American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - J

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Son of Lamech and Adah, and a descendant of Cain. He is supposed to
have been the first to adopt the nomadic mode of life, still practiced
in Arabia and Tartary, and to have invented portable tents, perhaps of
skins, Ge 4:20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell
in tents and have cattle.


Now the Zerka, a perennial stream, flowing into the Jordan midway
between the sea of Galilee and the Dead sea, about thirty miles from
each, after a westerly course of some sixty miles. It traverses at
first an elevated and desert region, and receives a branch from the
north and another from the south. This latter branch separated the
Ammonites from Israel. The eastern part of the Jabbok is dry in
summer. Towards the west, it flows through a deep ravine. Penuel,
where Jacob wrestled with the Angel, was a fording-place of the
Jabbok, Ge 32:32.

This stream divided the territory of Og from that of Sihon, Jos 12:2


A city in the half-tribe of Manasseh east of the Jordan generally
called Jabesh-gilead because situated within the territory commonly
called Gilead. Eusebius places it six miles from Pella, towards
Gerasa. It was sacked by the Israelites for refusing to aid in
chastising the Benjamites, Jud 21:8-10

At a later day, it was besieged by the Ammonites, and relieved by
Saul; in gratitude for which service the men of Jabesh-gilead rescued
the dead bodies of Saul and his sons from the insults of the
Philistines, 1Sa 11:1-15 31:11-13 2Sa 2:5.


A descendant of Judah, whose high distinction among his brethren seems
to have been owing to his prevalence in prayer, 1Ch 4:9-10


1. A powerful king in the time of Joshua, at Hazor in the north of
Canaan. The league which he organized to crush Joshua, only made his
own ruin more complete, Jos 11:1-23 B. C. 1450.

2. Another king of Hazor, a century and a half later, who sorely
oppressed Israel for twenty years, till Deborah and Barak were raised
up as deliverers, Jud 4:1-24 Ps 83:9.


Afterwards Jamnia, now Jebna, a Philistine city on the Mediterranean
coast, some twelve miles south of Joppa. It was conquered by the Jews,
2Ch 26:6.


God confirms, the name of the right-hand brazen column at the entrance
of Solomon's temple 1Ki 7:21. See BOAZ.


Or HYACINTH, a gem of a yellowish red or hyacinth color, nearly
related to zircon and to the amethyst. It loses its color by being
heated, and resembles the diamond, Re 9:17 21:20.


Son of Isaac and Rebekah, and twin-brother to Esau. As at his birth he
held his brother's heel, he was called Jacob, that is, the heelholder,
one who comes behind and catches the heel of his adversary, a
supplanter, Ge 25:26. This was a king of predictive intimation of his
future conduct in life. Jacob was meek and peaceable, living a
shepherd life at home. Esau was more turbulent and fierce, and
passionately fond of hunting. Isaac was partial to Esau, Rebekah to
Jacob. Jacob having taken advantage of his brother's absence and his
father's infirmity to obtain the blessing of the birthright, or
primogeniture, was compelled to fly into Mesopotamia to avoid the
consequences of his brother's wrath, Ge 27:1-28:22. On his journey the
Lord appeared to him in a dream, (see LADDER), promised him His
protection, and declared His purpose relative to his descendants'
possessing the land of Canaan, and the descent of the Messiah through
him, Ge 28:10, etc. His subsequent days, which he calls "few and
evil," were clouded with many sorrows, yet amid them all he was
sustained by the care and favor of God. On his solitary journey of six
hundred miles into Mesopotamia, and during the toils and injuries of
this twenty years' service with Laban, God still prospered him, and on
his return to the land of promise inclined the hostile spirits of
Laban and of Esau to peace. On the border of Canaan the angels of God
met him, and the God of angels wrestled with him, yielded him the
blessing, and gave him the honored name of Israel. But sore trials
awaited him: his mother was no more; his sister-wives imbittered his
life with their jealousies; his children Dinah, Simeon, Levi and
Reuben filled him with grief and shame; his beloved Rachel and his
father were removed by death; Joseph his favorite son he had given up
as slain by wild beasts; and the loss of Benjamin threatened to bring
his gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. But the sunset of his life
was majestically calm and bright. For seventeen years, he enjoyed in
the land of Goshen a serene happiness: he gave a dying blessing in
Jehovah's name to his assembled sons; visions of their future
prosperity rose before his eyes, especially the long line of the royal
race of Judah, culminating in the glorious kingdom of SHILOH SHILOH.
"He saw it, and was glad." Soon after, he was gathered to his fathers,
and his body was embalmed, and buried with all possible honors in the
burial-place of Abraham near Hebron, B. C. 1836-1689. In the history
of Jacob we observe that in repeated instances he used unjustifiable
means to secure promised advantages, instead of waiting, in faith and
obedience, for the unfailing providence of God. We observe also the
divine chastisement of his sins, and his steadfast growth in grace to
the last, Ge 24:1-50. His name is found in the New Testament,
illustrating the sovereignty of God and the power of faith, Ro 9:13
Heb 11:9,21.




Wife of Heber the Kenite, slew Sisera, general of the Canaanitish
army, who had fled to her tent, which was then temporarily on the
western border of the plain of Esdraelon. Jael took her opportunity,
and while he was sleeping, drove a large nail or tent-pin through his
temples, Jud 4:17-23. The life of Sisera was undoubtedly forfeited to
the Israelites by the usages of war, and probably to society by his
crimes. Besides this, the life or honor of Jael may have been in
danger, or her feelings of hospitality may have been overpowered by a
sudden impulse to avenge the oppressed Israelites, with whom she was
allied by blood. The song of Deborah celebrates the act as one of
justice and heroism, and as a divine judgement which, as well as the
defeat of Sisera's host, was the more disgraceful to him for being
wrought by a woman, Jud 5:1; 21:25,25.


A Hebrew contraction for JEHOVAH, Ps 68:4. It is often found in Hebrew
compound words, as in Adonijah, Malachia, Hallelujah.


JAHAZAH or JAHZAH, a city in the north of Moab, near which Moses
defeated Sihon, Nu 21:23. It was in the limits of Reuben, and was a
Levitical city, Jos 21:36. In Isa 15:4, and Jer 48:21, it appears as
again in the hands of the Moabites.


1 A leader in the conquest of Bashan, probably before the Jews crossed
the Jordan, B. C. 1451. Twenty-three cities near Argob were called
after him Havoth-jair, which see.

2. The eighth judge of Israel, in Gilead of Manasseh, B. C. 1210. He
seems to have been a descendant and heir of the former, Jud 10:3- 5.


A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, memorable for his faith in
Christ. His deceased daughter, twelve years of age, was restored to
life and health by the Savior, Mr 5:33; Lu 8:41.




Surnamed the greater, or the elder, to distinguish him from James the
younger, was one of the twelve apostles, brother of John the
evangelist, and son of Zebedee and Salome, Mt 4:21 27:56. Compare Mr
15:40. James was of Bethsaida in Galilee, and left his earthly
occupation to follow Christ, Mr 1:29,20. His mother Salome was one of
those women who occasionally attended our Savior in his journeys, and
one day desired that her two sons might be seated at his right and
left hand in the kingdom, Mt 20:20-23.

James and John were originally fishermen, with Zebedee their father,
Mr 1:19. They were witnesses of our Lord's transfiguration, Mt 17:1,2;
and when certain Samaritans refused to receive him, James and John
wished for fire from heaven to consume them, Lu 9:54. For this reason,
or because of their zeal and energy as ministers of Christ, the name
of Boanerges, or sons of thunder, was afterwards given to them, Mr
3:17. Together with Peter they appear to have enjoyed special honors
and privileges among the disciples, Mr 1:29 5:37 9:2 13:3 14:33 Lu
8:51. After the ascension of our Lord, at which James was present, he
appears to have remained at Jerusalem, and was put to death by Herod,
about A. D. 44, the first martyr among the apostles, Ac 12:1,2.

Another apostle, son of Alphaeus, or Cleophas, Mt 10:3 Mr 3:18 Lu
6:15. His mother's name was Mary, (3) and his brethren were Joses and
Judas, (3) Mt 27:56; Mr 15:40. He is here called THE LESS, or THE
younger, to distinguish him from James the son of Zebedee.

"The Lord's brother," Ga 1:19; either a brother a Christ, being a son
of Joseph and Mary; or as many think, a cousin of Christ, and
identical with the James above, 2. He resided at Jerusalem, Ac 15:13;
and is called "the Just" by Josephus, and said to have been stoned to
death, about A. D. 62. The epistle of James is ascribed to him by
those who distinguish him from James the Less. The question of his
true relationship to Christ is involved in much doubt. The gospels
repeatedly mention James, Joses, Juda, and Simon, as "brothers" of our
Lord, and speak in the same connection of his "mother" and his
"sisters," Mt 12:46 13:56 Mr 3:31 6:3 Lu 8:19; moreover, the inspired
writers expressly distinguish the brothers of Christ from the apostles
both James the Less and Jude, Joh 2:12 7:3-10 Ac 1:13,14, thus
furnishing strong reasons, as many believe, for the opinion that James
the Just was literally a brother of our Lord.


Is generally supposed to have been written at Jerusalem, about A. D.
61, by James the Just, shortly before his death. It is addressed
particularly to Jewish converts, but was intended for the benefit of
Christians generally. It is hence called catholic. See CATHOLIC and
EPISTLE. It has often been regarded as teaching a different doctrine
in respect to faith and works, from what Paul teaches in his epistle
to the Romans. But the doctrine of the two apostles is at bottom the
same, only that Paul dwells more on faith, the sole origin of good
works, which result from true faith. According to Paul, there can be
no true faith, which does not manifest itself in good works; and
according to James, there can be no truly good works, which do not
spring from true faith.


And JAMBRES were two of the principal Egyptian magicians, who
withstood Moses and Aaron by attempting to imitate the miracles, which
they exhibited. See Ex 7:11, etc. These names are not found in the Old
Testament, but are often mentioned in the rabbinical books, 2Ti 3:8.


Enlargement, the eldest of Noah's three sons, Ge 9:24 10:21, born one
hundred years before the flood. He was perhaps the Iapetos, whom Greek
legends represent as the progenitor of the Greek race. His seven sons,
Ge 10:2-5 1Ch 1:5, occupied with their posterity the north of Asia and
most of Europe. The probable location of each of the seven is
described in its place. In later years the Greeks and Romans subdued
large portions of Southern and Western Asia, in accordance with the
prediction of Noah, Ge 9:27. The "enlargement" of Japheth now extends
over America also.




THE BOOK OF, that is, the book of the upright, or of the excellent,
noble-minded. This work is mentioned in Jos 10:13, and 2Sa 1:18, and
would seem to have been a collection of national, historical,
triumphal, and elegiac songs, which was still extant in the time of
David. Josephus speaks of a book of Jasher as then existing in the
temple, but nothing is known respecting it. The books now published
under this name are gross forgeries.


A kinsman and host of Paul, at Thessalonica. His person and goods were
interposed to shield the apostle from the rabble, A. D. 52, Ac
17:5-10. He seems also to have been with him at Corinth, five years
afterwards, Ro 16:21.


A precious stone of various colors, as green, purple, etc., often
clouded with white, and beautifully striped with red or yellow, Ex
28:20; Re 4:3; 21:11.


The fourth son of Japheth, Ge 10:2,4. This name is the same as the
Greek Ion, whence comes Ionia, and it is understood that Javan was the
ancestor of the Greeks. See GREECE.


Or JAAZER, Nu 21:32, a city of the Amorites, in Gilead; afterwards a
Levitical city in Gad. It lay some fifteen miles north of Heshbon,
near a small stream, Nu 1:1-36:13 32:1 Jos 21:39 1Ch 26:31 Jer 48:32.


See under ADULTERY. The idol of jealousy, Eze 8:3,5, is the same with
Thammuz in Eze 8:14. See THAMMUZ.






Beloved of the Lord, a name given to Solomon at his birth, by Nathan
the prophet, 2Sa 12:25.


A Levite, one of the directors of music at the temple, 1Ch 16:38-42.
His descendants held the same office, 2Ch 35:15 Ne 11:7; and the name
of one of them appears in the title of Ps 39:1-13 62:1-12 77:1-20. See


Heap of witness, a Chaldee name, equivalent to Galeed in Hebrew, both
marking the scene of the covenant between Jacob and Laban, Ge 31:47.


1. Son and successor of Jehu king of Israel, B. C. 856, reigned
seventeen years. In punishment for his sins and those of his people,
Israel was invaded and reduced to great extremities by the Syrians
under Hazael and Benhadad. The king humbled himself before God, and
deliverance came by the hand of Joash his son, 2Ki 13:19,25

2. Also called Shallum, 1Ch 3:15, the third son and the successor of
Josiah king of Judah, B. C. 609, reigned about three months in
Jerusalem. He was deposed by the king of Egypt, 2Ki 23:30-34 2Ch
36:1-4. See also Jer 22:10-13 Eze 19:3.




Son and successor of Jeohiakim, king of Judah, B. C. 509, reigned
three months, and was then carried away to Babylon, where he was
imprisoned for thirty-six years, and then released and favored by
Evil-merodach, 2Ki 24:6-16 25:27 2Ch 3:9,10. In this last passage he
is said to have been eight years old at the commencement of his reign.
If the text has not here been altered from eighteen years, as it
stands in the first passage, we may conclude that he reigned ten years
conjointly with his father. He is also called Coniah, and Jeconiah,
1Ch 3:16 Jer 27:20 37:1. The prediction in Jer 22:30, signified that
no son of his should occupy the throne, 1Ch 3:17,18 Mt 1:12.


A high priest, who preserved the life and throne of the young Josiah
against the usurping Athaliah. His wisdom and piety continued to bless
the kingdom until he dies, B. C. 834, aged 130, and was buried


Or ELIAKIM, second son of Josiah, brother and successor of Jehoahaz or
Shallum, king of Judah, for whom he was substituted by the king of
Egypt. He was king during eleven years of luxury, extortion, and
idolatry. In the third year, Nebuchadnezzar carried to Babylon a part
of his princes and treasures. A year after, his allied the Egyptians
were defeated on the Euphrates; yet he despised the warnings of
Jeremiah, and cast his book into the fire. At length he rebelled
against Nebuchadnezzar, but was defeated and ingloriously slain, B. C.
599, 2Ki 23:34 24:6 2Ch 36:4-8 Jer 22:1-30 26:1-24 36:1-32.




A pious king of Judah, the son and successor of Asa. He began to reign
at the age of thirty-five, about the year 914 B. C., and reigned
twenty-five years. His history is found in 1Ki 15:24 22:1-53 2Ch
17:1-20:37. He was distinguished by his zeal for true religion, and
his firm trust in God. He thoroughly cleansed the land from idolatry,
restored the divine ordinances, and provided for the religious
instruction of the people. His government was highly prospered at home
and abroad. The great error of his life was an entangling alliance
with the wicked Ahab, whose infamous daughter Athaliah early began to
afflict the kingdom of Judah, of which she was afterwards the queen.
Jehoshaphat was beguiled by Ahab into an unsuccessful war with the
Syrians, but soon resumed his labors in behalf of religion and
justice. Having failed in a commercial enterprise with Ahaziah, he
declined a second trial, 1Ki 22:48,49 but united with Joram, his
successor, in a war with Moab. This seems to have led to his being
assailed by a vast host of Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, and Syrians;
but again he was victorious through his faith in God. He died at the
age of sixty years.


Or valley of the judgment of God, a metaphorical name of some place
where God would judge the foes of his people, Joe 3:2,12. There is no
ground for applying it to any known locality, or for connecting it,
unless for mere illustration, with the great battle of Jehoshaphat
described in 2Ch 20:1-37. Since the third century, however, the name
has been appropriated to the deep and narrow glen east of Jerusalem,
running north and south between the city and the Mount of Olives,
called in the Bible the brook Kidron. See JERUSALEM.


The aunt of Joash, king of Judah, whose life in infancy and childhood
she saved, in spite of the designs of Athaliah, 2Ki 11:1- 3.


The ineffable name of God among the Hebrews. It never has the article
before it, nor is it found in the plural form. The Jews never
pronounced this name; and wherever it occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures,
the substituted for it, in reading, the word ADONAI, Lord, or ELOHIM,
God. See GOD. In the Hebrew Bible, it is always written with the
vowels of one or the other of these words. Its ancient pronunciation
is by many thought to have been Yahweh, but this is not certain. Its
meaning is HE IS the same as I AM, the person only being changed. Thus
it denotes the self-existence, independence, immutability, and
infinite fullness of the divine Being, which is a pledge that he will
fulfil all his promises. Compare Ex 3:14, I AM THAT I AM, the meaning
of which see under the article GOD. In Ex 6:3, God says, "I appeared
unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty;
but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them;" yet the appellation
Jehovah appears to have been known from the beginning, Ge 4:2. We have
reason to believe that God himself, who named man Adam, named himself
JEHOVAH; but in his revelation to the patriarchs he had not
appropriated to himself this name in a peculiar way, as he now did,
nor unfolded the deep meaning contained in it. He had said to them, "I
am God Almighty," Ge 17:1 26:11; or, "I am Jehovah, the God of
Abraham," etc.; but never simply, "I am Jehovah." It should be
remembered that our English version translates this name by the word
LORD, printed in small capitals.


Jehovah will provide, the name given by Abraham to the place where he
had been on the point of slaying his son Isaac, Ge 22:14. He gave this
name in allusion to his answer to Isaac's question in Ge 22:8, that
God would provide a victim for the sacrifice.


Jehovah my banner, Ex 17:15.


Jehovah of peace, or prosperity, the name given by Gideon to an altar
which he built in the place where the Angel-Jehovah had appeared to
him, and saluted him by saying "Peace be unto thee," Jud 6:24.


Jehovah is there, the name given by Ezekiel, Eze 48:35, to a future
holy city.


Jehovah our righteousness, a name given to the Savior, and through him
to his church, Jer 23:6; 33:16.


The son of Hanani, a prophet, sent with messages from God to Baasha
king of Israel, and many years afterwards, to Jehoshaphat king of
Judah, 1Ki 16:1-7 2Ch 19:1-3 20:34.

The "son" of Jehoshaphat and grandson of Nimshi, (compare 1Ki 19:16
2Ki 9:2) a general of the army of Joram, slew his master, and usurped
the throne of Israel, B. C. 884. He reigned twentyeight years. See his
history in 1Ki 19:16,17 2Ki 9:1-10:36. He fulfilled the divine purpose
in extirpating the family of the impious Ahab, and zealously destroyed
the priests of Baal and many other friends of Ahab. But his heart was
not right with God. The Syrians possessed themselves of his eastern
frontier, and his dynasty was cut short in the fourth generation.


The son of Gilead, was a judge of Israel, and successor to Jair. His
history is told in Jud 11:1-12:15. A most affecting incident in it is
his devoting his daughter to God as a sacrifice, in consequence of a
rash vow.

The arguments on the question whether Jephthah's daughter was actually
sacrificed or not, cannot here be cited. The natural repugnance we
feel to such a vow and its fulfillment has led many interpreters to
adopt the less obvious theory that she was only condemned to live and
die unmarried. There is no intimation in Scripture that God approved
of his vow, whatever it was. Paul numbers Jephthah among the saints of
the Old Testament distinguished for their faith, Heb 11:32.


One of the chief prophets of the Old Testament, prophesied under
Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah, and also after the captivity of the
latter. He was born at Anathoth, of the race of the priests, and was
destined of God to be a prophet, and consecrated for that object
before his birth, Jer 1:1,5. At an early age he was called to act as a
prophet, B. C. 628, in the thirteenth year of King Josiah. This good
king no doubt cooperated with him to promote the reformation of the
people; but the subsequent life of the prophet was full of afflictions
and persecutions. Jehoiakim threw his prophetic roll into the fire,
and sought his life. Zedekiah was kindly instructed by him, and warned
of the woes impending over his guilty people, and of their seventy
years' captivity, but to no purpose. The fidelity of the prophet often
endangered his life, and he was in prison when Jerusalem was taken by
Nebuchadnezzar. That monarch released him, and offered him a home in
Babylon; but he chose to remain with the remnant of the Jews, and was
carried by them before long into Egypt, B. C. 586, still faithfully
advising and reproving them till he died. For forty-two years he
steadfastly maintained the cause of truth and of God against his
rebellious people. Though naturally mild, sensitive, and retiring, he
shrank from no danger when duty called; threats could not silence him,
nor ill usage alienate him. Tenderly compassionate to his infatuated
countrymen, he shared with them the woes, which he could not induce
them to avert from their own heads.


In the chronological order of its several predictions and divine
messages, is somewhat difficult of arrangement; but may be divide, by
a natural and sufficiently accurate method, in to four general
sections, containing severally the prophecies uttered in the reigns of
Josiah, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah, and Gedaliah. The last chapter of the
book appears to have been added, perhaps by Ezra; it is taken almost
verbatim from 2Ki 24:18-20 25:1-30. See Jer 51:64.

Jeremiah wrote also the book of LAMENTATIONS, in which he utters the
most plaintive and pathetic sentiments over the calamities of his


A city of Benjamin, Jos 16:7 18:21, about eighteen miles east north
east of Jerusalem, and seven miles from the Jordan. It was the first
city in Canaan taken by Joshua, who being miraculously aided by the
downfall of its walls, totally destroyed it, sparing only Rahab and
her household, and pronounced a curse upon the person who should ever
rebuild it, which was more than five hundred years afterwards
fulfilled on Hiel, Jos 6:26 1Ki 16:34. Meanwhile a new Jericho had
been built on some neighboring site, Jud 3:3 2Sa 10:5. Jericho was
also called the "city of palm-trees," De 34:3 Jud 1:16, and became
afterwards flourishing and second in importance only to Jerusalem. It
contained a school of the prophets, and as the residence of Elisha,
2Ki 2:4,18. Here also Christ healed two blind men, Mt 20:29-34, and
forgave Zaccheus, Lu 19:2-8.

The site of Jericho has usually been fixed at Rihah, a mean and foul
Arab hamlet of some two hundred inhabitants. Recent travellers,
however, show that the probably location of Jericho was two mile west
of Rihah, at the mouth of Wady Kelt, and where the road from Jerusalem
comes into the plain. The city destroyed by Joshua may have been
nearer to the fountain of Elisha, supposed to be the present Ain
es-Sultan, two miles northwest of Rihah. On the west and north of
Jericho rise high limestone hills, one of which, the dreary
Quarantana, 1,200 or 1,500 feet high, derives its name from the modern
tradition that it was the scene of our Lord's forty days' fast and
temptation. Between the hills and the Jordan lies "the plain of
Jericho," Jos 4:13, over against "the plains of Moab" east of the
river. It was anciently well watered and amazingly fruitful. It might
easily be made so again, but now lies neglected, and the palmtrees,
balsam, and honey, for which it was once famous, have disappeared.

The road from Jericho to Jerusalem ascends through narrow and rocky
passes amid ravines and precipices. It is an exceedingly difficult and
dangerous route, and is still infested by robbers, as in the time of
the good Samaritan, Lu 10:30-34.


The first king of Israel, an Ephraimite, the son of Nebat. During the
latter part of Solomon's reign, and while an officer under him, he
plotted against him, and was obliged to flee into Egypt. On the death
of Solomon, he was summoned by the ten tribes to return and present
their demands to Rehoboam; and when these were refused, he was chosen
king of the revolted tribes, B. C. 975. He reigned twentytwo years.
The only notable act of his reign marked him with infamy, as the man
"who made Israel to sin." It was the idolatrous establishment of
golden calves at Bethel and Dan that the people might worship there
and not at Jerusalem. He also superseded the sons of Aaron by priests
chosen from "the lowest of the people." This unprincipled but
effective measure, in which he was followed by all the kings of
Israel, was a confession of weakness as well as of depravity. Neither
miracles nor warnings, nor the premature death of Abijah his son could
dissuade him. He was at war with Judah all his days, and with the
brief reign of Nadab his son the doomed family became extinct, 1Ki
12:1-14:20 2Ch 10:1-19 13:1-22.

JEROBOAM SECOND, the thirteenth king of Israel, son and successor of
Joash, B. C. 825 reigned forty-one years. He followed up his father's
successes over the Syrians, took Hamath and Damascus, and all the
region east f the Jordan down to the Dead Sea, and advanced to its
highest point the prosperity of that kingdom. Yet his long reign added
heavily to the guilt of Israel, by increased luxury, oppression, and
vice. After him, the kingdom rapidly declined, and his own dynasty
perished within a year, 2Ki 14:23-29 15:8-12. See also the
contemporary prophets, particularly Amos and Hosea.


Let Baal plead, Jud 6:31,32. See GIDEON.


The chief city of the Holy Land, and to the Christian the most
illustrious in the world. It is situated in 31 degrees 46'43" N. lat.,
and 35 degrees 13' E. long. on elevated ground south of the center of
the country, about thirty-seven miles from the Mediterranean, and
about twenty-four from the Jordan. Its site was early hallowed by
God's trial of Abraham's faith, Ge 22:1-24 2Ch 3:1. It was on the
border of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah, mostly within the limits
of the former, but reckoned as belonging to the latter, because
conquered by it, Jos 15:8 18:16,28 Jud 1:18. The most ancient name of
the city was Salem, Ge 14:18 Ps 76:2; and it afterwards was called
Jebus, as belonging to the Jebusites, Jud 19:10,11. Being a very
strong position, it resisted the attempts of the Israelites to become
the sole masters of it, until at length its fortress was stormed by
David, 2Sa 5:6,9; after which it received its present name, and was
also called "the city of David." It now became the religious and
political center of the kingdom, and was greatly enlarged, adorned,
and fortified. But its chief glory was, that in its magnificent temple
the ONE LIVING AND TRUE GOD dwelt, and revealed himself.

After the division of the tribes, it continued the capital of the
kingdom of Judah, was several times taken and plundered, and at length
was destroyed at the Babylonian captivity, 2Ki 14:13 2Ch 12:9 21:16
24:23 25:23 36:3,10 17:1-20:37. After seventy years, it was rebuilt by
the Jews on their return from captivity about 536 B. C., who did much
to restore it to its former splendor. About 332 B. C., the city
yielded to Alexander of Macedon; and not long after his death, Ptolemy
of Egypt took it by an assault on the Sabbath, when it is said the
Jews scrupled to fight. In 170 B. C., Jerusalem fell under the tyranny
of Antiochus Epiphanes, who razed its walls, set up an image of
Jupiter in the temple, and used every means to force the people into
idolatry. Under the Maccabees, however, the Jews, in 163 B. C.,
recovered their independence. Just a century later, it was conquered
by the Romans. Herod the Great expended vast sums in its
embellishment. To the city and temple thus renovated the ever-blessed
Messiah came, in the fullness of time, and made the place of his feet
glorious. By his rejection and crucifixion Jerusalem filled up the cup
of her guilt; the Jewish nation perished from off the land of their
fathers, and the city and temple were taken by Titus and totally
destroyed, A. D. 70-71. Of all the structures of Jerusalem, only three
towers and a part of the western wall were left standing. Still, as
the Jews began to return thither, and manifested a rebellious spirit,
the emperor Adrian planted a Roman colony there in A. D. 135, and
banished the Jews, prohibiting their return on pain of death. He
changed the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina, consecrated it to
heathen deities, in order to defile it as much as possible, and did
what he could to obliterate all traces both of Judaism and
Christianity. From this period the name Aelia became so common, that
the name Jerusalem was preserved only among the Jews and
better-informed Christians. In the time of Constantine, however, it
resumed its ancient name, which it has retained to the present day.
Helena, the mother of Constantine, built two churches in Bethlehem and
on mount Olivet, about A. D. 326; and Julian, who, after his father,
succeeded to the empire of his uncle Constantine, endeavored to
rebuild the temple; but his design, and that of the Jews, whom he
patronized, was frustrated, as contemporary historians relate, by an
earthquake, and by balls of fire bursting forth among the workmen, A.
D. 363.

The subsequent history of Jerusalem may be told in a few words. In
613, it was taken by Chosroes king of Persia, who slew, it is said,
90,000 men, and demolished, to the utmost of his power, whatever the
Christians had venerated: in 627, Heraclius defeated Chosroes, and
Jerusalem was recovered by the Greeks. Soon after command the long and
wretched era of Mohammedanism. About 637, the city was taken from the
Christians by the caliph Omar, after a siege of four months, and
continued under the caliphs of Bagdad till 868, when it was taken by
Ahmed, a Turkish sovereign of Egypt. During the space of 220 years, it
was subject to several masters, Turkish and Saracenic, and in 1099 it
was taken by the crusaders under Godfrey Bouillon, who was elected
king. He was succeeded by his brother Baldwin, who died in 1118. In
1187, Saladin, sultan of the East, captured the city, assisted by the
treachery of Raymond, count of Tripoli, who was found dead in his bed
on the morning of the day in which he was to have delivered up the
city. It was restored, in 1242, to the Latin princes, by Saleh Ismael,
emir of Damascus; they lost it in 1291 to the sultans of Egypt, who
held it till 1382. Selim, the Turkish sultan, reduced Egypt and Syria,
including Jerusalem, in 1517, and his son Solyman built or
reconstructed the present walls in 1534. Since then it has remained
under the dominion of Turkey, except when held for a short time,
1832-4, by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. At present, this city is included
in the pashalic of Damascus, though it has a resident Turkish

Jerusalem is situated on the central tableland of Judea, about 2,400
feet above the Mediterranean. It lies on ground which slopes gently
down towards the east, the slope being terminated by an abrupt
declivity, in some parts precipitous, and overhanging the valley of
Jehoshaphat or of the Kidron. This sloping ground is also terminated
on the south by the deep and narrow valley of Hinnom, which
constituted the ancient southern boundary of the city, and which also
ascends on its west side, and comes out upon the high ground on the
northwest. See GIHON. But in the city itself, there were also two
ravines or smaller valleys, dividing the land covered by buildings
into three principal parts or hills. ZION ZION, the highest of these,
was in the southwest quarter of the city, skirted on the south and
west by the deep valley of Hinnom. On its north and east sides lay the
smaller valley "of the cheesemongers," or Tyropoeon also united, near
the northeast foot of Zion, with a valley coming down from the north.
Zion was also called, The city of David; and by Josephus, "the upper
city." Surrounded anciently by walls as well as deep valleys, it was
the strongest part of the city, and contained the citadel and the
king's palace. The Tyropoeon separated it from Acra on the north and
Moriah on the northeast. ACRA was less elevated than Zion, or than the
ground to the northwest beyond the walls. It is called by Josephus
"the lower city." MORIAH, the sacred hill, lay northeast of Zion, with
which it was anciently connected at its nearest corner, by a bridge
over the Tyropoeon, some remnants of which have been identified by Dr.
Robinson. Moriah was at first a small eminence, but its area was
greatly enlarged to make room for the temple. It was but a part of the
continuous ridge on the east side of the city, overlooking the deep
valley of the Kidron; rising on the north, after a slight depression,
into the hill Bezetha, the "new city" of Joephus, and sinking away on
the south into the hill Ophel. On the east of Jerusalem, and
stretching from north to south, lies the Mount of Olives, divided from
the city by the valley of the Kidron, and commanding a noble prospect
of the city and surrounding county. Over against Moriah, or a little
further north, lies the garden of Gethsemane, with its olive trees, at
the foot of the Mount of Olives. Just below the city, on the east side
of the valley of the Kidron, lies the miserable village of Siloa;
farther down, this valley unites with that of Hinnon, at a beautiful
spot anciently "the king's gardens;" still below, is the well of
Nehemiah, anciently En-rogel; and from this spot the united valley
winds among mountains southward and eastward to the Dead sea. In the
mouth of the Tyropoeon, between Ophel and Zion, is the pool of Siloam.
In the valley west and northwest of Zion are the two pools of Gihon,
the lower being now broken and dry. In the rocks around Jerusalem, and
chiefly in the sides of the valleys of the Kidron and Hinnom opposite
the city, are many excavated tombs and caves.

Of the WALLS of ancient Jerusalem, the most ancient that of David and
Solomon, encircled the whole of Mount Zion, and was also continued
around Moriah and Ophel. The depth of the valleys south and east of
Jerusalem, rendered it comparatively easy to fortify and defend it on
these sides. This southern wall, in the period of kings and of Christ,
traversed the outmost verge of those hills, inclosing the pool of
Siloam, Ophel, and portions apparently of the valleys of Hinnom and
the Kidron, 2Ch 33:14 Ne 2:14 3:15.

A second wall, built by Jotham, Hezekiah, and Manasseh, made some
changes on the southern line, and inclosed a large additional space on
the north. It commenced somewhat east of the tower of Hippicus, on the
northwest border of Zion, included Acra and part of Bezetha, and
united with the old wall on the east. This wall was destroyed, as well
as the first, at the captivity, but both were afterwards reerected, it
is believed, on nearly the same lines, and were substantially the same
at the time of Christ. The precise course of the second wall may
perhaps be ascertained by future excavations, but is now more disputed
than any other point of the topography of Jerusalem. To ascertain the
exact location of "the tower Gennath," where this wall began, and
trace its course "in a circuit" to Antonia, would show whether the
traditional site of Calvary, now far within the city limits, lay
within or without the ancient wall. The arguments from topography are
strongly against the tradition; and it would seem that this whole
region, if not actually within the wall, must have been at least
occupied by the city suburbs at that time.

The third wall, commenced by Herod Agrippa only ten years after the
crucifixion of Christ, ran from the tower Hippicus nearly half a mile
northwest to the tower of Psephinos, and sweeping round by the "tombs
of the kings," passed down east of Bezetha, and joined the old eastern
wall. The whole circumference of the city at that time was a little
over four miles. Now it is only two and three quarters at the most;
and the large space on the north, which the wall of Agrippa inclosed,
is proved to have been built upon by the numerous cisterns which yet
remain, and the marble fragments which the plough often turns up.

The preceding plan of Ancient Jerusalem exhibits the walls, gates,
towers, and other prominent objects in and around the city, with as
much accuracy as can be secured, now that it has borne the ravages of
so many centuries, been nearly a score of times captured, and often
razed to the ground. Fuller descriptions of many of the localities
referred to may be found under their respective heads.

MODERN JERUSALEM, called by the Arabs El-Kuds, the holy, occupies
unquestionably the site of the Jerusalem of the Bible. It is still
"beautiful for situation," and stands forth on its well-defined hills
"as a city that is compact together," Ps 48:2,12 122:3,4 125:1,2. The
distant view of its stately walls and numerous domes and minarets is
highly imposing. But its old glory has departed; its thronging myriads
are no more; desolation covers the barren mountains around it, and the
tribes go up to the house of the Lord no longer. She that once sat as
a queen among them, now sitteth solitary, "trodden down of the
Gentiles," "reft of her sons, and mid her foes forlorn." "Zion is
ploughed as a field," and the soil is mixed with the rubbish of ages,
to the depth in some places of forty feet.

The modern wall, built in 1542, varies from twenty to sixty feet in
height, and is about two and a half miles in circuit. On the eastern
and shortest side, its course is nearly straight; and it coincides, in
the southern half on this side, with the wall of the sacred area now
called El-Haram, the holy. This area, 510 yards long from north to
south, and 310 to 350 yards in breadth, is inclosed by high walls, the
lower stones of which are in many parts very large, and much more
ancient than the superstructure. It is occupied by the great octagonal
mosque called Kubbet es-Sukhrah, or Dome of the Rock, and the mosque
El-Aksa, with their grounds. It covers the site of the ancient temple
and of the great tower Antonia. See TEMPLE. At its southeast corner,
where the wall is seventy-seven feet high, the ground at its base is
one hundred and fifty feet above the dry bed of the Kidron. From this
corner, the wall runs irregularly west by south, crosses mount Zion,
leaving the greater part of it uninclosed on the south, and at its
western verge turns north to the Jaffa gate, where the lower part of a
very old and strong tower still remains. The upper part of this tower
is less ancient and massive. It is known as "the tower of David," and
is generally thought to have been the Hippicus of Josephus. Thence the
wall sweeps irregularly round to the northeast corner. It is flanked
at unequal distances by square towers, and has battlements running all
around on its summit, with loopholes in them for arrows or muskets.
There are now in use only four gates: the Jaffa or Bethlehem gate on
the west, the Damascus gate on the north, St. Stephen's gate on the
east, and Zion gate on the south. In the eastern wall of El-Haram is
the Golden gate, long since blocked up, and in the city wall two
smaller gates, more recently closed, namely, Herod's gate on the
north-east, and Dung gate in the Tyropoeon on the south.

Within the city walls are seen narrow and often covered streets,
ungraded, ill-paved, and in some parts filthy, though less so than in
most oriental cities. The houses are of hewn stone, with few windows
towards the streets. Their flat roofs are strengthened and ornamented
by many small domes. The most beautiful part of the city is the area
of the great mosque-from which until recently all Christians have been
rigorously excluded for six centuries-with its lawns and cypress
trees, and the noble dome rising high above the wall. On mount Zion,
much of the space within the wall is occupied by the huge Armenian
convent, with the Syrian convent, and the church of St. James. Beyond
the wall and far to the south is a Mohammedan mosque, professedly over
the tomb of David. This is more jealously guarded against Christians
than even the mosque of Omar. Near it is the small cemetery of the
American missionaries. At the northwest corner of Zion rises the high
square citadel above referred to, ancient and grand. Still farther
north is the Latin convent, in the most westerly part of Jerusalem;
and between it and the center of the city stands the church of the
Holy Sepulchre, over the traditional scenes of the death and the
resurrection of our Lord. See CALVARY. In various parts of the city
the minarets of eight or ten mosques arise, amid an assemblage of
about two thousand dwellings, not a few of which are much dilapidated.

The present population of Jerusalem may be about 12,000 souls, of whom
about two-fifths are Mohammedans, and the remainder Jews and
Christians in nearly equal numbers. There is also a considerable
garrison, 800 to 1,000, stationed there; and in April of each year
many thousands of pilgrims from foreign lands make a flying visit to
the sacred places. The Moslemim reside in the center of the city, and
towards the north and east. The Jews' quarter is on the northeast side
of Zion. The Greek, Latin, Armenian, Syrian, and Coptic Christians are
located chiefly around their respective convents, and their
burial-places are on mount Zion, as well as that of the American
Protestant mission. The Jews bury on Mount Olivet and the Mohammedans
in several places, though preferring the eastern brow of Moriah.
Jerusalem is but the melancholy shadow of its former self. The nominal
Christians residing there are in a state of degraded and ignorant
subjection to the Mohammedans, and their petty discords and
superstitions are a reproach to the Christian name. The Jews, 3,000 to
5,000 in number, are still more oppressed and abject. Most of them
were born in other lands, and have come here to die, in a city no
longer their own. Discouraged by endless exactions, they subsist on
the charities of their brethren abroad. It is only as a purchased
privilege that they are allowed to approach the foundations of the
sacred hill where their fathers worshipped the only true God. Here, in
a small area near some huge and ancient stones in the base of the
western wall of Moriah, they gather, especially on sacred days, to sit
weeping and wailing on the ground, taking up the heart-breaking
lamentations of Jeremiah-living witnesses of the truth of God's word
fulfilled in them. See WALL.

THE NEW JERUSALEM, is a name given to the church of Christ, and
signifying is firm foundations in the love, choice, an covenant of
God; its strong bulwarks, living fountains, and beautiful palaces; its
thronging thousands, its indwelling God, and its consummated glory in
heaven, Ga 4:26 Heb 12:22 Re 3:12 21:1-27.


Or JOSHUA, son of Josedech, was high priest of the Jews at their
return from the captivity, and acted well his part in the restoration
of the city, the temple, and the divine worship, Ezr 4:3 5:2. His name
occurs in the prophecies of the time, Hag 1:1 2:2 Zec 3:1-10 6:11-15.


A poetical name of Israel, probably derived from a root meaning to be
upright, and applied to the people of God as the objects of his
justifying love, which does not "behold iniquity in Jacob," De 32:5
33:5,26 Isa 44:2.


Son of Obed and father of David. He was a grandson of Ruth the
Moabitess, and in he native land he found an asylum while David was
most in danger from the jealous pursuit of Saul, Ru 4:17 1Sa 16:1-23
17:12 22:3 Mt 1:5.


The Son of God, the Messiah and Savior of the World, the first and
principal object of the prophecies; who was prefigured and promised in
the Old Testament; was expected and desired by the patriarchs; the
hope and salvation of the Gentiles; the glory, happiness, and
consolation of Christians. The name JESUS, in Hebrew JEHOSHUAH or
Joshua, signifies Savior, or Jehovah saves. No one ever bore this name
with so much justice, nor so perfectly fulfilled the signification of
it, as Jesus Christ, who saves from sin and hell, and has merited
heaven for us by the price of his blood. It was given to him by divine
appointment, Mt 1:21, as the proper name for the Savior so long
desired, and whom all the myriads of the redeemed in heaven will for
ever adore as their only and all-glorious Redeemer.

JESUS was the common name of the Savior; while the name CHRIST,
meaning the Anointed One, The Messiah, was his official name. Both
names are used separately, in the gospels and also in the epistles;
but JESUS generally stands by itself in the gospels, which are
narratives of his life; while in the epistles, which treat of his
divine nature and of his redeeming work, he is called CHRIST, CHRIST

Here, under the Redeemer's human name, belong the facts relating to
his human nature and the history of his life upon earth. His true and
complete humanity, having the soul as well as the body of man, is
everywhere seen in the gospel history. He who is "God over all,
blessed forever," was an Israelite "as concerning the flesh," Ro 9:5,
and took upon him our whole nature, in order to be a perfect Savior.
As a man, Jesus was the King of men. No words can describe that
character in which such firmness and gentleness, such dignity and
humility, such enthusiasm and calmness, such wisdom and simplicity,
such holiness and charity, such justice and mercy, such sympathy with
heaven and with earth, such love to God and love to man blended in
perfect harmony. Nothing in it was redundant, and nothing was wanting.
The world had never produced, nor even conceived of such a character,
and its portraiture in the gospels is a proof of their divine origin,
which the infidel cannot gainsay. Could the whole human race, of all
ages, kindreds, and tongues, be assembled to see the crucified
Redeemer as he is, and compare earth's noblest benefactors with Him,
there would be but one voice among them. Every crown of glory and
every meed of praise would be given to Him who alone is worthy-for
perfection of character, for love to mankind, for sacrifices endured,
and for benefits bestowed. His glory will forever be celebrated as the
Friend of man; the Lamb sacrificed for us.

The visit of JESUS CHRIST to the earth has made it forever glorious
above less favored worlds, and forms the most signal event in its
annals. The time of his birth is commemorated by the Christian era,
the first year of which corresponds to about the year 753 from the
building of Rome. It is generally conceded, however, that the Savior
was born at least four years before A. D. 1, and four thousand years
after the creation of Adam. His public ministry commenced when he was
thirty years of age; and continued, according to the received opinion,
three and a half years. Respecting his ancestors, see GENEALOGY.

The life of the Redeemer must be studied in the four gospels, where it
was recorded under the guidance of supreme wisdom. Many efforts have
been made, with valuable results, to arrange the narrations of the
evangelists in the true order of time. But as neither of the gospels
follows the exact course of events, many incidents are very
indeterminate, and are variously arranged by different harmonists. No
one, however, has been more successful than Dr. Robinson in his
valuable "Harmony of the Gospels".

The divine wisdom is conspicuous not only in what is taught us
respecting the life of Jesus, but in what is withheld. Curiosity, and
the higher motives of warm affection, raise numerous questions to
which the gospels give no reply; and in proportion as men resort to
dubious traditions, they lose the power of a pure and spiritual
gospel. See further, concerning Christ, MESSIAH, REDEEMER, etc.

Jesus was not an uncommon name among the Jews. It was the name of the
father of Elymas the sorcerer, Ac 13:6; and of Justus, a
fellow-laborer and friend of Paul, Col 4:11. It is the Greek form of
the Hebrew name Joshua, or Jeshua, borne by the high priest in Ezra's
time, and by the well-known leader of the Jews in to the Promised
Land. See also 1Sa 6:14 2Ki 23:8. The Greek form of the word, Jesus,
is twice used in the New Testament when Joshua the son of Nun is
intended, Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8.


"Moses' father-in-law," a shepherd-prince or priest of Midian, Ex 3:1
4:18 18:1-27. When the Hebrews were at mount Sinai, he visited Moses,
gave him some wise counsel as to the government of the tribes, and
then returned to his own people. See HOBAB and RAGUEL. Jethro was a
worshipper of God, Ex 18:10,11, and some infer that he was a
descendant of Abraham, through Midian, Ge 25:2.


The name borne by the Hebrews among foreign nations, especially after
the return from Babylon; from Judah their ancestor. See HEBREWS.


Daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre and Zidon, and wife of Ahab king of
Israel, 1Ki 16:31. She spent herself in efforts to establish idolatry
in Samaria, and exterminate the worship of God and the lives of his
servants. Obadiah saved a hundred of them, at the risk of his own
life. Jezebel herself maintained four hundred priests of Astarte. When
the prophets of Baal perished at Carmel, at the word of Elijah, she
sought to avenge herself on him. Afterwards, she secured the vineyard
of Naboth for her husband by perjuries and murder; and her tragical
death, the fitting close of a bloody life, took place, according to
the prediction of Elijah, near the scene of this crime,

1Ki 19:1-21 21:1-29 2Ki 9:1-37. Her name has become a proverb, and is
given by John, probably as a descriptive epithet, to a certain female
at Thyatira in his day holding a like bad preeminence in station and
profligacy, in malice and in ruin, Lu 20:18 Re 2:20.


1. A celebrated city of Issachar, Jos 19:18, lying westward of
Bethshean, 2Sa 4:4. Ahab had here a palace; and this city became
famous on account of his seizure of Naboth's vineyard, 1Ki 21:1-29;
and the vengeance executed on Ahab, 2Ki 9:10,14-37 10:1-11. Jezreel
was called Esdraela in the time of the Maccabees, and is now replaced
by a small and ruinous Arab village, called Zerin, at the northwest
point of mount Gilboa. Its elevated site gives one a fine view of the
great plain of Esdraelon on the west, and the hills that border it;
and towards the east it overhangs the wide and fertile "valley of
Jezreel," Jos 17:16 Jud 6:33 Ho 1:5, which runs down east-south-east
from the great plain to the Jordan, between Gilboa and little Hermon.
In this valley, below and east of Zerin, is the copious "fountain of
Jezreel," near which Saul perished, 1Sa 29:1 31:1

2. The great plain lying between Jezreel and Acre, called from two
cities on its border in one part, "the valley of Megiddo," 2Ch 35:22,
and in its western part or branch the "plain or valley of Jezreel,"
afterwards Esdraelon. The body of this beautiful plain forms a
triangle, rising gradually from the Mediterranean four hundred feet,
and being about thirteen or fourteen miles long on the north side,
seventeen on the east, and twenty on the south-west. The western part
is level; on the east it is more undulating, and is at length broken
by mount Gilboa and "little Hermon" into three valleys two or three
miles wide, which sink down into the valley of the Jordan. Of these,
the middle valley, described above, is the proper "valley of Jezreel."
The river Kishon traverses this plain. It was formerly well watered
and astonishingly fertile, but is now under the blight of tyranny and
insecurity, comparatively uncultivated and deserted. The highways are
unoccupied, the villages have ceased in Israel, Jud 5:6. There are a
few small hamlets, particularly on the higher grounds that border it;
and the abundant crops that it yields, even with poor cultivation,
show that it might again be made the granary of Syria. Across this
plain, from Carmel to Jezreel, Elijah ran before the chariot of Ahab,
1Ki 18:46. It has been the chosen battleground of many armies. Here
the hosts of Sisera were swept away, Jud 4:1-24; and here Josiah fell,
fighting against Pharaohnecho, 2Ki 23:29. Battles were fought here in
the later periods of the Romans, and of the Crusaders; and in our own
century, near mount Tabor, fifteen hundred French under General Kleber
sustained the assault of twenty-five thousand Turks for half a day,
and were succored by Napoleon.


Son of Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother of Abishai and Asahel, was
the commander of David's army during almost the whole of his reign,
2Sa 5:6-10. He was a valiant warrior, and an able general; and his
great influence on public affairs was often exerted for good, as in
the rebellion of Absalom, and the numbering of Israel, 2Sa 18:1-19:42
24:1-25. But as a man he was imperious, revengeful, and unscrupulous:
witness his treacherous assassination of Abner, and of his cousin
Amasa, 2Sa 3:27 20:9-10; his bearing towards David, 2Sa 3:39 19:5, and
connivance with him in the matter of Uriah; his slaying Absalom, and
conspiring with Adonijah against the divinely appointed heir to the
throne; for all which he was at length put to death by order of
Solomon, 1Ki 2:1-46.


One of the faithful women who ministered to Christ while living, and
brought spices to his tomb. Her husband Chuza was a steward of Herod
Antipas, Lu 8:3; 24:1-10.


The father of Gideon, of the family of Abiezer, in Manasseh. For a
long time he was a worshipper of Baal; but when his son boldly
attacked idolatry, he also came out on the Lord's side, Jud

An officer, appointed as keeper of the prophet Micaiah, during Ahab's
disastrous war with Syria, 1Ki 22:26 2Ch 18:1-34.

The eighth king of Judah, B. C. 878-838. He was the only son of
Ahaziah who was not slain by the usurping Athaliah, his grandmother.
Being rescued by Jehoshebah his aunt, and secluded six years in the
temple, he was raised to the throne when seven years of age through
the faithful care of Jehoiada; and while this venerable man survived,
Joash served God and prospered. Idols were banished, and the temple
was repaired. But afterwards he followed less wholesome counsels;
idolatry revived; and when Zechariah the high priest rebuked the
guilty people, the ungrateful king caused this servant of God, the son
of his benefactor, to be stoned to death. Misfortunes soon multiplied
on his head; he was repeatedly humbled by the Syrians, and gave them
the temple treasures as a ransom; a loathsome disease imbittered his
life, which was very soon cut short by a conspiracy of his servants,
and he was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, 2Ki 11:1-12:21
2Ch 23:1-24:27. The prophet Joel was contemporary with him.

The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, B. C. 840-825.
There was much in his conduct to commend. He had a great regard for
the prophet Elisha, and visited him on his deathbed, where by a divine
oracle he was assured of three victories over the Syrians. He was also
victorious when forced to give battle to Amaziah king of Judah, and
was one of the best of the kings of Israel. The worship of the golden
calf, however, still continued during his reign, 2Ki 13:9-25 14:1-8
2Ch 25:1-28.


A patriarch distinguished for his integrity and piety, his wealth,
honors, and domestic happiness, whom God permitted, for the trial of
his faith, to be deprived of friends, property, and health, and at
once plunged into deep affliction. He lived in the land of Uz, lying,
it is generally thought, in Eastern Edom, probably not far from

THE BOOK OF JOB, has originated much criticism, and on many points a
considerable diversity of opinion still exists. Sceptics have denied
its inspiration, and called it a mere philosophical romance; but no
one who respects revelation can entertain this notion, or doubt that
Job was a real person. Inspired writers testify to both. See Eze 14:14
Jas 5:11, and compare 1Co 3:19 with Job 5:13. The book itself
specifies persons, places, and circumstances in the manner of true
history. Moreover, the name and history of Job are spread throughout
the East; Arabian writers mention him, and many Mohammedan families
perpetuate his name. Five different places claim the possession of his

The precise period of his life cannot be ascertained, yet no doubt can
exist as to its patriarchal antiquity. The book seems to allude to the
flood, Job 22:15-17, but not to the destruction of Sodom, to the
exodus from Egypt, or the giving of the Law. No reference is made to
any order of priesthood, Job himself being the priest of his
household, like Noah and Abraham. There is allusion to the most
ancient form of idolatry, star-worship, and to the earliest mode of
writing, Job 19:24. The longevity of Job also places him among the
patriarchs. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, and was
an old man before his trial began, for his children were established
each at the head of his own household, Job 1:4 42:16. The period of
long lives had not wholly passed away, Job 15:10. Hales places the
trial of Job before the birth of Abraham, and Usher, about thirty
years before the exodus, B. C. 1521.

As to the authorship of the book, many opinions have been held. It has
all the freedom of an original composition, bearing no marks of its
being a translation; and if so, it would appear that its author must
have been a Hebrew, since it is written in the purest Hebrew. It
exhibits, moreover, the most intimate acquaintance with both Egyptian
and Arabian scenery, and is in the loftiest style of oriental poetry.
All these circumstances are consistent with the views of those who
regard Moses as its probable author. It has, however, been ascribed to
various other persons. IT presents a beautiful exhibition of
patriarchal religion. It teaches the being and perfections of God, his
creation of all things, and his universal providence; the apostasy and
guilt of evil spirits and of mankind; the mercy of God, on the basis
of a sacrifice, and on condition of repentance and faith, Job 33:27-30
42:6,8; the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body,
Job 14:7-15 19:25-27.

The main problem discussed in Job is the justice of God in suffering
the righteous to be afflicted, while the wicked prosper. It is
settled, by showing that, while the hand of a just God is manifest in
his providential government of human affairs, it is his sovereign
right to choose his own time and mode of retribution both to the evil
and the good, and to subject the graces of his people to whatever
trials he deems best.

The conference of Job and his friends may be divided into three parts.
In the first, Eliphaz addresses Job, and Job replies; then Bildad and
Job, and Zophar and Job speak, in turn. In the second part, the same
order is observed and in the third also, except that after Job's reply
to Bildad, the three friends have no more to urge, and instead of
Zophar, a fourth friend named Elihu takes up the word; and the whole
is concluded by the decision of Jehovah himself. The friends of Job
argue that his remarkable afflictions must have been sent in
punishment of highly aggravated transgressions, and urge him to
confession and repentance. The pious patriarch, conscious of his own
integrity and love to God cast down and bewildered by his sore
chastisements, and pained by the suspicions of his friends, warmly
vindicates his innocence, and shows that the best of men are sometimes
the most afflicted; but forgets that his inward sins merit far heavier
punishment, and though he still maintains faith in God, yet he charges
Him foolishly. Afterwards he humbly confesses his wrong, and is
cheered by the returning smile of God, while his uncharitable friends
are reproved. The whole book is written in the highest style of Hebrew
poetry, except the two introductory chapters and part of the last,
which are prose. As a poem, it is full of sublime sentiments and bold
and striking images.

The DISEASE of Job is generally supposed to have been the
elephantiasis, or black leprosy. The word rendered "boils" does not
necessarily mean abscesses, but burning and inflammation; and no known
disease better answers to the description given, Job 2:7,8 7:5,13,13
19:17 30:17, than the leprosy referred to above. See LEPER.


Wife of Amram, and mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, Nu 26:59. She
was a daughter of Levi, and her husband's aunt, Ex 6:20, though such
marriages were afterwards prohibited, Le 18:12.


One of the minor prophets, of whom nothing is known beyond the few
hints furnished in his brief but valuable prophecy. He lived in the
kingdom of Judah, and at a time when the temple and temple-worship
still existed, Joe 1:14 2:1,15,32 3:1. Different authors assign to his
prophecy different dates, but the prevailing opinion is that he
prophesied in the reign of Uzziah, nearly 800 B. C.

The BOOK of JOEL opens with a most graphic and powerful description of
the devastation caused by swarms of divers kinds of locusts,
accompanied by a terrible drought. The plague of locusts, one of the
most dreadful scourges of the East, (see LOCUSTS), is highly
suggestive of an invasion of hostile legions such as have often
ravaged Judea; and many have understood, by the locusts of Joel, the
Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, or Romans. The prophet, however, adheres
to his figure, if it be one; depicts the land as stripped of its
verdure and parched with drought, summons the stricken people to
fasting and penitence, and encourages them by promising the removal of
the divine judgments and the return of fertility. While describing
this returning plenty and prosperity, the prophet casts his view
forward on a future still more remote, and predicts the outpouring of
the Holy Spirit, and the signs and wonders and spiritual prosperity of
the Messiah's reign, Joe 2:28. This passage is quoted by the apostle
Peter in Ac 2:16. The style of Joel is exceedingly poetical and
elegant; his descriptions are vivid and sublime, and his prophecy
ranks among the gems of Hebrew poetry. It is well fitted to cheer the
church militant in all ages.


Son of Kareah, a leading captain of the Jews after the destruction of
Jerusalem, B. C. 588, who recognized the authority of Gedaliah, warned
him in vain of the plot of Ishmael, and avenged his murder; but
afterwards carried the remnant of the people to Egypt against the
remonstrances of Jeremiah, who, unable to check his rebellious and
idolatrous course, foretold divine judgments, which in due time were
fulfilled, 2Ki 25:23-26 Jer 40:1-44:30.


1. THE BAPTIST, the forerunner of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the son
of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and was born about six months before
Christ, as Reland and Robinson suppose at Juttah, Jos 21:16 Lu 1:29, a
town some five miles south of Hebron, but according to tradition at a
place about four miles west of Jerusalem. Several Old Testament
predictions found their fulfillment in him. See Isa 40:3 Mt 3:3 Mal
3:1 4:5 Mt 11:14. His birth, name, and office were also foretold by
the angel Gabriel to his father Zacharias while ministering at the
temple altar. Several other supernatural incidents attended the visit
of Mary to Elisabeth, and the birth and naming of John, Lu 1:1-80. He
passed his early life among the crags of Eastern Judea, and when not
far from thirty years of age, appeared as a prophet of the Lord. Being
also a priest by birth, and an austere Nazarite in appearance and mode
of life, he was like a reproduction of Elijah of old. Crowds flocked
from all quarters to hear the word of God from his lips boldly
denouncing their sins, and to receive the baptism of repentance
preparatory to the full revelation of grace in Christ. Among others,
the Savior at length came, and was baptized as an example of obedience
to all divine enjoinments. John was at once satisfied that Jesus was
the Messiah, but "knew him not" by any divine intimation till he saw
the appointed sign, the descending Spirit. He then stood forth as the
representative of "all the law and the prophets," pointing the world
to Christ as an atoning Savior, and thus introduced Him to His public
ministry: "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the
world," Joh 1:29 Ga 3:24.

John enjoyed at this time a high degree of popular veneration, Lu
3:15; the Sanhedrin sent a deputation to question him, Joh 1:19-28,
king Herod "did many things, and heard him gladly." But he laid all he
had at the Savior's feet, Joh 1:27 3:33. We read several times of his
"disciples," Mt 9:14 Lu 5:33 Joh 3:23-15 4:1; and meet with subsequent
traces of the wide extent of his influence, Ac 18:25 19:3. We know not
why he continued for a time his separate ministry, instead of
attending Christ. He persevered, however, in his faithful labors for
reformation; and these, in the second year afterwards, led to his
imprisonment by Herod Antipas. See HEROD 3. It was while in prison
that he sent two of his disciples to Christ to inquire, "Art thou he
that should come, or do we look for another?" Mt 11:3. He may have
been moved to send this message by some lingering Jewish views as to a
temporal Messiah, who would right all their national wrongs, or by
some temporary unbelieving haste to have Christ publicly announce his
Messiahship. It was on this occasion that Christ calls him greater
than any other prophet; because, of all the prophets of the Messiah,
he alone saw Him entering on his work whom all "desired to see;" yet
he was less than the "least in the kingdom of God," inasmuch as he
died without seeing that kingdom established in the death and
resurrection of his Lord. But his earthly work was soon done. Herod,
according to Josephus, feared his great influence over the people, and
Herodias dreaded his bold fidelity to her husband. The dancing of her
daughter Salome, and the vow of the besotted king, furnished a
pretext. John was beheaded in prison; his disciples buried his remains
with honor, and "went and told Jesus," Mt 14:3-12

2. THE APOSTLE AND EVANGELIST, son of Zebedee and Salome, was a native
of Bethsaida in Galilee. Zebedee and his sons were fishermen, and
appear to have been in easy circumstances, Mr 1:20 15:40 Joh 18:15
19:27. In John's character there was an admirable mixture of
gentleness and force. The picture the Bible gives of him has a
peculiar charm, so much peace, humility, charity, and brotherly love
glow in it. His affectionate, meditative, spiritual character had also
the elements of vigor and decision, Lu 9:54. Though amiable, he was
firm and fearless. He was present at the scene of the Savior's
crucifixion, which he describes as an eyewitness, Joh 19:35. He was
early at the tomb of the Redeemer, and after his ascension, boldly
proclaimed the gospel at Jerusalem, Ac 4:13, though imprisoned,
scourged, and threatened with death. He was remarkable for devotion to
Christ; and it was this, perhaps, as much as ambition, that led him to
request a place at His right hand, Mt 20:20-24. He is supposed to have
been the youngest of the apostles. He had been a disciple of John the
Baptist; but on being directed to Christ, at once attached himself to
him. For a time he returned to his employment by the sea of Galilee,
but was soon called to leave all and attend the Savior, Lu 5:5-10.
Christ had a particular friendship for this lovely and zealous
disciple, Joh 13:23 19:26 20:2 21:7. At the last supper, he reclined
next to the Savior, and to his care the dying Redeemer committed his
mother. Together with Peter and James he witnessed the
transfiguration, and the agony in the garden. See JAMES.

After the ascension of our Lord, John continued to reside at
Jerusalem, where he was one of the chief pillars of the church, Ga
2:9. About A. D. 65, it is thought, he removed to Ephesus, and labored
to diffuse the gospel in Asia Minor, where for many years after the
death of Paul his great personal and apostolic influence was widely
exerted. About A. D. 95, he was banished, probably by Domitian, to the
isle of Patmos, where he had the visions described in the Apocalypse.
He afterwards returned to Ephesus, where he lived to a very great age,
so that he could scarcely go to the assembly of the church without
being carried by his disciples. Being now unable to make long
discourses, his custom was to say in all assemblies, "Little children,
love one another;" and when they wondered at his frequent repetition
of this concise exhortation, his answer was, "This is what the Lord
commands you; and this, if you do it, is sufficient." Chrysostom,
Clement, and Eusebius relate that on his return from Patmos he found
that a young man of promise under his charge had been misled, and had
joined a band of robbers; and that the aged apostle sought him out in
his mountain haunts, and by the blessing of God on his fearless and
faithful love, reclaimed his soul from death. He died at Ephesus, in
the third year of Trajan, A. D. 100, being then, according to
Epiphanius, ninetyfour years of age. He was buried near that city, and
several of the fathers mention his sepulchre as being there.

Besides the invaluable gospel and the Apocalypse, which bear his name,
we have three EPISTLES of JOHN. The first is a catholic or general
letter, designed apparently to go with his gospel, and refute certain
Gnostic errors as to the person of Christ; but also and chiefly to
build up the church universal in truth and grace, and especially in
holy love. The second epistle is addressed "to the elect lady," or the
excellent Kuria, who was probably some Christian woman eminent for
piety and usefulness. The third is directed to Gaius, the Latin Caius,
whom John praises for his fidelity and hospitality, and exhorts to
persevere in every good work. The Revelation and epistles of John, it
is generally believed, were written about 96-98 A. D. They are the
latest books of the New Testament cannon, which, as the last surviving
apostle, he must have greatly aided in settling.

3. Surnamed MARK. See MARK.


The second son of Abraham and Keturah, ancestor of the Sabeans and
Dedanites of Southern Arabia, Ge 25:1-3.


Son of Eber, and by him connected with the Hebrews and other Shemite
families, Ge 10:25-30; 1Ch 1:19-23. He is believed to be the Kahtan,
or Yektan, to whom Arabian writers trace their purest and most ancient


1. A city of Judah, Jos 15:38

2. The name given by Amaziah to the capital of Arabia Petraea, 2Ki
14:7. See SELA.


1. A SON OF A SON OF Shimeah, the cunning and unprincipled nephew of
David, and friend of Amnon, 2Sa 13:3-5. Yet he seems to have been long
aware of the purpose of Absalom to avenge his sister's dishonor upon
Amnon, and very coolly excused the assassination of his friend, 2Sa

2. A son of Rechab, a Kenite, descended from Hobab the brother of
Moses. He was at the head of the Rechabites in the time of Jehu, and
seems to have given them a command to abstain from wine, 2Ki 10:15 1Ch
2:55 Jer 35:6-10. See RECHABITES.


One of the minor prophets, was a native of Gath-hepher, in Zebulun,
2Ki 14:25. Being ordered of God to prophesy against Ninevah, probably
in or before the reign of Jeroboam 2, which begun 825 B. C., he
endeavored to avoid the command by embarking at Joppa for Tarshish, in
order to fly as far as possible in the opposite direction. But being
overtaken by a storm, he was thrown overboard at his own request, and
miraculously preserved by being swallowed by a large fish. See WHALE.
Several Greek and Roman legends seem to have been borrowed from this
source. After three days, typical of our Savior's stay in the tomb,
the fish cast Jonah out upon the shore; the word of the Lord a second
time directed him to go to Nineveh, and he obeyed. The allusions of
the narrative to the vast extent and population of this city, are
confirmed by other ancient accounts and by modern investigations. See
NINEVEH. At the warning word of the prophet, the Ninevites repented,
and the destruction threatened was postponed; but the feelings of
Jonah at seeing his predictions unfulfilled and the enemies of God's
people spared, rendered necessary a further exercise of the
forbearance of God. See GOURD.

The literal truth of the narrative is established by our Savior's
repeated quotations, Mt 12:39-41 16:4 Lu 11:29-32. It is highly
instructive, as showing that the providential government of God
extends to all heathen nations, and that his grace has never been
confined to his covenant people.


1. A Levite, son of Gershom, and grandson of Moses, who after the
death of Joshua impiously served as a priest, first to Micah, and then
to the Danites in Laish or Dan, where his posterity succeeded him
until the captivity, Jud 17:1-18:31.

2. The eldest son of Saul, and one of the loveliest characters in Old
Testament history. The narrative of his brilliant exploit in Michmash,
1Sa 13:1-14:52, illustrates his pious faith, his bravery, (see also
1Sa 13:3) and the favor borne him by the people, who would not suffer
him to be put to death in consequence of Saul's foolish vow. This
valiant and generous prince loved David as his own soul, 1Sa 18:1-4
19:2 20:1-42; and though convinced that his friend was chosen of God
for the throne, nobly yielded his own pretensions, and reconciled
fidelity to his father with the most pure and disinterested friendship
for David. He perished with his father, in battle with the Philistines
at mount Gilboa; and nothing can surpass the beauty and pathos of the
elegy in which David laments his friend, 2Sa 1:1-27, whose son
Mephibosheth he afterwards sought out and befriended, 2Sa 9:1-13.


Hebrew JAPHO, is one of the most ancient seaports in the world. It was
a border town of the tribe of Dan, Jos 19:46, on the coast of the
Mediterranean sea, thirty miles south of Caesarea, and about
thirty-five north-west of Jerusalem. Its harbor is shoal and
unprotected from the winds; but on account of its convenience to
Jerusalem, it became the principal port of Judea, and is still the
great landing-place of pilgrims. Here the materials for building both
the first and the second temple, sent from Lebanon and Tyre, were
landed, 2Ch 3:16 Ezr 3:7. Here Jonah embarked for Tarshish. Here, too,
Peter raised Dorcas from the dead; and in the house of Simon the
tanner, by the seaside, was taught by a heavenly vision that salvation
was for Gentiles as well as Jews, Ac 9:1-11:30. Joppa was twice
destroyed by the Romans. It was the seat of a Christian church for
some centuries after Constantine. During the crusades it several times
changed hands; and in modern times, 1799, it was stormed and sacked by
the French, and twelve hundred Turkish prisoners, said to have broken
their parole, were put to death.

The present town of Jaffa, or Yafa, is situated on a promontory
jutting out into the sea, rising to the height of about one hundred
and fifty feet, crowned with a fortress, and offering on all sides
picturesque and varied prospects. Towards the west is extended the
open sea; towards the south are spread the fertile plains of
Philistia, reaching as far as Gaza; towards the north, as far as
Carmel, the flowery meads of Sharon present themselves; and to the
east, the hills of Ephraim and Judah raise their towering heads. The
town is walled round on the south and east, towards the land, and
partially so on the north and west, towards the sea. Its environs,
away from the sand-hills of the shore, are full of gardens and
orchards. From the sea, the town looks like a heap of buildings,
crowded as closely as possible into a given space; and from the
steepness of its site, they appear in some places to stand one on the
other. The streets are very narrow, uneven, and dirty, and might
rather be called alleys. The inhabitants are estimated at about
fifteen thousand, of whom more than half are Turks and Arabs. There
are several mosques; and the Latins, Greeks, and Armenians have each a
church, and a small convent for the reception of pilgrims.


1. Son of Ahab king of Israel, succeeded his older brother Ahaziah in
the throne, B. C. 896, and reigned twelve years. He discontinued the
worship of Baal, but followed the "sin of Jeroboam." During his reign,
the Moabites revolted. Joram secured the aid of Jehoshaphat king of
Judah, and after receiving for his allies' sake a miraculous
deliverance from drought, defeated the Moabites with great slaughter.
Not long after he was involved in war with Ben-hadad king of Syria,
and Hazael his successor; and in this time occurred the miraculous
deliverance of Samaria from siege and famine, and also various
miracles of Elisha, including the healing of Naaman. Joram was wounded
in a battle with Hazael, and met his death, in the suburbs of
Ramoth-gilead, by the hand of Jehu his general. His body was thrown
into the field of Naboth at Jezreel, and with him perished the race of
Ahab, 1Ki 21.18-29; 2Ki 1.17; 3.1; 6.9.

2. The son and successor of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. He reigned with
his father, from B. C. 889, four years, and four years alone; in all
eight years. Unhappily he was married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab
and Jezebel, whose evil influence did much to render his reign a curse
to the land. He slew his own brothers, five in number, and seized
their possessions. He also introduced Phoenician idols and their
worship into Judah. The divine wrath was shown in leaving him unaided
under a successful revolt of the Edomites, and repeated invasions of
the Philistines and Arabians. His country, the city, and his own
household were ravaged, his body was afflicted with a frightful
dysenteric illness, and after death a burial in the royal sepulchres
was denied him, 2Ki 8:16-24 2Ch 21:1-20.


The chief river of Palestine, running from north to south, and
dividing the Holy Land into two parts, of which the larger and more
important lay on the west. There are two small streams, each of which
claims to be its source. One of these, near Banias, anciently Caesarea
Philippi, issues from a large cave in a rocky mountain side, and flows
several miles towards the south-west, where it is joined by the second
and larger stream, which originates in a fountain at Tellel-Kady,
three miles west of Banias. But besides these, there is a third and
longer stream, which rises beyond the northern limit of Palestine,
near Hasbeia on the west side of mount Hermon, flows twenty-four miles
to the south, and unites with the other streams before they enter the
"waters of Merom," now lake Huleh, the Jordan flows about nine miles
south-ward to the sea of Tiberias, through which its clear and smooth
course may be traced twelve miles to the lower end. Hence it pursues
its sinuous way to the south, till its pure waters are lost in the
bitter sea of Sodom.

Between these two seas, that of Tiberias and the Dead Sea, lies the
great valley or plain of the Jordan, 2Ki 25:4 2Ch 4:17. It is called
by the Arabs El-Ghor. Its average width is about five miles, but near
Jericho it is twelve or fifteen miles. It is terminated on both sides,
through its whole length, by hills, which rise abruptly on the western
border 1,000 or 1,200 feet high, and more gradually on the east, but
twice as high. This valley is excessively not, and except where
watered by fountains or rivulets, is sandy and destitute of foliage.
It is covered in many parts with innumerable cone-like mounds, and
sometimes contains a lower and narrow terrace of similar character,
perhaps an eighth of a mile wide. Through this valley the river takes
its serpentine course in a channel from fifteen to fifty feet below
the general level. Its immediate banks are thickly covered with trees
and shrubs, such as the willow, tamarisk, and oleander; and often
recede, and leave a larger space for vegetation. In the lower Jordan,
the stream is bordered by numerous canebrakes. The thickets adjoining
the river were formerly the retreat of wild beasts, which of course
would be driven out by a freshet; hence the figure, "He shall come up
like a lion from the swelling of Jordan," Jer 49:19 50:44. The channel
of the river may be deeper sunk than of old, but even now not only the
intervales within the banks are overflowed in spring, but in many
places the banks themselves, 1Ch 12:15. Lieutenant Lynch of the United
States navy, who traversed the Jordan in 1848, ascertained that,
although the distance from the sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is but
sixty miles in a straight line, it is two hundred miles by the course
of the river, which has innumerable curves. Its width varies at
different points from seventy-five to two hundred feet, and its depth
from three to twelve feet. Its volume of water differs exceedingly at
different seasons and from year to year. The current is usually swift
and strong; and there are numerous rapids and falls, of which no less
than twenty-seven are specified by Lieutenant Lynch as dangerous even
to his metallic boats. The sea of Tiberias lies 312 (according to
Lynch, 653) feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and the Dead
Sea 1,316 feet; hence the fall of the Jordan between the two seas is
1,000 feet. The waters of the Jordan are cool and soft, and like the
Sea of Galilee, it abounds in fish. It is crossed by a stone bridge,
below Lake Huleh, (see GESHUR, GESHURI, GESHURITES;) and the fragments
of another, just south of the Sea of Tiberias, still remain. Several
fords, available in ordinary season, are mentioned in Scripture, Jud
3:28 12:5 2Sa 17:22-24. Ferryboats were also used, 2Sa 19:17,18,39.
See SEA SEA 4.

It was during the annual "swelling of the Jordan" that Joshua and the
Israelites crossed it, Jos 3:15. Yet the swift and swollen current was
arrested in its course, opposite to Jericho; and while the waters
below the city rolled on to the4 sea, those above it were miraculously
stayed, and left in the river bed a wide passage for the hosts of
Israel. Twice afterwards the Jordan was miraculously crossed, by
Elijah and Elisha, 2Ki 5:14 6:6. Here, too, our Savior was baptized,
Mt 3:13; and this event is commemorated, in the middle of April of
each year, by thousands of pilgrims of various sects of nominal
Christians, who on a given day, and under the protection of a strong
Turkish escort, visit the sacred river, drink and bathe in its waters,
and after an hour or two return to Jerusalem.

The principal branches of the Jordan are the Yermak, anciently
Hieroma, a large stream, and the Jabbok, both on the east. There are
several small rivulets and many mountain brooks, which dry up more or
less early in the summer. The phrase, "beyond Jordan," usually
indicates the east side of the river, but before the conquest by
Joshua it meant the west side.

At the present day, the Jordan is lost in the Dead sea; but many have
supposed that in very ancient times, before the destruction of the
cities in the vale of Sodom, the Jordan passed through the Dead Sea
and the vale of Siddim, and continued its course southward to the
Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea. The southern end of the Dead Sea is
found to be connected with the Elanitic gulf, or gulf of Akaba, by the
great valley, called El-Arabah, forming a prolongation of El-Ghor, the
valley of the Jordan. See map in EXODUS. The course of this valley is
between south and south-southwest. Its length, from the Dead Sea to
Akaba, is about one hundred miles in a direct line. From the extremity
of the Dead Sea, a sandy plain extends southward between hills, and on
a level with the sea, for the distance of eight or ten miles, where it
is interrupted by a chalky cliff, from sixty to eighty feet high,
which runs nearly across the valley, but leaves at its western end the
opening of a valley nearly half a mile wide, which runs up for many
miles to the south within the broad and desert valley El-Arabah, upon
which it at length emerges, and the water of which it conveys to the
Dead Sea. The cliff above referred to, probably the Akrabbim of the
Bible, marks the termination of El-Ghor and the commencement of
El-Arabah, which is thence prolonged without interruption to Akaba. It
is skirted on each side by a chain of mountains; but the streams which
descend from these, are in summer lost in their gravelly beds before
they reach the valley below; so that this lower plain is in summer
entirely without water, which alone can produce verdure in the Arabian
deserts and render them habitable. There is not the slightest
appearance of a road, or of any other work of human art, in any part
of the valley. The opinion that the Jordan formerly traversed this
great valley is rendered untenable by the fact that the Dead Sea lies
nearly 1,300 feet lower than the Gulf of Akaba, and that most of the
intervening region now pours its streams north into the Dead Sea. Of
course the Jordan must also have stopped there of old, as it does now,
unless, according to the somewhat startling theory of Lieutenant Lynch
and others, the Dead sea-and with it, though less deeply, the whole
valley to the north and south-sunk down from a higher level into its
present deep chasm, perhaps long before that appalling catastrophe
from which Lot found refuge in "the mountain," Ge 19:17-28,30. See SEA


1. The son of Jacob and his beloved Rachel, born in Mesopotamia, Ge
30:22-24, B. C. 1747. He is memorable for the wonderful providence of
God, which raised him from a prison to be the grandvizier of Egypt,
and made him the honored means of saving countless human lives. His
history is one of the most pleasing and instructive in the Bible; and
is related in language inimitably natural, simple, and touching. It is
too beautiful for abridgment, and too familiar to need rehearsal. It
throws much light on the superintending providence of God, as
embracing all things, great and small in the perpetual unfolding of
his universal plan. No narrative in the Bible more strikingly
illustrates the protective and elevating power of the fear of God, and
its especial value for the young. To behold this lovely image of
filial piety and unwavering faith, of self-control in youth and
patience in adversity, of discretion and fidelity in all stations of
life, serenely walking with God through all, and at death intrusting
soul and body alike into his hands, Heb 11:22; may well lead the young
reader to cry, Oh that the God of Joseph were my God, Ge 37:1-36
39:1-50:26. Joseph died, aged on hundred and ten, B. C. 1637; and when
the Israelites, a century and a half later, went up from Egypt, they
took his bones, and at length buried them in Shechem, Ex 13:19 Jos
24:32. A Mohammedan wely or tomb covers the spot regarded generally,
and it may be correctly, as the place of his burial. It is a low stone
enclosure, and stands in quiet seclusion among high trees, at the
western entrance of the valley of Shechem, at the right of the
traveller's path and nearer mount Ebal than mount Gerizim.

2. The husband of Mary, Christ's mother. His genealogy is traced in Mt
1:1-15, to David, Judah, and Abraham. See GENEALOGY. His residence was
at Nazareth in Galilee, where he followed the occupation of a
carpenter, to which Christ also was trained, Mr 6:3. He was a pious
and honorable man, as appears from his whole course towards Mary and
her son. They both attended the Passover at Jerusalem when Christ was
twelve years of age, Lu 2:41-51; and as no more is said of him in the
sacred narrative, and Christ committed Mary to the care of one of his
disciples, he is generally supposed to have died before Christ began
his public ministry. He seems to have been well known among the Jews,
Mr 6:3 Joh 6:42.

3. A native of Arimathea, but at the time of Christ's crucifixion a
resident at Jerusalem. He was doubtless a believer in the Messiah, and
"waited for the kingdom of God." He was a member of the Jewish
Sanhedrim, and opposed in vain their action in condemning the Savior,
Lu 23:51. When all was over, he "went in boldly unto Pilate, and
craved the body of Jesus." It was now night and the Jewish Sabbath was
at hand. He therefore, with the aid of Nicodemus, wrapped the body in
spices, for the time, and laid it in his own tomb, Mr 15:43-46 Joh

4. A disciple of Christ, also named Justus, and Barsabas. See


1. One of the brethren of our Lord, Mt 13:55 Mr 6:3. His brethren did
not at first believe on him, but after his resurrection they are found
among his disciples, Joh 2:12 7:5 Ac 1:14.

2. A son of Cleophas and Mary, identified by some with the above, Mt
27:56. See Jas 3.



1. The son of Nun, a distinguished leader of the Hebrews, and the
successor of Moses. His name at first was Oshea, Nu 13:8,16; and in
the New Testament he is called Jesus, Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8. Both the names,
Joshua and Jesus, signify savior, deliverer. See JESUS. Joshua led
Israel over the Jordan, and took possession of the promised land; he
conquered the Canaanites, and then distributed the country among the
tribes. He is first mentioned as the leader of Israel against the
Amalekites at Rephidim,

Ex 17:8-16. See also Nu 14:6. At the passage over Jordan he was
eighty-four years of age; and after about twenty-six years employed in
his appointed work, and then judging Israel at his at Timnath-serah,
he died, B. C. 1426. His last grand convocation of all Israel, at
Shechem, and his solemn address to them and renewal of their covenant
with God, form the worthy close of a life on which in the sacred
records no blot rests. He seems to have served the Lord with singular
fidelity. No man witnessed more or greater miracles than he; and in
his life may be found many points of resemblance to that of the
greater "Captain of the Lord's host," who establishes his people in
the true promised land.

THE BOOK OF JOSHUA contains the narrative of all these transactions,
and was written by Joshua himself, or under his direction, B. C. 1427.
From Jos 24:27 on, was of course added by a later hand; but all was
done under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, 2Ti 3:16.

2. The son of Josedech. See JESHUA.


Son of Amon and great-grandson of Hezekiah, a pious king of Judah, who
introduced great reforms in the temple worship, and in the religious
character of the nation in general. No king set himself more earnestly
to destroy every vestige of idolatry out of the land. Among other
things, he defiled the altars of the idols at Bethel by burning upon
them the bones from the tombs of their deceased priests; as had been
foretold more than three centuries before, 1Ki 13:2. While cleaning
and repairing the temple at his command, the priests found the temple
copy of the five books of the law, perhaps the original copy from
Moses' own hand. The sacred book was too much neglected in those days
of declension; and even the pious Josiah seems to have been impressed
by the closing chapters of Deuteronomy as though he had never read
them before. To avert the judgments there threatened, he humbled
himself before God, and sought to bring the people to repentance. He
caused them to renew their covenant with Jehovah, and celebrated the
Passover with a solemnity like that of its first institution. The
repentance of the people was heartless, and did not avert the divine
judgments. Josiah, however, was taken away from the evil to come. He
met death in battle with Pharaohnecho, whose passage across his
territory to attack the king of Assyria, Josiah felt obliged to
resist. The death of this wise and pious king was deeply lamented, by
the prophet Jeremiah and all the people, Zec 12:11. He began to reign
B. C. 641, at the age of eight years, and reigned thirty-one years,
2Ki 22:1-23:37 2Ch 34:1-35:27.


A word which comes from the name of the Greek letter iota and the
Hebrew yod. It is the smallest letter of these alphabets; and is
therefore put for the smallest thing or particle; which is also its
meaning in English, Mt 5:18. See TITTLE.


1. The youngest son of Gideon, who escaped the massacre of his
brethren by Abimelech, and afterwards boldly and prophetically
denounced the Shechemites in the beautiful parable of the bramble and
the other trees. He escaped to Beer, and probably lived to see his
threatenings fulfilled, Jud 9:1-57. See ABIMELECH 3.

2. The son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah, B. C.
758. He appears to have been for some years regent before the death of
Uzziah his leprous father, but ascended the throne at the age of
twenty-five years, and reigned sixteen years in the fear of God. The
history of his wise and prosperous reign, and of his useful public
works, is found in 2Ki 15:5,32,38 2Ch 26:21 27:9.


A "sabbath-day's journey," among the Jews, seems to have been reckoned
at about seven furlongs, or nearly one mile, Mt 24:20 Ac 1:12. An
ordinary day's journey is about twenty miles. Persons starting on a
journey in the East frequently make their first stage a short one,
that they may the more easily send back for any forgotten articles or
necessary supplies. This may perhaps apply to the "day's journey" of
the parents of Jesus, mentioned in Lu 2:44.

For the journeyings of the Israelites, see EXODUS, and WANDERINGS.


Music, son of Lamech and Adah, and a descendant of Cain. He invented
the lyre, and the shepherd's pipe, Ge 4:21.


A Hebrew festival, celebrated in every fiftieth year, which of course
occurred after seven weeks of years, or seven times seven years, Le
25:10. Its name Jubilee, sounding or flowing, was significant of the
joyful trumpet-peals that announced its arrival. During this year no
one sowed or reaped; but all were satisfied with what the earth and
the trees produced spontaneously. Each resumed possession of his
inheritance, whether it were sold, mortgaged, or otherwise alienated;
and Hebrew servants of every description were set free, with their
wives an children, Le 25:1-55. The first nine days were spent in
festivities, during which no one worked, and every one wore a crown on
his head. On the tenth day, which was the day of solemn expiation, the
Sanhedrin ordered the trumpets to sound, and instantly the slaves were
declared free, and the lands returned to their hereditary owners. This
law was mercifully designed to prevent the rich from oppressing the
poor, and getting possession of all the lands by purchase, mortgage,
or usurpation; to cause that debts should not be multiplied too much,
and that slaves should not continue, with their wives and children, in
perpetual bondage. It served to maintain a degree of equality among
the Hebrew families; to perpetuate the division of lands and
households according to the original tribes, and secure a careful
registry of the genealogy of every family. They were also thus
reminded that Jehovah was the great Proprietor and Disposer of all
things, and they but his tenants. "The land is mine; for ye are
strangers and sojourners with me," Le 25:23. And this memento met them
constantly and pointedly; for every transfer of land was valuable in
proportion to the number of years remaining before the jubilee. Isaiah
clearly refers to this peculiar and important festival, as
foreshadowing the glorious dispensation of gospel grace, Isa 61:1,2 Lu

See also the notice of a similar institution under SABBATICAL YEAR.


The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, B. C. 1755, Ge
29:35. His name appears honorably in the history of Joseph, Ge
37:26,27 44:16-34; but disgracefully in that of Tamar his
daughter-in-law, Ge 38:1-30. The dying benediction of Jacob foretells
the superior power and prosperity of the family of Judah, and their
continuance as chief of the Jewish race until the time of Christ, Ge
49:8-12. Though not the firstborn, Judah soon came to be considered as
the chief of Jacob's children, and his tribe was the most powerful and
numerous. The southeastern part of Palestine fell to their lot. See
JUDEA. On the border of their territory was Jerusalem, the seat of the
Jewish worship; and from Judah sprung David and his royal race, from
which descended the Savior of the world.

After the return from the captivity, this tribe in some sort united in
itself the whole Hebrew nation, who from that time were known only as
Judaei, Jews, descendants of Judah. Judah-when named in
contradistinction to Israel, Ephraim, the kingdom of the ten tribes,
or Samaria-denotes the kingdom of Judah, and of David's descendants.
See HEBREWS and KINGS. One of the principal distinctions of this tribe
is, that it preserved the true religion, and the public exercise of
the priesthood, with the legal ceremonies in the temple at Jerusalem;
while the ten tribes gave themselves up to idolatry and the worship of
the golden calves.


1. ISCARIOT, that is, man of Carioth or Kerioth, a city of Judah, Jos
15:25. Being one of the twelve apostles of our Lord, Judas seems to
have possessed the full confidence of his fellow apostles, and was
entrusted by them with all the presents which were made them, and all
their means of subsistence; and when the twelve were sent out to
preach and to work miracles, Judas appears to have been among them,
and to have received the same powers. He was accustomed, however, even
at this time, to appropriate part of their common stock to his own
use, Joh 12:6; and at length sealed his infamy by betraying his Lord
to the Jews for money. For the paltry sum of about $15, he engaged
with the Jewish Sanhedrin to guide them to a place where they could
seize him by night without danger of a tumult. But when he learned the
result, a terrible remorse took possession of him; not succeeding in
undoing his fatal work with the priests, he cast down before them the
price of blood, crossed the gloomy valley of Hinnom, and hung himself,
Mt 27:3-10. Luke, in Ac 1:18, adds that he fell headlong and burst
asunder, probably by the breaking of the rope or branch. The steep
hillside south of the valley of Hinnom might well be the scene of such
a twofold death. See ACELDAMA.

The remorseful confession of Judas was a signal testimony to the
spotless innocence of Christ, Mt 27:4; and his awful end is a solemn
warning against avarice, hypocrisy, and all unfaithfulness, Mt 26:34
Joh 17:12 Ac 1:25.

2. One of the apostles, called also Jude, Lebbeus, and Thaddeus, Mt
10:3 Mr 3:18 Jude 1:1, the son of Alpheus and Mary, and brother of
James the LESS. See Jas 2 and 3. He was the author of the epistle
which bears his name, Mr 6:3 Lu 6:16 Ac 1:13.

3. The brother of our Lord, Mt 27:56. Supposed by many to have been
only a cousin, and the same as Judas 2. The apostle. But his
"brethren" did not believe in him until near the close of his
ministry. See Jas 3 4. A Christian teacher, called also Barsabas, sent
from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Ac 15:22,27,32.

5. Surnamed "the Galilean," called also, by Josephus, the Gaulonite.
He was born at Gamala, a city of Gaulonitis near the southeastern
shore of the lake of Tiberias. In company with one Sadoc, he attempted
to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, or
Cyrenius, at that time governor of Syria and Judea, Ac 5:37.

6. A Jew at Damascus, with whom Paul lodged, Ac 9:11.


See JUDAS 2.

The EPISTLE OF JUDE, assigned conjecturally to the year 66 A. D., is a
fervid and vehement voice of warning against following certain false
teachers in their errors and corruptions, and so sharing their awful
doom. It resembles the second epistle of Peter. As to the quotation in
Jude 1:14,15, see ENOCH 2.


Or land of the Jews, a name sometimes given to the southern part of
the Holy Land; and sometimes, especially by foreigners, to the whole
country. In the general division of Canaan among the tribes, the
southeast part fell to the lot of the tribe of Judah. With the
increasing ascendency of that tribe the name of Judah covered a more
extended territory, 2Sa 5:5; and after the secession of the ten
tribes, the kingdom of Judah included the territory of the tribes of
Judah and Benjamin, with a part of that of Simeon and Dan. Judah thus
occupied all the southern portion of Palestine, while the northern
part was called Galilee, and the middle Samaria. After the captivity,
as most of those who returned were of the kingdom of Judah, the name
Judah, or Judea, was applied generally to the whole of Palestine, Hag
1:1,14 2:2; and this use of the word has never wholly ceased. When the
whole country fell into the power of the Romans, the former division
into Galilee, Samaria, and Judea seems to have again become current,
Lu 2:4 Joh 4:3,4. Josephus describes Judea in his day as bounded north
by Samaria, east by the Jordan, west by the Mediterranean, and south
by the territory of the Arabs. These boundaries seem to include a part
of Idumaea. Judea in this extent constituted part of the kingdom of
Herod the Great, and afterwards belonged to his son Archelaus. When
the latter was banished for his cruelties, Judea was reduced to the
form of a Roman province, annexed to the proconsulate of Syria, and
governed by procurators, until it was at length given as part of his
kingdom to Herod Agrippa II. During all this time, the boundaries of
the province were often varied, by the addition or abstraction of
different towns and cities.

The original territory of the tribe of Judah was an elevated plain,
much broken by frequent hills, ravines, and valleys, and sinking into
fine plains and pasture-grounds on the west and south, Zec 7:7. It was
a healthy, pleasant, and fruitful land. The valleys yielded large
crops of grain; and the hills were terraced, watered, covered with
vines, Ge 49:11,12, and rich in olives, figs, and many other fruits.
See CANAAN. The "hill country" of Judah lay south and southeast of
Jerusalem, Lu 1:39,65, including Bethlehem, Hebron, etc. "The plain"
refers usually to the low ground near the Jordan, 2Sa 2:29 2Ki 25:4,5.

The "wilderness of Judea," in which John began to preach, and where
Christ was tempted, seems to have been in the eastern part of Judah,
adjacent to the Dead sea, and stretching towards Jericho, 2Sa 15:28.
It is still one of the most dreary and desolate regions of the whole
country, Mt 3:1 4:1.


In Hebrew Shophetim, were the rulers, chiefs, or leaders of Israel,
from Joshua to Saul. They were very different from the ordinary
administrators of justice among the Hebrews, respecting whom, see
JUSTICE. The Carthaginians, a colony of the Tyrians, had likewise
governors, whom they called Suffetes, or Sophetim, with authority
almost equal to that of kings.

The dignity of judge was for life; but the succession was not always
constant. There were anarchies, or intervals, during which the
commonwealth was without rulers. There were likewise long intervals of
foreign servitude and oppression, under which the Hebrews groaned
without deliverers. Although God alone regularly appointed the judges,
yet the people, on some occasions, chose that individual who appeared
to them most proper to deliver them from oppression; and as it often
happened that the oppressions which occasioned recourse to the
election of a judge were not felt over all Israel, the power of such
judge extended only over that province which he had delivered. Thus it
was chiefly the land east of the Jordan that Ehud, Jephthah, Elon, and
Jair delivered and governed; Barak and Tola governed the northern
tribes; Abdon the central; and Ibzan and Samson the southern. The
authority of judges was little inferior to that of kings: it extended
to peace and war; they decided causes with absolute authority; but had
no power to make new laws, or to impose new burdens on the people.
They were protectors of the laws, defenders of religion, and avengers
of crimes, particularly of idolatry; they were without salary, pomp,
or splendor; and without guards, train, or equipage, other than that
their own wealth afforded.

The command of Jehovah to expel or destroy all the Canaanites, was but
imperfectly executed; and those who were spared infected the Hebrews
with the poison of their idolatry and vice. The affair of Micah and
the Levite, and the crime at Gibeah which led to the ruinous war
against the Benjamites, though recorded at the close of the book of
Jud 17:1-21:25, occurred not long after the death of Joshua, and show
how soon Israel began to depart from God. To chastise them, he
suffered the people of Mesopotamia and of Moab, the Canaanites,
Midianites, Ammonites, and Philistines, in turn to oppress by their
exactions apart of the tribes, and sometimes the whole nation. But
before long, in pity for their sufferings, he would raise up one of
the military and civil dictators above described. Fifteen judges are
named in the Bible, beginning with Othniel, some twenty years after
Joshua, and continuing till the coronation of Saul.

The time from Othniel to Saul, according to the received chronology,
it is about 310 years. It is supposed that some periods overlap each
other; but chronologists are not agreed as to the mode of reconciling
the accounts in Judges with other known dates, and with 1Ki 6:1, and
Ac 13:20, though several practicable methods are proposed, the
examination of which would exceed the limits of this work.

THE BOOK OF JUDGES contains the annals of the times in which Israel
was ruled by judges, and is often referred to in the New Testament and
other parts of the Bible. It appears to have been written before David
captured Zion, Jud 1:21, and yet after a regal government was
introduced, Jud 17:6 18:11 21:25. Who was its author is unknown; the
majority of critics ascribe it to Samuel, B. C. 1403, but many regard
it as a compilation by Ezra. It illustrates God's care over his
people, mingling his long-suffering with timely chastisements. The
period of the judges was, on the whole, one of prosperity; and while
the providence of God confirmed his word, "If ye refuse and rebel, ye
shall be devoured by the sword," it is no less faithfully assured the,
"If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall east of the good of the


Is put, in Mt 5:21,22, for a court of judgment, a tribunal, namely,
the tribunal of seven judges, which Josephus mentions as existing in
every city, and which decided causes of minor importance. See under

For the expression, "judgment-hall," see PRETORIUM.

THE DAY OF JUDGMENT, for which the word "judgment" alone is sometimes
used, is that great day, at the end of the world and of time, when
Christ shall sit as judge over all the universe, and when every
individual of the human race will be judged and recompensed according
to his works, whether they be good or evil. The time of its coming and
its duration are known only to God. It will break upon the world
suddenly, and with a glorious but awful majesty. It will witness the
perfect vindication of all the ways of God. The revelation of his
justice, appalling but unstained, will fill the universe with
approving wonder; but the revelation of his yet more amazing goodness
will crown him with unutterable glory. The Redeemer especially will
then receive his reward, and be glorified in his saints, who shall be
raised from the dead in his likeness. He will divide all mankind into
tow classes: all the righteous will be in one, and all the wicked in
the other; all that love God in the one, and all that hate him in the
other; all that penitently believed in Christ while they lived in the
one, and all that died impenitent and unbelieving in the other. And
this judgement and separation will be eternal: the former will rise in
holiness and joy, and the latter sink in sin and woe forever, Ec 11:9
Da 12:2 Mt 10:15 12:36 25:31-46 26:64 Joh 5:22 Ac 17:31 Ro 14:10-12
2Th 1:7-10 2Pe 2:9 3:7 1Jo 4:17 Re 20:12-15.


A centurion of the cohort of Augustus, to whom Festus, governor of
Judea, committed Paul to be conveyed to Rome. Julius had great regard
for Paul. He suffered him to land at Sidon, and to visit his friends
there; and in a subsequent part of the voyage he opposed the violence
of the soldiers, directed against the prisoners generally, in order to
save the apostle, Ac 27:1-44.


Is found in the English Bible, 1Ki 19:4,5; Job 30:4; Ps 120:4. The
Hebrew word, however, signifies the plant Genista, or Spanish broom,
which is common in the desert regions of Arabia, and has yellowish
blossoms and a bitter root.


The supreme god of the heathen Greeks and Romans. He was called the
son of Saturn and Ops, and was said to have been born in Crete. The
character attributed to him in pagan mythology was a compound of all
that is wicked, obscene, and beastly in the catalogue of human crime.
Still he was ever described as of noble and dignified appearance and
bearing. Barnabas was supposed by the people of Lystra to represent
him, Ac 14:12,13; 19:35.


A principle of righteousness and equity, controlling our conduct, and
securing a due regard to all the rights of others-their persons,
property, character, and interests. It has to do, not with pecuniary
transactions alone, but with all our intercourse with society. It
forms a chief element of the character approved in God's word; and a
truly just man has but to "love mercy, and walk humbly with God," to
fulfil all righteousness. Justice in magistrates, rulers, and judges,
must be fearless and impartial, and all its decisions such as will
bear revision before the court of heaven, De 1:16,17 2Sa 23:3 2Ch
19:6-10. Judgement is peculiarly the prerogative of God, and every
earthly tribunal lies under the shadow of the "great white throne." A
just judgment is the voice of God; and hence an unjust one is doubly
hateful in his sight.

THE JUSTICE OF GOD is that essential and infinite attribute which
makes his nature and his ways the perfect embodiment of equity, and
constitutes him the model and the guardian of equity throughout the
universe, De 32:4 Ps 89:14. The justice of God could not leave the
world without laws, and cannot fail to vindicate them by executing
their penalties; and as all mankind perpetually break them, every
human soul is under condemnation, and must perish, unless spared
through the accepted ransom, the blood of Christ.

THE ADMINSITRATION OF JUSTICE among the Hebrews, was characterized by
simplicity and promptitude. In early times the patriarch of each
family was its judge, Ge 38:24. Afterwards, in the absence of more
formal courts, the elders of a household, tribe, or city, were its
judges by natural right. In the wilderness, Moses organized for the
Jews a regular system of judges, some having jurisdiction over ten
families, others over fifty, one hundred, or one thousand. The
difficult cases were referred to Moses, and he often sought divine
direction concerning them, Ex 18:21-26 Le 24:12. These judges were
perhaps the "princes of the congregation," and the chiefs of the
families and tribes of whom we afterwards read, Nu 27:3. In the land
of Canaan, local magistrates were appointed for every city and
village; and these were instructed to cooperate with the priests, as
being all together under the theocracy, the actual government of
Jehovah, the supreme Judge of Israel, De 16:18 17:8-10 19:17 21:16.
Their informal courts were held in the gate of the city, as the most
public and convenient place, De 21:9 22:15 25:7; and in the same place
contracts were ratified, Ru 4:1,9 Jer 32:7-15. Deborah the prophetess
judged Israel beneath a palm-tree, Jud 4:5. Samuel established
virtually a circuit court, 1Sa 7:16 8:1; and among the kings,
Jehoshaphat made special provision for the faithful administration of
justice, 2Ch 19:1-11. The kings themselves were supreme judges, with
almost unlimited powers, 1Sa 22:16 2Sa 4:9,10 1Ki 22:26. They were
expected, however, to see that justice was everywhere done, and seem
to have been accessible to all who were wronged. Frequent complaints
are on record in the sacred books of the maladministration of judges,
of bribery and perjury, 1Sa 8:3 1Ki 21:8-14 Isa 1:23 10:1 Mic 3:11

There was no class among the Jews exactly corresponding to our
lawyers. The accuser and the accused stood side by side before the
judge, with their witnesses, and pleaded their own cause. The accuser
is named in several places, Satan, that is, the adversary, Ps 109:6
Zec 3:1-3. No one could be condemned without the concurring testimony
of at least two witnesses, Nu 35:30; and these failing, he was obliged
to make oath of his innocence, Ex 22:11 Heb 6:16. The sentence of the
judge was instantly executed; and in certain cases the witnesses cast
the first stone, De 17:5,7 25:2 Jos 7:24 1Sa 22:18 1Ki 2:24 Pr 16:14.
The same frightful celerity still marks the administration of justice
in the East. The application of torture to extract evidence is only
once mentioned, and that under the authority of Rome, Ac 22:24. See


The being regarded and treated as if innocent; or acquittal from the
consequences of guilt before the tribunal of God. "Justification by
faith" means that a person, on account of true and living faith in
Christ as manifested by good works, will be delivered from
condemnation on account of his sins; that is, his sins will be
forgiven, and he be regarded and treated as if innocent and holy.
Thus, besides the remission of sins and their penalty, it includes the
restoration and everlasting enjoyment of the favor of God.

We obtain justification by faith in Christ. Yet neither this nor any
other act of ours, as a work, is any ground of our justification. In
acquitting us before his bar, God regards not our works, in whole or
in part, but the atoning work and merits of Christ. He was treated as
a sinner, that we might be treated as righteous. "There is therefore
now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus;" the moment we
believe, our justification is as perfect as the infinite worthiness of
our Redeemer. Its validity does not depend on the measure of our
assurance of hope, nor on spotless holiness of life. Sanctification,
indeed, or progressive growth in holiness, commences simultaneously
with justification, and must in the end reach the same perfectness.
Yet it is important to distinguish between the two, and to observe
that, could the believer's holiness become as perfect as an angel's,
it could not share with the atoning merits of Christ in entitling him
to admission to heaven.

"The best obedience of my hands
Dares not appear before thy throne;
But faith can answer thy demands,
By pleading what my Lord hath done."

True justification, by the gratuitous gift of the Savior, furnishes
the most powerful motive to a holy life. It is followed by adoption,
peace of conscience, and the fruits of the Spirit in this life; and by
final sanctification, acquittal in the day of judgment, and admittance
to heaven, Ro 3:20-31 5:1-21 8:1-4 10:4-10 Ga 2:16-21 Eph 2:4-10.

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