It
appears to have been within the limits of Phrygia Major, but was
erected into a Roman province by Augustus. The country is level, but
not fertile, though peculiarly adapted to pasturage. Of its cities,
Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra and mentioned in the New Testament, Ac
14:6. The "speech of Lycaonia now forms part of the Turkish province
of Caramania.


A province in the southwest of Asia Minor bounded west by Caria, east
by Pamphylia, north by Phrygia and Pisidia, and south by the
Mediterranean. The country is somewhat mountainous, though not barren.
Of its cities, only Patara and Myra are mentioned in the New
Testament, Ac 21:1,2; 27:5.


In Hebrew Lud or Lod, 1Ch 8:12; Ezr 2:33, and by the Greeks called
Diospolis, was a city nine miles east of Joppa, on the way to
Jerusalem. Here Peter healed Aeneas, Ac 9:33,34. It was destroyed not
long after Jerusalem; but was soon rebuilt, and became the seat of a
famous Jewish school. A Christian church was here organized, and was
in existence A. D. 518. Lydda is often mentioned in the history of the
crusades. It was situated in the midst of fine and extensive plains,
the soil of which is a rich black mould, that might be rendered
exceedingly fertile. It is at present only a miserable village called
Ludd. The ruins of a stately church of the middle ages, called the
church of St. George, preserve the name of a saint and martyr said to
have been buried here in the third century. The English crusaders
adopted him as the "patron" of England, and many fabulous legends are
told of his exploits.


A woman of Thyatira, residing at Philippi in Macedonia, and dealing in
purple cloths. She was not a Jewess by birth, but had become a
proselyte to Judaism and "worshipped God." She was led by the grace of
God to receive the gospel with joy; and having been baptized, with her
household, constrained Paul and his fellow-laborers to make her house
their home while at Philippi, Ac 16:14,40. See PHILIPPI.




Or Claudius Lysias, commander of the Roman guard at Jerusalem during
Paul's last visit there. In the honorable discharge of his duty, he
repeatedly saved Paul from the malice of the Jews, Ac 21:27-40


A city of Lycaonia, near Derbe and Iconium, and the native place of
Timothy. Paul and Barnabas preached the gospel here; and having healed
a cripple, were almost worshipped. Soon after, however, Paul was
stoned there, Ac 14:6,21 16:1 2Ti 3:11. It is now a small place called

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