American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - H

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One of the minor prophets. Of his life we know nothing, except that he
appears to have been contemporary with Jeremiah, and to have
prophesied about 610 B.C., shortly before Nebuchadnezzar's first
invasion of Judea, 2Ki 24:1.

The BOOK OF HABAKKUK consists of three chapters, which all constitute
on oracle. In Hab 1:1-17, he foretells the woes which the rapacious
and terrible Chaldeans would soon inflict upon his guilty nation. In
Hab 2:1-20, he predicts the future humiliation of the conquerors. Hab
3:1-19 is a sublime and beautiful ode, in which the prophet implores
the succor of Jehovah in view of his mighty works of ancient days, and
expresses the most assured trust in him. Nothing, even in Hebrew
poetry, is more lofty and grand then this triumphal ode.


Ne 4:16; Job 41:26, a coat of mail; an ancient piece of defensive
armor, in the form of a coat or tunic, descending from the neck to the
middle of the body, and formed of tough hide, or many quilted linen
folds, or of scales of brass overlapping each other like fishes'
scales, or of small iron rings or meshes linked into each other, Ex
28:32; 39:23.


A city of Media, near which Tiglath-pileser, and afterwards
Shalmanezer located portions of the captive Israelites. It is thought
to have stood where the town of Abhar now exists on a branch of the
river Gozan, 2Ki 17:6 18:11.


1. An Idumean prince, who defeated the Midianites in the plains of
Moab, Ge 36:35 1Ch 1:16.

2. A second prince of Edom, mentioned in 1Ch 1:51.

3. Another Edomite of the royal family, who fled to Egypt while young,
upon David's conquest of Edom, 2Sa 8:14; was well received, and
married the queen's sister. After the death of David and Joab, he
returned to Edom and made an ineffectual effort to throw off the yoke
of Solomon, 1Ki 11:14-22 2Ch 8:17.


A powerful king of Syria, reigning in Zobah and the surrounding
country, even to the Euphrates, 1Ki 11:23. He was thrice defeated and
his power overthrown by David, 2Sa 8:3,4 10:6-14 16:1-19:43 1Ch 18:3


A place in the valley of Megiddo, where the good king Josiah lost his
life in a battle with the Ethiopians, 2Ki 23:29 2Ch 35:20-25. The
lamentation over this event was very great, Zec 12:11.




Stranger, an Egyptian bondmaid in the household of Sarah, Ge 12:16,
who, being barren, gave her to Abraham for a secondary wife, that by
her, as a substitute, she might have children in accordance with the
customs of the East in that age. The history of Hagar is given in Ge
16:1-16; 17:1-27; 21:1-34. In an allegory, Paul makes Hagar represent
the Jewish church, which was in bondage to the ceremonial law; as
Sarah represents the true church of Christ, which is free from this
bondage, Ga 4:24. Her name is much honored among the Arabs claiming to
be her descendants.


1Ch 5:10,20, descendant of Hagar and Ishmael. In Ps 83:6, the name
seems to be given to a distinct portion of the Ishmaelites.


One of the minor prophets, probably accompanied Zerubbabel in the
first return of the Jew from Babylon, B. C. 536. He began to prophesy
in the second year of Darius Hystaspis, B. C. 520; and the object of
his prophesying as to excite his countrymen to begin again the
building of the temple, which had been so long interrupted. In this he
was successful, Darius having granted a decree for this purpose, Ezr
6:1-22. The exceeding glory of the second temple was, as he foretold,
that Christ "the Desire of all nations" came into it, and made the
place of his feet glorious, Hag 2:7-9.


A salutation, importing a wish for the welfare of the person
addressed. It is now seldom used among us; but was customary among our
Saxon ancestors, and imported "joy to you," or "health to you,"
including in the term health all kind of prosperity.


Drops of rain formed into ice by the power of cold in the upper
regions of the atmosphere. Hail was among the plagues of Egypt, Ex
9:24, and was the more terrible, because it rarely occurred in that
country. Hail was also made use of by God for defeating an army of
Canaanites, Jos 10:11; and is used figuratively to represent terrible
judgments, Isa 28:2; Re 16:21.


The Jewish men, except Nazarites, Nu 6:5,9, and cases like that of
Absalom, 2Sa 14:26, cut their hair moderately short, 1Co 11:14, and
applied fragrant ointments to it, Ex 30:30-33 Ps 23:5 Ec 9:8. In
mourning they wholly neglected it, or shaved it close, or plucked it
out by handfuls, Jer 7:29. Women prized a fine head of hair, and
plaited, perfumed, and decked it in many ways, Isa 3:18,24 1Co 11:15,
so much as to call for apostolic interdictions, 1Ti 2:9 1Pe 3:9. "Hair
like women's" characterized the locusts of antichrist, Re 9:8. Lepers
when cleansed, and Levites, on their consecration, shaved the whole
body, Le 13:1-59 14:8,9.


2Ki 17:6. See HABOR.


In the New Testament, ALLELUIAH, Praise ye Jehovah. This word occurs
at the beginning and at the end of many psalms. It was also sung on
solemn days of rejoicing, as an expression of joy and praise, and as
such it has been adopted in the Christian church, and is still used in
devotional psalmody, Re 19:1,3,4,6.


To render sacred, set apart, consecrate. The English word is from the
Saxon, and means to make holy: hence hallowed persons, things, places,
rites, etc.; hence also the name, power, and dignity God are hallowed,
that is, reverenced as holy.


1. Burnt, swarthy, black, A son of Noah, Ge 5:32 7:13 9:18 10:1. The
impiety revealed in his conduct towards his father, drew upon him, or
rather, according to the Bible statement, on his son Canaan, a
prophetic malediction, Ge 9:20-27. Ham was the father of Cush,
Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan, that is, the ancestor of the Canaanites,
Southern Arabians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, and the Africans in general,
Ge 10:6-20.

2. A poetical name for Egypt, Ps 78:51 106:22.

3. An unknown place of the Zuzim, Ge 14:5.


A favorite of Ashasuerus, king of Persia. In order to revenge himself
upon Mordecai the Jew, he plotted the extermination of all the Jews in
the kingdom; but in the providence of God he as thwarted by Esther,
fell into disgrace with the king, and wrought his own ruin and the
upbuilding of the Jews. He is called an Agaite; and as Agag was a
common name of the Amalekite kings, the Jews believe he was of that
race. This would help to explain his malice against the Jews. See
AMALEKITES. Similar wholesale slaughters are still plotted in Asia,
and the whole narrative is confirmed and illustrated by the
descriptions of eastern life furnished by modern travellers in the
same region. The death of Haman took place about 485 B. C. His
eventful history shows that pride goes before destruction; that the
providence of God directs all things; that his people are safe in the
midst of perils; and that his foes must perish.


A celebrated city of Syria. Hamath, like Jerusalem and Damascus, is
one of the few places in Syria and Palestine which have retained a
certain degree of importance from the very earliest ages to the
present time. The name occurs in Ge 10:18, as the seat of a
Canaanitish tribe; and it is often mentioned as the northern limits of
Canaan in its widest extent, Nu 13:21; Jos 13:5; Jud 3:3. In David's
time, Toi king of Hamath was his ally, 2Sa 8:9,10.

Burckhardt describes Hamath as "situated on both sides of the Orontes;
a part of it is built on the declivity of a hill, and a part in the
plain. The town is of considerable extent, and must contain at least
30,000 inhabitants. There are four bridges over the Orontes in the
town. The river supplies the upper town with water by means of buckets
fixed to high wheels, which empty themselves into stone canals,
supported by lofty arches on a level with the upper part of the town.
There are about a dozen of the wheels; the largest of them is at least
seventy feet in diameter. The principal trade of Hamath is with the
Arabs, who buy here their tent furniture and clothes. The government
of Hamath comprises about one hundred and twenty inhabited villages,
and seventy or eighty which have been abandoned. The western part of
its territory is the granary of the northern Syria, though the harvest
never yields more than ten for one, chiefly in consequence of the
immense numbers of mice, which sometimes wholly destroy the crops."
"The entering in of Hamath" is the northern part of the valley which
leads up to it from Palestine, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, Nu
13:21; 1Ki 1:53.


A kinsman of Jeremiah, from whom the prophet bought a piece of ground
before the captivity, and had the legal record made, in token of his
prophetic assurance that his people would return to their possessions,
Jer 32:6-12.


1. A seer in the time of Asa, 955-914 B. C. imprisoned for his
fidelity. He was also the father of the prophet Jehu, 1Ki 16:1-7 2Ch
16:7-10 19:2 20:34.

2. A brother of Nehemiah, who brought to Babylon an account of the
wretched state of the Jews then at Jerusalem, and afterwards had
charge of the gates of the city, Ne 1:1-3 7:2,3, B. C. 455.


1. A false prophet of Gibeon, who for his impious hardihood was
overtaken with speedy death, according to the word of God, Jer

2. The Hebrew name of Shadrach.

3. A pious and faithful officer under Nehemiah, Ne 7:2.


Often put of strength, power; so to be "in the hand" of any one, is to
be in his power. Joining hands, or striking hands, is a very common
method of pledging one's self to a contract or bargain; just as
persons among us often shake hands in token of an agreement. To "lift
the hand," means to make oath. "At the right hand of God," is the
place of honor, power, and happiness, Ps 16:11 45:9 110:1 Mt 26:64 Col
3:1. The right hand meant towards the south, the Jews being wont to
speak as if facing the east. The "laying on of hands," signified
consecration to office, and the bestowal of a blessing or of divine
gifts, Ge 48:14 Nu 8:10 27:18 Mr 10:16 Ac 6:6 19:6 1Ti 4:14. The hands
of the high priest laid upon the scapegoat, as if transferring the
guilt of the people to his head, represented the work wrought by
Christ in order that the sinner might not be "driven away in his
wickedness." See WASHING.


A city of Egypt, Isa 30:4, thought to be the modern Ehnes, in middle
Egypt on the Nile.


The pious wife of a Levite of Ramathaim-Zophim, named Elkanah, and
mother of Samuel, B. C. 1171. She had earnestly besought the Lord for
him, and freely devoted him to serve God according to her vow. She was
afterwards blessed with three other sons and two daughters, 1Sa


A king of the Ammonites, whose father Nahash had befriended David in
his early troubles. Upon the death of Nahash, David sent an embassage
to condole with his son. The shameful treatment received by these
ambassadors led to a destructive war upon the Ammonites, 2Sa 10:1- 19;
1Ch 19:1-19.


1Ch 5:26, probably a mountainous region in the northern part of Media.


1. The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham, and father of Lot,
Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father Terah, Ge 11:26- 31.

2. An ancient city called in the New Testament Charran, in the
northwest part of Mesopotamia. Here, after leaving Ur, Abraham dwelt
till is father Terah died; and to this old homestead Isaac sent for a
wife, and Jacob fled from the wrath of Esau, Ge 11:31,32; 12:5;
24:1-67; 27:43; 28:10; 29:4. Haran was ravaged by the Assyrians in the
time of Hezekiah, 2Ki 19:12; Isa 37:12. Here also Crassus the Roman
general was defeated and killed by the Parthiuated on a branch of the
Euphrates, in 36 degrees 52' north latitude, and 39 degrees 5' east
longitude, in a flat and sandy plain, and is only peopled by a few
wandering Arabs, who select it for the delicious water it furnishes.


Of the same genus as the rabbit, prohibited to the Jews for food, Le
11:6, because, though it "cheweth the cud," it "divideth not the
hoof." No species of hare is known which strictly chews the cud. There
were several varieties of the hare in Syria.


An abandoned woman, Pr 29:3; a type of idolatrous nations and cities,
Isa 1:21 Eze 16:1-63 Na 3:4. Among the Jews, prostitutes were often
foreigners; hence their name of "strange women." They were often
devoted to heathen idols, and their abominations were a part of the
worship, Nu 25:1-5 Ho 4:14; a custom from the defilement of which the
house of God was expressly defended, De 23:18.


A suit of defensive armor, 1Ki 20:11 2Ch 18:33. The Hebrews went out
from Egypt "harnessed," that is, properly equipped or arranged.


A spring near Jezreel and mount Gilboa, Jud 7:1; 2Sa 23:25.


A city in the north of Canaan, the residence of Sisera, Jud 4:2; Jud
13:1-25; 16:1-31. The missionary Thompson finds its ruins at a place
still called Harothieh, the Arabic equivalent for Harosheth, on a hill
commanding the entrance to the narrow passage of the Kishon from the
plain of Esdraelon to the plain of Acre.


Hebrew KINNOR, the most ancient and common stringed instrument of the
Jews, more properly translated lyre. It was light and portable, and
was used on joyful occasions, whether sacred or not. It was invented
by Jubal, Ge 4:21 31:27 1Ch 16:5 25:1-5 Ps 81:2. David was a
proficient in its use, 1Sa 16:16,23 18:10. The instrument most nearly
resembling our harp was the Hebrew NEBEL, translated, psaltery in the
Old Testament, Ps 57:8 81:2 92:3 108:2. It had a general triangular
shape, and seven to twelve strings, Ps 33:2 144:9. It was played with
the hand or with a short iron rod or plectrum according to its size.
The Jews had other stringed instruments, like the guitar and lute, but
little can be accurately determined respecting their form, etc. See


Or STAG, a species of deer, clean by the Levitical law, De 12:15, and
celebrated for its elegance, agility, and grace, So 2:9 Isa 35:6. See


Often denotes in Scripture only a less degree of love, Ge 29:30,31 De
21:15 Pr 13:24 Mal 1:2,3 Lu 14:26 Ro 9:13. God has a just and perfect
abhorrence of sin and sinners, Ps 5:5. But hatred in general is a
malevolent passion, Ga 5:20, and no one who is not perfect in love,
can hate without sin.


Eze 47:16, was originally a small district south of Damascus, and east
of the sea of Tiberias, but was afterwards extended to the south and
east, and under the Romans was called Auranitis. It now includes the
ancient Trachonitis, the Haouran, Ituraea, and part of Batanaea, and
is very minutely described by Burckhardt. Many ruins of cities, with
Greek inscriptions, are scattered over its rugged surface.


The Scripture mention a Havilah descended from Ham, Ge 10:7, and
another from Shem, Ge 11:29. We must assume a double Havilah,
corresponding to each of these.

1. The location of one Havilah is connected with that of the Garden of
Eden. According to one theory, it is to be sought on the southeastern
extremity of the Black Sea; according to another, at the head of the
Persian Gulf. See EDEN.

2. The other Havilah seems to have in Arabia. From the statement in
1Sa 15:7, that "Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah unto Shurm that
is over against Egypt," it would seen to have been somewhere in the
north-western part of Arabia; since, from the circumstances of this
campaign, we cannot well suppose that it extended over a great tract
of country.


Huts of Jair, a district in Gilead, containing thirty hamlets
belonging to the thirty sons of Jair, judges of Israel, Nu 32:41; Jud


Or FALCON, a strong-winged and rapacious bird, of several in Syria;
unclean for the Hebrews, Le 11:16, but sacred among the Greeks and
Egyptians. In its migrations, it illustrates the wise providence of
the Creator, Job 39:26.


In Pr 27:25; Isa 15:6, denotes the first shoots of grass. The Jews did
not prepare and store up hay for winter use, as is customary in cold


An officer of Benhadad king of Syria, whose future accession to the
throne was revealed to the prophet Elijah, then at Damascus, as to his
recovery from sickness, and on the next day smothered the king with a
wet cloth, 2Ki 8:7-15, B. C. 885. His discomposure under the eye of
the prophet was an indication that he had already meditated this
crime. Having usurped the throne, he reigned forty years; and by his
successful and cruel wars against Judah and Israel justified the
forebodings of Elisha, 2Ki 8:28 10:32 12:17 13:3,7 2Ch 22:5.


An ancient abode of the Avim, apparently in the northwestern part of
Arabia Petraea, De 2:23.


A station of the Israelites, about five days' journey from mount
Sinai, Nu 11:35. Here they remained a week or more, Nu 12:1- 16; and
their next station recorded was near Kades-barnea, on the borders of
Canaan, Nu 12:16 13:26 De 1:19-21.




1. A chief city of northern Canaan, whose king Jabin, at the head of
an allied host, was defeated by Joshua, Jos 11:1-13. Hazor revived,
however, and for a time oppressed the Israelites; but was subdued by
Barak, fortified by Solomon, and remained in the possession of Israel
until the invasion of Tiglathpileser, Jos 19:36; Jud 4:2; 1Ki 9:15;
2Ki 15:29. It lay not far from Lake Merom.

2. A region in Arabia, laid waste by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 49:28- 33.
Its location is unknown.

3. Cities in Judah and Benjamin, Jos 15:23; Ne 11:33.


Supposed to be the Juniper, a low tree found in desert and rocky
places, and thus contrasted with a tree growing by a water-course, Jer
17:5-8; 48:6.


In the Bible, means primarily the region of the air and clouds, and of
the planets and stars, but chiefly the world of holy bliss above the
visible heavens. It is called "the third heaven," "the highest
heaven," and "the heaven of heavens," expressions nearly synonymous.
There holy beings are to dwell, seeing all of God that it is possible
for creatures to see. Thither Christ ascended, to intercede for his
people and prepare for them a place where all shall at length be
gathered, to go no more out forever, Eph 4:10 Heb 8:1 9:24-28.

In this life we can know but little of the location and appearance of
heaven, or of the employments and blessedness of its inhabitants. The
Scriptures inform us that all sin, and every other evil, are forever
excluded; no fruits of sin will be found there-no curse nor sorrow nor
sighing, no tear, no death: the former things are passed away.

They describe it figuratively, crowding together all the images which
nature or art can supply to illustrate its happiness. It is a kingdom,
an inheritance: there are rivers of pleasure, trees of life, glorious
light, rapturous songs, robes, crowns, feasting, mirth, treasures,
triumphs. They also give us positive representations: the righteous
dwell in the presence of God; they appear with Christ in glory. Heaven
is life, everlasting life: glory, an eternal weight of glory:
salvation, repose, peace, fullness of joy, the joy of the Lord.

There are different degrees in that glory, and never-ceasing
advancement. It will be a social state, and its happiness, in some
measure, will arise from mutual communion and converse, and the
expressions and exercises mutual benevolence. It will include the
perfect purity of every saint; delightful fellowship with those we
have here loved in the Lord, Mt 8:11 17:3,4 1Th 2:19 4:13-18; the
presence of Christ, and the consciousness that all is perfect and

We are taught that the body will share this bliss as well as the soul:
the consummation of our bliss is subsequent to the resurrection of the
body; for it is redeemed as well as the soul, and shall, at the
resurrection of the just, be fashioned like unto Christ's glorious
body. By descending from heaven, and reascending thither, he proves to
the doubting soul the reality of heaven; he opens it door for the
guilty by his atoning sacrifice; and all who are admitted to it by his
blood shall be made meet for it by his grace, and find their happiness
for ever in his love. See KINGDOM OF HEAVEN.


1. An ancestor of the Hebrews, Lu 3:35. See HEBREWS.

2. A Kenite descended from Hobab, Moses' father-in-law. He resided in
the northern part of Canaan, and seems to have been a man of note in
his day. His wife Jael slew Sisera with her own hand, Jud 4:11,17


That branch of the posterity of Abraham whose home was in the land of
promise. The name Hebrew is first applied to Abraham in Ge 14:13, and
is generally supposed to have been derived for Heber, the last of the
long-lived patriarchs. However outlived six generations of his
descendants, including Abraham himself, after whose death he was for
some years the only surviving ancestor of Isaac and Jacob. Hebrews
appears to have been the name by which the Jewish people were known to
foreigners, in distinction from their common domestic name, "the
children of Israel." The name of Jews, derived from Judah, was
afterwards applied to them as inhabitants of Judea, 2Ki 16:6. Abraham,
the founder of the Jewish nation, was a migratory shepherd, whose
property consisted mainly in vast flocks and herds, but who had no
fixed residence, and removed from place to place as the convenience of
water and pasturage dictated. As such a nomad, he had lived in Ur of
the Chaldees, and then in Haran, whence he removed and dwelt in the
same manner among the Canaanites, in the country which God promised to
give to his posterity. His son and grandson, Isaac and Jacob followed
in his steps. By a miraculous arrangement of Providence, Joseph, one
of the sons of Jacob, became grand-vizier of Egypt; and in a time of
famine invited his family to settle in that land. Here Moses died, and
was succeeded by Joshua, who conquered the desired country, and
allotted it to the several tribes. From this time they were governed
in the name of Jehovah, by chiefs, judges, or patriarchal rulers,
until the time of Samuel; when the government was changed to a
monarchy, and Saul anointed king. David, a shepherd youth, but the man
after God's own heart, was afterwards king, and founded a family which
continued to reign in Jerusalem until the entire subjugation of the
country by the Chaldeans. Under his grandson Rehoboam, however, ten
tribes revolted and formed a separate kingdom, that of Israel, between
which the kingdom of Judah there were hostile feelings and frequent
wars. The termination of the whole was the carrying away of the
greater part of both nations to Babylon, Media, etc. After seventy
years of exile, a few small colonies of Hebrews returned, and built
another temple at Jerusalem, and attempted to reestablished their
nation; but they had to struggle first, under the Maccabees, against
the kings of the Seleucian race, (see JERUSALEM), and then against the
Romans; by whom at length, under Titus, Jerusalem was taken and
utterly destroyed, A. D. 70-71. Since that time, although Jerusalem
has been rebuilt, the Hebrews have ceased to exist as an independent
people; but they are scattered among all the nations of the earth,
where they retain their characteristic traits, and live as strangers,
and, in a great measure, as outcasts.

The government of the Hebrews is, by Josephus, called a theocracy-a
form of government which assigns the whole power to God, with the
management of all the national affairs-God, in fact, being the proper
King of the state. This government, however, underwent several changes
under the legislator Moses, his successor Joshua, the judges, the
kings, and the high priests. But amid all these revolutions, God was
considered as the monarch of Israel, though he did not exercise his
jurisdiction always in the same manner. In the time of Moses, he dwelt
among his people as a king in his palace, or in the midst of his camp;
always ready to be consulted, promulgating all needful laws, and
giving specific directions in all emergencies. This was, properly, the
time of the theocracy, in the strictest sense of the term. Under
Joshua and the judges, it continued nearly the same: the former being
filled by the spirit which animated Moses, would undertake nothing
without consulting Jehovah; and the latter were leaders, raised up by
God himself, to deliver the Hebrews and govern in his name. The demand
of the people for a king occasioned to Samuel, the prophet-judge,
great disquietude; for he regarded it as a rejection of the theocratic
government, 1Sa 8:6,7. God complied with the wishes of the people; but
he still asserted his own sovereign authority, and claimed the
obedience of all.

The religion of the Hebrews may be considered in different points of
view, with respect to the different conditions of their nation. Under
the patriarchs, they were instructed in the will of God by direct
revelation, worshipped him by prayer and sacrifices, opposed idolatry
and atheism, used circumcision as the appointed seal of the covenant
made by God with Abraham, and followed the laws which the light of
grace and faith discovers to those who honestly and seriously seek
God, his righteousness, and truth. They lived in expectation of the
Messiah, the Desire of all nations, to complete their hopes and
wished, and fully to instruct and bless them. Such was the religion of
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah, Joseph, etc., who maintained the worship
of God and the tradition of the true religion. After the time of
Moses, the religion of the Hebrews became more fixed, and ceremonies,
days, feasts, priest, and sacrifices were determined with great
exactness. This whole dispensation only prefigured that more perfect
one which should come, and bring life and immortality to light in his
gospel, and make a full atonement for the sins of the world. See TYPE.

The long abode of the Hebrews in Egypt had cherished in them a strong
propensity to idolatry; and neither the miracles of Moses, nor his
precautions to withdraw them from the worship of idols, nor the rigor
of his laws, nor the splendid marks of God's presence in the
Israelitish camp, were able to conquer this unhappy perversity. We
know with what facility they adopted the adoration of the golden calf,
when they had recently been eyewitnesses of such divine wonders. Saul
and David, with all their authority, were not able entirely to
suppress such inveterate disorders. Superstitions, which the
Israelites did not dare to exercise in public, were practiced in
private. They sacrificed on the high places, and consulted diviners
and magicians. Solomon, whom God had chosen to build his temple, was
himself a stone of stumbling to Israel. He erected altars to the false
gods of the Phoenicians, Moabites, and Ammonites, and not only
permitted his wives to worship the gods of their own country, but he
to some extent adored them, 1Ki 11:5-7. Most of his successors showed
a similar weakness. Jeroboam introduced the worship of the golden
calves into Israel, which took such deep root that it was never
entirely extirpated. It was for this cause that God gave the Hebrews
over into the hands of their enemies, to captivity and dispersion. See
IDOLATRY. After the captivity, they appear to have been wholly free
from the worship of idols; but they were still corrupt and far from
God, and having filled the cup of their guilt by rejecting and
crucifying the Lord of glory, they were extirpated as a nation and
became strangers and sojourners over all the earth.

For the language of the Hebrews, see LANGUAGE.

The existence of the Hebrews as a people distinct from all others, to
this day, is a miracle of the indisputable king, which may well
justify a few remarks.

1. They are spread into all parts of the earth; being found not only
in Europe and America, but to the utmost extremity of Asia, even in
Thibet and China. They abound in Persia, Northern India, and Tartary,
wherever travellers have penetrated. They are, as they assert,
descendants of the tribe carried away captive by the Assyrian
monarchs. They are also numerous in Arabia, in Egypt, and throughout

2. In most parts of the world their state is much the same-one of
dislike, contempt, and oppression. In past ages innumerable exactions
and wrongs have been heaped upon them. Within the last few years they
have received more justice at the hands of some of the European
states; but they have usually held their possessions by a very
precarious tenure.

3. They everywhere maintain observances peculiar to themselves: such
as circumcision, performed after the law of their fathers; the great
day of expiation; also the observance of a Sabbath or day of rest on
Saturday, and not on the Christian Sabbath. They have generally
retained the observance of the Passover in some form.

4. They are divided into various sects. Some of them are extremely
attached to the traditions of the rabbins, and to the multiplied
observances enjoined in the Talmud. Others, as the Caraites, reject
these with scorn, and adhere solely to Scripture. The majority of the
Jews in Europe, and those with whose works we are mostly conversant,
are ribbinists, and may be taken as representative of the ancient

5. They everywhere consider Judea as their proper country and
Jerusalem as their metropolitan city. Wherever settled, and for
however long, they still cherish a recollection of country,
unparalleled among other nations. They have not lost it; they will not
loose it; and they transmit it to their posterity. However comfortably
they may be settled in any residence, they hope to see Zion and
Jerusalem revive from their ashes.

6. The number of the Jewish nation was estimated a few years ago at
3,000,000. This number is probably very far short of the truth.
Maltebrun estimates them as from four to five millions.

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE. The object of this epistle, which ranks among
the most important of the New Testament books, was to prove to the
Jews, from their own Scriptures, the divinity, humanity, atonement,
and intercession of Christ, particularly his preeminence over Moses
and the angels of God; to demonstrate the superiority of the gospel to
the law, and the real object and design of the Mosaic institution; to
fortify the minds of the Hebrew converts against apostasy under
persecution, and to engage them to a deportment becoming their
Christian profession. In this view, the epistle furnishes a key to the
Old Testament Scriptures, and is invaluable as a clear elucidation and
an inspired, unanswerable demonstration of the doctrine of the great
atoning Sacrifice as set forth in Old Testament institutions. The name
of the writer of this epistle is nowhere mentioned. The majority of
critics, however, refer it to the apostle Paul. It is also believed to
have been written in Greek, at Rome and about A. D. 63. See PAUL PAUL.


One of the most ancient cities of Canaan, being built seven years
before Tanis, the capital of Lower Egypt, Nu 13:22. It was anciently
called Kirjath-arba, (see ARBA), and Mamre, and was a favorite
residence of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Here too they
were buried, Ge 14:13-24 23:2-19 35:27. Under Joshua and Caleb the
Israelites conquered it from the Canaanites and Anakim, and it was
afterwards made a Levitical city of refuge, Jos 14:13-15 15:13
21:11,13 Jud 1:10,20. It was David's seat of government during the
seven years when he reigned over Judah only, 2Sa 2:3 5:5. Here Absalom
raised the standard of revolt, 2Sa 15:9,10. It was fortified by
Rehoboam, and is mentioned after the captivity, but not in the New
Testament, Ne 11:25. At present Hebron is an unwalled city of about
8,000 inhabitants, of whom some 600 are Jews, and the remainder Turks
and Arabs. It lies in a deep valley and on the adjacent hillside, in
the ancient hill-country of Judea, about 2,600 feet above the sea. Its
modern name, El-khulil, the friend, is the same which the Moslems give
to Abraham, "the friend of God;" and they profess to hold in their
keeping the burial-place of the patriarchs, the "cave of Machpelah."
It is covered by a small mosque, surrounded by a stone structure 60
feet high, 150 feet wide, and 200 feet long. Within this no Christian
is permitted to enter; but it is evidently of very high antiquity, and
may well be regarded as inclosing the true site of the ancient tomb.
Other relics of antiquity exist in two stone reservoirs, the larger
133 feet square, and 21 feet deep. They are still in daily use; and
one of them was probably the "pool in Hebron," above which David hung
up the assassins of Ish-bosheth, 2Sa 4:12. The city contains nine
mosques and two synagogues. Its streets are narrow; the houses of
stone, with flat roofs surmounted by small domes. Large quantities of
glass lamps and colored rings are here manufactured; also leathern
bottles, raisins, and dibs, or grape-syrup. The environs of the city
are very fertile, furnishing the finest vineyards in Palestine,
numerous plantations of olive and other fruit trees, and excellent
pasturage. See ESHCOL, MAMRE.


Red heifers were to be offered in sacrifice for the national sins, in
the impressive manner described in Nu 19:1-10, illustrating the true
sacrifice for sin in the person of Christ, Heb 9:13,14. The well-fed
heifer was a symbol of wanton wildness, Jer 46:20 50:11 Ho 4:16.


Formerly supposed to be Haleb, or as called in Europe, Aleppo, a city
of Syria, about one hundred and eighty miles north of Damascus, and
about eighty miles north from the Mediterranean Sea. In 1822, Aleppo
was visited by a dreadful earthquake, by which it was almost entirely
destroyed. Its present population is not half of the 200,000 it then
possessed. But recently a valley has been found on the eastern slope
of Anti-Lebanon, north of the Barada, called Helbon, from on of its
principal villages. Its grapes and the wine made from them are still
remarkable for their fine quality. This valley is probably the Helbon
of Eze 27:18.


City of the sun,

1. A celebrated city of Egypt, called in Coptic, Hebrew, and the
English version, ON, sun, light, Ge 41:45. The Seventy mention
expressly, Ex 1:11, that On is Heliopolis. Jeremiah, Jer 43:13, calls
this city Beth-shemesh, that is, house or temple of the sun. In Eze
30:17, the name is pronounced Aven, which is the same as On. The Arabs
called it Ani-Shems, fountain of the sun. All these names come from
the circumstance that the city was the ancient seat of the Egyptian
worship of the sun. It was in ruins in the time of Strabo, who
mentions that two obelisks had already been carried away to Rome. At
present its site, six miles north northeast from Cairo, is marked only
by extensive ranges of low mounds full of ruinous fragments, and a
solitary obelisk formed of a single block of red granite, rising about
sixty feet above the sand, and covered on its four sides with

2. Another Helioplis is alluded to in Scripture under the name of the
"plain of Aven," or field of the sun, Am 1:5. This was the Heliopolis
of Coele-Syria, now Baalbec. Its stupendous ruins have been the wonder
of past centuries, and will continue to be the wonder of future
generations, till barbarism and earthquakes shall have done their last
work. The most notable remains are those of three temples, the largest
of which, with its court and portico, extended 1,000 feet from east to
west. A magnificent portico, 180 feet long, with twelve lofty and
highly wrought columns, led to a large hexagonal court, and this to a
vast quadrangle, 440 feet by 370. Fronting on this rose ten columns of
the peristyle, which surrounded the inner temple. There were nineteen
columns on each side, or fifty-four in all, only six of which are now
standing, and they were seven feet in diameter, and sixty-two feet
high, besides the entablature of nearly fourteen feet. This temple
rested on an immense vaulted substructure, rising nearly fifty feet
above the ground outside, and in this are three stones sixty-three
long and thirteen feet high, lying twenty feet above the ground. The
temples are of Roman origin; and in vastness of plan, combined with
elaborateness and delicacy of execution, they seem to surpass all
others in the world. "They are like those of Athens for lightness, but
far surpass them in vastness; they are vast and massive, like those of
Thebes, but far excel them in airiness and grace." (Robinson.)


Field of heroes, a place near Gibeon, so named from a fatal duel- like
combat, preceding a battle between the armies of David and Ish-
bosheth, 2Sa 2:16.


The Hebrews SHEOL, and the Greek HADES, usually translated hell, often
signify the place of departed spirits, Ps 16:10 Isa 14:9 Eze 31:16.
Here was the rich man, after being buried, Lu 16:23. The above and
many other passages in the Old Testament show the futility of that
opinion which attributes to the Hebrews an ignorance of a future

The term hell is most commonly applied to the place of punishment in
the unseen world, and is usually represented in the Greek New
Testament by the word Gehenna, valley of Hinnom. See HINNOM. In 2Pe
2:4, the rebellious angels are said, in the original Greek, to have
been cast down into "Tartarus," this being the Grecian name of the
lowest abyss of Hades. Other expressions are also used, indicating the
dreadfulness of the anguish there to be endured. It is called "outer
darkness," "flame," "furnace of fire," "unquenchable fire," "fire and
brimstone," etc., Mt 8:12 13:42 22:13 25:20,41 Mr 9:43-48 Jud 1:13 Re
20:14. The misery of hell will consist in the privation of the vision
and love of God, exclusion from every source of happiness, perpetual
sin, remorse of conscience in view of the past, malevolent passions,
the sense of the just anger of God, and all other sufferings of body
and soul which in the nature of things are the natural results of sin,
or which the law of God requires as penal inflictions. The degrees of
anguish will be proportioned to the degrees of guilt, Mt 10:15 23:14
Lu 12:47,48. And these punishments will be eternal, like the happiness
of heaven. The wrath of God will never cease to abide upon the lost
soul, and it will always be "the wrath to come."


1. A celebrated sage, of the tribe of Judah. The period of his life is
unknown, 1Ki 4:31.

2. A Kohathite Levite, to whom as a chief musicians of the temple of
the eighty-eighty Psalm is inscribed, 1Ch 6:33; 16:41,42.


Ho 10:4 Am 6:12, in Hebrew, ROSH ROSH, usually translated gall or
bitterness, De 32:32, and mentioned in connection with wormwood, De
29:18 Jer 9:15 23:15 La 3:19. It indicates some wild, bitter, and
noxious plant, which it is difficult to determine. According to some
it is the poisonous hemlock, while others consider it to be the poppy.


The care of a hen to protect her brood from hawks, etc., illustrates
the Savior's tender care of his people when exposed to the swoop of
the Roman eagle, as in all similar perils, Mt 23:37; 24:22. The common
barn-door fowl is not often mentioned in Scripture, Mr 13:35; 14:30;
Lu 22:34; but at the present day they and their eggs are more used in
Syria than any other food not vegetable.


Supposed to have been a city of Mesopotamia afterwards called Ana, at
a ford of the Euphrates, 2Ki 18:34; 19:13; Isa 37:13.


My delight, the mother of Manasseh, 2Ki 21:1, and a name given to the
church, Isa 62:4.


Choice, chosen way of life or faith, sect, school, party. The Greek
word properly designates any sect or party, without implying praise or
censure. So in Ac 5:17 15:5 26:4,5. In the epistles it denotes a sect
or party in a bad sense, implying a refractory spirit, as well as
error in faith and practice, 1Co 11:19 Ga 5:20 2Pe 2:1. After the
primitive age, the word came to signify simply error in doctrine.


A Christian at Rome, Ro 16:14; supposed by some to have been the
writer of the ancient work called "The Shepherd of Hermas" - a
singular mixture of truth and piety with folly and superstition.


Fellow-laborers with Paul in Asia Minor, who deserted him during his
second imprisonment at Rome, 2Ti 1:15.


A lofty mountain on the northeast border of Palestine, called also
Sirion Shenir, and Sion, (not Zion), De 3:8; 4:39. It is a part of the
great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm
branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in
a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the sea of
Galilee. This low range is called Jebel Heish. Mount Hermon is
believed to be what is now known as Jebel esh-Sheikh, whose highest
summit, surpassing every other in Syria, rises into the region of
perpetual snow or ice, ten thousand feet above the sea.

For a view of Hermon, see MEROM. Professor Hackett thus describes its
appearance as seen from a hill north of Nazareth: "The mountain was
concealed one moment, and the next, on ascending a few steps higher,
stood arrayed before me with an imposing effect which I cannot easily
describe. It rose immensely above every surrounding object. The purity
of the atmosphere caused it to appear near, though it was in reality
many miles distant. The snow on its head and sides sparkled under the
rays of the sun, as if it had been robed in a vesture of silver. In my
mind's eye at that moment it had none of the appearance of an inert
mass of earth and rock, but glowed with life and animation. It stood
there athwart my path, like a mighty giant rearing his head towards
heaven and swelling with the proud consciousness of strength and
majesty. I felt how natural was the Psalmist's personification: "the
north and the south thou hast created them; Tabor and Hermon shall
rejoice in thy name,'" Ps 89:12.

The "little Hermon" of modern travellers, not mentioned in Scripture,
is a shapeless mass of hills north of the smaller valley of Jezreel.
"Hermonites," or Hermons, in Ps 42:6, denotes the peaks of the Hermons


The name of four princes, Idumaeans by descent, who governed either
the whole or a part of Judea, under the Romans, and are mentioned in
the New Testament.

1. HEROD THE GREAT, Mt 2:1-23 Lu 1:5. He was the son of Antipater, an
Idumaean, who was in high favor with Julius Caesar. At the age of
fifteen years, Herod was constituted by his father procurator of
Galilee under Hyrcanus II, who was then at the head of the Jewish
nation; while his brother Phasael was intrusted with the same
authority over Judea. In these stations they were afterwards confirmed
by Antony, with the title of tetrarch, about the year 41 B. C. The
power of Hyrcanus had always been opposed by his brother Aristobulus;
and now Antigonus, the son of the latter, continued in hostility to
Herod, and was assisted by the Jews. At first he was unsuccessful, and
was driven by Herod out of the country; but having obtained the aid of
the Parthians, he at length succeeded in defeating Herod, and acquired
possession of the whole of Judea, about the year 40 B. C. Herod
meanwhile fled to Rome; and being there declared king of Judea through
the exertions of Antony, he collected an army, vanquished Antigonus,
recovered Jerusalem, and extirpated all the family of the Maccabees,
B. C. 37. After the battle of Actium, in which his patron Antony was
defeated, Herod joined the party of Octavius, and was confirmed by him
in all his possessions. He endeavored to conciliate the affections of
the Jews, by rebuilding and decorating the temple, (see TEMPLE), and
by founding or enlarging many cities and towns; but the prejudices of
the nation against a foreign yoke were only heightened when he
introduced quinquennial games in honor of Caesar, and erected theatres
and gymnasia at Jerusalem. The cruelty of his disposition also was
such as ever to render him odious. He put to death his own wife
Mariamne, with her two sons Alexander and Aristobulus; and when he
himself was at the point of death, he caused a number of the most
illustrious of his subjects to be thrown into prison at Jericho, and
exacted from his sister a promise that they should be murdered the
moment he expired, in order, as he said, that tears should be shed at
the death of Herod. This promise, however, was not fulfilled. His son
Antipater was executed for conspiring to poison his father; and five
days after, Herod died, A. D. 2, aged sixty-eight, having reigned as
king about thirty-seven years. It was during his reign that Jesus was
born at Bethlehem; and Herod, in consequence of his suspicious temper,
and in order to destroy Jesus, gave orders for the destruction of all
the children of two years old and under in the place, Mt 2:1-23. This
is also mentioned by Macrobius. After the death of Herod, half of his
kingdom, including Judea, Ideumaea, and Samaria, was given to his son
Archelaus, with the title of Ethnarch; while the remaining half was
divided between two of his other sons, Herod Antipas and Philip, with
the title of Tetrarchs; the former having the regions of Galilee and
Perea, and the latter Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis.


3. HEROD ANTIPAS, Lu 3:1, was the son of Herod the Great by Malthace
his Samaritan wife, and own brother to Archelaus, along with whom he
was educated at Rome. After the death of his father, he was appointed
by Augustus to be tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, that is, the southern
part of the country east of the Jordan, Lu 3:1, whence also the
general appellation of king is sometimes given to him, Mr 6:14. The
Savior, as a Galilean, was under his jurisdiction, Lu 23:6-12. He
first married a daughter of Aretas, and Arabian king; but afterwards
becoming enamoured of Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip,
and his own niece, he dismissed his former wife, and induced Herodias
to leave her husband and connect herself with him. At her instigation
he afterwards went to Rome to ask for the dignity and title of the
king; but being there accused before Caligula, at the instance of
Herod Agrippa, his nephew and the brother of Herodias, he was banished
to Lugdunum (now Lyons) in Gaul, about A. D. 41, and the provinces
which he governed were given to Herod Agrippa. It was Herod Antipas
who caused John the Baptist to be beheaded, Mt 14:1-12 Mr 6:14-29. He
also appears to have been a follower, or at least a favorer, of the
sect of the Sadducees, Mr 8:15. Compare Mt 16:6. See HERODIANS.

4. HEROD AGRIPPA MAJOR or I, Acts 12.1-25; 23.35, was the grandson of
Herod the Great and Mariamne, the son of the Aristobulus who was put
to death with his mother, by the orders of his father. (See above,
HEROD I.) On the accession of Caligula to the imperial throne, Agrippa
was taken from prison, where he had been confined by Tiberius, and
received from the emperor, A. D. 38, the title of king, together with
the provinces which had belonged to his uncle Philip the tetrarch
Lysanias. (See ABILENE.) He was afterwards confirmed in the possession
of these by Claudius, who also annexed to is kingdom all those parts
of Judea and Samaria which had formerly belonged to his grandfather
Herod, A. D. 43. In order to ingratiate himself with the Jews, he
commenced a persecution against the Christians; but seems to have
proceeded no further than to put to death James, and to imprison
Peter, since he soon after died suddenly and miserably at Cesarea, A.
D. 44, Ac 12:1-25. He is mentioned by Josephus only under the name of

5. HEROD AGRIPPA MINOR or II, Ac 25:1-26:32, was the son of Herod
Agrippa I, and was educated at Rome, under the care of the emperor
Claudius. On the death of his father, when he was seventeen years old,
instead of causing him to succeed to his father's kingdom of Chalcis,
which had belonged to his Uncle Herod. He was afterwards transferred
(A. D. 53) from Chalcis, with the title of king, to the government of
those provinces which his father at first possessed, namely, Batanea,
Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Abilene, to which several other cities
were afterwards added. He is mentioned in the New Testament and by
Josephus only by the name of Agrippa. It was before him that St. Paul
was brought by Festus, Ac 25:13 26:32. He died on the third year of
Trajan's reign, at the age of seventy years.


Partisans of Herod Antipas, Mt 22:16; Mr 3:6. Herod was dependent on
the Roman power, and his adherents on the Roman power, and his
adherents therefore maintained the propriety of paying tribute to
Caesar, which the Pharisees denied. This explains Mt 22:16.


A granddaughter of Herod the Great and Mariamne, daughter of
Aristobulus, and sister of Herod Agrippa I. She was first married to
her Uncle Herod Philip, but afterwards abandoned him and connected
herself with his brother Herod Antipas. It was by her artifice that
Herod was persuaded to cause John the Baptist to be put to death, she
being enraged at John on account of his bold denunciation of the
incestuous connection which subsisted between her and Herod. When
Herod was banished to Lyons, she accompanied him, Mt 14:3,6 Mr 6:17 Lu
3:19. See HEROD III.


This name is put in Le 11:19 De 14:18, for a Hebrew word of very
uncertain meaning. See BIRDS.


A celebrated city of the Amorites, twenty miles east of the mouth of
the Jordan, Jos 3:10; 13:17. It was given to Reuben; but was
afterwards transferred to Gad, and then to the Levites. It had been
conquered from the Moabites by Sihon, and because his capital; and was
taken by the Israelites a little before the death of Moses, Nu 21:25;
Jos 21:39. After the ten tribes were transplanted into the country
beyond the Euphrates, the Moabites recovered it, Isa 15:4; Jer
48:2,34,45. Its ruins are still called Hesban, and cover the sides of
a hill seven miles north of Medeba.


A pious king of Judah, succeeded his father Ahaz about 726 B. C., and
died about 698 B. C. His history is contained in 2Ki 18:12-21 2Ch
29:1-32:33. Compare Isa 36:1-38:22. His reign is memorable for his
faithful efforts to restore the worship of Jehovah; for his pride and
presumption towards the Assyrians; for the distractions of their
invading host in answer to his prayer; for his sickness and
humiliation, and the prolonging of his life fifteen years of peace. He
was succeeded by the unworthy Manasseh.


One of the rivers of Paradise. Its modern name is Tigris. See EDEN,


God liveth, a Bethelite, who rebuilt Jericho in despite of the woe
denounced five hundred years before, Jos 6:26. The fulfillment of the
curse by the death of his children, proves the truth which his name
signified, 1Ki 16:34.


A city of Phrygia, situated on its western border, near the junction
of the rivers Lycus and Meander, and not far from Colosses and
Laodicea. It was celebrated for its warm springs and baths. A
Christian church was early established here, and enjoyed the
ministrations of the faithful Epaphras, Col 4:12,13. The city is now
desolate, but its ruins still exhibit many traces of its ancient
splendor. Among them are the remains of three churches, a theatre, a
gymnasium, and many sepulchral monuments. The white front of the
cliffs, above which the city lay, has given it its present name of
Pamluke-kaleh, the Cotton Castle.


In Ps 9:16, is supposed to indicate a pause in the singing of the
Psalm, for meditation, probably with an instrumental interlude.


The ancient Canaanites, and other nations, worshipped the heavenly
bodies and their idols upon hills, mountains, and artificial
elevations. The Israelites were commanded to destroy these places of
idol worship, De 12:2, but instead of this, they imitated the heathen,
and at first worshipped Jehovah in high places, 1Sa 9:12 1Ki 3:4, and
afterwards idols, 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 17:10,11. Here also they built chapels
or temples, "houses of the high places," 1Ki 13:32 2Ki 17:29, and had
regular priests, 1Ki 12:32 2Ki 17:32. Different groves were sacred to
different gods; and the high places were inseparably linked to
idolatry. Hence one reason why Jehovah required the festivals and
sacrifices of the Jews to be centered at his temple in Jerusalem; that
the people of the living and only true God might be delivered from the
temptations of the groves, and witness as one man against idolatry.
The prophets reproach the Israelites for worshipping on the high
places; the destroying of which was a duty, but the honor of
performing it is given to few princes in Scripture, though several of
them were zealous for the law. Before the temple was built, the high
places were not absolutely contrary to the law, provided God only was
adored there. Under the judges, they seem to have been tolerated in
some exceptional cases; and Samuel offered sacrifice in several places
where the ark was not present. Even in David's time, the people
sacrificed to the Lord at Shiloh, Jerusalem, and Gibeon. The high
places were much frequented in the kingdom of Israel; and on these
hills they often adored idols, and committed a thousand abominations.


A faithful high priest in the reign of Josiah, 2Ki 22:20.

This was also the name of the fathers of Jeremiah and Eliakim, 2Ki
18:18; Jer 1:1.


A Hebrew liquid measure; as of oil, Ex 30:24; Eze 45:24, or of wine,
Ex 29:40; Le 23:13. It was the sixth part of an ephah or bath, and
contained ten or eleven pints.


The female of the hart or stag, a species of deer, distinguished for
the lightness and elegance of its form. The hind is destitute of
horns, like all the females of this class, except the reindeer. In Ge
49:21, Naphtali is compared to a hind roaming at liberty, or quickly
growing up into elegance; while the "goodly words" of Naphtali refer
to the future orators, prophets, and poets of the tribe. A faithful
and affectionate wife is compared to the hind, Pr 5:19, as also are
swift and sure-footed heroes, 2Sa 22:34 Hab 3:19.


That is, the valley of Hinnom, or of the son of Hinnom, a narrow
valley just south of Jerusalem, running up westward from the valley of
the Cedron, and passing into the valley of the Cedron, and passing
into the valley of Gihon, which follows the base of mount Zion north,
up to the Joppa gate. It was well watered, and in ancient times most
verdant and delightfully shaded with trees. The boundary line Judah
and Benjamin passed through it, Jos 15:8 18:6 Ne 11:30. In its lowest
part, towards the southeast, and near the king's gardens and Siloam,
the idolatrous Israelties made their children pass through the fire to
Moloch, 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 16:3 Jer 32:35. See MOLOCH.

The place of these abominable sacrifices is also called Tophet, Isa
30:33 Jer 7:31. According to some, this name is derived from the
Hebrew toph, drum, because drums are supposed to have been used to
drown the cries of the victims. But this opinion rests only on
conjecture. King Josiah defiled the place, 2Ki 23:10, probably by
making it a depository of filth. It has been a common opinion that the
later Jews, in imitation of Josiah, threw into this place all manner
of filth, as well as the carcasses of animals and the dead bodies of
malefactors; and that with reference to either the baleful idolatrous
fires in the worship of Moloch, or to the fires afterwards maintained
there to consume the mass of impurities that might otherwise have
occasioned a pestilence, came the figurative use of the fires of
Gehenna, that is, valley of Hinnom, to denote the eternal fire in
which wicked men and fallen spirits shall be punished. This
supposition, however, rests upon uncertain grounds.

It seems clear that the later Jews borrowed their usage of the fire of
the valley of Hinnom (Gehenna) to represent the punishment of the
wicked in the future world directly from two passages of Isaiah: "For
Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath
made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the
breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it," Isa
66:24. These they correctly interpreted figuratively, as representing
the vengeance, which God would take on his enemies and the oppressors
of his people. That the prophet, in this terrible imagery, alluded to
any fire kept perpetually burning in the valley of Hinnom, has not
been clearly proved. But however this may be, it is certain that the
Jews transferred the name Gehenna, that is the valley of Hinnom, to
the place in which devils and wicked men are to be punished in eternal
fire, and which in the New Testament is always translated hell, Mt
5:22,29,30 10:28 Mr 9:43,45,47 Lu 12:5 Jas 3:6. See HELL.

The rocks on the south side of Hinnom are full of gaping apertures,
the mouths of tombs once filled with the dead, but now vacant.


1. A king of Tyre, who sent to congratulate David on his accession to
the throne, and aided him in building his palace, 2Sa 5:11 1Ch 14:1.
He seems to have been the Abibal of secular history.

2. A king of Tyre, probably a son of the former, 2Ch 2:13, and like
him a friend of David. He congratulated Solomon at the commencement of
his reign, and furnished essential aid in building the temple. He
provided timber and stones, together with gold to an immense amount,
and received in return large supplies of corn, wine, and oil, with
twenty cities in Galilee, 1Ki 5:1-18 2Ch 2:1-18. Josephus relates that
he and Solomon were wont to exchange enigmas with each other; that he
greatly improved his city and realm, and died after a prosperous reign
of thirty-four years, at the age of fifty-two.

3. A skillful artificer of Tyre, whose mother was a Jewess. The
interior decorations and utensils of Solomon's temple were made under
his direction, 1Ki 7:13,14 2Ch 2:13,14.


As a mode of calling an attendant to his master's side, is a custom
very prevalent in Palestine. Says Osborne, "Whenever a servant was
wanted, the usual 'shee!' which is so common throughout the land,
started two or three in an instant." The same custom is evidently
alluded to in Isa 5:26; 7:18; "The Lord shall hiss for the fly that is
in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt," etc.


Descendants of Heth, Ge 10:15, a Canaanite tribe dwelling near Hebron
in the time of Abraham, Ge 15:20,21, and subdued in the Israelitish
invasion, Ex 3:8 Jos 3:10. They were not, however, exterminated: Uriah
was a Hittite, 2Sa 11:3; Solomon used their services, 1Ki 10:29 2Ki
7:6; and they were not lost as a people until after the Jews' return
from captivity, Ezr 9:1. See CANAANITES.




The son of Raguel or Reuel, Nu 10:29. According to one supposition he
was the same as Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, Zipporah being called
the daughter of Reuel as one of his descendants. According to another
view, he was the brother of Jethro. Those who hold this opinion
maintain that the Hebrew word rendered father-in- law, Jud 4:11 may
denote simply a relation by marriage. When the Hebrews were about
leaving mount Sinai, Moses requested him to cast in his lot with the
people of God, both for his own sake and because his knowledge of the
desert its inhabitants might often be of service to the Jews. It would
appear that he acceded to this request, Jud 1:16; 4:11.


A place north of Damascus, visited by Abraham, Ge 14:15; now unknown.


The third person in the blessed Trinity. He is said to proceed from
the Father, and to be sent by the Father and the Son upon disciples,
Joh 14:26 15:26; to be the Spirit of the Father, Mt 10:20 1Co 2:11;
and the Spirit of Christ, Ga 4:6 Php 1:19.

That he is a real PERSON, and not merely an attribute or emanation of
God, is clear from the numerous passages in the Bible which describes
him as exercising the acts, thoughts, emotions, and volition of a
distinct intelligent person. None other could be pleased, vexed, and
grieved, could speak, console, and intercede, or divide his gifts
severally to every one, as he will. So also, in Greek as in English,
the personal masculine pronouns would be necessary.

That he is a DIVINE PERSON, equally with the Father, and the Son, is
proved from his association with them in a great variety of acts
purely divine; as in the work of creation, Ge 1:2 Ps 33:6 104:30. He
is honored as they are in the baptismal formula, Mt 28:19, and in the
apostolic benediction, 2Co 13:14. He receives the name, 2Co 3:17, and
exercises the attributes of God, Ro 8:14 1Co 2:10 6:19 Heb 9:14. He is
prayed to as God, Re 1:4,5; sin against him is sin against God, Ac
5:3,4 Eph 4:30; and blasphemy against him is unpardonable, Mt 12:31.

The WORK of the Holy Spirit is divine. Of old, he inspired the sacred
writers and teachers, and imparted miraculous gifts. Under the
Christian dispensation, he applies the salvation of Christ to men's
hearts, convincing them of sin, Joh 16:8,9; showing them "the things
of Christ," illuminating and regenerating them, Joh 3:5 Eph 2:1. He is
the Comforter of the church, aids believers in prayer, witnesses with
and intercedes for them, directs them in duty, and sanctifies them for


These terms sometimes denotes outward purity or cleanliness; sometimes
internal purity and sanctification. True holiness characterizes
outward acts, but still more the motive and intent of the heart. It is
an inward principle; not mere rectitude or benevolence, or any one
moral excellence, but the harmonious and perfect blending of all, as
all the colors of the prism duly blend from pure light. God is holy in
a transcendent and infinitely perfect manner, Isa 1:4; 6:3. The
Messiah is called "the Holy One," Ps 16:10; Lu 4:34; Ac 3:14; and Holy
is the common epithet given to the third person of the Trinity, the
Holy Spirit. God is the fountain of holiness, innocence, and the
sanctification. Mankind lost all holiness in the fall; but God makes
his people gradually "partakers of his holiness" here, and in heaven
they will be found perfectly and for ever sanctified; as an earnest of
which, he look upon them as already in Christ, holy and beloved. The
Bible applies the epithet holy in a secondary sense to whatever
pertains especially to God-to heaven, to his temple, its parts,
utensils, and services; to his day, his ministers, priests, prophets,
and apostles. The Jews were called a holy people, because they were
separated unto God, to be a religious and consecrated people; and
Christians, as a body, are also called holy, because they are in like
manner separated unto Christ. But a "holy man," in the ordinary
Christian sense, is one who exhibits in his conduct the inward purity,
benevolence, and holy devotedness to the Savior, with which his heart


The largest dry measure of the Hebrews, equal to ten baths or ephahs,
and containing about eight of our bushels, Eze 45:14.


Was formerly very plentiful in Palestine, and hence the frequent
expressions of Scripture which import that that country was a land
flowing with milk and honey, Le 20:24. Wild bee honey was often found
in hollow trees and clefts in the rocks, De 32:13 Ps 81:16; and on
this John the Baptist fed, Mt 3:4. Honey was highly prized, Ps 19:10
Pr 5:3 27:7. Modern travellers observe that it is still very common
there, and that the inhabitants mix it in all their sauces. Forskal
says the caravans of Mecca bring honey from Arabia to Cairo, and that
he has often seen honey flowing in the woods in Arabia. It would seem
that this flowing honey is bee honey, and this fact illustrates the
story of Jonathan, 1Sa 14:25,27. But there is also a vegetable honey
that is very plentiful in the East. Burckhardt, speaking of the
productions of the Ghor, or valley of the Jordan, says one of the most
interesting productions of this place is the Beyrouk honey, as the
Arabs call it. It was described to him as a juice dropping from the
leaves and twigs of a tree called Gharrab, of the size of an olive
tree, with leaves like those of the popular, but somewhat broader. The
honey collects on the leaves like dew, and is gathered from them, or
from the ground under the tree. Another vegetable product is referred
to in the Bible as honey, 2Co 13:14. It is syrup, prepared by boiling
down the juice of dates, etc. That made from grapes is called dibs,
and is much used by the Arabs as a condiment with food. It resembles
thin molasses, and is pleasant to the taste, Ge 43:11.


The guilty and wretched sons of Eli the high priest. They grossly and
continuously abused the influence of their position and sacred office;
and their cupidity, violence, and impious profligacy, overbearing the
feeble remonstrances of their father, brought disgrace and ruin on
their family. The ark, which they had carried to the camp in spire of
divine prohibitions, was taken, and they were slain in battle, 1Sa
2:1-4:22. See ELI. The ark of God protects only those who love and
obey him. Men in all ages are prone to rely on a form of religion,
while the heart and life are not right with God; and all who thus sin,
like the sons of Eli, must perish likewise.


A mountain of a conical form in the range of mount Seir, on the east
side of the Arabah, or great valley running from the Dead sea to the
Elanitic gulf. It is an irregularly truncated cone, with three rugged
peaks, overlooking a wilderness of heights, cliffs, ravines, and alone
with his brother and son, Nu 20:22-29; 33:38. It is still called Jebel
Neby Haroon, mount of the prophet Aaron; and on its summit stands a
Mohammedan tomb of Aaron, on the site of a still more ancient
structure, and marking perhaps the place of his burial.




A race of early dwellers in mount Seir, whence they were expelled by
the Edomites, Ge 14:6 De 2:12,22. They are supposed to have lived in
caves, like the men referred to in Job 30:6, and to have been divided
into several tribes, Ge 36:20-30.


Destruction, Nu 21:1-3; also called Zephath; a city in the extreme
south of Canaan, near which the rebellious Hebrews were defeated, in
the second year after leaving Egypt, Nu 14:45; it was afterwards laid
waste, Jud 1:16,17. The Simeonites repeopled it, Jos 19:4, and David
sent them some of his spoils taken from the Amalekites, 1Sa 30:30.


Of animals were used as drinking vessels, and to hold ointments,
perfumes, etc., 1Sa 16:1 1Ki 1:39. The "horns of the altar" were its
four corners and elevation on them, Ex 27:2 30:2. See ALTAR.

The principal defense and ornament of many beasts are in their horns;
and hence the horn is often a symbol of strength, honor, and dominion.
The Lord exalted the horn of David, and of his people; he breaketh the
horn of salvation, and of defiling the horn in the dust, De 33:17 1Sa
2:1,10 Job 16:15 Ps 75:10 Da 7:20-24 Lu 1:69. There may be an allusion
in these passages to a very common part of the female dress in some
parts of the East. The married women among the Druses of mount Lebanon
still wear on their heads silver horns, as in the accompanying cut;
the other head is that of an Abyssinian chief.


A well-known insect, which has a powerful sting. The Lord drove out
many of the Canaanites before Israel by means of this insect, Ex 23:28
De 7:20 Jos 24:12. The Israelites, being in the sandy wilderness,
would escape it. Compare FLY.


The bloodsucker, a well-known water-worm; an apt emblem of avarice and
rapacity, Pr 30:15. Cicero speaks of the horseleeches of the public
treasury at Rome.


Were anciently less used for labor, in Bible land, than oxen and
asses. They were used by princes and warriors, both with and without
chariots, Ex 14:9,23 Es 6:8 Ec 10:7. The finest description of the
war-horse ever written is found in one of the most ancient books, Job
39:19-25. Horses were common in Egypt, Ge 47:17 50:9 So 1:9; but the
Jews were at first forbidden to go there for them, De 17:16, or the
keep any large number, Jos 11:6 2Sa 8:4. The object of this was to
restrain them from growing proud, idolatrous, and fond of conquest,
Isa 31:1-3. Solomon, however, procured a large cavalry and chariot
force, 2Ch 1:14-17 9:25. Horses were sometimes consecrated to idols,
2Ki 23:11, and were often used as symbols of angelic and earthly
powers, under the control of God, 2Ki 2:11 6:15-17 Zec 1:8 6:2-6 Re


A word of joyful acclamation in Hebrew, signifying save now. The
people cried Hosanna as Jesus entered in triumph into Jerusalem; that
is, they thus invoked the blessings of heaven on him as the Messiah,
Mt 21:9. This was also a customary acclamation at the joyful feast of
tabernacles, in which the Jews repeated Ps 118:25,26.


The first of the twelve Minor Prophets, as arranged in our Bibles. He
prophesied for a long time, from Uzziah to Hezekiah, about 785-725 B.

The BOOK OF HOSEA contains properly two parts. Ho 1:1-3:5 contains a
series of symbolical actions directed against the idolatries of
Israel. It is disputed whether the marriage of the prophet was a real
transaction, or an allegorical vision; in all probability the latter
is the correct view; but in either case it illustrates the relations
of the idolatrous Israel to her covenant God. Ho 4:1-14:9 is chiefly
occupied with denunciations against Israel, and especially Samaria,
for the worship of idols, which prevailed there. Hosea's warnings are
mingled with tender and pathetic expostulations. His style is obscure,
and it is difficult to fix the periods or the divisions of his various
predictions. He shows a joyful faith in the coming Redeemer, and is
several times quoted in the New Testament, Mt 9:13 Ro 9:25,26 1Pe


The last king of Israel, the successor of Pekah, whom he slew, 2Ki
15:30, B. C. 730. He reigned nine years, and was then carried away
captive by Shalmaneser, 2Ki 17:1-6; 18:9-12, B.C. 721.


Is regarded by all oriental nations as one of the highest virtues. The
following notices by modern travellers serve to illustrate very
striking many passages of Scripture. Thus De la Roque says, "We did
not arrive at the foot of the mountain till after sunset, and it was
almost night when we entered the plain; but as it was full of
villages, mostly inhabited by Maronites, we entered into the first we
came to, to pass the night there. It was the priest of the place who
wished to receive us; he gave us a supper under the trees before his
little dwelling. As we were at the table, there came by a stranger,
wearing a whit turban, who after have saluted the company, sat himself
down to the table without ceremony, ate with us during some time, and
then went away, repeating several times the name of God. They told us
it was some traveller who no doubt stood in need of refreshment, and
who had profited by the opportunity, according to the custom of the
East, which is to exercise hospitality at all times and towards all
persons." This reminds us of the guests of Abraham, Ge 18:1-33, of the
conduct of Job, Job 31:17, and of the frankness with which the
apostles of Christ were to enter into a man's house after a
salutation, and there to continue "eating and drinking such things as
were set before them," Lu 10:7. The universal prevalence of such
customs, and of the spirit of hospitality, may help to explain the
indignation of James and John against certain rude Samaritans, Lu
9:52-56, and also the stern retribution exacted for the crime of the
men of Gibeah, Jud 19:1; 20:48.

Says Niebuhr, "the hospitality of the Arabs has always been the
subject of praise; and I believe that those of the present day
exercise this virtue no less than their ancestors did. When the Arabs
are at table, they invite those who happen to come, to eat with them,
whether they are Christians or Mohammedas, gentle or simple. In the
caravans, I have often seen with pleasure a mule-driver press those
who passed to partake of his repast; and though the majority politely
excused themselves, he gave, with an air of satisfaction, to those who
would accept of it, a portion of his little meal of bread and dates;
and I was not a little surprised when I saw, in Turkey, rich Turks
withdraw themselves into corners, to avoid inviting those who might
otherwise have sat at table with them."

We ought to notice here also the obligations understood to be
contracted by the intercourse of the table. Niebuhr says, "When a
Bedaween sheik eats bread with strangers, they may trust his fidelity
and depend on his protection. A traveller will always do well
therefore to take an early opportunity of securing the friendship of
his guide by a meal." This brings to recollection the complaint of the
psalmist, Ps 41:9, penetrated with the deep ingratitude of one whom he
describes as having been his own familiar friend, in whom he trusted,
"who did eat of my bread, even he hath lifted up his heel against me."

Beautiful pictures of primitive hospitality may be found in Ge
18:1-19:38 Ex 2:20 Jud 13:15 19:1-9. The incidents of the first two
narratives may have suggested the legends of the Greeks and Romans,
which represent their gods as sometimes coming to them disguised as
travellers, in order to test their hospitality, etc., Heb 13:2.

The primitive Christians considered one principal part of their duty
to consist in showing hospitality to strangers, Ro 12:13 1Ti 5:10;
remembering that our Savior had said, whoever received those belonging
to him, received himself; and that whatever was given to such a one,
though but a cup of cold water, should not lose it reward, Mt 10:40-42
25:34-45. They were, in fact, so ready in discharging this duty, that
the very heathen admired them for it. They were hospitable to all
strangers, but especially to those of the household of faith.
Believers scarcely ever traveled without letters of communion, which
testified the purity of their faith, and procured them a favorable
reception wherever the name of Jesus Christ was known. Indeed, some
supposed that the two minor epistles of John may be such letters of
communion and recommendation.


(Pronounced hock), to hamstring, or cut the cords of the hind legs.
The horse taken by David from the Syrians were thus disabled, Jos
11:6,9; 2Sa 8:4.


The word hour, in Scripture, signifies one of the twelve equal parts
into which each day, from sunrise to sunset, was divided, and which of
course were of different lengths at different seasons of ht year, Mt
20:3-6 Joh 11:9. This mode of dividing the day prevailed among the
Jews at least after the exile, and perhaps earlier, Da 3:6 4:19. The
third, sixth, and ninth hours were the appointed seasons for prayer,
Ac 2:15 3:1 10:9. Anciently, however, the usual division of the day
was into four parts, namely, the morning-the heat of the day,
commencing about the middle of the forenoon-midday, and evening. In a
similar manner, the Greeks appear at first to have divided the night
also into three parts or watches, namely, the first watch, La 2:19;
the middle, or second watch, Jud 7:19; and the morning, or third
watch, Ex 14:24. But after the Jews became subject to the Romans, they
adopted the Roman manner of dividing the night into four watches,
namely, the evening, or first quarter, after sunset; the midnight;
cock-crowing, or third quarter, from midnight on; and the morning, or
fourth quarter, including the dawn, Mt 14:25 Mr 6:48 13:35 Lu 12:48. A
watch in the night seems but an instant to one who spends it in
slumber, Ps 90:4; equally short does the life of man appear in view of


Is often put for dwelling, residence; and hence the temple, and even
the tabernacle, are called the house of God.

The universal mode of building houses in the East, is in the form of a
hollow square, with an open court or yard in the center; which is thus
entirely shut in by the walls of the house around it. Into this court
all the windows open, there being usually no windows towards the
street. Some houses of large size require several courts, and these
usually communicate with each other. These courts are commonly paved;
and in many large houses parts of them are planted with shrubs and
trees, Ps 84:3 128:3; they have also, when possible, a fountain in
them, often with a jet d' eau, 2Sa 17:18. It is customary in many
houses to extend an awning over the whole court in hot weather; and
the people of the house then spend much of the day in the open air,
and indeed often receive visits there. In Aleppo, at least, there is
often on the south side of the court an alcove in the wall of the
house, furnished with divans or sofas, for reclining and enjoying the
fresh air in the hot seasons.

In the middle of the front of each house is usually an arched passage,
leading into the court-not directly, lest the court should be exposed
to view from the street, but by turning to one side. The outer door of
this passage was, in large houses, guarded by a porter, Ac 12:13. The
entrance into the house is either from this passage or from the court

The following extracts from Dr. Shaw will interest the reader, and at
the same time serve to illustrate many passages of Scripture. He
remarks, "the general method of building, both in Barbary and the
Levant, seems to have continued the same from the earliest ages,
without the least alteration or improvement. Large doors, spacious
chambers, marble pavements, cloistered courts, with fountains
sometimes playing in the midst, are certainly conveniences very well
adapted to the circumstances of these climates, where the summer heats
are generally so intense. The jealously likewise of these people is
less apt to be alarmed, while all the windows open into their
respective courts, if we except a latticed window or balcony which
sometimes looks into the streets", 2Ki 9:30.

"The streets of eastern cities, the better to shade them from the sun,
are usually narrow, with sometimes a range of shops on each side. If
from these we enter into one of the principal houses, we shall first
pass through a porch or gateway with benches on each side, there the
master of the family receives visits and dispatches business; few
persons, not even the nearest relations, having a further admission,
except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are received into
the court, or quadrangle, which, lying open to the weather, is,
according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or such
materials as will immediately carry off the water into the common
sewers. When many people are to be admitted, as upon the celebration
of marriage, the circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like
nature, the company is rarely or never received into one of the
chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which is
strewed accordingly with mats and carpets for their more commodious
entertainment. Hence it is probable that the place where our Savior
and the apostles were frequently accustomed to give their
instructions, was in the area, or quadrangle, of one of this kind of
houses. In the summer season, and upon all occasions when a large
company is to be received, this court is commonly sheltered from the
heat or inclemency of the weather by a veil or awning, which, being
expanded upon ropes from one side of the parapet wall to the other,
may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The psalmist seems to allude
either to the tents of the Bedaween, or to some covering of this kind,
in that beautiful expression, of spreading out the heavens like a
curtain, Ps 140:2. The court is for the most part surrounded with a
cloister or colonnade; over which, when the house has two or three
stories, there is a gallery erected, of the same dimensions with the
cloister, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed
work going round about it to prevent people from falling from it into
the court. From the cloister and galleries we are conducted into large
spacious chambers, of the same length with the court, but seldom or
never communicating with one another. One of them frequently serves a
whole family; particularly when a father indulges his married children
to live with him; or when several person join in the rent of the same
house. From whence it is, that the cities of these countries, which in
general are much inferior in bigness to those of Europe, yet are so
exceedingly populous, that great numbers op people are always swept
away by the plague, or any other contagious distemper."

The chambers of the rich were often hung with velvet or damask
tapestry, Es 1:6; the upper part adorned with fretwork and stucco; and
the ceilings with wainscot or mosaic work or fragrant wood, sometimes
richly painted, Jer 22:14. The floors were of wood or of painted
tiles, or marbles; and were usually spread with carpets. Around the
walls were mattresses or low sofas, instead of chairs. The beds were
often at one end of the chamber, on a gallery several feet above the
floor, with steps and a low balustrade,

2Ki 1:4,16. The stairs were usually in a corner of the court, beside
the gateway, Mt 24:17.

"The top of the house," says Dr. Shaw, "which is always flat, is
covered with a strong plaster of terrace; from whence, in the Frank
language, it has attained the name of the terrace. It is usually
surrounded by two walls; the outermost whereof is partly built over
the street, partly makes the partition with the contiguous houses,
being frequently so low that one may easily climb over it. The other,
which I call the parapet wall, hangs immediately over the court, being
always breast high; we render it the 'battlements,' De 22:8. Instead
of this parapet wall, some terraces are guarded in the same manner the
galleries are, with balustrades only, or latticed work; in which
fashion probably, as the name seems to import, was the net, or
'lattice,' as we render it, that Ahaziah, 2Ki 1:2, might be carelessly
leaning over, when he fell down from thence into the court. For upon
these terraces several office of the family, are performed; such as
the drying of linen and flax, Jos 2:6, the preparing of figs and
raisins; here likewise they enjoy the cool, refreshing breezes of the
evening; converse with one another, 1Sa 9:25 2Sa 11:2; and offer up
their devotions, 2Ki 23:12 Jer 19:13 Ac 10:9. In the feast of
Tabernacles booths were erected upon them, Ne 8:16. When one of these
cities is built upon level ground, we can pass from one end of it to
the other, along the tops of the houses, without coming down into the

"Such, in general, is the manner and contrivance of the eastern
houses. And if it may be presumed that our Savior, at the healing of
the paralytic, was preaching in a house of this fashion, we preaching
in a house of this fashion, we may, by attending only to the structure
of it, give no small light to one circumstance of that history, which
has given great offence to some unbelievers. Among other pretended
difficulties and absurdities relating to this fact, it has been urged
that the uncovering or breaking up on the roof, Mr 2:4, or the letting
a person down through it, Lu 5:19, suppose that the crowd being so
great around Jesus in the court below, that those who brought the sick
man could not come near him, they went upon the flat roof, and
removing a part of the awning, let the sick man down in his mattress
over the parapet, quite at the feet of Jesus."

Dr. Shaw proceeds to describe a sort of addition to many oriental
houses, which corresponds probably to the upper chambers often
mentioned time the Bible. He says, "To most of these houses there is a
smaller one annexed, which sometimes rises one story higher than the
house; at other times it consists of one or two rooms only and a
terrace; while others that are built, as they frequently are, over the
porch or gateway, have (if have not) all the conveniences that belong
to the house, properly so called. There is a door of communication
from them into the gallery of the house, kept open or shut at the
discretion of the master of the family; besides another door, which
opens immediately from a privy stairs down into the porch, without
giving the least disturbance to the house. These smaller houses are
known by the name alee, or oleah, and in them strangers are usually
lodged and entertained; and thither likewise the men are wont to
retire, from the hurry and noise of their families, to be more at
leisure for meditation or devotion, Mt 6:6; besides the use they are
at other times put to, in serving for wardrobes and magazines."

This then, or something like this, we may suppose to have been the
ali'yah or upper chamber of the Hebrews. Such was the "little chamber
upon the wall," which the Shunammite had built for Elisha, 2Ki 4:10;
the "summer parlor" of Eglon, Jud 3:20; and the "chamber over the
gate," where David retired to weep, 2Sa 18:33; and perhaps in the New
Testament the "upper chamber" where Tabitha was laid out, Ac 9:37, and
whence Eutychus fell from the window of the third loft into the court,
Ac 20:9.

The flat roof of oriental houses often afford a place of retirement
and meditation; here Samuel communed with Saul, 1Sa 9:25; and from
/1Sa 9:26, they would seem also to have slept there, as is still
common in the East, 2Sa 11:2 Da 4:30. Mr. Wood says, "It has ever been
a custom with them," the Arabs in the East, "equally connected with
health and pleasure, to pass the nights in summer upon the house-tops,
which for this very purpose are made flat, and divided from each other
by walls. We found this way of sleeping extremely agreeable; as we
thereby enjoyed the cool air, above the reach of gnats and vapors,
without any other covering than the canopy of heaven, which
unavoidably presents itself in different pleasing forms, upon every
interruption of rest, when silence and solitude strongly dispose the
mid to contemplation, Ac 10:9. The roof of an ancient house was the
best and often the only place, from which to get a view of the region
around; hence the resort to it in times of peril, Isa 15:3 22:1. In
many cases roofs were coated with hardened earth, through which, when
cracked or soaked through by rain, the water dripped, Pr 27:15; and in
which, when neglected, the grass grows in spring, but soon withers
after the rains have ceased, Ps 129:6,7 Isa 37:27."

The common material for building the best oriental houses is stone.
Brick is also used. But the houses of the people in the East in
general are very bad constructions, consisting of mud walls, reeds,
and rushes; whence they become apt illustrations of the fragility of
human life, Job 4:19; and as mud, pebbles, and slime, or at best
unburnt bricks are used informing the walls, the expression, "digging
through houses," Job 24:16 Mt 6:19 24:14, is easily accounted for; as
is the behavior of Ezekiel, Eze 12:5, who dug through such a wall in
the sight of the people; whereby, as may be imagined, he did little
injury to his house; notwithstanding which, the symbol was very
expressive to the beholders. So also the striking illustration in Eze
13:10-16. On the sites of many ancient cities of Syria and Babylonia
only the ruins of public edifices disappeared ages ago. Travellers
near the Ganges and the Nile speak of multitudes of huts on the sandy
banks of those rivers being swept away in a night by sudden freshets,
leaving not a trace behind. This may illustrate our Savior's parable,
in Mt 7:24-27. See TENT TENT.


The prophetess in the reign of Josiah, consulted respecting the
denunciations in the newfound copy of the Book of the Law, 2Ki
22:14-20 2Ch 34:22-28, B. C. 623.


The opposite of pride, in its nature and in the degree of its
prevalence. It is often extolled in the Bible, Pr 15:33 16:19; and the
Savior especially exalts it, Mt 18:4, and ennobles and endears it by
his own example, Joh 13:4-17 Php 2:5-8. Every created being, however
holy, should possess it; but in the character of the sinful sons of
men it should become a fundamental and allpervading trait, to continue


A chief man among the Hebrews in the desert, associated with Aaron in
upholding the hands of Moses at Rephidim, and in supplying his place
while on the summit of Sinai, Ex 17:10; 24:14.


The Archite, David's friend. Being informed of Absalom's rebellion and
that David was obliged to fly from Jerusalem, he met him on an
eminence without the city, with his clothes rent and his head covered
with earth. David suggested that if he went with him he would be a
burden to him; but that he might do him important service if he should
remain in Absalom's suite as an adviser. Hushai therefore returned to
Jerusalem, and by defeating the counsel of Ahithophel. And gaining
time for David, to whom he sent advices, was the cause of Ahithophel's
suicide and of Absalom's miscarriage, 2Sa 15:32-37; 16:16-19; 17:1-29.


The prodigal son desired to feed on the husks, or pods, given to the
hogs, Lu 15:16. The Greek word here used means the carob- beans, the
fruit of a tree of the same name. This fruit is common in all the
countries bordering on the Mediterranean: it is suffered to ripen and
grow dry on the tree; the poor eat it, and cattle are fattened with
it. The tree, the Ceratonia Siliqua, is an evergreen of a middle size,
full of branches, and abounding with round dark green leaves, an inch
or two in diameter. The blossoms are little red clusters, with
yellowish stalks. The fruits are flat brownish pods, from six to eight
inches long, and an inch or more broad: they resemble the pods of our
locust-tree; and are composed of two husks, separated by membranes
into several cells, and containing flat, shining seeds, and when ripe
a sweetish, honey like kind of juice. In all probability, their
crooked figure occasioned their being called, in Greek, keratia, which
signifies little horns. The tree is called by the Germans,
Johannisbrodaum, that is, "John's-bread-tree," because John the
Baptist was supposed to have lived on it fruit.


A member of the church, probably at Ephesus, who fell into the heresy
of denying the true doctrine of the resurrection, and saying it had
already taken place. When first mentioned, 1Ti 1:20, he was excluded
from the church; and when again mentioned, 2Ti 2:17,18, was still
exerting a pernicious influence.


A religious canticle, song, or psalm, Eph 5:19 Col 3:16. Paul requires
Christians to edify one another with "psalms and hymns and spiritual
songs." Matthew says that Christ and his disciples, having supped,
sung a hymn, and went out. They probably chanted a part of the psalms
which the Jews used to sing after the Passover, which they called the
Halal; that is, the Hallelujah psalms. These are Ps 113:1-118:29, of
which the first two are supposed to have been chanted before the
Passover was eaten, and the others afterwards.


One who, like a stage-player, feigns to be what he is not. The epithet
is generally applied to those who assume the appearance of virtue or
piety, without possessing the reality. Our Savior accused the
Pharisees of hypocrisy, Lu 12:1.


Is often mentioned in Scripture, and is directed to be used in the
sprinklings which made part of the Jewish ceremonial law, Ex 12:22 Le
14:4-6 Ps 51:9 Heb 9:19. It is some low shrub, which is contrasted
with the lofty cedar, 1Ki 4:33. In Joh 19:29, the soldiers are said to
have "filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop," that is,
upon a rod of hyssop, two feet or more in length, which was long
enough to enable one to reach the mouth of a person on the cross. Many
different plants have been taken for the hyssop of Scripture, and
among others, the caper-plant.

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