American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - C

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A Hebrew measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of
an ephah. A cab contained three pints and one third, of our wine
measure, or two pints and five sixths, of our corn measure, 2Ki 6:25.


Probably meaning displeasing,

1. A name given by Hiram king of Tyre to a district in Northern
Galilee containing twenty cities, which Solomon gave him for his help
in building the temple, 1Ki 9:13; the term implying his
dissatisfaction with the gift.

2. A city of Asher, Jos 19:27.


Originally the surname of the Julian family at Rome. After being
dignified in the person of Julias Caesar, it became the usual
appellation of those of his family who ascended the throne. The last
of these was Nero, but the name was still retained by his successors
as a sort of title belonging to the imperial dignity. The emperors
alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Lu 2:1;
Tiberius, Lu 3:1 20:22; Claudius, Ac 11:28; and Nero, Ac 25:8 Php
4:22. Caligula, who succeeded Tiberius, is not mentioned.


A city three or four miles east of Dan, near the eastern source of the
Jordan; anciently called Paneas, now Banias, from an adjacent grotto
dedicated to Pan, from which one of the sources of the Jordan flowed.
It stood where the mountains south-west of Hermon join the plain above
lake Huleh, on an elevated plateau surrounded by ravines and
water-courses; and its walls were thick and strong. It was enlarged
and embellished by Philip the tetrarch of Trachonitis, and called
Caesarea in honor of Tiberius Caesar; and the name Philippi was added
to distinguish it from Caesarea on the Mediterranean. Our Savior
visited this place shortly before his transfiguration, Mt 16:13-28 Mr
8:27-38 Lu 9:18,27. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Titus here
made the captive Jews fight and kill each other in gladiatorial shows.
In the time of the crusades it underwent many changes, and is now a
paltry village amid extensive ruins.


Often called Caesarea of Palestine, situated on the coast of the
Mediterranean sea, between Joppa and Tyre. It was anciently a small
place, called the Tower of Strato, but was rebuilt with great
splendor, and strongly fortified by Herod the Great, who formed a
harbor by constructing a vast breakwater, adorned the city with many
stately buildings, and named it Caesarea, in honor of Augustus. It was
inhabited chiefly by Greeks, and Herod established in it quinquennial
games in honor of the emperor. This city was the capital of Judea
during the reign of Herod the Great and of Herod Agrippa I., and was
also the seat of the Roman power while Judea was governed as a
province of the empire. It was subject to frequent commotion between
the Greeks, Romans, and Jews, so that on one occasion 20,000 persons
are said to have fallen in one day.

It is noted in gospel history as the residence of Philip the
evangelist, Ac 8:40 21:8; and of Cornelius the centurion, the first
fruits from the Gentiles, Ac 10:1-48 11:1-18 Here Herod Agrippa was
smitten by the angel of God, Ac 12:20-23. Paul several times visited
it, Ac 9:30 18:22 21:8,16; here he appeared before Felix, who trembled
under his appeals,

Ac 23:23 24:1-27; here he was imprisoned for two years; and after
pleading before Festus and Agrippa, he sailed hence for imperial Rome,
Ac 25:26 27:1. It is now a heap of ruins.


High priest of the Jews, A. D. 27 to 36. He was a Sadducee, and a
bitter enemy of Christ. At his palace the priests, etc., met after the
resurrection of Lazarus, to plot the death of the Savior, lest all the
people should believe on him. On one of these occasions, Joh 11:47-54,
he counseled the death of Christ for the political salvation of the
nation; and his words were, unconsciously to him, an inspired
prediction of the salvation of a lost world. These plots against
Christ, Mt 26:1-5 Mr 14:1 Lu 22:2, led to his seizure, and he was
brought first before Annas, formerly high priest, who sent him to
Caiaphas his son-in-law. See ANNAS. Caiaphas examined Christ before
the assembling of the Sanhedrin, after which the trial went on, and
Christ was condemned, mocked, and transferred to Pilate for sentence
and execution, Mt 26:57-68 Mr 14:53-72 Lu 22:54-71 Joh 18:13-27. Not
content with procuring the death of the Savior, Caiaphas and his
friends violently persecuted his followers, Ac 4:1-6 5:17,33. But a
few years after the ascension of Christ, and soon after the
degradation of Pilate, Caiaphas also was deposed from office by the
Roman proconsul Vitellius. Like Balaam of the Old Testament, he is a
melancholy instance of light resisted, privilege, station, and
opportunity abused, and prophetic words concerning Christ joined with
a life of infidelity and crime and a fearful death.


The first-born of the human race, Ge 4:1, and the first murderer. See
ABEL. His crime was committed against the warnings of God, and he
despised the call of God to confession and penitence, Ge 4:6-9. The
punishment inflicted upon him included an increase of physical wants
and hardships, distress of conscience, banishment from society, and
loss of God's manifested presence and favor, Ge 4:16. But God mingled
mercy with judgment; and appointed for Cain some sign that he should
not suffer the death penalty he had incurred at the hand of man, thus
signifying that God only was his judge. He withdrew into the land of
Nod, east of Eden, and built a city that he named Enoch, after one of
his sons.


1. Son of Enos, and father of Mahalaleel, Ge 5:9; 1Ch 1:2.

2. Son of Arphaxad and father of Salah, Lu 3:36. This Cainan, however,
is not named in the three Old Testament genealogies, Ge 10:24; 11:12;
1Ch 1:24, nor in any ancient version. The name occurs in two places in
the Septuagint, an early Greek version; and some suppose that copyists
of Luke's gospel inserted the name, in order to agree with the


A city of Assyria, built by Ashur or by Nimrod, Ge 10:11,12. It was at
some distance from Nineveh, and Resen lay between them. It is thought
to have been near the river Lycus, the great Zab, which empties into
the Tigris.




1. Son of Jephunneh, of the tribe of Judah, who was sent, with one man
from each of the other tribes, to search out the promised land, Nu
13:1-14:45. Of all the twelve, Caleb and Joshua acted the part of true
and faithful men; and they only, of all the grown men of Israel, were
permitted to enter Canaan, Nu 14:6-24,38 26:65. He was one of the
princes appointed to divide the conquered territory among the tribes,
Nu 34:19. Hebron was given to him as a reward of his fidelity,
according to the promise of God, De 1:36 Jos 14:1-15. Though
eighty-five years old, he still retained his vigor, and soon drove out
the Anakim from his inheritance. He gave a portion also with his
daughter Achsah to Othniel his nephew, who had earned the reward by
his valor in the capture of Debir, Jos 15:13-19 21:12. This region was
for some time called by his name, 1Sa 30:14.

2. Son of Hor, whose children people the country about Bethlehem,
etc., 1Ch 2:50-55.


The young of the cow, a clean animal much used in sacrifice; hence the
expression, "So will we render the calves of our lips," Ho 14:2,
meaning, we will offer as sacrifices the prayers and praises of our
lips, Heb 13:15. The fatted calf was considered the choicest animal
food, Ge 18:7 Am 6:4 Lu 15:23.

In Jer 34:18, "they cut the calf in twain, and passed between the
parts thereof," there is an allusion to an ancient mode of ratifying a
covenant; the parties thus signifying their willingness to be
themselves cut in pieces if unfaithful, Ge 15:9-18.

THE GOLDEN CALF worshipped by the Jews at mount Sinai, while Moses was
absent in the mount, was cast by Aaron from the earrings of the
people. Its worship was attended with degrading obscenities, and was
punished by the death of three thousand men.

The golden calves of Jeroboam were erected by him, one at each extreme
of his kingdom, that the ten tribes might be prevented from resorting
to Jerusalem to worship, and thus coalescing with the men of Judah,
1Ki 12:26-29. Thus the people "forgot God their Savior," and sank into
gross idolatry. Jeroboam is scarcely ever mentioned in Scripture
without the brand upon him, "who made Israel to sin," 2Ki 17:21. The
prophet Hosea frequently alludes to the calf at Bethel, to the folly
and guilt of its worshippers, and to the day when both idol and people
should be broken in pieces by the Assyrians.


Called Calno, Isa 10:9 and Canneh, Eze 27:23, one of Nimrod's cities,
Ge 10:10, and afterwards called Ctesiphon; it lay on the east bank of
the Tigris opposite Seleucia, twenty miles below Bagdad. Ctesiphon was
a winter residence of the Parthian kings. Nothing now remains but the
ruins of a palace and mounds of rubbish.


Or GOLGOTHA, the latter being the Hebrew term, place of a skull, the
place where our Savior was crucified, near by Jerusalem, Joh 19:20,
but outside of its walls, Mt 27:37 Mr 15:22 Joh 19:17 Heb 13:12. In
the same place was a private garden, and a tomb in which the body of
Christ lay until the resurrection, Joh 19:41,42. The expression,
"Mount Calvary," has no evidence to support it beyond what is implied
in the name Golgotha which might well be given to a slight elevation
shaped like the top of a skull, and the probability that such a place
would be chosen for the crucifixion. It is very doubtful whether the
true localities of Calvary and the tomb are those covered by the
present "Church of the Holy Sepulchre," a vast structure north of
mount Zion and within the modern city, built on the site which was
fixed under the empress Helena, A. D. 335, by tradition and a
pretended miracle. Some biblical geographers adhere to this location;
but Robinson and many others strongly oppose it, on the ground of the
weakness of the tradition, and the difficulty of supposing that this
place lay outside of the ancient walls. See JERUSALEM. Dr. Fisk, while
visiting the spot under the natural desire to identify the scene of
the crucifixion; that the rock shown column he saw, half concealed by
iron-work, might have been that to which our Lord was bound when
scourged; that the small fragment of rude stone seen by the light of a
small taper, through a kind of iron filigree, might have been the
place of our Lord's burial and resurrection: but when he saw the neat
juxtaposition of all these things, and knew that in order to provide
for the structure of the church the site had to be cut down and
leveled; when he reflected that on the very spot a heathen temple had
stood, till removed by the empress Helena, to make room for this
church; and, moreover, when he considered the superstitious purpose
all these things were to serve, and the spirit of that church which
thus paraded these objects of curiosity, he could not bring himself to
feel they were what they professed to be.

Let us be thankful that though the exact scene of Christ's death is
now unknown, there can be no doubt as to the fact. "He died, and was
buried, and the third day rose again, according to the Scriptures."
Then the old ritual passed away, Satan was despoiled, man was
redeemed, God reconciled, and heaven opened to all believers.


Carrier, A beast of burden very common in the East, where it is called
"the land-ship," and "the carrier of the desert." It is six or seven
feet high, and is exceedingly strong, tough, and enduring of labor.
The feet are constructed with a tough elastic sole, which prevents the
animal from sinking in the sand; and on all sorts of ground it is very
sure-footed. The Arabian species, most commonly referred to in
Scripture, has but one hump on the back; while the Bactrian camel,
found in central Asia, has two. While the animal is well fed, these
humps swell with accumulated fat, which is gradually absorbed under
scarcity and toil, to supply the lack of food. The dromedary is a
lighter and swifter variety, otherwise not distinguishable from the
common camel, Jer 2:23. Within the cavity of the stomach is a sort of
paunch, provided with membranous cells to contain an extra provision
of water: the supply with which this is filled will last for many days
while he traverses the desert. His food is coarse leaves, twigs,
thistles, which he prefers to the tenderest grass, and on which he
performs the longest journeys. But generally, on a march, about a
pound weight of dates, beans, or barley, will serve for twenty-four
hours. The camel kneels to receive its load, which varies from 500 to
1,000 or 1,200 pounds. Meanwhile it is wont to utter loud cries or
growls of anger and impatience. It is often obstinate and stupid, and
at times ferocious; the young are as dull and ungainly as the old. Its
average rate of travel is about two and one third miles an hour; and
it jogs on with a sullen pertinacity hour after hour without fatigue,
seeming as fresh at night as in the morning. No other animal could
endure the severe and continual hardships of the camel, his rough
usage, and his coarse and scanty food. The Arabians well say of him,
"Job's beast is a monument of God's mercy."

This useful animal has been much employed in the East, from a very
early period. The merchants of those sultry climes have found it the
only means of exchanging the products of different lands, and from
time immemorial long caravans have traversed year after year the
almost pathless deserts, Ge 37:25. The number of one's camels was a
token of his wealth. Job had 3,000, and the Midianites' camels were
like the sand of the sea,

Jud 7:12; 1Ch 5:21; Job 1:3. Rebekah came to Isaac riding upon a
camel, Ge 24:64; the queen of Sheba brought them to Solomon, and
Hazael to Elisha, laden with the choicest gifts, 1Ki 10:2; 2Ki 8:9;
and they were even made serviceable in war, 1Sa 30:17. The camel was
to the Hebrews an unclean animal, Le 11:4; yet its milk has ever been
to the Arabs an important article of food, and is highly prized as a
cooling and healthy drink. Indeed, no animal is more useful to the
Arabs, while living or after death. Out of its skin they make for
corn. Of its skin they make huge water bottles and leather sacks, also
sandals, ropes, and thongs. Its dung, dried in the sun, serves them
for fuel.

CAMELS' HAIR was woven into cloth in the East, some of it exceedingly
fine and soft, but usually coarse and rough, used for making the coats
of shepherds and camel-drivers, and for covering tents. It was this
that John the Baptist wore, and not "soft raiment," Mt 11:8. Modern
dervishes wear garments of this kind and this appears to be meant in
2Ki 1:8.

The expression, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a
needle," etc., Mt 19:24, was a proverb to describe an impossibility.
The same phrase occurs in the Koran; and a similar one in the Talmud,
respecting an elephant's going through a needle's eye. See also the
proverb in Mt 23:24, which illustrates the hypocrisy of the Pharisees
by the custom of passing wine through a strainer. The old versions of
the New Testament, instead of, "strain at" a gnat, have, "strain out,"
which conveys the true meaning.


These terms usually refer to the movements of the Israelites between
Egypt and Canaan; and many passages of the Levitical law relate to
things done "within" or "without the camp." The whole body of the
people consisted of six hundred thousand fighting men, besides women
and children, Nu 1:2; and was disposed into four battalions, so
arranged as to enclose the tabernacle in a square, and each under one
general standard, Nu 2:3. The mode in which this vast mass of people
was arranged, with the most perfect order and subordination, must
excite general surprise. Balaam, standing on the heights of Moab,
viewed the imposing spectacle with admiration and awe: "How godly are
thy tents, O Jacob! the Lord his God is with him," Nu 23:1-24:25.

The order appointed for the removal of the hosts of Israel from one
encampment to another is detailed in Nu 9:1-10:36. The names of
forty-one encampments are given in Nu 33:1-56; from the first in
Rameses, in the month April, B. C. 1491, to the last on the brink of
the Jordan forty years later. See EXODUS, and WANDERINGS.

Travellers in the desert were wont to pitch their tents in the center
of a circle formed by their camels and baggage, which served as a
barrier against an assault. A similar mode of encamping was practiced
by large caravans, and by armies, 1Sa 26:5.


In So 1:14 4:13, is not the gum Camphor of our apothecaries, but the
Cyprus-flower, as it is sometimes called, the Athena of the Arabs, a
whitish fragrant flower, hanging in clusters like grapes. Oriental
ladies make use of the dried and powdered leaves to give their nails,
feet, and hands a reddish orange tinge. The nails of Egyptian mummies
are found thus dyed. See EYELIDS. The flowers of the Alhenna are
fragrant; and being disposed in clusters, the females of Egypt are
fond of carrying it in their bosoms.


The birthplace of Nathanael, the city in which our Lord performed his
first miracle, and from which he soon after sent a miraculous healing
to the nobleman's son at Capernaum, eighteen miles off, Joh 2:1-11;
4:46-54; 21:2. It was called Cana of Galilee, now Kana-el-Jelil, and
lay seven miles north of Nazareth. This is Robinson's view. The
commonly received site is nearer Nazareth. Cana is now in ruins.


1. The son of Ham, and grandson of Noah, Ge 9:18. His numerous
posterity seem to have occupied Zidon first, and thence spread into
Syria and Canaan, Ge 10:15-19 1Ch 1:13-16. The Jews believe that he
was implicated with his father in the dishonor done to Noah, Ge
9:20-27, which was the occasion of the curse under which he and his
posterity suffered, Jos 9:23,27 2Ch 8:7,8 2. The land peopled by
Canaan and his posterity, and afterwards given to the Hebrews. This
country has at different periods been called by various names, either
from its inhabitants or some circumstances connected with its history.
(1.) "The land of Canaan," from Canaan, the son of Ham, who divided it
among his sons, each of whom became the head of a numerous tribe, and
ultimately of a distinct people, Ge 10:15-20 11:31. This did not at
first include any land east of the Jordan. (2.) "The land of Promise,"
Heb 11:9, from the promise given to Abraham, that his posterity should
possess it, Ge 12:7 13:15. These being termed Hebrews, Ge 40:15; and
(4.) "The land of Israel," from the Israelites, or posterity of Jacob,
having settled there. This name is of frequent occurrence in the Old
Testament. It comprehends all that tract of ground on each side of the
Jordan, which God gave for an inheritance to the Hebrews. At a later
age, this term was often restricted to the territory of the ten
tribes, Eze 27:17. (5.) "The land of Judah." This at first comprised
only the region which was allotted to the tribe of Judah. After the
separation of the ten tribes, the land which belonged to Judah and
Benjamin, who formed a separate kingdom, was distinguished by the
appellation of "the land of Judah," or Judea; which latter name the
whole country retained during the existence of the second temple, and
under the dominion of the Romans. (6.) "The Holy Land." This name
appears to have been used by the Hebrews after the Babylonish
captivity, Zec 2:13. (7.) "Palestine," Ex 15:14, a name derived from
the Philistines, who migrated from Egypt, and having expelled the
aboriginal inhabitants, settled on the borders of the Mediterranean.
Their name was subsequently given to the whole country, though they in
fact possessed only a small part of it. By heathen writers, the Holy
Land has been variously termed Palestine, Syria, and Phoenicia.

Canaan was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, north by
mount Lebanon and Syria, east by Arabia Deserta; and south by Edom and
the desert of Zin and Paran. Its extreme length was about one hundred
and eighty miles, and its average width about sixty-five. Its general
form and dimensions Coleman has well compared to those of the state of
New Hampshire. At the period of David, vast tributary regions were for
a time annexed to the Holy Land. These included the bordering nations
on the east, far into Arabia Deserta; thence north to Tipsah on the
Euphrates, with all Syria between Lebanon and the Euphrates. On the
south it included Edom, and reached the Red sea at Ezion-geber.

The land of Canaan has been variously divided. Under Joshua it was
apportioned out to the twelve tribes. Under Rehoboam it was divided
into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It afterwards fell into the
hands of the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Syrians, and the Romans.
During the time of our Savior, it was under the dominion of the
last-mentioned people, and was divided into five provinces: Galilee,
Samaria, Judea, Peraea, and Idumaea. Peraea was again divided into
seven cantons; Abilene, Trachonitis, Iturea, Gaulonitis, Batanaea,
Peraea, and Decapolis. At present, Palestine is subject to the sultan
of Turkey, under whom the pashas of Acre and Gaza govern the seacoast
and the pasha of Damascus the interior of the country.

The surface of the land of Canaan is beautifully diversified with
mountains and plains, rivers and valleys. The principal mountains are
Lebanon, Carmel, Tabor, Gilead, Herman, the mount of Olives, etc. The
plain of the Mediterranean, of Esdraelon, and of Jericho, are
celebrated as the scenes of many important events. The chief streams
are the Jordan, the Arnon, the Sihor, the Jabbok, and the Kishon. The
lake of Tiberias or Sea of Galilee, and lake Merom. These are
elsewhere described, each in its own place.

The general features of the country may here be briefly described. The
northern boundary is at the lofty mountains of Lebanon and Hermon,
some peaks of which are ten thousand feet high. Around the base of
mount Hermon are the various sources of the Jordan. This river,
passing through lake Merom and the sea of Galilee, flows south with
innumerable windings into the Dead sea. Its valley is deeply sunk, and
from its source to the Dead sea it has a descent of two thousand feet.
The country between the Jordan valley and the Mediterranean Sea is in
general an elevated tableland, broken up by many hills and by numerous
deep valleys through which the wintry torrents flow into Jordan and
the sea. The tableland of Galilee may be nine hundred or one thousand
feet above the Mediterranean. In lower Galilee we find the great and
beautiful plain of Esdraelon, extending from mount Carmel and Acre on
the west to Tabor and Gilboa, and even to the Jordan on the east. From
this plain the land again rises towards the south; mount Gerizim being
2,300 feet, Jerusalem 2,400, and Hebron 2,600 above the sea. On the
seacoast, below mount Carmel, a fertile plain is found; towards the
south it becomes gradually wider, and expands at last into the great
dessert of Paran. From this plain of the seacoast the ascent to the
high land of the interior is by a succession of natural terraces;
while the descent to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Edom, is abrupt and
precipitous. The country beyond the Jordan is mountainous; a rich
grazing land, with many fertile valleys. Still farther east is the
high and desolate plateau of Arabia Deserta.

The soil and climate of Canaan were highly favorable. The heat was not
extreme in the deep riverbeds, and on the seacoast; and the climate
was in general mild and healthful. The variations of sunshine, clouds,
and rain, which with us extend throughout the year, are in Palestine
confined chiefly to the winter or rainy season. The autumnal rains
usually commence in the latter part of October, and soon after the
first showers wheat and barley are sowed. Rain falls more heavily in
December; and continues, though with less frequency, until April. From
May to October no rain falls. The cold of winter is not severe, and
the ground does not freeze. Snows a foot or more deep sometimes occur,
and there are frequent hailstorms in winter. The barley harvest is
about a fortnight earlier than the wheat, and both are earlier than
the wheat, and both are earlier in the plains than on the high land;
altogether the grain harvest extends from April to June. In this month
and October the heat is great; the ground becomes dry up; and all
nature, animate and inanimate, looks forward with longing for the
return of the rainy season.

The soil of Canaan was highly productive. The prevailing rock is a
chalky limestone, abounding in caverns. It readily formed, and was
covered with, a rich mould, which produced, in the various elevations
and climates so remarkably grouped together in that small region of
the world, an unequalled variety of the fruits of the ground. Olives,
figs, vines, and pomegranates grew in abundance; the hills were
clothed with flocks and herds, and the valleys were covered with corn.
The land of promise was currently described as "flowing with milk and
honey." Yet the glowing description given by Moses, De 8:7-9, and the
statements of history as to the vast population formerly occupying it,
are in striking contrast with its present aspect of barrenness and
desolation. The curse brought down by the unbelief of the Jews still
blights their unhappy land. Long ages of warfare and misrule have
despoiled and depopulated it. Its hills, once terraced to the summit,
and covered with luxuriant grain, vines, olives, and figs, are now
bare rocks. Its early and latter rains, once preserved in reservoirs,
and conducted by winding channels to water the ground in the season of
drought, now flow off unheeded to the sea. The land, stripped of its
forests, lies open to the sun-which now scorches where it once
fertilized. And yet some parts of Palestine still show an astonishing
fertility; and wherever the soil is cultivated, it yields a hundred
fold. Indian corn grows there eleven feet high, and grapes are still
produced that almost rival the clusters of Eshcol. Intelligent
travellers agree in confirming the statements of Scripture as to its
ancient fertility. See HEBREWS, JUDEA.

CONQUEST OF CANAAN. Various arguments have been adduced to justify the
conquest of Canaan, and the extermination of its inhabitants by the
Israelites; as, that the land had been allotted to Shem and his sons
after the flood, and the sons of Ham were usurpers; that they first
assaulted to the Jews; that Abraham had taken possession of the land
ages before; that the Canaanites were akin to the Egyptians, and
implicated in their guilt and punishment as oppressors of the Hebrews.
Whatever justice there may be in any of these reasons, they are not
those which the Bible assigns. The only true warrant of the Jews was,
the special command of the Lord of all. They were impressively taught
that the wickedness of those nations was the reason of their
punishment, which the forbearance of God had long delayed, and which
was designed as a warning to them and all mankind against idolatry and
its kindred sins. It was these sins the Jews were to abhor and
exterminate; they were to act as agents of God's justice, and not for
the gratification of their own avarice, anger, or lust, the spoil and
the captives being all devoted to destruction. The narrative of the
conquest is given in Nu 1:1-4:49 Jos 1:1-24:33 Jud 1:1-36. The
Canaanites were not wholly destroyed. Many of them escaped to other
lands; and fragments of almost all the nations remained in Judea,
subject to the Israelites, but snares to their feet and thorns in
their sides. It must be observed also, that full notice was previously
given them to quit their forfeited possessions; a solemn writ of
ejectment had been issued by the great Proprietor, and if they
resisted, they incurred the consequences.


The descendants of Canaan. Their first habitation was in the land of
Canaan, where they multiplied extremely, and by trade and war acquired
great riches, and sent out colonies all over the islands and coasts of
the Mediterranean. When the measure of their idolatries and
abominations was completed, God delivered their country into the hands
of the Israelites, who conquered it under Joshua. See the previous
article. The following are the principal tribes mentioned.

1. The HIVITES dwelt in the northern part of the country, at the foot
of mount Hermon, or Anti-Lebanon, according to Jos 11:3, where it is
related that they, along with the united forces of northern Canaan,
were defeated by Joshua. They were not, however, entirely driven out
of their possessions, Jud 3:3 2Sa 24:7 1Ki 9:20. There were also
Hivites in middle Palestine, Ge 34:2 Jos 19:1,7 11:19.

2. The CANAANITES, in a restricted sense, inhabited partly the plains
on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, Nu 13:29 Jos 11:3.

3. The GIRGASHITES dwelt between the Canaanites and the Jebusites; as
may be inferred from the order in which they are mentioned in Jos

4. The JEBUSITES had possession of the hill country around Jerusalem,
and of that city itself, of which the ancient name was Jebus, Jos
15:8,63 18:28. The Benjamites, to whom this region was allotted, did
not drive out the Jebusites, Jud 1:21. David first captured the
citadel of Jebus, 2Sa 5:6.

5. The AMORITES inhabited, in Abraham's time, the region south of
Jerusalem, on the western side of the Dead sea, Ge 14:7. At a later
period, they spread themselves out over all the mountainous country
which forms the southeastern part of Canaan, and which was called from
them the "mountain of the Amorites," and afterwards the "mountain of

De 1:19,20 Nu 13:29 Jos 11:3. On the east side of the Jordan also they
had, before the time of Moses, founded two kingdoms, that of Bashan in
the north, and another, bounded at first by the Jabbok, in the south.
But under Sihon they crossed the Jabbok, and took from the Ammonites
and Moabites all the country between the Jabbok and the Arnon; so that
this latter stream now became the southern boundary of the Amorites,
Nu 21:13,14,16,26 32:33,39 De 4:46,47 31:4. This last tract the
Israelites took possession of after their victory over Sihon. See

6. The HITTITES, or children of Heth, according to the report of the
spies, Nu 1:29, dwelt among the Amorites in the mountainous district
of the south, afterwards called the "mountain of Judah." In the time
of Abraham they possessed Hebron; and the patriarch purchased from
them the cave of Machpelah as a sepulchre, Ge 23:1-20 25:9,10. After
the Israelites entered Canaan, the Hittites seem to have moved farther
northward. The country around Bethel is called "the land of the
Hittites," Jud 1:26. See HITTITES.

7. The PERIZZITES were found in various parts of Canaan. The name
signifies inhabitants of the plains, from their original abode.
According to Ge 13:7, they dwelt with the Canaanites, between Bethel
and Ai; and according to Ge 34:30, in the vicinity of Shechem. See

Besides these seven tribes, there were several others of the same
parentage, dwelling north of Canaan. These were the Arkites,
Arvadites, Hamathites, and Zemarites. There were also several other
tribes of diverse origin within the bounds of Canaan, destroyed by the
Israelites; such as the Anakim, the Amalekites, and the Rephaim of


The name of an Ethiopian queen, whose high treasurer was converted to
Christianity under the preaching of Philip the evangelist, Ac 8:27.
The Ethiopia over which she ruled was not Abyssinia, but that region
of Upper Nubia called by the Greeks Meroe; and is supposed to
correspond with the present province of Atbara, lying between thirteen
and eighteen degrees north latitude. Extensive ruins found in this
neighborhood, and along the upper valley of the Nile, indicate high
civilization among the ancient Ethiopians. Pliny and Strabo inform us
that for some time before and after the Christian era, Ethiopia Proper
was under the government of female sovereigns, who all bore the
appellation of Candace. Irenaeus and Eusebius ascribe to Candace's
minister her own conversion to Christianity, and the promulgation of
the gospel through her kingdom.


In the tabernacle, the golden candlestick stood on the left hand of
one entering the Holy Place, opposite the table of showbread. It
consisted of a pedestal; an upright shaft; six arms, three on one side
and three on the opposite side of the shaft; and seven lamps
surmounting the shaft and arms. The arms were adorned with three kinds
of carved ornaments, called cups, globes, and blossoms. Its lamps were
supplied with pure olive oil, and lighted every evening, Ex 25:31-40
30:7,8 37:17-24 Le 24:1-3 1Sa 3:3 2Ch 13:11. In the first temple there
were ten candelabra of pure gold, half of them standing on the north,
and half on the south side, within the Holy Place, 1Ki 7:49,50 2Ch 4:7
Jer 52:19. In the second temple there was but one, resembling that of
the tabernacle. This was carried to Rome, on the destruction of
Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasian's temple to Peace, and copied on
the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be
seen. See the beautiful and significant visions of the candlestick by
Zechariah and John, Zec 4:2-12 Re 1:12,20.


Or CALAMUS, SWEET, So 4:14, an aromatic reed mentioned among the drugs
of which the sacred perfumes were compounded, Ex 30:23. The true
odoriferous calamus or grass came from India; and the prophets speak
of it as a foreign commodity of great value, Isa 43:24 Jer 6:20 Eze


In our English Bible, put where the Hebrew means a species of locust,
Joe 1:4 Na 3:15,16.


The Greek word denotes, primarily, a straight rod; hence a rule or
standard, by a reference to which the rectitude of opinions or actions
may be decided. In the latter sense it is used in Ga 6:16 Php 3:16. In
the same sense it was used by the Greek fathers. As the standard to
which they sought to appeal on all questions was the will of God
contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, they came
naturally to apply this term to the collective body of those writings,
and to speak of them as the canon or rule. Canon is also equivalent to
a list of catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain
the inspired rule of faith.

In order to establish the canon of Scripture, it must be shown that
all the books are of divine authority; that they are entire and
incorrupt; that it is complete without addition from any foreign
source; and that the whole of the books for which divine authority can
be proved are included. See BIBLE.


A chief city of Galilee in the time of Christ, not mentioned before
the captivity in Babylon. It lay on the northwest shore of the Sea of
Galilee, about five miles from the Jordan and on the frequented route
from Damascus to the Mediterranean. This seems to have been the
residence of Christ, during the three years of his ministry, more than
any other place. The brothers Andrew and Peter dwelt there; Christ
often taught in the synagogue, and wrought mighty works there. Mt
17:23 Mr 1:21-35 Joh 6:17,59; and it is called "his own city," Mt
4:12-16 9:1 Mr 2:1. Its inhabitants were thus "exalted unto heaven;"
but their unbelief and impenitence cast them down to destruction, Mt
11:20-24. The very name and site of Capernaum have been lost. Dr.
Robinson, however, finds them at Khan Minyeh, on the northern border
of the fine plain of Gennesareth, where ruins of some extent still
remain, and a copious fountain not far from the sea.


Descendants of Mizraim, and kindred to the Casluhim, near whom they
were probably located on the northeast coast of Africa. These last two
people are both named as ancestors of the Philistines, Ge 10:14 De
2:23 Am 9:7; and it is probable that a colony made up from both drove
out the Avim from the country on the south-east coast of the
Mediterranean, and occupied it under the name of Philistines, which it
is generally agreed means strangers. But whether they came from
Cyprus, Crete, or Cappadocia, is not agreed.


The largest ancient province of Asia Minor; having Pontus on the
north, mount Taurus, separating it from Cilicia and Syria, on the
south, Galatia on the west, and the Euphrates and Armenia on the east.
It was watered by the river Halys, and was noted for its fine pastures
and its excellent breed of horses, asses, and sheep. There were many
Jews residing in it, Ac 2:9. Christianity was early introduced there,
1Pe 1:1, among a people proverbial for dullness, faithlessness, and
vice. See CRETE. Several celebrated Christian fathers flourished in
this province, as Basil and the three Gregories; and their churches
may be traced as late as the tenth century.


Taken in war, seem anciently to have been looked upon as justly liable
to death, and hence to any treatment less dreadful than death. Their
necks were trodden upon, Jos 10:24, in token of abject subjection,
which illustrates Ps 110:1. They were sold into servitude, like
Joseph. They were mutilated, like Samson, or Adonizedek. They were
stripped of all clothing, and driven in crowds to adorn the victor's
triumph. Large numbers of them were selected, often by a measuring
line, 2Sa 8:2, and slain, 2Ch 25:12. This was sometimes done with
designed cruelty, 2Sa 12:31 1Ch 20:3. The Romans in some cases bound a
living captive to a dead body, and left them to perish together; a
practice which may be applied to illustrate the apostle's cry, "O
wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from the body of this
death?" Ro 7:24.


God often punished the sins of the Jews be captivities or servitudes,
according to his threatenings, De 28:1-68. Their first captivity,
however, from which Moses delivered them, should be considered rather
as a permission of Providence, than as a punishment for sin. There
were six subjugations of the twelve tribes during the period of the
judges. But the most remarkable captivities, or rather expatriations
of the Hebrews, were whose of Israel and Judah under the regal
government. Israel was first carried away in part about B. C. 740, by
Tiglath-pileser, 2Ki 15:29. The tribes east of the Jordan, with parts
of Zebulun and Naphtali, Isa 9:1, were the first sufferers. Twenty
years later, Shalmanezer carried away the remainder, 2Ki 17:6-24.
Aside from certain prophecies, Isa 11:12,13 Jer 31:7-9,16-20 49:2 Eze
37:16 Ho 11:11 Am 9:14 Ob 1:18,19, etc., which are variously
interpreter to mean a past or a future return, a physical or a
spiritual restoration, there is no evidence that the ten tribes as a
body ever returned to Palestine.

To Judah are generally reckoned three captivities: 1. Under Jehoiakim,
in his third year, B. C. 606, when Daniel and others were carried to
Babylon, 2Ki 24:1,2 Da 1:1 2. In the last year of Jehoiakim, when
Nebuchadnezzar carried 3,023 Jews to Babylon; or rather, under
Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, that is, in the
seventh and eighth years of Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 598, 2Ki 24:2,12 2Ch
36:8,10 Jer 52:34 3. Under Zedekiah, B. C. 588, when Jerusalem and the
temple were destroyed, and most that was valuable among the people and
their treasures was carried to Babylon, 2Ki 25:1-30 2Ch 36:1-23. The
seventy years during which they were to remain in captivity, Jer 25:11
29:10, are reckoned probably from the date of the first captivity, B.
C. 606. While at Babylon the Jews had judges and elders who governed
them, and decided matters in dispute juridically according to their
laws. The book of Daniel shows us a Jew in a high position at court,
and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the
Persian empire. The prophets labored, not in vain, to keep alive the
flame of the true religion.

At length the seventy years were fulfilled, and Cyrus, in the first
year of his reign at Babylon, B. C. 536, made a proclamation
throughout his empire permitting the people of God to return to their
country, and rebuild the temple, Ezr 1:11. Nearly 50,000 accepted the
invitation, Ezr 2:2 Ne 7:7. This company laid the foundation of the
second temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius, B. C.
516. Fifty-eight years after, Ezra led a small company of 7,000 from
Babylon to Judea. He was succeeded as governor by Nehemiah, who
labored faithfully and successfully to reform the people, and many of
the good fruits of his labors remained until the time of Christ.

Probably none among the posterity of Jacob can now prove from which of
his twelve sons they are descended. Both Judah and Israel being
removed from "the lot of their inheritance" in Canaan, and dispersed
among strangers, the various tribes would naturally amalgamate with
each other, the envy of Judah and Ephraim would depart, and the memory
of Abraham, Moses, and David would revive, Ezr 6:16,17 8:35 Eze

The last captivity of the Jews, A. D. 71, after they had filled up the
measure of their iniquity by rejecting Christ and the gospel, was a
terrible one. According to Josephus, 1,100,000 perished at the siege
of Jerusalem by Titus, and nearly 100,000 captives were scattered
among the provinces to perish in gladiatorial shows, doomed to toil as
public slaves, or sold into private bondage. The cut represents the
medal of the emperor Vespasian, A. D. 71, in memory of the capture of
Jerusalem. Under the emperor Hadrian, A. D. 133, a similar crushing
blow fell on the Jews who had again assembled in Judea; and at this
day they are scattered all over the world, yet distinct from the
people among whom they dwell, suffering under the woe which unbelief
has brought upon their fathers and themselves, and awaiting the time
when Christ "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob," Ro 11:25,26.


A precious stone, like a large ruby or garnet, of a dark, deep red
color, said to glitter even in the dark, and to sparkle more than the
ruby. The word is put to represent two different Hebrew words, one of
which, Ex 28:17; Eze 28:13, is commonly thought to mean the emerald;
and the other, Isa 54:12, may mean a brilliant species of ruby.


Probably the same with Circesium or Circusium, a fortified city on the
west of the Euphrates, where the river Chaboras enters it. In Isa
10:9, it appears as taken by some king of Assyria. It was attacked by
Pharaohnecho king of Egypt, near the close of king Josiah's reign, 2Ch
35:20. Five years afterwards Necho was signally defeated by
Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 46:1-12. In later times was held as a frontier
post of the Roman empire on the east.


A fruitful field,

1. A city of Judah, on a mountain of the same name, eight miles south
by east of Hebron, Jos 15:55. On this mountain Saul, returning from
his expedition against Amalek, erected a trophy; and here Nabal the
Carmelite, Abigail's husband, dwelt, 1Sa 15:12,25. Its ruins indicate
that it was a large place.

2. A celebrated range of hills running northwest from the Plain of
Esdraelon, and ending in the promontory which forms the bay of Acre.
Its greatest height is about 1,500 feet; at its northeastern foot runs
the brook Kishon, and a little farther north, the river Belus. On its
northern point stands a convent of the Carmelite friars, an order
established in the twelfth century, and having at the present day
various branches in Europe. The foot of the northern part approaches
the water, so that, seen from the hills north-east of Acre, mount
Carmel appears as if "dipping his feet in the western sea;" farther
south it retires more inland, so that between the mountain and the sea
there is an extensive plain covered with fields and olive-trees.
Mariti describes it as a delightful region, and says the good quality
of its soil is apparent from the fact that so many odoriferous plants
and flowers, as hyacinths, jonquilles, tazettos, anemones, etc., grow
wild upon the mountain. Von Richter says, "Mount Camel is entirely
covered with green; on its summit are pines and oaks, and farther down
olive and laurel trees. It gives rise to a multitude of crystal
brooks, the largest of which issues from the so-called 'fountain of
Elijah;' and they all hurry along, between banks thickly overgrown
with bushes, to the Kishon. Every species of tillage succeeds
admirably under this mild and cheerful sky. The prospect from the
summit of the mountain out over the gulf of Acre and its fertile
shores, to the blue heights of Lebanon and to the White cape, is
enchanting." Mr. Carne also ascended the mountain, and traversed the
whole summit, which occupied several hours. He says, "It is the finest
and most beautiful mountain in Palestine, of great length, and in many
parts covered with trees and flowers. On reaching, at last, the
opposite summit, and coming out of a wood, we saw the celebrated plain
of Esdraelon beneath, with the river Kishon flowing through it; mounts
Tabor and Little Hermon were in front, (east); and on the right,
(south), the prospect was bounded by the hills of Samaria." From the
southeast side of this ridge, a range of low wooded hills on the south
spreads and rises into the high lands of Samaria. Those who visit
mount Carmel in the last part of the dry season, find every thing
parched and brown; yet enough remains to show how just were the
allusions of ancient writers to its exceeding beauty, Isa 35:2, its
verdure of drapery and grace of outline, So 7:5, and its rich
pastures, Isa 33:9 Jer 50:19 Am 1:2. The rock of the mountain is a
hard limestone, abounding in natural caves, Am 9:3. These have in many
cases been enlarged, and otherwise fitted for human habitation; and
the mountain has been in various ages a favorite residence for
devotees. It is memorable for frequent visits of the prophets Elijah
and Elisha, 2Ki 2:25 4:25, and especially for the destruction of the
priests of Baal upon it, 1Ki 18:1-46.


A disciple and friend of Paul, who lived in Troas, 2Ti 4:13.


In the Bible, usually means the baggage which formed the burden of a
man of beast, Ac 21:15. Once it seems to indicate a circular trench or
rampart of baggage, etc., around a camp, /1Sa 17:20.


Or wagons were used in Palestine formerly, though now almost unknown.
The roads are generally impassable by any wheeled vehicle; and the
chief use of the cart was on a limited scale for agricultural
purposes, such as forcing the ripe grain out of the ear, bruising the
straw, removing the produce of the fields, etc., Isa 5:18; 28:27,28.
Wagons were used to carry Israel into Egypt, and for the conveyance of
the ark, Ge 45:27; Nu 7:3-9. They were often drawn by heifers, etc.,
1Sa 6:7, and were usually low, and on solid wooden wheels, sometimes


The home of many of the exiled Jews, was probably in the vicinity of
the Caspian sea, Ezr 8:17.


Descendants of Mizraim. See CAPHTORIM.


The bark of an odoriferous tree, from which came one ingredient of the
holy oil or ointment, Ex 30:24; Ps 45:8; Eze 27:19.


Twin sons of Jupiter, and guardians of seamen, according to heathen
mythology. Ships often bore their images on the prow, and were
distinguished by their names, Ac 28:11.


Some locust-like insect, now undistinguishable, De 28:38 1Ki 8:37 Ps
78:46 105:34 Isa 33:4. See LOCUST.


This term is Greek, signifying universal or general. The church of
Christ is called catholic, because it extends throughout the world,
and during all time. In modern times the church of Rome has usurped
this title, improperly applying it exclusively to itself.

The "Catholic epistles" are seven, so called because they were
addressed to the church or Christians in general, and not to any
particular church. They are, one epistle of James, two of Peter, three
of John, and one of Jude.


The geological structure of Judea is highly favorable to the formation
of caves; and the whole region abounds with subterranean caverns of
various dimensions, often giving rise to small rivulets. These were
used as dwellings, places of refuge, and tombs. It was in a cave that
Lot resided after the destruction of Sodom, Ge 19:30. Petra, in
Idumea, was a city of caves, Nu 24:21 So 2:14 Jer 49:16 Ob 1:3. In the
vicinity of Hebron, the poor still live in caves while pasturing their
flocks. Natural cavities were sometimes enlarged, and artificial ones
made for refuge and defense, Jud 6:2 1Sa 13:6 Isa 2:19 Jer 41:9. The
caves of Machpelah, of Adullam, of Engedi, of Carmel and of Arbela,
still exist. See SEPULCHRE.


A noble evergreen-tree greatly celebrated in the Scriptures, Ps 92:12
Eze 31:3-6. These trees are remarkably thick and tall; some among them
are from thirty-five to forty feet in girth, and ninety feet in
height. The cedar-tree shoots out branches at ten of twelve feet from
the ground, large and almost horizontal; its leaves are an inch long,
slender and straight, growing in tufts. The tree bears a small cone,
like that of the pine. This celebrated tree is not peculiar to mount
Lebanon, but grows also upon mounts Amanus and Taurus in Asia Minor,
and in other parts of the Levant, but does not elsewhere reach the
size and height of those on Lebanon. It has also been cultivated in
the gardens of Europe; two venerable individuals of this species exist
at Chiswick in England; and there is a very beautiful one in the
Jardin des Plantes in Paris. The beauty of the cedar consists in the
proportion and symmetry of its wide-spreading branches and cone-like
top. The gum, which exudes both from the trunk and the cones or
fruits, is soft like balsam of Mecca. Every thing about this tree has
a strong balsamic odor; and hence the whole grove is so pleasant and
fragrant, that it is delightful to walk in it, So 4:11 Ho 14:6. The
wood is peculiarly adapted to building, because it is not subject to
decay, nor to be eaten of worms; hence it was much used for rafters,
and for boards with which to cover houses and form the floors and
ceilings of rooms. It was of a red color, beautiful, solid, and free
from knots. The palace of Persepolis, the temple at Jerusalem, and
Solomon's palace, were all in this way built with cedar; and "the
house of the forest of Lebanon," was perhaps so called from the
quantity of this wood used in its construction, 1Ki 7:2 10:17.

Of the forests of cedars which once covered Lebanon, comparatively few
are now left, Isa 2:13 10:19; though there are still many scattered
trees in various parts, resembling the genuine cedar. The largest and
most ancient trees, generally thought to be the only ones, are found
in a grove, lying a little off from the road which crosses mount
Lebanon from Baalbek to Tripole, at some distance below the summit of
the mountain on the western side, at the foot indeed of the highest
summit or ridge of Lebanon. This grove consists of a few very old
trees, perhaps as old as the time of Christ, intermingled with 400 or
500 younger ones. See LEBANON.

Besides the true cedar of Lebanon, the word cedar in the Bible appears
to mean sometimes the juniper and sometimes the pine.




The ancients took great pains to ornament the ceilings of their best
apartments; making them sometimes of a sort of wainscoting, in squares
or complicated figures; and sometimes of a fine plaster with beautiful
moldings, tinted and relieved by gilding, small mirrors, etc., 1Ki
6:15 2Ch 3:5 Jer 22:14.


A port of Corinth, now called Kikries, whence Paul sailed for Ephesus,
Ac 18:18. It was a place of some commercial note, and the seat of an
early church, Ro 16:1. It was situated on the eastern side of the
isthmus, eight or nine miles east of the city. The other port, on the
western side of the isthmus, was Lechaeum.


A vessel in which fire and incense were carried, in certain parts of
the Hebrew worship. Little is known of its form. The censer for the
daily offering was at first made of copper, Nu 16:39. That used on the
great Day of Atonement, (and perhaps others also), was made of pure
gold, 1Ki 7:50 Heb 9:4. In the daily offering, the censer was filled
with coals from the perpetual fire, and placed on the altar of
incense, where the incense was thrown upon the coals, Ex 30:1,7-10. On
the day of atonement, in the Holy of Holies, the censer must have been
held in the hand, and probably by a handle, Le 16:12,13.

There are two Hebrew words, which are translated censer in our English
Bibles. The one signifies strictly fire-pan. The other signifies
incense-pan, a vessel for burning incense; but we do not know its
exact shape.

The censers of the Egyptians had long handles, like a human arm and
hand, upon the palm of which the incense-cup stood. Those of the
Greeks and Romans had chains, by which they were carried, like those
now used in the Romish service.

In the New Testament, where the twenty-four elders are said to have
golden "vials" full of odors, Re 5:8, the meaning is vessels of
incense, censers, not vials in the present sense of the word.


A Roman officer commanding a hundred soldiers; similar to "captain" in
modern times. Several centurions are mentioned with honor in the New
Testament, Mr 15:39; Lu 7:1-10; and the first fruits to Christ from
the Gentiles was the generous and devout Cornelius, Ac 10:1-48.


A rock, a Syriac or later Hebrew name given to Peter by Christ, Joh
1:42. The Greek Petros and the Latin Petrus have the same meaning. See




A precious stone, resembling the agate; of various colors, but often a
light brown or blue, Re 21:19. It is found in most parts of the world,
though named after Chalcedon in Bithynia opposite Constantinople; and
is much used as a material for cups, vases, and other articles of
taste. Carnelian is said to be one of its varieties.


A country in Asia, the capital of which, in its widest extent, was
Babylon. It was originally of small extent; but the empire being
afterwards very much enlarged, the name is generally taken in a more
extensive sense, and includes Babylonia, which see.


This name is taken, 1. For the people of Chaldea, and the subjects of
that empire generally; 2. For philosophers, naturalists, or
soothsayers, whose principal employment was the study of mathematics
and astrology, by which they pretended to foretell the destiny of men
born under certain constellations.

The Chaldeans were originally a warlike people, who at first inhabited
the Carduchian or Koordish mountains north of Assyria and Mesopotamia,
Jer 50:17. As the Assyrian monarchs extended their conquests towards
the north and west, the Chaldeans also came under their dominion; and
this rough and energetic people appear to have assumed, under the sway
of their conquerors, a new character, and to have been transformed
from a rude horde into a civilized people. A very vivid and graphic
description of the Chaldean warriors is given by the prophet Habakkuk,
who probably lived about the time when they first made incursions into
Palestine or the adjacent regions, Hab 1:6-11. Of the date of their
location in Babylonia nothing is now known. In the reign of king
Hezekiah, B. C. 713, a king of Babylon is mentioned, the first of whom
we read after Nimrod and Amraphel. About one hundred years later we
find the Chaldeans in possession of the kingdom of Babylon. The first
sovereign in the new line appearing in history was Nabopolassar. His
son Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine, as foretold by Jeremiah and
Habakkuk, Ezr 5:12 Jer 39:5. He was succeeded by his son
Evil-merodach, 2Ki 25:27 Jer 52:31. After him came, in quick
succession, Neriglissar, Laborosoarchod, and Nabonnidus or Belshazzar,
under whom this empire was absorbed in the Medo-Persian. The
Chaldeo-babylonian dynasty continued probably not more than one
hundred years.




2Ki 23:11, An officer who had charge of a king's lodgings and
wardrobe. In eastern courts eunuchs were generally employed in this
office, Es 1:1-22,10,12,15. This title in Ro 16:23 probably denotes
the steward or treasurer of the city.


Le 11:30, a kind of lizard. Its body is about six inches long: its
feet have five toes each, arranged like two thumbs opposite to three
fingers: its eyes turn backwards or forwards independently of each
other. It feeds upon files, which it catches by darting out its long,
viscous tongue. It has the faculty of inflating itself at pleasure
with air; and of changing its color, from its ordinary gray to green,
purple, and even black when enraged.


Not the well-known mountain goat of southern Europe, but probably a
variety of wild sheep, resembling a goat, and still found in Arabia
Petraea, De 14:5.


Merchants, 2Ch 9:14.




A large, shallow dish, Nu 7:13; Mt 14:8.


Scripture speaks of two sorts of these: one for princes and generals
to ride in, Ge 41:43; the other to break the enemy's battalions, by
rushing in among them, being "chariots of iron," that is, armed with
iron scythes or hooks, projecting from the ends of the axle-trees.
These made terrible havoc. The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the
waters of Meron, had horsemen, and a multitude of chariots, Jos 11:4
Jud 1:19. Sisera, general of Jabin king of Hazor, had nine hundred
chariots of iron, Jud 4:3. See LITTER.


Ps 58:4,5; Ec 10:11; Jer 8:17, persons very common throughout India
and Egypt, who claim to have the faculty of catching, taming, and
controlling serpents, even the most venomous.


A river which rises in the northern part of Mesopotamia, and flows
first southeast, then south and southwest, into the Euphrates. It was
called Chaboras by the Greeks; now Khabour. On its fertile banks
Nebuchadnezzar located a part of the captive Jews, and here the
sublime visions of Ezekiel took place, Eze 1:3; 3:15; 10:15; 43:3.


King of Elam, in Persia, in the time of Abraham. He made the cities in
the region of the Dead Sea his tributaries; and on their rebelling, he
came with four allied kings and overran the whole country south and
east of the Jordan. Lot was among his captives, but was rescued by
Abraham; who promptly raised a force from his dependents and his
neighbors, pursued the enemy, and surprised and defeated them, Ge
14:1-24. Compare Ps 110:1- 7.


Several times alluded to in Scripture, and still an important article
of food in the East, 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 17:29. It is usually white and
very salt; soft, when hew, but soon becoming hard and dry. The cheese
was like a small saucer in size, Job 10:10.


Occurring once only in the English version, Zep 1:4, but frequently in
the Hebrew, translated "idolatrous priests," 2Ki 23:5 Ho 10:5. The
word is supposed to be derived from a root signifying to burn, and may
perhaps denote fire-priests, worshippers of the sun.


The national god of the Moabites, and of the Ammonites, worshipped
also under Solomon at Jerusalem, Nu 21:29; Jud 11:24; 1Ki 11:7; 2Ki
23:13; Jer 48:7. Some erroneously identify Chemosh with Ammon.


1. A portion of the Philistines, supposed by many to have originated
in Crete, 1Sa 30:14 Eze 25:16 Zep 2:5

2. A portion of David's bodyguard, always mentioned with the
Pelethites, 2Sa 8:18 15:18 20:7 1Ch 18:17. Some suppose that they were
foreigners, whom David took into his service while among the
Philistines. The Gittites mentioned with them in 2Sa 15:18, were
plainly such. Others think they had their name from their
office-executioners and runners. See PELETHITES.


A small brook flowing into the Jordan, to which Elijah once withdrew,
and where ravens brought him supplies of bread and flesh, 1Ki 17:3-5.
Robinson suggests that it may be the present Wady Kelt, which drains
the hills west of Jericho, and flows near that town on its way to the
Jordan. This brook is dry in summer.


Plural CHERUBIM, an order of celestial beings or symbolical
representations often referred to in the Old Testament and in the book
of Revelation. The cherubim are variously represented as living
creatures, Eze 1:1-28 Re 4:1-11; or as images wrought in tapestry,
gold, or wood, Ex 36:35 37:7 Eze 41:25; as having one, two, or four
faces, Ex 25:20 Eze 10:14 41:18; as having two, four, or six wings,
1Ki 6:27 Eze 1:6 Re 4:8; in the simplest form, as in the golden
figures above the ark of the covenant; or in the most complex and
sublime form, as in Ezekiel's wonderful visions of the glory of
God-discerning and ruling all things, and executing irresistibly and
with the speed of thought all his wise and just decrees, Eze 1:1-28
10:1-22. The fullest of these descriptions represents the cherub as a
winged figure, like a man in form, full of eyes, and with a fourfold
head-of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle-with wheels turning every
way, and speed like the lightning; presenting the highest earthly
forms and powers of creation in harmonious and perfect union, Eze
1:1-28 10:1-22 Re 1:4-11. Usually also the cherubim stand in a special
nearness to God; they are engaged in the loftiest adoration and
service, moving in instant accordance with his will, Ps 18:10 Eze 1:26
10:20 Re 4:1-11; they are seen in the temple inseparably associated
with the mercy-seat-made of the same mass of pure gold, Ex 25:19,
bending reverently over the place of God's presence, Ps 99:1, where he
met his people, Nu 7:89, accepted the blood of atonement, Le 16:14-16,
and shone forth as their Savior, Ps 80:1.


Ge 30:37, called by the Septuagint and Vulgate the plane tree, with
which most modern expositors agree. The plane tree has a tall and
stately trunk, with smooth bark, and branches spreading in every
direction, covered with a profusion of glossy green leaves. It is
nowhere more abundant and noble than in the plains of Assyria, Eze


Or CHISLOTH-TABOR, a town on the border of Zebulun and Issachar, about
four miles west of mount marks its site, together with numerous
excavated tombs, Jos 19:12,18,22 1Ch 6:62.


A numerous offspring was regarded as a signal blessing, Ps 127:3-5,
and childless wives sought various means to escape the reproach of
barrenness, which was deprecated in the blessing given to a newly
married couple, Ru 4:11. The pangs of childbirth, in their suddenness
and sharpness, are often alluded to in Scripture. The apostle Paul
speaks of them as fruits and evidences of the fall; but assures those
who abide in faith, that, amid all the suffering that reminds them
that woman was first in the transgression, Ge 3:16, they may yet look
trustfully to God for acceptance and salvation, 1Ti 2:15.

A newborn child was washed, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling
clothes, Eze 16:4 Lu 2:7-11. On the eighth day he was circumcised and
named. At his weaning a feast was often made, Ge 21:34. The nurse of a
female child often attended her through life, Ge 24:59 35:8. Children
were to be instructed with great diligence and care, De 6:20-23. They
were required to honor and obey their parents, and were subject to the
father's control in all things, Ge 22:21 Nu 30:5; they were even
liable to be sold into temporary bondage for his debts, Le 25:39-41
2Ki 4:1 Mt 18:25.

The first-born son received, besides other privileges, (see
BIRTHRIGHT), two portions of his father's estate; the other sons, one
portion each. The sons of concubines received presents, and sometimes
an equal portion with the others, Ge 21:8-21 25:1-6 49:1-27 Jud
11:1-7. The daughters received no portion, except in cases provided
for in Nu 27:1-11.

The term child or children, by a Hebrew idiom, is used to express a
great variety of relations: the good are called children of God, of
light, of the kingdom, etc.; the bad are named children of the devil,
of wrath, of disobedience, etc. A strong man is called a son of
strength; an impious man, a son of Belial; an arrow, the son of a bow,
and a branch the son of a tree. The posterity of a man is his "sons,"
for many generations.


Probably a son a Barzillai, 2Sa 19:36; 1Ki 2:7. He may have received
from David the place near Bethlehem called Chimham, Jer 41:17.


Or CINNEROTH, a town on the west shore of the sea of Galilee, Nu 34:11
De 3:17 Jos 11:2 19:35 1Ki 15:20. It was a "fenced city" of Naphtali,
and gave its name to the lake on which it stood. Tiberias is supposed
by Jerome to have afterwards occupied its site.


An island in the Archipelago, between Lesbos and Samos, on the coast
of Asia Minor, now called Scio. It is thirty miles long and ten wide.
Paul passed this way as he sailed southward from Mitylene to Samos, Ac


The ninth month of the Hebrews, beginning with the new moon of
December, Ne 1:1; Zec 7:1.


Or KITTIM, descendants of Javan, son of Japheth; and the land settled
by them, Ge 10:4. Chittim seems to denote primarily the island Cyprus,
and also to be employed, in a wider sense, to designate other islands
and countries adjacent to the Mediterranean, as for instance,
Macedonia, Da 11:30, and Rome, Nu 24:24.


The name of an idol worshipped by the Israelites in the desert, Am
5:26 Ac 7:43. It was most probably the planet Saturn, worshipped by
eastern nations as an evil spirit to be propitiated by sacrifices. See


A town in Galilee, near to Capernaum and Bethsaida, on the northwest
shore of the Sea of Galilee. Jerome says it was two miles from
Capernaum. No traces of its name remain; but Robinson with strong
probability locates it at the modern Tell-hum, on the northern shore
of the Sea of Galilee, three miles northeast of Capernaum. It was
upbraided by Christ for its impenitence, Mt 11:21; Lu 10:13.


Anointed, a Greek word, answering to the Hebrew MESSIAH, the
consecrated or anointed one, and given preeminently to our blessed
Lord and Savior. See MESSIAH and JESUS.

The ancient Hebrews, being instructed by the prophets, had clear
notions of the Messiah; but these became gradually depraved, so that
when Jesus appeared in Judea, the Jews entertained a false conception
of the Messiah, expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror, who should
remove the Roman yoke and subject the whole world. Hence they were
scandalized at the outward appearance, the humility, and seeming
weakness of our Savior. The modern Jews, including still greater
mistakes, form to themselves ideas of the Messiah utterly unknown to
their forefathers.

The ancient prophets had foretold that the Messiah should be God, and
man; exalted, and abased; master, and servant; priest, and victim;
prince, and subject; involved in death, yet victor over death; rich,
and poor; a king, a conqueror, glorious-and a man of grief, exposed to
infirmities, unknown, in a state of abjection and humiliation. All
these contrarieties were to be reconciled in the person of the
Messiah; as they really were in the person of Jesus.

It is not recorded that Christ ever received any external official
unction. The unction that the prophets and the apostles speak of is
the spiritual and internal unction of grace and of the Holy Ghost, of
which kings, priests, and prophets were anciently anointed, was but
the figure and symbol.

The name CHRIST is the official title of the Redeemer; and is not to
be regarded as a mere appellative, to distinguish our Lord from other
persons named Jesus. The force of many passages of Scripture is
greatly weakened by overlooking this. We may get the true sense of
such passages by substituting for "Christ," "the Anointed," and where
Jews were addressed, "THE MESSIAH." Thus in Mt 2:4, Herod "demanded of
them," the priests and scribes, "where Christ should be born," that
is, the Old Testament Messiah. Peter confessed, "thou art the
Messiah," Mt 16:16. The devils did the same, Lu 4:41. In later times
the name JESUS was comparatively disused; and CHRIST, as a proper
name, was used instead of JESUS.

When we consider the relation of Christ's person, as God and man, to
his official work as our Prophet, Priest, and King, and to his states
of humiliation and glory; when we consider how God is in and with
him-how all the perfections of God are displayed, and all the truths
of God exemplified in him; when we consider his various relations to
the purposes, covenants, word, and ordinances of God, and to the
privileges, duties, and services of saints, in time and to eternity,
we have a delightful view of him as ALL and IN ALL, Col 3:11.


A name given at Antioch to those who believed Jesus to be the Messiah,
A. D. 42, Ac 11:26. It seems to have been given to them by the men of
Antioch as a term of convenience rather than of ridicule, to designate
the new sect more perfectly than any other word could do. They
generally called each other "brethren," "the faithful," "saints,"
"believers;" and were named by the Gentiles, Nazarenes and Galileans.
He only is a real Christian who heartily accepts Christ as his
teacher, guide, and master, the source of his highest life, strength,
and joy, his only Redeemer from sin and hell, his Lord and his God.
They who rightly bear Christ's name and partake of his nature, and
they only, shall finally share in his glory.


Our Savior predicted that many pretended Messiahs would come, Mt 24:24
and his word has been abundantly fulfilled. One of them named Coziba
lived within followers, and occasioned the death of more than half a
million of Jews. Others have continued to appear, even down to modern


The name of two historical books of the Old Testament, the author of
which is not known, though the general opinion ascribes them to Ezra,
B. C. 457. In writing them the inspired penman made use, not only of
the earlier books of Scripture, but of numerous other public annals,
now lost, 2Ch 9:29 16:11 20:32. The first book contains a
recapitulation of sacred history, by genealogies, from the beginning
of the world to the death of David. The second book contains the
history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, from the
beginning of the reign of Solomon only, to the return from the
captivity of Babylon. In this respect it differs from the books of
Kings, which give the history of the kings of both Judah and Israel.
In many places, where the history of the same kings is related, the
narrative in Chronicles is almost a copy of that in Kings; in other
places, the one serves as a supplement to the other. In the
Septuagint, these books are called Paraleipomena, that is, things
omitted. The two books of Chronicles dwell more on ecclesiastical
matters than the books of Kings; they enlarge upon the ordinances of
public worship; and detail minutely the preparation of David for the
building of the temple, and its erection and dedication by Solomon;
the histories of the other kings also are specially full in respect to
their religious character and acts, 1Ch 13:8-11 2Ch 11:13 19:8-11
26:16-19, etc. The Chronicles should be read in connection with the
books of Samuel and the Kings; treating of the same periods, they
illustrate each other, and form a continuous and instructive history,
showing that religion is the main source of national prosperity, and
ungodliness of adversity, Pr 14:34. The details of these books may be
studied with interest, in view of their bearing upon the coming and
the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ. The whole period treated of in
the Chronicles is about 3,500 years.


A transparent precious stone, having the color of gold with a mixture
of green, and a fine luster, Re 21:20. Many suppose it to be the topaz
of the moderns.


The tenth of those precious stones which adorned the foundation of the
heavenly Jerusalem, as seen by John the Evangelist. Its color was
green, inclining to gold, as its name imports, Re 21:20.


Elsewhere called BEROTHAH , BEROTHAI, which see.


The Greek word translated church signifies generally an assembly,
either common or religious; and it is sometimes so translated, as in
Ac 19:32,39. In the New Testament it usually means a congregation of
religious worshippers, either Jewish, as Ac 7:38, or Christians, as Mt
16:18 1Co 6:4. The latter sense is the more common one; and it is thus
used in a twofold manner, denoting,

1. The universal Christian church: either the invisible church,
consisting of those whose names are written in heaven, whom God knows,
but whom we cannot infallibly know, Heb 12:23; or the visible church,
made up of the professed followers of Christ on earth, Col 1:24 1Ti

2. A particular church or body of professing believers, who meet and
worship together in one place; as the churches of Rome, Corinth,
Ephesus, Philippi, etc., to which Paul addressed epistles.


Pr 30:33. See BUTTER.


A king of Mesopotamia, who oppressed the Israelites eight years, but
was defeated by Othniel, Caleb's nephew, Jud 3:8-10.




The south-eastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Taurus
range, separating it from Cappadocia, Lycaonia, and Isauria, south by
the Mediterranean, east by Syria, and west by Pamphylia. The western
part had the appellation of Aspera, or rough; while the eastern was
called Campestris, or level. This country was the province of Cicero
when proconsul; and its chief town, Tarsus, was the birthplace of the
apostle Paul, Ac 6:9. Many Jews dwelt in Cilicia, and maintained
frequent intercourse with Jerusalem, where they joined the other Jews
in opposing the progress of Christianity. Paul himself may have taken
part in the public discussion with Stephen, Ac 6:9 7:58. After his
conversion he visited his native province, Ac 9:30 Ga 1:21, and
established churches, which were addressed in the letter of the
council at Jerusalem, Ac 15:23. The apostle once afterwards made a
missionary tour among these churches, his heart yearning to behold and
to increase their prosperity, Ac 15:36,41.


One of the ingredients in the perfumed oil with which the tabernacle
and its vessels were anointed, Ex 30:23 Pr 7:17 So 4:14. It is the
inner bark of a tree growing about twenty feet high, and being peeled
off in thin strips curls as it is found in market. It is of a dark red
color, of a poignant taste, aromatic, and very agreeable. That of the
finest quality comes from Ceylon, Re 18:13.


A cutting around, because in this rite the foreskin was cut away. God
commanded Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his covenant; and
in obedience to this order, the patriarch, at ninety-nine years of
age, was circumcised, as also his son Ishmael, and all the male of his
household, Ge 17:10-12. God repeated the precept to Moses, and ordered
that all who intended to partake of the paschal sacrifice should
receive circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on
children on the eighth day after their birth, Ex 12:44 Le 12:3 Joh
7:22. The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony,
and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt, Jos 5:1-9.

All the other nations sprung from Abraham besides the Hebrews, as the
Ishmaelites, the Arabians, etc., also retained the practice of
circumcision. At the present day it is an essential rite of the
Mohammedan religion, and though not enjoined in the Koran, prevails
wherever this religion is found. It is also practiced in some form
among the Abyssinians, and various tribes of South Africa, as it was
by the ancient Egyptians. But there is no proof that it was practiced
upon infants, or became a general, national, or religious custom,
before God enjoined it upon Abraham.

The Jews esteemed uncircumcision as a very great impurity; and the
greatest offence they could receive was to be called "uncircumcised."
Paul frequently mentions the Gentiles under this term, not
opprobriously, Ro 2.26, in opposition to the Jews, whom he names "the
circumcision," etc.

Disputes as to the observances of this rite by the converts from
heathenism to Christianity occasioned much trouble in the early
church, Ac 15:1-41; and it was long before it was well understood that
"in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor
uncircumcision, but a new creature," Ga 5:2,3 6:15.

The true circumcision is that of the heart; and those are
"uncircumcised in heart and ears," who will not obey the law of God
nor embrace the gospel of Christ.


And reservoirs were very common in Palestine, both in the country and
in cities. During half the year no rain falls, and never- failing
streams and springs are rare indeed. The main dependence of a large
portion of the population was upon the water which fell in the rainy
season and was preserved in cisterns, 2Sa 17:18. Dr. Robinson alludes
to immense reservoirs within and under the area of the temple,
supplied by rainwater and by the aqueduct from Solomon's pools, and
says, "These of themselves, in case of a siege, would furnish a
tolerable supply. But in addition to these, almost every house in
Jerusalem, of any size, is understood to have at least one or more
cisterns, excavated in the soft limestone rock on which the city is
built. The water is conducted into them during the rainy season, and
with proper care remains pure and sweet during the whole summer and
autumn." Such cisterns, and others more properly called tanks and
pools, were provided in the fields for irrigation, and at intervals
along the highways, for the accommodation of travellers, Ps 84:6. The
same causes led to the erection, near all the chief cities, of large
open reservoirs for public use. These were built of massive stones,
and in places where the winter rains could be easily conducted into
them. Many such reservoirs, and ruins of others, yet remain. See


The towns and cities of Palestine were commonly built on heights, for
better security against robbers or invaders. These heights, surrounded
by walls, sometimes formed the entire city. In other cases, the
citadel alone crowned the hill, around and at the base of which the
town was built; and in time of danger the surrounding population all
took refuge in the fortified place. Larger towns and cities were often
not only defended by strong outer walls, with towers and gates, but by
a citadel or castle within these limits-a last resort when the rest of
the city was taken, Jud 9:46,51. The "fenced cities" of the Jews, De
3:5, were of various sizes and degrees of strength; some being
surrounded by high and thick stone walls, and others by feebler
ramparts, often of clay or sun-dried bricks, and sometimes
combustible, Isa 9:10 Am 1:7-14. They were also provided with
watchmen, Ps 127:1 So 5:7. The streets of ancient towns were usually
narrow, and often unpaved. Some cities were adorned with vast parks
and gardens; this was the case with Babylon, which embraced an immense
at this day to form any reliable estimate of the population of the
cities of Judea. Jerusalem is said by Josephus to have had 150,000
inhabitants, and to have contained, at the time of its siege by the
Romans, more than a million of persons crowded in its circuit of four

CITY OF DAVID, usually denotes mount Zion, the southwest section of
Jerusalem, which David took from the Jebusites, and occupied by a
palace and city called by his name. In Lu 2:11, Bethlehem his native
city is meant.

CITY OF GOD, De 12:5 Ps 46:4, and the HOLY, HOLINESS CITY, Ne 11:1,
names of Jerusalem. Its modern name is El-Kuds, the Holy.


A small island near the southwest shore of Crete, approached by Paul
in his voyage to Jerusalem, Ac 27:16. It is now called Gozzo, and is
occupied by about thirty families.


A Christian woman, probably a convert of Paul at Rome 2Ti 4:21.


Fifth emperor of Rome, succeeded Caius Caligula, A. D. 41, and was
followed by Nero, after a reign of thirteen years. He endowed Agrippa
with royal authority over Judea, which on the death of Agrippa again
became a province of Rome, A. D. 45. About this time probably occurred
the famine foretold by Agabus, Ac 11:28. In the ninth year of his
reign, he banished all Jews from Rome, Ac 18:2. In A. D. 43-44, he
made a military expedition to Britain. His death was caused by poison,
from the hand of his wife and niece Agrippina.






Designed for earthenware was trodden by the feet to mix it well, Isa
41:25, was molded on a wheel, and then baked in a kiln, Jer 18:3 43:9.
The potter's art is referred to in Scripture to illustrate man's
dependence upon God, Isa 64:8 Ro 9:21. See POTTER. Clay seems to have
been also used in sealing, as wax is with us, Job 38:14. The bricks of
Babylon are found marked with a large seal or stamp, and modern
travellers find the locks of doors in eastern khans and granaries
sealed on the outside with clay.


Terms often used in the Bible in a ceremonial sense; assigned to
certain animals, and to men in certain cases, by the law of Moses, Le
11:1-15:33 Nu 19:1-22 De 14:1-29. A distinction between clean and
unclean animals existed before the deluge, Ge 7:2. The Mosaic law was
not merely arbitrary, but grounded on reasons connected with animal
sacrifices, with health, with the separation of the Jews from other
nations, and their practice of moral purity, Le 11:43-45 20:24-26 De
14:2,3,21. The ritual law was still observed in the time of Christ,
but under the gospel is annulled, Ac 10:9-16.

Ceremonial uncleanness was contracted by the Jews in various ways,
voluntarily and involuntarily. It was removed, usually at the evening
of the same day, by bathing. In other cases a week, or even forty or
fifty days, and some sacrificial offerings, were required.


Mentioned in Php 4:3. It is conjectured, though without evidence, that
this is the same Clement who was afterwards a bishop at Rome, commonly
called Clemens Romanus. The church at Corinth having been disturbed by
divisions, Clement wrote a letter to the Corinthians, which was so
much esteemed by the ancients, that they read it publicly in many


The husband of Mary, Joh 19:25, called also ALPHEUS, which see. The
Cleopas mentioned in Lu 24:18, probably was a different person.




PILLAR OF, the miraculous token of the divine presence and care, Ex
14:24 16:10 Nu 12:5, which guided the Israelites in the desert; it was
a means of protection and perhaps of shade by day, and gave them light
by night, Ex 13:21,22 14:19,20. By it God directed their movements, Nu
9:15-23 14:14 De 1:33. See the beautiful application of the image to
the future church in Isa 4:5.


In the summer season of Palestine, were an unlooked-for phenomenon,
1Sa 12:17,18, and rising from off the Mediterranean, betokened rain,
1Ki 18:44 Lu 12:54. Clouds are the symbol of armies and multitudes,
probably by their grand and majestic movements, Isa 60:8 Jer 4:13 Heb
12:1. They betokened the presence of Jehovah, as on mount Sinai,

Ex 19:9 24:12-18; in the temple, Ex 40:34 1Ki 8:10; in the cloudy
pillar, and on the mount of Transfiguration. They are found in many
representations of the majesty of God, Ps 18:11,12 97:2; and of
Christ, Mt 24:30 Re 14:14-16.


A town and peninsula of Doris in Caria, jutting out from the southwest
corner of Asia Minor, between the islands of Rhodes and Cos. It had a
fine harbor, and was celebrated for the worship of Venus. Paul passed
by it in his voyage to Rome, Ac 27:7.


Usually in Scripture, charcoal, or the embers of fire. Mineral coal is
now procured in mount Lebanon, eight hours from Beirut; but we have no
certainty that it was known and used by the Jews. The following
passages are those which most strongly suggest this substance, 2Sa
22:9,13; Job 41:21.


The third watch of the night, in the time of Christ. See HOUR.


An old English word of obscure origin, used by our translators to
designate the Hebrew Tzepha, or Tsiphoni, a serpent of a highly
venomous character, Isa 14:29 59:5 Jer 8:17. See SERPENT.


A plant growing among wheat, Job 31:40. The Hebrew word seems to
denote some noisome weed which infests cultivated grounds.


A city of Phrygia, situated on a hill near the junction of the Lycus
with the Meander, and not far from the cities Hierapolis and Laodicea,
Col 2:1 4:13,15. With these cities it was destroyed by an earthquake
in the tenth year of Nero, about A. D. 65, while Paul was yet living.
It was soon rebuilt. The church of Christians in this city, to whom
Paul wrote, seems to have been gathered by Epaphras, Col 1:7-9
4:12,13. In modern times the place is called Chonos.


Was written by Paul, from Rome, A. D. 62. The occasion of the letter
was the intelligence brought him by Epaphras, Col 1:6-8, respecting
the internal state of the church, which apparently he himself had not
yet visited, Col 2:1, though familiar with their history and affairs,
Ac 16:6 18:23. Some Jewish philosopher professing Christianity, but
mingling with it a superstitious regard for the law and other errors,
seems to have gained a dangerous ascendancy in the church. Paul shows
that all our hope of salvation is in Christ the only mediator, in whom
all fullness dwells; he cautions the Colossians against the errors
introduced among them, as inconsistent with the gospel, and incites
them by most persuasive arguments to a temper and conduct worthy of
their Christian character. The epistle was written at the same time
with that to the Ephesians, and was sent by the same bearer. The two
closely resemble each other, and should be studied together.


Greek PARACLETE, an advocate, teacher, or consoler. This title is
given to our Savior: "We have an advocate (paraclete) with the Father,
Jesus Christ the righteous," 1Jo 2:1. But more frequently it
designates the Holy Spirit. He is the "other Comforter," succeeding
Christ, the great promised blessing of the Christian church, Joh
14:16,17,26 15:1-27 16:1-33 Lu 24:29 Ac 1:4. The English word
Comforter does not adequately describe the office of the Paraclete,
who was not only to console, but to aid and direct them, as Christ had
done. The disciples found the promise fulfilled to them. The Comforter
aided them when called before councils; guided them into all truth
respecting the plan of salvation; brought to their remembrance the
words and deeds of Christ; and revealed to them things to come. His
presence was accompanied by signal triumphs of grace, and made amends
for the absences of Christ. The church is still under the dispensation
of the Comforter, and still he convinces the world of sin, of
righteousness, and of the judgement to come.


Profane, ceremonially unclean, Mr 7:2,5; Ac 10:14,15; Ro 14:14.


Cutting, a term of reproach, applied to certain Judaizing teachers at
Philippi, as mere cutters of the flesh; in contrast with the true
circumcision, those who were created anew in Christ Jesus unto
righteousness and true holiness, Php 3:2.


A term which, in modern authors, commonly signifies a woman who,
without being married to a man, lives with him as his wife; but in the
Bible the word concubine is understood in another sense- meaning a
lawful wife, but of a secondary rank. She differed from a proper wife
in that she was not married by solemn stipulation, but only betrothed;
she brought no dowry with her, and had no share in the government of
the family. She was liable to be repudiated, or sent away with a gift,
Ge 21:14, and her children might be treated in the same way, and not
share in their father's inheritance, Ge 25:6. On cause of concubinage
is shown in the history of Abraham and Jacob, Ge 16:16. Concubinage,
however, became a general custom, and the Law of Moses restricted its
abuses, Ex 21:7-9 De 21:10-14, but never sanctioned it. The gospel has
restored the original law of marriage, Ge 2:24 Mt 19:5 1Co 7:2, and
concubinage is ranked with fornication and adultery.


An old English name for the rabbit; used in Scripture to translate the
Hebrew SHAPHAN, which agrees with the Ashkoko or Syrain Hyrax, Le 11:5
De 14:7 Ps 104:18 Pr 30:26. This animal is externally of the size and
form of the rabbit, and of a brownish color. It is, however, much
clumsier in its structure, without tail, and having long bristly hairs
scattered through the fur. The feet are naked below, and the nails
flat and rounded, except those in the inner toe of the hind feet,
which are long and awl-shaped. They cannot dig, but reside in the
clefts of rocks. They are called by Solomon, "wise," and "a feeble
folk;" they are timid and gregarious in their habits, and so gentle
and quiet, that they shrink from the shadow of a passing bird. The
name of Spain is said to have been given to it by Phoenician voyagers,
who seeing its western coast overrun with animals resembling the
shaphan, called it Hispania, or Coley-land. Some eminent interpreters
think the SHAPHAN SHAPHAN means the Jerboa.




Is that faculty common to all free moral agents, Ro 2:13-15, in virtue
of which we discern between right and wrong, and are prompted to
choose the former and refuse the latter. Its appointed sphere is in
the regulation, according to the will of God revealed in nature and
the Bible, of all our being and actions so far as these have a moral
character. The existence of this faculty proves the soul accountable
at the bar of its Creator, and its voice is in an important sense the
voice of God. We feel that when pure and fully informed, it is an
unerring guide to duty, and that no possible array of inducements can
justify us in disregarding it. In man, however, though this conviction
that we must do what is right never fails, yet the value of conscience
is greatly impaired by its inhering in a depraved soul, whose evil
tendencies warp and pervert our judgment on all subjects. Thus Paul
verily thought that he ought to persecute the followers of Christ, Ac
26:9. His sin was in his culpable neglect to enlighten his conscience
by all the means in his power, and to purify it by divine grace. A
terrible array of conscientious errors and persecutions, which have
infested and afflicted the church in all ages, warns us of our
individual need of perfect light and sanctifying grace. A "good" and
"pure" conscience, 1Ti 1:5 3:9, is sprinkled with Christ's blood,
clearly discerns the will of God, and urges us to obey it from the
gospel motives; in proportion as we thus obey it, it is "void of
offence," Ac 24:16, and its approbation is one of the most essential
elements of happiness. A "weak," or irresolute and blind conscience,
1Co 8:7; a "defiled" conscience, the slave of a corrupt heart, Tit
1:15 Heb 10:22; and a "seared" conscience, 1Ti 4:2, hardened against
the law and the gospel alike, unless changed by grace, will at length
become an avenging conscience, the instrument of a fearful and eternal
remorse. No bodily tortures can equal the agony it inflicts; and
though it may slumber here, it will hereafter be like the worm that
never dies and the fire that never can be quenched.


Suitable and right, Ro 1:28.


In the Bible, usually means the whole tenor of one's life, intercourse
with his fellow men, Ga 1:13 Eph 4:22 1Pe 1:15. Another word is
employed in Php 3:20, which means, "our citizenship is in heaven." For
conversation in modern sense of discourse, the English version
generally has communication, 2Ki 9:11 Mt 5:37 Eph 4:29.


A small island of the Grecian archipelago, at a short distance from
the southwest point of Asia Minor. Paul passed it in his voyage to
Jerusalem, Ac 21:1. It is now called Stanchio. It was celebrated for
its fertility, for wine and silkworms, and for the manufacture of silk
and cotton of a beautiful texture.


One of the primitive metals, and the most ductile and malleable after
gold and silver. Of this metal and zinc is made brass, which is a
modern invention. There is little doubt but that copper is intended in
those passages of our translation on the Bible which speak of brass.
Copper was known prior to the flood, and was wrought by Tubal-cain, Ge
4:22. Hiram of Tyre was a celebrated worker in copper, 1Ki 7:14.
Palestine abounded in it, De 8:9, and David amassed great quantities
to be employed in building the temple, 1Ch 22:3-14. In Ezr 8:27, two
vessels are mentioned "of fine copper, precious as gold." This was
probably a metal compounded of copper, with gold or silver, or both.
It was extolled for its beauty, solidity, and rarity, and for some
uses was referred to gold itself. Some compound of this kind may have
been used for the small mirrors mentioned in Ex 38:8 Job 37:18. See


A hard calcareous, marine production, produced by the labors of
millions of insects, and often resembling in figure the stem of a
plant, divided into branches. It is of various colors, black, white,
and red. The latter is the most valuable. It is ranked by Job 28:18,
and Eze 27:16, among precious stones. It abounds in the Red sea; and
the islands of the South seas are often coral reefs, covered over with
earth. The word "rubies" in Pr 3:15; 8:11; 20:15; 31:10, is thought by
many to mean ornaments of coral.


A sacred gift, a present devoted to God, or to his temple, Mt 23:18.
Our Savior reproaches the Jews with cruelty towards their parents, in
making a corbon of what should have been appropriated to their use.
The son would say to his needy parents, "It is a gift- whatsoever thou
mightest be profited by me," that is, I have already devoted to God
that which you request of me, Mr 7:11; and the traditionary teachings
of the Jewish doctors would enforce such a vow, and not suffer him to
do aught for his parents against it, although it was contrary to
nature and reason, and made void the law of God as to honoring
parents, Mt 15:3-9. The Pharisees, and the Talmudists their
successors, permitted even debtors to defraud their creditors by
consecrating their debt to God; as if the property were their own, and
not rather the right of their creditor.


A small round seed of an aromatic plant. The plant is a native of
China, and is widely diffused in Asia and the south of Europe. Its
seeds are planted in March. They are employed as a spice in the East,
and are much used by druggists, confectionarists, etc. The manna which
fell in the wilderness was like coriander-seed, Ex 16:31 Nu 11:7. See


Called anciently Ephyra, the capital of Achaia, and seated on the
isthmus which separates the Ionian Sea from the Aegean, and hence
called bimaris, "on two seas." The city itself stood a little inland;
but it had two ports, Lechaeum on the west, and Cenchrea on the east.
Its position gave it great commercial and military importance; for
while the traffic of the east and west poured through its gates, as
over the isthmus of Darien the commerce of two oceans, it was also at
the gate of the Peloponnesus, and was the highway between Northern and
Southern Greece. Its defense, besides the city walls, was in the
Acro-corinth, a mass of rock, rising 2,000 feet above the sea, with
precipitous sides, and with room for a town upon its summit. Corinth
thus became one of the most populous and wealthy cities of Greece; but
its riches produced pride, ostentation, effeminacy, and all the vices
generally consequent on plenty. Lasciviousness, particularly, was not
only tolerated, but consecrated here, by the worship of Venus, and the
notorious prostitution of numerous attendants devoted to her. Corinth
was destroyed by the Romans, B.C. 146. It was afterwards restored by
Julius Caesar, who planted in it a Roman colony; but though it soon
regained its ancient splendor, it also relapsed into all its former
dissipation and licentiousness. Paul arrived at Corinth, A. D. 52, Ac
18:1, and lodged with Aquila and his wife Priscilla, who, as well as
himself, were tentmakers. Supporting himself by this labor, he
remained at Corinth a year and a half, preaching the gospel at first
to the Jews, and afterwards more successfully to the Gentiles. During
this time he wrote the epistles to the Thessalonians; and in a
subsequent visit, the epistles to the Galatians and Romans. Some
suppose he made a short intervening visit, not narrated in the Bible.
Compare 2Co 13:1 with 2Co 1:15 2:1 12:14,21 13:2. Apollos followed him
in his labors at Corinth, and Aquila and Sosthenes were also among its
early minister, Ac 18:1 1Co 1:1 16:19. Its sited is now unhealthy and
almost deserted, with few vestiges of its former greatness.


EPISTLE 1. This was written by Paul at Ephesus, about A.D. 57, upon
the receipt of intelligence respecting the Corinthian church, conveyed
by members of the family of Chole, 1Co 1:11, and by a letter from the
church requesting advice, 1Co 7:1, probably brought by Stephanus,
etc., 1Co 16:17. Certain factions had arisen in the church, using his
name and those of Peter, Apollos, and of Christ himself, in bitter
partisan contentions. In the first part of this letter he endeavors to
restore harmony among them, by reuniting them to the great and sole
Head of the church. He then takes occasion to put them on their guard
against teachers of false philosophy, and resting their faith on the
wisdom of men instead the simple but mighty word of God. He proceeds,
in 1Co 5:1-13, to reprove them for certain gross immoralities
tolerated among them, such as they had formerly practiced like all
around them, but which he charges them to banish form the church of
Christ. He replies to their queries respecting celibacy and marriage,
and the eating of food offered to idols; and meets several errors and
sins prevalent in the church by timely instructions as to disputes
among brethren, decorum in public assemblies, the Lord's supper, the
resurrection of believers, true charity, and the right use of
spiritual gifts, in which the Corinthian Christians excelled, but not
without a mixture of ostentation and disorder. He directs them as to
the best method of Christian beneficence, and closes with friendly

EPISTLE 2. This was occasioned by intelligence received through Titus,
at Philippi. Paul learned of the favor reception of his former letter,
and the good effect produced, and yet that a party remained opposed to
him-accusing him of fickleness in not fulfilling his promise to visit
them; blaming his severity towards the incestuous person; and charging
him with an arrogance and assumption unsuited to his true authority
and his personal appearance. In the course of his reply he answers all
these objections; he enlarges upon the excellence of the new covenant,
and the duties and rewards of its ministers, and on the duty of the
Corinthian Christians as to charitable collections. He then vindicates
his own course, his dignity and authority as an apostle, against those
who assailed him. His last words invite them to penitence, peace, and
brotherly love. This epistle seems to have been written soon after the


A water bird about the size of a goose. It lives on fish, which it
catches with great dexterity; and is so voracious and greedy, that its
name has passed into a kind of proverbial use. The Hebrew word
translated "cormorant" in Isa 34:11 Zep 2:14, should rather be
translated, as it is in other passages, "pelican," Le 11:17.


In the Bible, is the general word for grain of all kinds, including
various seeds, peas, and beans. It never means, as in America, simply
maize, or Indian corn. Palestine was anciently very fertile in grain,
which furnished in a great measure the support of the inhabitants.
"Corn, wine, and oil-olive" were the staple products, and wheat and
barley still grow there luxuriantly, when cultivated. Wheat was often
eaten in the field, the ripe ear being simply rubbed in the hands to
separate the kernels, De 23:25 Mt 12:1. Parched wheat was a part of
the ordinary food of the Israelites, as it still is of the Arabs, Ru
2:14 2Sa 17:28,29; by the feet of cattle, De 25:4; or by "a sharp
threshing instrument having teeth," Isa 41:15, which was something
resembling a cart, drawn over the corn by means of horses or oxen. See

When the grain was threshed, it was separated from the chaff and dust
by throwing it forward across the wind, by means of a winnowing fan,
or shovel, Mt 3:12; after which the grain was sifted, to separate all
impurities from it, Am 9:9 Lu 22:31. Hence we see that the
threshing-floors were in the open air, and if possible on high ground,
as travellers still find them in actual use, Jud 6:11 2Sa 24:18. The
grain thus obtained was sometimes pounded in a mortar, Nu 11:8 Re
18:22, but was commonly reduced to meal by the hand-mill. This
consisted of a lower millstone, the upper side of which was slightly
concave, and an upper millstone, the lower surface of which was
convex. These stones were each about two feet in diameter, and half a
foot thick; and were called "the nether millstone," and the rider, Job
41:24 Jud 9:53 2Sa 11:21. The hole for receiving the corn was in the
center of the upper millstone; and in the operation of grinding, the
lower was fixed, and the upper made to move round upon it with
considerable velocity by means of a handle. The meal came out at the
edges, and was received on a cloth spread under the mill on the
ground. Each family possessed a mill, and the law forbade its being
taken in pledge, De 24:6; one among innumerable examples of the
humanity of the Mosaic legislation. These mills are still in use in
the East, and in some parts of Scotland. Dr. E.D. Clarke says, "In the
island of Cyprus I observed upon the ground the sort of stones used
for grinding corn, called querns in Scotland, common also in Lapland,
and in all parts of Palestine." These are the primeval mills of the
world; and they are still found in all corn countries where rude and
ancient customs have not been liable to those changes introduced by
refinement. The employment of grinding with these mills is confined
solely to females, who sit on the ground with the mill before them,
and thus may be said to be "behind the mill," Ex 11:5; and the
practice illustrates the prophetic observation of our Savior
concerning the day of Jerusalem's destruction: "Two women shall be
grinding at the mill; one shall be taken and the other left," Mt
24:41. To this feminine occupation Samson was degraded, Jud 16:21. The
women always accompany the grating noise of the stones with their
voices; and when ten or a dozen are thus employed, the fury of the
song rises to a high pitch. As the grinding was usually performed in
the morning at daybreak, the noise of the females at the hand-mill was
heard all over the city, and often awoke their more indolent masters.
The Scriptures mention the want of this noise as a mark of desolation,
Jer 25:10 Re 18:22.


A Roman centurion, stationed at Caesarea in Palestine, supposed to
have been of a distinguished family in Rome. He was "the first gentile
convert;" and the story of his reception of the gospel shows how God
broke down the partition-wall between Jews and Gentiles. When first
mentioned, Ac 10:1, he had evidently been led by the Holy Spirit to
renounce idolatry, to worship the true God, and to lead, in the midst
of profligacy, a devout and beneficent life; he was prepared to
receive the Savior, and God did not fail to reveal Him. Cornelius was
miraculously directed to send for Peter, who was also miraculously
prepared to attend the summons. He went from Joppa to Caesarea,
thirty-five miles, preached the gospel to Cornelius and his friends,
and saw with wonder the miraculous gifts of the Spirit poured upon
them all. Providence thus explained his recent vision in the trance;
he nobly discarded his Jewish prejudices, and at once began his great
work as apostle to the Gentiles by receiving into the church of Christ
those whom Christ had so manifestly accepted, Ac 10:11.


A massive stone, usually distinct from the foundation, Jer 51:26; and
so placed at the corner of the building as to bind together the two
walls meeting upon it. Such a stone is found at Baalbek, twenty-eight
feet long, six and a half feet wide, and four feet thick.

Our Lord is compared in the New Testament to a corner stone in three
different points of view. First, as this stone lies at the foundation,
and serves to give support and strength to the building, so Christ, or
the doctrine is the most important feature of the Christina
religion-as a system of truths, and as a living power in the souls of
men. Further, as the corner stone occupies an important and
conspicuous place, Jesus is compared to it, 1Pe 2:6, because God has
given him, as the Mediator, a dignity and conspicuousness above all
others. Lastly, since men often stumble against a projecting corner
stone, Christ is so called, Mt 21:42, because his gospel will be the
cause of aggravated condemnation to those who reject it.


A wind instrument of music, of a curved form, 1Ch 15:28 Da 3:5,7. See


Enclosures for the safe keeping of sheep, 2Ch 32:28. See SHEEP.


A rustic tent or shelter, made perhaps of boughs, Isa 24:20.


Was a native product of India, and perhaps of Egypt, and is supposed
to be intended in some of the passages where the English version has
"fine linen." It had been much disputed whether cotton clothe was used
by the ancient Hebrews and Egyptian mummies were wrapped, proves that
this material was sometimes used, especially for children. See FLAX,


See BED.


Is occasionally taken for any kind of assembly; sometimes for that of
the Sanhedrin; at others, for a convention of pastors met to regulate
ecclesiastical affairs. Thus the assembly of the apostles, etc., at
Jerusalem, Ac 15:1-41, to determine whether the yoke of the law should
be imposed on gentile converts, is commonly reputed to be the first
council of the Christian church. See SANHEDRIN.


The order in which the priests were on duty at the temple. See ABIA.


An enclosed space or yard within the limits of an oriental house, 2Sa
17:18. For the courts of the temple, see TEMPLE. The tabernacle also
had a court. All oriental houses are built in the form of a hollow
spare around a court. See HOUSE HOUSE.


The word testamentum is often used in Latin to express the Hebrew word
which signifies covenant; whence the titles, Old and New Testaments,
are used to denote the old and new covenants. See TESTAMENT.

A covenant is properly an agreement between two parties. Where one of
the parties is infinitely superior to the other, as in a covenant
between God and man, there God's covenant assumes the nature of a
promise, Isa 59:21 Jer 31:33,34 Ga 3:15-18. The first covenant with
the Hebrews was made when the Lord chose Abraham and his posterity for
his people; a second covenant, or a solemn renewal of the former, was
made at Sinai, comprehending all who observe the law of Moses. The
"new covenant" of which Christ is the Mediator and Author, and which
was confirmed by his blood, comprehends all who believe in him and are
born again, Ga 4:24 Heb 7:22 8:6-13 9:15-23 12:24. The divine
covenants were ratified by the sacrifice of a victim, to show that
without an atonement there could be no communication of blessing and
salvation form God to man, Ge 15:1-8 Ex 24:6-8 Heb 9:6. Eminent
believers among the covenant people of God were favored by the
establishment of particular covenants, in which he promised them
certain temporal favors; but these were only renewals to individuals
of the "everlasting covenant," with temporal types and pledges of its
fulfilment. Thus God covenanted with Noah, Abraham, and David, Ge
9:8,9 17:4,5 Ps 89:3,4, and gave them faith in the Savior afterwards
to be revealed, Ro 3:25 Heb 9:15.

In common discourse, we usually say the old and new testaments, or
covenants-the covenant between God and the posterity of Abraham, and
that which he has made with believers by Jesus Christ; because these
two covenants contain eminently all the rest, which are consequences,
branches, or explanations of them. The most solemn and perfect of the
covenants of God with men is that made through the mediation of our
Redeemer, which must subsist to the end of time. The Son of God is the
guarantee of it; it is confirmed with his blood; the end and object of
it is eternal life, and its constitution and laws are more exalted
than those of the former covenant.

Theologians use the phrase "covenant of works" to denote the
constitution established by God with man before the fall, the promise
of which was eternal life on condition of obedience, Ho 6:7 Ro 3:27 Ga
2:19. They also use the phrase, "covenant of grace or redemption," to
denote the arrangement made in the counsels of eternity, in virtue of
which the Father forgives and saves sinful men redeemed by the death
of the Son.


A sort of hard brittle cakes, 1Ki 14:3.


In Isa 38:14 Jer 8:7, two birds are mentioned, the sus and the AGUR,
the first rendered in our version crane, the second swallow. Bochart
says the sus, or sis, is the swallow; the agur, the crane. The
numidian crane, supposed to be referred to, is about three feet in
length, is bluish-grey, with the cheeks, throat, breast, and tips of
the long hinder feathers black, with a tuft of white feathers behind
each eye. "Like a crane, or a swallow, so did I chatter:" there is
peculiar force and beauty in the comparison here made between the
dying believer and migratory birds about to take their departure to a
distinct but more genial clime. They linger in the scenes which they
have frequented, but instinct compels them to remove.


(1.) the act by which God calls into existence things not previously
in being-material or spiritual, visible or invisible, Ps 148:5 Re

(2.) the molding or reconstituting things, the elements of which
previously existed; and

(3.) the things thus "created and made," 2Pe 3:4 Re 3:14 5:13. It is
probably in the first of these senses the word "created" is to be
understood in Ge 1:1, though some understand it in the second sense.
In either case the idea of the eternity of matter is to be rejected,
as contrary to sound reason and to the teachings of Scripture, Pr
8:22-31 Joh 1:1-3 Heb 11:3.

Creation is exclusively the work of God. The Father, the Son, and the
Spirit are each in turn named as its author, Isa 40:28 Col 1:16 Ge
2:2. It is a work the mysteries of which no finite mind can apprehend;
and yet, as it reveals to us the invisible things of God, Ro 1:20, we
may and ought to learn what he reveals respecting it not only in
revelation, but in his works. These two volumes are from the same
divine hand, and cannot but harmonize with each other. The Bible opens
with an account of the creation unspeakably majestic and sublime. The
six days there spoken of have usually been taken for our present
natural days; but modern geological researches have given rise to the
idea that "day" here denotes a longer period. The different rocks of
our globe lie in distinct layers, the comparative age of which is
supposed to have been ascertained. Only the most recent have been
found to contain human remains. Older layers present in turn different
fossil remains of animals and plants, many of them supposed to be now
extinct. These layers are deeply imbedded beneath the present soil,
and yet appear to be formed of matter washed into the bed of some
primeval sea, and hardened into rock. Above this may lie numerous
other strata of different materials, but which appear to have been
deposited in the same manner, in the slow lapse of time. These layers
are also thrown up and penetrated all over the world by rocks of still
earlier formations, apparently once in a melted state.

There are several modes of reconciling these geological discoveries
with the statements of Scripture: First, that the six days of Gen
1.1-31 denote six long epochs-periods of alternate progressive
formation and revolution on the surface of the earth. To the Lord "a
thousand years are as one day," Ps 90:2,4 2Pe 3:5-10 Re 20:1- 15.
Secondly, that the long epochs indicated in the geological structure
of the globe occurred before the Bible account commences, or rather in
the interval between the first and second verses of Ge 1:1-31.
According to this interpretation, Ge 1:2 describes the state of the
earth at the close of the last revolution it experienced, preparatory
to God's fitting it up for the abode of man as described in the verses
following. Thirdly, that God compressed the work of those untold ages
into six short days, and created the world as he did Adam, in a state
of maturity, embodying in its rocks and fossils those rudimental forms
of animal and vegetable life which seem naturally to lead up to the
existing forms.

The "Creature" and "the whole creation," in Ro 8:19-22, may denote the
irrational and inferior creation, which shall be released from the
curse, and share in the glorious liberty of the sons of God, Isa 11:6
35:1 2Pe 3:7-13. The bodies of believers, now subject to vanity, are
secure of full deliverance at the resurrection-"the redemption of our
body," Ro 8:23.


An assistant of the apostle Paul, and probably one of the seventy
disciples; supposed to have exercised his ministry in Galatia, 2Ti


A large island, now called Candia, in the Mediterranean, originally
people probably by a branch of the Caphtorim. It is celebrated by
Homer for its hundred cities. Being surrounded by the sea, its
inhabitants were excellent sailors, and its vessels visited all
coasts. They were also famous for archery, which they practiced from
their infancy. The Cretans were one of the three Grecian proverb
cautioned-Kappadocia, Killicia, and Krete. In common speech, the
expression, "to Cretanize," signified to tell lies; which helps to
account for that detestable character which the apostle has given of
the Cretans, that they were "always liars," brutes, and gormandizers,
and Epimenides, and Cretan poet, described them, Tit 1:12,13.

Crete is famous as the birthplace of the legislator Minos; and in the
Bible, for its connection with the voyage of Paul to Rome, Ac 27:1-44.
The ship first made Salmone, the eastern promontory of the island, and
took shelter at Fair Havens, a roadstead on the south side, east of
cape Matala. After some time, and against Paul's warning, they set
sail for Phenice, a more commodious harbor on the western part of the
island; but were overtaken by a fierce wind from the east-north-east,
which compelled them to lie to, and drifted them to Malta. Paul is
supposed to have visited Crete afterwards, in connection with one of
his visits to Asia Minor, 1Ti 1:3 Phm 1:22. Here he established gospel
institutions, and left Titus in the pastoral charge, Tit 1:5.


2Ch 2:7-14 3:14. See PURPLE.


Irons for curling the hair, Isa 3:22.


President of the synagogue at Corinth, converted under the preaching
of Paul, Ac 18:8, and baptized by him, 1Co 1:14.


A kind of gibbet made of pieces of wood placed transversely, whether
crossing at right angles, one at the top of the other, T, or below the
top, t, or diagonally, X. Death by the cross was a punishment of the
meanest slaves, and was a mark of infamy, De 21:23 Ga 3:13. This
punishment was so common among the Romans, that pains, afflictions,
troubles, etc., were called "crosses." Our Savior says that his
disciples must take up the cross and follow Him. Though the cross is
the sign of ignominy and sufferings, yet it is the badge and glory of
the Christian.

The common way of crucifying was by fastening the criminal with nails,
one through each hand, and one through both his feet, or through each
foot. Sometimes they were bound with cords, which, though it seems
gentler, because it occasions less pain, was really more cruel,
because the sufferer was hereby made to languish longer. Sometimes
they used both nails and cords for fastenings; and when this was the
case, there was no difficulty in lifting up the person, together with
his cross, he being sufficiently supported by the cords; near the
middle of the cross also there was a wooden projection, which
partially supported the body of the sufferer. Before they nailed him
to the cross, they generally scourged him with whips or leathern
thongs, which was thought more severe and more infamous than scourging
with cords. Slaves who had been guilty of great crimes were fastened
to a gibbet or cross, and were thus led about the city, and beaten.
Our Savior was loaded with his cross, and as he sunk under the burden,
Simon the Cyrenian was constrained to bear it after him and with him,
Mr 15:21.

After the person had been nailed to the cross, a stupefying draught
was sometimes administered, in order to render him less sensible to
pain, an alleviation which our Savior did not accept, Mt 27:34 Mr
15:23; though he seems afterwards to have taken a little of the common
beverage of the soldiers. Sent by the Father to bear the heavy load of
penal suffering for a lost race, he felt that he had no right to the
palliatives resorted to in ordinary cases, and perfectly lawful except
in his own. "The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink
it?" Joh 18:11. He drank it, and to the very dregs. The cross being
erected under the burning sun, the wounds made by the scourge and the
nails soon occasioned a general fever and an intolerable thirst. The
blood, interrupted in its regular flow, accumulated in various parts
of the body, and caused painful congestions. Every slight writhing of
the sufferer increased his anguish, which found no relief but in final
mortification and death. Those who were fastened upon the cross lived
in that condition several days, and sometimes a week or more. Hence
Pilate was amazed at our Savior's dying so soon, because naturally he
must have lived longer, Mr 15:44. The legs of the two thieves were
broken, to hasten their death, but their bodies might not remain on
the cross on the Sabbath day, De 21:23 Jos 8:29; but the crucified
were usually left hanging, under the eye of guards, till their bodies
fell to the ground, or were devoured by birds and beasts of prey.


There are two distinct Hebrew terms rendered crown. The one represents
such headdresses as we should designate coronet, band, miter, tiara,
garland, etc. The other is generally applied to the headdresses of

The former was a simple fillet or diadem around the head, variously
ornamented. Newly-married persons of both sexes wore crowns on their
wedding-day, So 3:11 Eze 16:12.

The crowns of kings were sometimes white fillets, bound round the
forehead, the ends falling back on the neck; or were made of gold
tissue, adorned with jewels. That of the Jewish high priest was a
fillet, or diadem, tied with a ribbon of a hyacinth color, Ex 28:36
39:30. Occasionally the crown was of pure gold, and was worn by kings,
2Ch 23:11, sometimes when they went to battle, 2Sa 1:10 12:30. It was
also worn by queens, Es 2:17. The crown is a symbol of honor, power,
and eternal life, Pr 12:4 La 5:16 1Pe 5:4. Crowns or garlands were
given to the successful competitors at the Grecian games, to which
frequent allusion is made in the Epistle, 2Ti 4:7,8.


A small vessel for holding water and other liquids, 1Sa 26:11. The
above cut {see picture 1} represents various antique cups,
travelling flasks, and cruses, like those still used in the East.


The same Hebrew word is rendered by our translators, crystal, Eze
1:22; frost, Ge 31:40; and ice, Job 6:16. The word primarily denotes
ice; and the name is given to a perfectly transparent and glass-like
gem, from its resemblance, Job 28:17; Re 4:6; 21:11.


A measure used among the ancients. A cubit was originally the distance
from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger, which is the
fourth part of a well-proportioned man's stature. The Hebrew cubit,
according to some, is twenty-one inches; but others fix it at
eighteen. The Talmudists observe that the Hebrew cubit was larger by
one quarter than the Roman.


A vegetable very plentiful in the East, especially in Egypt, Nu 11:5,
where they are esteemed delicacies, and form a great part of the food
of the lower class of people, especially during the hot months. The
Egyptian cucumber is similar in form to ours, but larger, being
usually a foot in length. It is described by Hasselquist as greener,
smoother, softer, sweeter, and more digestible than our cucumber.


A plant much like fennel, and which produces blossoms and branches in
an umbellated form. Its seeds yield an aromatic oil, of a warm,
stimulating nature, Isa 28:25-27. Our Lord reproved the scribes and
Pharisees for so very carefully paying tithe of mint, anise, and
cummin, and yet neglecting good works and obedience to God's law, Mt


This word is taken in Scripture both in a proper and in a figurative
sense. In a proper sense, it signifies a common cup, of horn, or some
precious metal, Ge 40:13 44:2 1Ki 7:26, such as is used for drinking
out of at meals; or a cup of ceremony, used at solemn and religious
meals-as at the Passover, when the father of the family pronounced
certain blessings over the cup, and having tasted it, passed it round
to the company and his whole family, who partook of it, 1Co 10:16. In
a figurative sense, a cup is spoken of as filled with the portion
given to one by divine providence, Ps 11:6 16:5; with the blessings of
life and of grace, Ps 23:5; with a thank-offering to God, Ex 29:40 Ps
116:13; with liquor used at idolatrous feasts, 1Co 10:21; with
love-potions, Re 17:4; with sore afflictions, Ps 65:8 Isa 51:17; and
with the bitter draught of death, which was often caused by a cup of
hemlock or some other poison, Ps 75:8. See Mt 16:28 Lu 22:42 Joh
18:11. See CRUSE.


1. The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah,
Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Ge 10:6-8.

2. The countries peopled by the descendants of Cush, and generally
called in the English Bible, Ethiopia, though not always. But under
this name there seem to be included not less than three different

A. The oriental Cush, comprehending the regions of Persis, Chusistan,
and Susiana, in Persia. It lay chiefly to the eastward of the Tigris.
Hither we may refer the river Gihon, Ge 2:13 Zep 3:10. See EDEN.

B. The Hebrews also, in the opinion of many, used Cush and Cushan, Hab
3:7, to designate the southern parts of Arabia, and the coast of the
Red sea. From this country originated Nimrod, who established himself
in Mesopotamia, Ge 10:8. The "Ethiopian woman," too, whom Moses
married during the march of the Israelites through the desert, came
probably from this Cush, Ex 2:16-21 Nu 12:1 2Ch 21:16.

C. But, more commonly, Cush signifies Ethiopia proper, lying south and
southeast of Egypt, and now called Abyssinia, Isa 18:1 20:3-5 Jer
13:23 Eze 29:10 Da 11:43.


A people who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, and were thence transplanted
into Samaria, in place of the Israelites who had before inhabited it.
They came from the land of Cush, or Cutha, in the East; their first
settlement being in the cities of the Medes, subdued by Shalmaneser
and his predecessors. See CUSH. The Israelites were substituted for
them in those places, 2Ki 17:24,30.


A musical instrument consisting of two broad plates of brass, of a
convex form, which being struck together, produce a shrill, piercing
sound. From Ps 150:5, it would appear that both hand-cymbals and
finger-cymbals, or castagnets, were used. They were used in the
temple, and upon occasions of public rejoicings, 1Ch 13.8; 16.5, as
they are by the Armenians at the present day. In 1Co 13:1, the apostle
deduces a comparison from sounding brass and "tinkling" cymbals;
perhaps the latter words had been better rendered clanging or
clattering cymbals, since such is the nature of the instrument. See


An evergreen tree, resembling in form and size the Lombardy poplar.
Its wood is exceedingly durable, and seems to have been used for
making idols, Isa 44:14. The cypress is thought to be intended in some
of the passages where "fir-tree" occurs, 2Sa 6:5, etc.


A large island in the Mediterranean, situated in the northeast part of
that sea between Cilicia and Syria. It is about one hundred and forty
miles long, and varies from five to fifty miles in breadth. Its
inhabitants were plunged in all manner of luxury and debauchery. Their
principal deity was Venus, who had a celebrated temple at Paphos. The
island was extremely fertile, and abounded in wine, oil, honey, wool,
copper, agate, and a beautiful species of rock crystal. There were
also large forests of cypress-trees. Of the cities in the island,
Paphos on the western coast, and Salmis at the opposite end, are
mentioned in the New Testament. The gospel was preached there at an
early day, Ac 11:19. Barnabas and Mnason, and other eminent
Christians, were natives of this island, Ac 11:20 21:16. The apostles
Paul and Barnabas made a missionary tour through it, A. D. 44, Ac
13:4-13. See also Ac 15:39 27:4.


A city and province of Libya, west of Egypt, between the Great Syrtis
and the Mareotis, at present called Cairoan, in the province of Barca.
It was sometimes called PENTAPOLIS, from the five principal cities
that it contained-Cyrene, Apollonia, Arsinoe, Berenice, and Ptolemais.
From hence came Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus, on
whom the Roman soldiers laid a part of our Savior's cross, Mt 27:32 Lu
23:26. There were many Jews in the province of Cyrene, a great part of
whom embraced the Christian religion, though others opposed it with
much obstinacy, Ac 6:9 11:20 13:1.


Or Publius Sulpitius QUIRINUS, according to his Latin appellation,
governor of Syria, Lu 2:2. According to history, Quirinus was not
properly governor of Syria till some years after this date; and the
only census of that time mentioned by secular historians took place
when Christ was eight or ten years old. The passage in Luke may be
translated, "This enrolment took place first under Cyrenius governor
of Syria." Compare Ac 5:37.


Son of Cambyses king of Persia, and Mandane, daughter of Astyages king
of the Medes. He aided his uncle Cyaxares (called "Darius the Mede" in
the Bible) in conquering Asia Minor, and afterwards their joint forces
captured Babylon and overran the Assyrian empire. He married his
cousin, the daughter of Cyaxares, and thus at length inherited and
united the crowns of Persia Media. Cyrus was foretold by the prophet
Isaiah, Isa 44:28 45:1-7, as the deliverer and restorer of Judah, as
he proved to be, 2Ch 36:22,23 Ezr 1:1-4. The prophet Daniel was his
favorite minister, Da 6:28.

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